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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

H.SECOND SERIES." HORACE. " Quid veritm atque decens euro et rogo. EDITED BY W. and to temper wit with morality. ifpossible both ways find their account in the speculation t of the day" ADDISON (adapted). " We shall spare no pains to make instruction agreeable to our readers and their diversion useful. et omnis in hoc sum. that our readers way. For which reasons we shall endeavour to enliven morality with wit. DAVENPORT ADAMS. THE WHITEFRIARS LIBRARY OF WIT AND HUMOUR. .

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HENTY. .THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. PIC. G. WITH PORTRAIT OF THE AUTHOR AND TWENTY-TWO ILLUSTRATIONS BY HARRISON WEIR.. A. BOUVER1E STREET. LONDON : HENRY AND CO.

each.A. SSA YS IN LITTLE. B. By G. WKIK. IN CAMBRIDGE COUR TS. By BARRY SECOND SERIES. SAWN OFF: A Tale of a Family Tree. Price 3s. By A LITTLE " Molly Bawn. By WILLIAM DAVENPORT ADAMS. With Illustrations by HARRISON \Kea<iy. MANVILLE FENN. FIRST SERIES. THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. 6d. IRISH GIRL." the Author THREE WEEKS AT MOPETOWN.Ihe EBhitrfriara ptaars of Sit anb Rumour. HKNTV. A. I'AIN. By of G. 2s. I. By PERCY FITZGERALD. C.KHMANN. A. The following Vols. I I'M Illustrations by I'AYNH. A BOOK OF BURLESQUE. each. By ANDREW LANG. 6d. IN A CANADIAN CANOE. {October. . are now ready. By Rruou-H C.

and down others as from the pedestal upon which they have been placed. If some of the 10318 . has come *** to look upon what he is pleased to consider as the in . failings of those creatures virtues we make useful we ignore the of other and much more estimable ones. and to endeavour to do justice to those whose good points have to take been hitherto persistently ignored. and that selfish most cases the narrow and thus his erroneous. and intelligence. while to say for we have not a good word in point alike of industry the Wasp. inferior creation from one point of view only. one of his own interests views are frequently lamentably prejudiced and The natural result has been that. TV /T AN. while we condone the to us. the Bee's superior. Thus. unfairly and unreasonably. we admire the Bee because we benefit by his labours. who is. An attempt has been here made to view some of the animal creation from a broader point of view.QL 791 TO THE READER. it would seem. being essentially a creature of habit.

H. . we can only say we are sorry for the men of science. A. we have arrived are not in accordance conclusions at which with those propounded by that It first men of science.vi TO THE READER. has only to be added that some of these essays were presented to the world in the columns of the Evening Standard. G.

CONTENTS. .

.viii CONTENTS.

he would. fondness for big things. It is. and the tallest stories of any people in the world. they had the bison and the moose but they are fast disappearing. and in books for children generally . THE ELEPHANT. have been a subject religiously protected as is of national glorification. The elephant not thought so much of in the countries where he resides. the largest rivers. IT the They are proud that they possess the biggest Continent. the longest railways. In India he has been utilised. must be admitted that it is hard upon the citizens of United States that the elephant is not found in The Americans have an especial the Western Continent. but in Africa is prized only for his flesh and his tusks. the most monster hotels. doubtless.THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. extremely hard upon them that they have not also the biggest quadrupeds. He is considered to be a highly is intelligent animal. then. interest in preserving them. Two good-sized quadrupeds. the loftiest trees. As they were not the very biggest. the citizens of the States had no Had the elephant been there. indeed.

thinking power than It in which he can hardly be doubted that he owes much of the respect is held by man to the peculiar formation of his proboscis. and the elephant possesses is enormous relative. mankind. positive rather than he with the flea. for men . defects in the appearance of his little pig-like eyes. Even the for bulk. never recovered from first astonishment and admiration experienced by the nose as a hand it. tiny as it is. his size he is rather a poor creature in the way and the brain of the ant. with and of utilising in all the various work of This peculiarity has been more than sufficient to counterbalance the the elephant short many obvious tail. fixed practically and immovable. of intelligence. even in the present day of advanced education. give the elephant points. as feats is evidenced by the attraction of the performed by strong strength. however.2 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. Then. his great flat ears. Man has. but in proportion to spoken of as the sagacious elephant . his and stumpy and the general hairless condition of his leathern skin. indeed in comparison or even with the beetle. It is and as a convenient support for a pair of spectacles. bulk their own. then. coverer of the elephant at finding a beast capable of using his of conveying his food to his it mouth life. . at least for all purposes save that of expressing the emotions of scorn the dis- and disdain. contains more real the skull of the elephant. since the change of fashion abolished usefulness as a snuff-box. ability in A large nose is generally considered as a sign of man. but even the largest its human nose is. This. incapable of any other function than that of an organ of smell. both of which can is a poor creature move weights enormously exceeding donkey could. are worshippers of brute strength. too.

that may be said Baron Cuvier. This.THE ELEPHANT. he would be stupid indeed if he did not in to all that time come to . is rather because of the confidence that the feels in the shooting of the after animal his men he carries than in having been once mauled he can seldom be induced to repeat the experiment. while the dog lives but ten or twelve. being while the brain in size of the part. man of about one-twenty-fifth of the is body. The on the ground elephant should have been admired by Dr. some understanding but even as what was required of him at his best. like most . Although his brain . came to the conclusion that at the best he was no more intelligent than a dog. up in at his feet has and strength he is been frequently known panic. capable of being taught something but when it is considered that he lives a hundred years. who made the habits of the elephant a subject of attentive study. little is larger than that of man and . and. for the elephant's brain is smaller in proportion to its bulk than is that of almost any other creature. animals. that of the elephant but one-five-hundredth We should. In spite of easily scared. the elephant is own powers. therefore. except in the case of a solitary bull rendered will morose by being driven from the herd by younger rivals. might only be expected. and timid in the extreme. a well-trained dog is a vastly more intelligent animal. Johnson that he is a goodthater. Naturally. the slightest noise startles him. he seldom unless wounded face man. indeed. The his size 3 elephant is but a chicken-hearted beast. and a hare starting to have excited him an uncontrollable Now and then one can but this be trained to await quietly the charge of an angry tiger . He is. pity rather than blame the It creature for the smallness of his capacity.

but even then his utility an arrow or javelin. is marched behind him. and the elephant . not capable of holding is many ideas. Gunpowder had not been in- vented.was there-fore t i prac1 1 c a y invulnerable . was problematical. his if memory of an for injury particularly retentive.4 is THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. beyond . and to spread confusion that and death in the ranks of the troops in fact. and if pricked by he was as likely as not to turn tail. In old times the elephant was trained to war. he even at last with any one who has played him a trick. will get and he has to wait years. His courage.

THE ELEPHANT. but will do so at much greater speed. in fact. and in countries impassable to wheeled vehicles he is very valuable. He is admirably fitted for sustaining the struggle for existence. everywhere for either craft He was a huge perambulating . was therefore unnecessary His bulk imposed upon his thickness for smaller though fiercer creatures. down his throat. he In his natural state. and of skin protected him from their assaults. lay he needed but a small degree of it. and to cultivate the attribute of courage. is such as to sustain to a nicety his enormous to His thick skin enables him push his the thickest and thorniest jungles with impunity. all 5 comparison less than that of the horse. The great strength and pliability of his prehensile trunk. and will carry his rider unflinchingly through the heaviest fire. The elephant. he possesses no advantage whatever over smaller animals. who seems to enjoy the clamour of battle. with its finger-like termination. appears to have been built up with a single eye to his own advantages. enables him either to break off the massive limb of a tree or to pick up the smallest tuft of herbBy its power of suction he can pour volumes of water age. As intelligence. and altogether without reference to the use he might be to man. scene. before it man appeared upon the had few enemies. or cool himself by spurting it . his food within his reach. ears closely set to his head also facilitate his passage. and he had no occasion or speed in obtaining it. especially in the carriage of pieces of artillery that could not be transported by any other available means. which will not only drag larger weights in proportion to the food they consume. As a beast of burden the elephant has his uses.over his coat of mail. Upon a level road. however. The mechanway through and his flat ism of his feet weight.

for the machine conversion of vegetable matter into his functions admirably. he had no need others. on the other hand. or all courageous one. would have to been wholly useless out for himself. and this would be but lumber. but sufficient in respects for his own wants and desires . in These points must view during the whole upward progress of the creature. and it would be hard to blame him because he has not devoted himself to the cultivation of qualities that. so as to permit of constant and be upon him to enjoy the pleasure prodigious feeding. and as such he performed and had from no occasion to look further. as he had no relish for flesh. because he intended to be so large and so armour-clad that none would assault him. the germ up to the elephant he steadily devoted himself to purely selfish ends. He had but to stretch out his trunk to procure more brain than was needed for abundant sustenance. while. were the largest scale. in fact. since for him there was no occasion either to hide or to seek. him in the career that he had marked . Courage was unnecessary. In his progress. to His digestive organs. a world to have been steadily kept himself not a very lovable. or intelligent. although admirable in our eyes. and it is but due to it to say that The elephant was they were crowned by perfect success.6 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. flesh. It for courage to assault or for speed to pursue was useless to be intelligent.

the larger species among them. would see no greater differences alligators between members of the various species of and crocodiles than between different human beings there . differ very slightly from each other the principal difference being that the alligator has a broader head. the ichthyosaurus and the plesiosaurus. possess double interest to man. they are the relics of a traditions of the days with us. however. In the first bygone age. Their cousins. but the scientific man delights in subtleties. undisturbed even crocodile is still by anticipations of changes and cataclysms that should render the world an unsuitable place of habitation for. place. the alligator. The crocodile and the alligator . and doubtless retains when he and his relatives ranged undisputed masters of a swampy universe. and is nothing that affords him a deeper satisfaction than .THE CROCODILE. at any rate. and the other great Saurians. is The second reason for man's interest in the crocodile the crocodile's marked partiality for man. The general observer. THE but the crocodile and a its very near relative. have happily long since vanished from the world. and that the hind feet of the crocodile are much more completely webbed than are those of the alligator.

Their tame crocodiles were well cared for. and fed abundantly. Our first written record of over all the children of pride.8 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. did their best to win its goodwill." The Egyptians. and so to deter as far as possible the general mob from As. alligator of it Northern and Southern America. mouth was so much larger than that of man. and perhaps saw more of the crocodile than they liked. that it it is easy to understand the admiration it is it is in Job. al- has always been held in great respect by the has scarcely risen to the lofty position occupied . and differences that enable in discovering slight peculiarities him to divide and subdivide. and the feasts of cake. to invent fresh hard names. Indian variety have had an their reputation in that part of the world has lasted longer than in Egypt. spoken of as the " a king bravest and most formidable of all creatures. roughly speaking. there. and indeed still good time of and continues. they doubtless appreciated the abundant food with which they were supplied. large numbers being kept still to some of the temples. and was an object at once of fear and admiration. the crocodile inhabits chiefly the Old World. who were given to worship animals. as excited. and under the name of Leviathan. and elevated it to the rank of a deity. and although perhaps these did not derive any very lively satisfaction from being adorned with and precious stones. and its armour so much more perfect than anything that man Its could contrive. roast meat. while the alligator has almost the study of the subject. equally The it. and mulled wine occasionally rings of gold bestowed upon them. the former was naturally first known man. a to monopoly of the New. The though natives. in tanks belonging regarded as sacred.

be a long time before it is exterminated. may be owned that the alligator has been to some number of human beings destroyed by it was by no means so great as its exceeding numbers in some of the sluggish rivers of the extent maligned. even in the United States on the it but. Already where the population is comparatively thick has become rare. save for the somewhat disagreeable food it furnished. being too formidable and well defended to be interfered with with impunity. that a portion of investigator was a marketable comits Some close it remarked that under coat wore a leathern doublet exactly corresponding to and found that this doublet was capable of being turned an excellent into peculiarly-marked leather. left severely alone. its practically loss will not It be sensibly felt. it was certainly a very formidit able foe. but it was otherwise as soon as it it was discovered modity. of mail it. so long the alligator was safe . by its 9 Eastern cousins. It has. it was as a rule flavour. So long as the dead crocodile was considered as worthless. rivers formerly was undisputed master the search is hot for it. however. that appreciate. From that It will doubtless day the fate of the alligator was sealed. and even in the swamps where it . its flesh having a musty needs a strong stomach and long familiarity to Of late. like the bison. Unlike the shark. held its own. it has to go. and that the Southern States or of South America would warrant one in expecting. Theoretically this will be a matter for regret. Although killed and eaten occasionally. and a swimmer attacked by had but small kills its chance of escape.THE CROCODILE. nevertheless. A use has been found for it. evil times have fallen upon the alligator. the crocodile . Nevertheless.

armour worn by the knights of the Middle Ages . it it up in a deep hole or under the river bank until decomposes in pieces. which are comparatively exposed. angle with its body. one vulnerable point its eyes.io THOSE OTHER ANIMATE. The exis one that cannot be recommended. and can turn itself only by means of . compel the creature to let go by thrusting his thumbs into its periment. the knight. was unable to rise without assistance. like Alpine climbing. and though these can wound and lacerate sorely they have no cutting power whatever. he is unable to penetrate its is defence unless the creature its struck in the eye or in the leg-joints. doubtless. possesses certain disadvantages. sharp and pointed. In no creature have the defensive powers been carried to the of it same perfection armour is as in the case of the crocodile : its coat absolutely invulnerable to the weapons that armed himself with thick skin of was intended to withstand. the alligator has no such power. It however. and even now that man has rifles. interesting. he possess a sufficient amount of presence of mind. but. would doubtless be the satisfaction of success would scarcely compensate for the risk incurred. sufficiently for the reptile to It is said that if be able to tear any one seized by an alligator or crocodile can. So it is with the crocodile it can turn its head but at a slight . against sword as did the and dagger. a prey by drowning . if unhorsed and hurled to the ground. and when it has captured and drowned a prey too hides it large to be swallowed at a mouthful. The coat of mail. the shark can take off a limb with Its teeth are single bite. and lay a helpless victim to the dagger of the meanest camp-follower. but placed at irregular distances apart. while this was proof against missiles of all kinds.

The crocodile. amply sufficient which doubtless followed that the example of birds. would speedily discover what was good for the goose was not good for the crocodile. Like it all saurians. it must be admitted with regret. she escorts to the them to the water. hence an active u an animal of any man or kind can easily escape it. only a small proportion of them 'arrive at maturity. unless suddenly seized or knocked over by the sweep of its tail. the crocodile partial to warmth. a long detour . In spite of this. the male crocodile figures prominently. evident that this advantage admits of an extraordinary variety of what may be called eye-action. its weight was disastrous to the well- being of the eggs. among whom. is crocodile's eye is provided with three distinct lids. buries them is The earlier crocodiles.THE CROCODILE. and once there protects them utmost of her power from all assailants. It is an excellent mother. tinues during This care on the part of the mother con- many months of the young crocodile's life. and as capable of prolonged fastings it is able to spend a considerable portion of its life basking or asleep on the sands in the sun. however. and that while but a small supply of heat passed through their armour. The crocodile possesses It is many amiable it qualities. does not indeed sit but this simply because it upon knows its eggs that the heat of the sand in which to hatch them. for in their early days great to vultures numbers fall victims and other birds during their rambles is on shore.' like a hen. and as soon as they are hatched watches over the young with anxious and continued care . and it is probable that these animals are able to converse with each other It is The . carefully guards the buried eggs.

12 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. by means of the varied action of the to convey a great deal of expression single eyelid. lids. be hoped that the matter investigator. we have still much to learn concerning it is the crocodile to and in view of its early disappearance. It further investigation much evident indeed that . will speedily be taken in hand by some trained . alligator fortunate that this peculiarity should not have been made the subject of scientific is and research by men than has hitherto been bestowed upon it. Man is able by the action of a and it is reasonable to suppose that the would not have been provided with a triple eyelid had it not been able to utilise these coverings in It is strange and somewhat una very marked manner.

To this they turned all their attention. while hind legs are specially adapted by their length to allow it to scratch itself behind the ear. DURING upward progress from its the countless ages that must have elapsed in the original germ. spongy feet save its from sinking in the sand. but it must be added that. rest of the it The camel's wide. irritation tail. while so they unaccountably neglected the beautiful. it may be admitted. It may be admitted that in these respects few animals have sand storms to close its is it its advantages. The object of the germ and descendants was to build up an animal that should be capable of enjoying existence in the desert.THE CAMEL. marvellous success . long neck enables it either to allay its by gnawing itself down its spine to the root of its or to grab a rider by the foot. As a provision against has the unique faculty of being able entirely nostrils . with. and clear that the camel kept eyes strictly to business. by the fittest. various processes of the survival of the adaptability to circumstances. its its it is selection. while by complicated internal arrangeable to carry its ments it water supply about with it . and turned out a creature which in point of awkwardness and doing. uncouthness stands completely apart from the brute creation.

. The camel if is not overloaded or overdriven capable of great and prolonged endurance but it is a mistake to sup. The authorities of the Nile Expedition into this error. its pose that there are no limits to powers fell its in this way.H for THOSE OTHER ANIMATES. with the result that in three weeks after four thousand camels collected start from Korti. of the very first animals that man turned Jacob possessed camels. and was promised six thousand away into The camel has. and Joseph was carried camels. in fact. its descendants a lifelong The camel was one to his use. that these wild camels are the descendants of some escaped from captivity. and was preparing for itself and servitude . some days. it by little perfecting itself for a life in the was constructing an animal that would be ex- ceedingly useful to man. but so it has been. more than half last being dead and the rest reduced to the stage of misery its and weakness. from the first been made a servant by man it is only in Central Asia that it is known to exist in a wild state. obstinacy. than that they should all along have retained their freedom. while thus desert. little Probably the camel did not foresee that. Egypt by a caravan of Ishmaelites with laden Job possessed three thousand camels at the beginning of his misfortunes. the an expense were all practically and brought up at so great hors-de-combat. and it is far more probable at the end. A similar result followed the confidence of the authorities of the Abyssinian Expedition in the power of the camel to exist without water when dumped down by thousands on the bare sands of . The camel on insisted this occasion showed usual and obliged to travel quantities of food on dying as a protest against being night and day with utterly insufficient and water.

only possible use upon the ground that when first applied the word bore its strict Latin signification. be imputed to its as blame. however. yards at a passer-by. will walk two miles and three-quarters an hour.THE CAMEL. and " " " and not the " that it was the to account for suffering long-suffering signification life of the word that renders is it applicable. its It is. neither faster nor slower. and even is when lying down will shoot out its hind leg with wonderful activity and viciousness to a distance of some two or three . should have developed a bad temper. neither blows nor execrations induce the . No epithet was ever more ridiculously misapplied than that of patience in connection with the camel. it. roars threateningly at any animal that approaches and ready at all times to take a piece out of any one who may place himself incautiously within reach of its teeth. pleasures its one unbroken round of and it it would seem almost has that it of enjoyment. in fact. progress from the conditions under which it germ it had anticipated only the would naturally find itself. had made no allowance It is for the stupidity of not surprising that the camel. to its and however urgent the need of haste may be will owner. it is ordered to rise or to kneel. of the camel spent in one long protest against It when it grumbles and growls alike when it is laden and unladen. has cultivated ill-temper until Even the camel's walk it become a form is evidently the result of deep calculation. finding itself from the first reduced to slavery and converted into a beast of burden. for is of all kinds of gait the most it unpleasant for its rider. to stop or to go on . The camel has its regular pace. In 15 The failure of the camel upon it these occasions must not. The its lot. and man. life is The camel has literally no toil. Annesley Bay.

man has much reason to be grateful that the obstinacy of the camel does not take the form of refusing from the first to live. eyes are open to the lot awaiting There are breeds of camels that differ materially from the ordinary specimen in point of speed. . its and persisting in giving the whole thing up as soon as it. rejecting sustenance. The Heirie or Maherry.1 6 to THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. quicken its camel at the stride. Indeed. and it is not unreasonable that should find an alleviation in the only way open to it. it end of which with doubtless It will settle down into its regulation exasperation. pace except for a few hundred yards. inward chuckling at its rider's would not be fair to blame the camel for much its disposition has it been embittered. this .

account of the Camel Corps in the instances of this its . ment of the camel namely. 17 and will keep up a trot of eight or nine miles an hour for many hours together. The camel has courage as well on at it as endurance is : it goes up. having had by a ball from an Arab matchlock. but this is also the case with some of is the beasts of burden. notably the lower jaw shot off Nile Expedition. and have been known to perform a journey of thirty-five days' caravan travelling in five days. a roll in is that dear also to the donkey and horse to afford 2 it the sand. . its regular pace to like a clock that falls .vin. These fast camels have but one . Count Gleichen. wound until stops suddenly it and when it once does its nothing can induce as long as endeavour to use feet again man it is present. although after the departure of the caravan has been its known It to get up to browse on the from which bushes. and the Sabaye. This appears great w*L. are very swift. yet continued its journey to the end of the day in apparent unconsciousness that The one form of enjoyanything unusual had taken place. The object of these humps not very clear.THE CAMEL. humps are natural portmanteaus in which the animals in case of It convey a reserve of sustenance to draw upon need. gives many case of one camel which. but so the supposed that as the stomachs are a reservoir of water. at any rate. certain that the fatty substance composing the humps considerably diminishes and dwindles when the animal is overworked. hump it is . doing six hundred and thirty miles while Purchas says that camels will carry messages from Timbuktu to places nine hundred miles distant in less than eight days. and to find it way back is to the wells started in the morning. is. in his very insensible to pain. so.

it is ready. and hibiting an affection for his master.1 8 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. using their only available means of their hard exhibiting their disgust and discontentment with and joyless lot. and after an indulgence in it. when again loaded. and not from see things on their bright side . . The Heirie. better tempered even capable of exThis is in itself a proof is that the moroseness of disposition so general in the race due to the treatment they receive any inherent incapacity to and the thoughtful should pity rather than blame camels for from man. being better treated and cared for than the is ordinary camel. to start with renewed vigour. beast than his naturally a very much is humble congener. comfort and consolation.

who .THE DONKEY. once established. anything inherently objectionable in They match admirably with his general is appearance. therefore. simply because that his ears are large but he specially credited with stupidity and obstinacy. qualities to the is donkey. animal's intelligent interest in what g'oing on around Unfortunately for the donkey. and can hardly be doubted that the length of his ears has told terribly against him. however. of man. to see in all men are accustomed other creatures ears bearing a smaller pro- portion to the general bulk than they do in the case of a donkey. rather in the want of appreciation on the part is. is We much do not hesitate to say the stupidity very greater 19 on the part of man. The donkey indeed. it naturally follows that This being man should attribute various bad . WHILE no reason but lies the dog has risen vastly in the scale since Scriptural times as the friend of man. for believing that this is and companion There is the fault of the donkey. This is not because there a donkey's ears. to no small extent the it victim of appearances. jump at the conclusion that the donkey's ears are excessive. rashly and foolishly. and. the donkey has as distinctly descended. and their constant movement is evinces the it.

When nises at living under similar conditions. The wild stallion on the plains is is a very formidable animal. . his almost as sleek and glossy while he is free from the in courage. the horse recog- great ranches of the Western States of once the superior sagacity of the ass. he is no . in his wild state. and does not despise climates. with firearms. and to his weight and size. to recognise the characteristics of one of the most worthy . he is undoubtedly less intelligent.20 fails THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and more than a match for man is is himself when unprovided it. hardy. On the America donkeys are frequently turned out with droves of horses. The wild ass can leave the horse behind him can climb precipices inaccessible to his rival. but in proportion to the amount of food he consumes. fleeter. can go fearlessly along mountain paths where the horse would not dare to tread. and brave. and one of the most intelligent of animals. and in such cases the horses implicit gather donkey is always accepted as the leader. and. or follow his footsteps with confidence. laborious. patient. and is in no way coat inferior is Well groomed and cared for. in spite of his size. but the ass has no fear of unanimous likely to that in and the testimony of the plains' men a combat between them the jack In such cases the donkey come out the victor. of animals. He is is affectionate whenever he gets a chance of being so. and. The horse is more showy. He all on the most meagre provender he can stand He is a willing servant. he is less strong than the donkey . can live humble work. and the round him. than on that of the donkey himself for it may be doubted whether any individual of the animal creation He is strong. possesses so many virtues as he does. fleet . : various vices that so often mar the usefulness of the horse.

menace . in vain lift him in the air and hurl him down always again. sometimes of impatience. Seeing his man. and that he does not occupy a far higher place than he does in our regard. having once caught hold. or a desire for food. skilfully dodging the blows its from throat. Maternal solicitude. and his sterling virtues. that of the baa of . his grip cannot be shaken off. anger his whine. im- patience or discontent. watchfulness. and. it is still more so in the case The donkey prides himself. and the combat resembles bull. he entertains his vocal powers. roll come down on throw itself down and will In vain its will the horse with opponent. but fights with his teeth. starvation. his neigh is The is horse is naturally silent. is 21 well aware that he is no match for the stallion with his heels. but indicative sometimes of welcome. the ass a In one respect only has is weak side. which he never an altogether mistaken idea as to loses an opportunity of for the exhibiting. Other animals use the voice purpose of expressing their emotions. will leap at its The jackass rush at his opponent. many human beings. or The dog's bark expresses joy. and cold. and. that will between a well-trained dog and a fore legs. silence golden in the case of man. Love the burden of the bird's song. his willingness to give all his strength for so slight a return. will his feet. with his legs well apart. his growl. like to be greatest failing.THE DONKEY. not upon his many of the ass. If. The jack hold on until the horse succumbs to his grip. or the flesh he has seized comes away utility to in his hold. . it is wonderful that the ass is not more highly appreciated. for the jack. his patience under hardship. as the philosopher says. but upon what others consider Unfortunately. In vain will the stallion strike at him.

his ears. seems simply a vocal unfortunately for the effort. and of his Thus he lifts it up at all times. whenever the idea seizes him. amazing and in all in- places. The donkey's song appears to express nothing all within hearing with a specimen the sheep. and prolonged cachinnations. but his desire to favour of the beauty and power of his voice. it hears them. donkey.22 THOSE OTHER ANIMATES. is not a it indicative neither of hunger. . and it as is such is unique. but. It nor of satisfaction. vocalisation. varied. boldest animal trembles his The puts it when flies. nor of anger. Man hands to call . is and It is not a challenge. and the utmost telligence of man has hitherto failed to grasp the meaning of the strange.

as they misuse no other creatures save their wives. tail has been found that by attaching a weight to a donkey's a brick is sufficient neither the tail nor the voice can be elevated. the schoolmaster is abroad. Matters are better than they were . unappreciated. but no one can doubt that the brute who an unoffending donkey does feel a malicious joy in the pain he gives. for while the have hitherto been discovered former can be effectually reduced to silence.THE DONKEY. and by man. but undoubted. that not altogether certain in- he is needs a amount of sustenance. who is advantage has been taken of this peculiarity apt at turning the weaknesses of others to his It own benefit. That it has prevailed is evident from the fact that a certain class of men brutally misuse donkeys. 23 a. Why a mistaken idea is prevailed upon these points should have so long by no means clear. and that there a limit to his draught powers. slight alleviation of the of the ass five or six in But even now the spectacle of hulking . and the Society for the Prevention of upon the minds of the sensible to Cruelty to Animals has done something towards impressing class of men who chiefly utilise the is services of the ass that the animal pain. It is him to do justice to himself unless his tail be elevated. no means for suppressing ladies with a abilities. mistaken estimate of their vocal Happily of late there has been some slight reaction in favour of the donkey. The connection between donkey's voice impossible for and his tail is obscure. Men do not take an absolute pleasure in beating dogs lays a . In this respect it must be owned that the donkey is easier to deal with than a woman . lot and between is them some progress. and so are the heavy stick across policeman and the officer of the Society.

and even a portly merchant. It is for a cycle as an instrument a pity that among the many good works that have been effected by the influence of Royalty that of raising the donkey in public esteem has hitherto had no place. he proceeds about his business. The appearance of the Princess of Wales in the Park. placed on the back of a donkey. and. except as a means of promoting perspiration and keeping down flesh. Had the capacities of the ass been equally recognised in the West. perched upon the top of an enormous saddle. behind a staggering little donkey. still the East the donkey holds demeaning himself when. . in a light equipage drawn by two handsome donkeys. would in a short time produce a moral revolution. no human being would compare the easy and gentle amble of the donkey with the labour required of progression. upon every road leading through the suburbs into the country.24 louts seated THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. has no idea that he is in any way alike of our civilisation and humanity. A well-made cycle will cost almost as many pounds will as a donkey will cost shillings. the cycle would never have obtained such a height of popularity as it has done. Its expenses of repair equal in cost the keep of the donkey. to the disgrace In Egypt and in something of his former position in public esteem. and the beasts good little would soon resume their proper place in popular favour. and urging him on his way with oaths and blows. may be witnessed any Sunday or Bank Holiday afternoon. or a grave functionary.

as to the extent to he became extinct.THE DRAGON. Wantley did not exist before Caesar's time. The first. the moa. Caesar makes no allusion to dragons existing in Great set aside at We may Britain. but with men so mentally constituted argument is useless. but that is no reason his characteristics should not be considered in these pages. but that individual dragons continued to exist times. therefore there can have been no dragon at Wantley. and the great auk. question that has long agitated scientific men which the personal peculiarities of the dragon have been exaggerated by popular tradition. and in the second place as to the period at which is. and remarkable that the dragon should figure with almost precisely the same characteristics in the folk lore of both Western and Oriental peoples. the dragon is I why ' admittedly an extinct animal. down to comparatively modern once the dragon of Wantley. There have been those who have even asserted that his existence was purely apocryphal. IKE the dodo. The traditions of almost all nations point to the fact that not only did the dragon exist as a race. and it 25 Our most is valuable national the national emblem both . coin bears its portrait. all But it is it not possible so summarily to dispose of is legends.

it may be of China and Japan. the survivors from the flood for It is certainly difficult to some time flourished. European traditions connected were brought by the tribes which wave after wave poured in from Central Asia. and it must be assumed that assume there. They say that at a time which closely approximates to that generally assigned to Noah's deluge. their descendants of a very few generations would have existed in comparatively attain to modern times. His habits would on the whole be retiring. Water would not seriously inconvenience him. winged and such a creature would be likely to survive cataclysms which overwhelmed the greater portion of his contemporaries. as we know. there would be but small inclination to interfere with him. and until man multiplied and became thick over the world. in fact. an exceedingly interesting problem. St. and the balance of probability appears favour of his existence. and if only a few specimens escaped at the time of the flood. and that it was at that time that the dragons first made their appearance and became a serious Doubtless the dragons with the scourge in some of the frontier provinces. great floods extended almost to the boundaries of China. assumed his prowess The dragon is. was a warlike Cappadocia . although his feats and adventures are somewhat doubtful and misty as to locality. The saurians extreme longevity. saint of that the dragon who succumbed to was a native of Asia. The Chinese legends point to the preser- vation of the dragon in this manner.26 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. George. that the descriptions of these creatures by so many peoples and such diverse sources . if any- where. to be wholly in We know that great saurians inhabited the earth in prehistoric times.

as a swan often travels along the surface of the water before it fairly Some of the dragons are depicted as altogether devoid of wings. and a one. Most of the legendary dragons possessed . it is difficult in the extreme to believe that they could have coined from their own imagination a creature so closely resembling them. but rather does would seem that when he ran to attack an enemy he aided takes to flight. and it was quite enough them It it to know that their gigantic enemy was furnished with wings. and as the Orientals were entirely in ignorance of the former existence of or appearance these creatures. Thus both the Chinese and Japanese legends go far to prove that several species of saurians survived for some time the general disappearance of their prehistoric congeners. slightly The legendary dragons differ but from some of the prehistoric reptiles. a large head. with jaws well furnished with pointed teeth like the crocodile's. without inquiring closely into their arrangement. being a membrane from the vastly extended finger of the fore leg to that of the hind leg. possessing a flexible neck like that of the plesiosaurus. not appear that the dragon was able to fly. accounts unite in describing the dragon as a creature clothed with scales. This does not agree for with the popular idea of the dragon. In one respect only serious we must admit an error.THE DRAGON. but the ancients were not close observers. himself by flapping his wings. indeed. closely resembled that of a bat. had they been purely the work All of imagination and not drawn from a living model. The flying apparatus of these extinct creatures. tail like the and wings like a pterodactyl's. a flexible lizard's. the Imperial Japanese dragon showing no signs of such appendages. would be all 27 but identical.

And is as undoubtedly snakes exhale a nothing improbable in the assertion that the dragons also did so.28 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. but much more because women were those days considered of smaller account than men. like the it scorpion. These victims are generally represented as being young females. stings at the tip of their at We give up the stings. Women it would be chosen for the partly because was supposed that their tender flesh would be more gratefully received than that of tougher in victims. No details whatever have come down to us as to the foetid odour. too. similarly If. and that the preserving the only know that he method of community from his attacks ment of but it his appetite by the offering of victims. on score. The breath of the creature is in all legends relating to it described as foetid and poisonous. believed that dragon-flies are then. was the appease. is not probable that the dragon himself was parthis ticular tribute. but time would urge that this error cannot be In considered as destructive of the truth of the legend. such errors can exist in an age it of general enlightenment. there domestic habits of the dragon. the same the present day it is popularly believed by the vulgar that known as which when alarmed the larva the Devil's carries its Coach Horse a creature tail in a threatening manner sting. is armed with a In some countries. is. was by the popular fancy endowed with means of defence even more formidable than those he possessed. tail. We only desolated whole provinces. over its head armed. may well be that in older times the dragon. a creature certainly rare as well as very terrible. and could be pounced upon and handed over to the monster with much less fuss and trouble than would have been the case had .

THE DRAGON. still that the national legend of the victory of St. origin of the story of the female tribute evidently is. and this would naturally be the sound that a great saurian would utter. most saurians. fighting 29 in those days were men been chosen. truth of the for his needs. Upon the whole. is and this again The dragon was another confirmation of the legend. George over the dragon is not wholly apocryphal. rather than that he should sally out and make to his own that selection. like the rest of the race. The whole like story would seem show the dragon was. huge as was his bulk. content to pass a tranquil existence unless when disturbed . Women's rights much less perfectly understood than at present . . of prolonged fasts and that. was deemed sound policy to keep him in a state of lethargy in the cave in which he dwelt by supplying him with an occasional victim. that. and the question of the equality of the sexes had not so as much The and occurred even to the most speculative philosophers. for the crocodile when enraged can bellow like a bull. a he was capable meal once a month or so sufficed said to roar. . it is evident that the balance of probability inclines heavily to- wards the paratively reality of the existence of the dragon up to comcling to the belief modern times and we may . that the dragon was too formidable a creature to that it be assailed. but possesses a large substratum of truth.

have seemed to set it apart among living creatures. from endeavouring to cope with the inevitable problem: what in that case held up the tortoise ? There was nothing in the habits or customs of the tortoise. its man. must be held up on the back of a no other creature appearing capable of sustaining But even their powers of speculation shrank the burden. 3 . 'HT> HE -L to tortoise has in all ages been an object of wonder slowness of movement. The Orientals. but hold up the not inconsiderable burden of the earth indeed. its power of prolonged its fasting. that could authorise the supposition that it could. its wonderful coat of armour. the absence of any apparent pleasure in all existence. as met with on the surface of the earth. arrived at the con- clusion that the world tortoise. It has it nothing whatever to compensate for the dulness of existence or its slow and laborious method of progression.THE TORTOISE AND TURTLE. would certainly seem that nature has been more un- given its kind to the tortoise than to any other creature. Its form. in any state. not only support itself in the air. the problem was evidently so insoluble an one that we meet with no It trace in any of the writings of the early fairly to pundits that they ever attempted grapple with it. who are profound thinkers. .

the oldest on earth. perhaps. thinking. tortoise its strength it eating a sleeping must be presumed. gay and frolicsome. it activity. Its congeners. carrying a burden that seems little. man it the results would be of the highest that the speculations of the our deepest thinkers are shallow indeed by the side of and that would be found profound meditations of the tortoise. delighting in their powers of speed and No one has ever observed the tortoise at play. reptiles. It frisk. and are of men. there is no reason to doubt that were the tortoise capable of conveying its thoughts and conclusions to value. between any species of animals.THE TORTOISE AND TURTLE. little As it sees so its of the world around it. who ranged with the surface of the earth countless ages before the present all passed away. climb a tree. As it has a hundred years to think this out. have toise tor- the latter The number of varieties of the land and water tortoise. can neither run nor sault. and that is con- tinually occupied with attempts to solve the problem of the why and the wherefore of its own existence. being very much more numerous and important than those existing birds. the advantage of long traditions. Almost all 31 other creatures are. and the accumulation of the wisdom of ages existing creature it . especially in the skull. known as the turtle. . almost too great for a great deal. too. like a creature in a living tomb. in their youth at any rate. or fish. deeply and uninterruptedly. but the remains almost identical with his far-off ancestors. its nor throw a somerits plods gravely on from birth to death. for the tortoise is. we must suppose it that meditations are self-directed. It has. race of animals existed. for even a must do something. are very great. the points of structural high interest to scientific difference between them.

clad in its . some insects. In the Galapagos Islands the tortoises rival in size those of the pre-historic period. some prefer a vegetable diet. for their hearts will still continue to beat. It equally objects to cold. and buries hole in under loose rubbish.32 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and lies in the shade when the sun strong. waterproof coat. and molluscs. Of the land tortoises. while some of the larger turtles will Both land and feed upon fishes and small aquatic birds. The water turtle even a greater size. for ten or twelve days after their heads have been cut off. it does not is like too great heat. . Their tenacity of life is extraordinary. and they are able to move their limbs with considerable force. for they a minute. but in afternoon. differ Their habits as widely as their structure. can The speed of these animals travel as much as six yards attains is relatively fast. weighing three or four hundred pounds. taking many itself weeks about the operation. individuals having been taken weighing from sixteen to seventeen hundred pounds. Not only does it sleep throughout the whole of the winter months. summer it retires to rest early in the late in the and remains asleep till morning. It might be thought that. The life of the turtles and fresh water tortoises is a lively one in comparison to that of the land species. water tortoises are capable of fasting for upwards of a year. for if a shower is at hand it will hurry away to shelter. or scrapes itself a the ground on the approach of winter. worms. It can only be supposed that this extreme sensitiveness to all atmospheric changes has been bestowed upon the tortoise to afford it matter for interest and excitement. The tortoise is sensitive as to weather . it would regard rain with indifference but this is far from being the case.

its Chinese. they are furnished with paddles that enable them to swim with great rapidity. Except as an example to singularly joyless life. fixes itself firmly to its it by means of a peculiar apparatus fisherman then hauls in the rope. fish and possesses a great power of grip. To the tail of each fish a ring is attached. slips the and fish to this the fisherman attaches a long cord. the turtle. dance of food from the slower moving and as their power of jaw is very great they are practically masters of the waters they frequent. it makes towards it. and on getting them and upon head. man of patience under a is the purpose of the land tortoise lesson it not very marked. and for the necessity go ashore to lay their eggs. and and turtle to the boat. These are trained to the work.THE TORTOISE AND TURTLE. which is of peculiar construction. Directly the fish discovers the turtle. and taken out in tubs in the fishing boats. man would have but few opportunities of enjoying turtle soup. when it at once it hold. The pulls both fish on board pushes the looses its fish's head forward. do not wholly upon its occasional landings their supply of soup they employ in their service a fish of the Remora species. They are thus able to obtain an abunfish . of indolence and lethargy conduces to extreme . Those close observers. 33 Instead of the short and misshapen legs that serve the purposes of locomotion to the latter. for their speed is far greater than that at which any boat for the females to could be rowed. The story would appear incredible were not vouched for on high authority. rely who have for a marked partiality for sleepiness of habit or . and overboard as soon as they approach a basking turtle. that a life The second teaches namely. and were it not for their sleeping habits.

the tortoise should be viewed as an example to be avoided rather than followed. the intermarriage between active males and females. as all can hold their own in the way of living on. Had it not been for the indolent habits of the pre-historic tortoise. But the progress of selection. reviving just at present. and the tortoise might have become as speedy on land as the turtle in water. Properly considered. there can be little doubt that it would its in time have effected very considerable changes in of the fittest structure. even in this respect the uses of the tortoise have of late years been of greatly discounted by the introduction of compounds india-rubber for the purpose of combs. to a certain extent. however. However. furnishes for one. appears to be. would naturally have led in time to a much greater development of leg. The survival tortoises might not have done much for it. utilised principally the it manufacture of combs and female ornaments. and the decline of the fashion for the lofty decorative combs used by our grandmothers a fashion which. and was remarked by the Brothers Mayhew as singular that the tortoise which supplies ladies with combs has itself no back hair. indeed.34 longevity THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. One can scarcely be considered as an advantageous a material that is species. .

and effected since its first no visible improvement has been it introduction among we see the inhabitants of earth. 35 Unfortunately active tortoises. cannot be too earnestly taken to heart. the same thing. were extremely scarce. male or female. although in a modified among the lower races of humanity.THE TORTOISE AND TURTLE. The lesson furnished by especially as extent. and the result of ages of indolence has been that the race has that remained absolutely without progress. .

who. have failed signally in arriving at any satisfactory conclusion as to the advantage It has been of the shark in the general scheme of nature. wholly averse to confess their ignorance upon any point whatever. have the best of the shark. supposed. go out and give battle to the own element. JT although as a rule men of exceed- ingly positive opinions. the undoubted lord of the inhabitants of the water as of the dwellers upon he might otherwise have earth. and the strongest heart fail when the tyrant of the sea seeks to It is swimmer and the bravest make his acquaintance. The shark is a creature gifted with great strength. fear not to with caution. suggested that it was created specially for the repression of conceit in man. the wholly and absolutely the other way. with is the assistance number of his and fellows. advantage But alone. -and as to show him that he was not. a savage 36 . but these tales must be accepted knife. at the other extremity of which a hook of a mouth man may. true that reports have been current that there are natives of the islands of armed with a shark in its Southern Seas. in the water. Given special advantages fixed in a shark's such as that of holding is the end of a stout rope. T)HILOSOPHERS. and are akin to the many apparently authentic narratives of the appearance of the sea-serpent.THE SHARK.

dogged perseverance. and the bulldog tiger may mangle. and a torpedo boat would be able to give it points. human limb at a One ill service nature has done the his back. for the supposition that the shark is can upon He not. provided with an . The vast proportion of sharks." but Byron was a poet. namely. " As darts the dolphin from the shark. There exist is no ground air. The ocean is wide. . for had he been so he would unquestionably have abandoned his habit of swimming close to the surface of the water. Happily the shark has not been gifted with sufficient sagacity to be aware of this peculiarity. a slow swimmer and the habits of the inhabitants of the water or he would have known a would have no more chance of catching dolphin than a sheep would of overhauling a hare. how the the shark maintains himself. like the whale. for his size The shark Byron observes.THE SHARK. shark. so naturalists are greatly puzzled in the sand. and does not appear to have been a close observer of strength. that a shark A as shark will keep up with a sailing ship. The lion 37 temper. comparison to its area. but it is as much it can do to follow in the wake of a fast steamer. must go through their lives without a remote chance of obtaining a meal at the expense of the human kind. alone of living creatures possesses the power of cleanly nipping off a bite. As it is a source of wonder how the flea manages to exist where his chances of obtaining a meal may not occur once in a lifetime. and number of men who fall overboard small indeed in then. the may hold fast the shark crocodile may lacerate. that of placing a triangular fin on which acts as a danger signal and gives warning of his approach. and would in that case have been enabled is to approach his victim unobserved. and exceptional power of jaw.

he exercises a magnetic influence over fish. as is sai slow in turning. the entitled to blame . however. and power of biting. the shark has an excessive liking for him. it is to rush headlong to destruction between impossible to imagine how he As obtains a it suffi- cient supply of food for his sustenance. to catch any swim into his mouth .38 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and infinitely too that did not deliberately that. for there is to the ordinary eye nothing particularly ragged or squalid about the shark's appearance. which The shark fish. case. would appear to light that it is only when he gets the good luck upon a dead or badly injured fish that the shark has ever the opportunity of making a really square meal. that is is all is almost universal devourer. belongs to the same section as the ray. everything pointing to the fact that so far from having any hostile feeling for man. He is too slow in swimming. resembles of its its cousin the shark only in the awkward position in its astonishing mouth. him to apparatus that enables sweep up the fish tiny inhabitants of the seas. the last who and man. It is as unjust to charge the shark with hostility towards man as it would be to accuse man of a savage animosity against the ox or the sheep. his prolonged fasts certainly furnish an ample explanation and excuse of sharks for his alleged savagery of disposition. The immemorial is enmity between bitter man and the snake on land not less and deep-seated than that which man on the sea In this cherishes against the shark. The scientific name is squalida. . it being able to indent an iron boat-hook or bar. To the man is food to be eaten. however. shark . it is one-sided. and unless we suppose d of the snake. though title is why not scientific men should have fixed upon such a clear. and causes them his jaws.

This is. sea. and narrow. 39 The Maori has always been rethe shark on this ground. and can be excused only on the ground of its prolonged fasts.THE SHARK. and upon the rare occasions when they visit us. an evil trait in the creature. and his " " missionary has never been seriously imputed to liking for him as a grave failing. closely resembling that of a pig. garded as a remarkably fine specimen of a savage. men who went out as missionaries to the Maori was so small as to be altogether inappreciable. and the overmastering demands of its appetite. Fortunately for the inhabitants is of as these islands. and a wounded shark by its will be instantly attacked and devoured companions. Man's likes and dislikes are unto fortunately sadly tinged with selfishness. and the consequence is that the larger and more dangerous species are very seldom met with on our coasts. long. indeed. All observers have agreed in attributing to it a sly and malicious expression. but this must to some extent be taken as a flight of fancy. The only real reason for attributing to the shark a savage disposition is that. and there is no record of a bather having been devoured at any of our seaside watering places. The eye of the shark is small. like the wolf. Many men go The and therefore the man-eating propensities of the shark proportion of excite in us a feeling of indignation. aversion of the shark to cold water much marked that of the occupants of the casual wards of our workhouses . therefore regarded the weakness of the Maori for and the majority them from the as is a purely philosophical point of view. . are in so low and depressed a state of mind from the cold that their appetites appear to be wholly in abeyance. it has no pity whatever for a comrade in distress.

agreed that always attended by two pilot fishes. The shark. and returning to going on ahead to examine any likely inform the shark whether it is of an eatable nature. its is of a timid disposition. and we should come hunger that to him would be make due allow- ance our for the pressure of at times operates to own disadvantage. coming. or even of the arms swimmer. and then when it turns to can baffle the rush of a shark. The splashing of oars. . Did we know more of the domestic habits of the shark. will often deter the shark from making an attack. few swimmers when attacked possessing sufficient coolness and presence of the manoeuvre into successful effect. so obvious a precaution little It is strange that The inability itself of first it. man coolness and activity.40 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. the shark to should be generally neglected. like the'elephant. they would have occasion to fear interference from him. stands greatly in can avoid the charge of an enraged bull by Man's aversion to the shark here his way. and there is every reason to believe that if swimmers in tropical waters would always carry with and legs of a them three or four hand grenades. although mind to carry possess nerve enough to await without flinching the onset of the most many formidable of terrestrial animals. and All observers are is cautious and wary in it is approaches. there can be little doubt that the unreasoning aversion felt towards largely mitigated. and learn to appreciate the virtues that he probably possesses. seize its victim without turning convenience to of upon its back must be a serious inand a swimmer with sufficient presence its mind to await dive suddenly under just as a it. who act the same part as that wrongly assigned to the jackal in reference to the lion object.

is a point that can never be determined with precision. treating of the snake it IN that should at once be premised certain all accounts of suspicion. The this transaction in the Garden of Eden is doubtless respon- sible for much in of this feeling among Western peoples . notorious that no historian. however much he may strive to write without bias. Whether such a feeling would ever have existed had not a considerable proportion of snakes been provided with poison fangs. but the probabilities are certainly strongly in favour of the theory that it is entirely to its lethal the distrust and hostility of man.THE SNAKE. and the feeling must therefore be considered as a natural and instinctive anti- pathy throughout the whole human race. subject that of the snake it is strongly prejudiced than upon and although he may endeavour to do it impossible that he should succeed. writing as he is . rather than the real state of things. Upon no justice. as it must be received with a amount of representing the views of man It is as to the snake. can be thoroughly trusted in his account of matters in which he is a partisan of one side or another. but would have no influence with Orientals and others who still are ignorance of the legend. man more does under the influence of a hereditary enmity against it. 41 powers that the snake owes In itself there is nothing .

The snake and would gladly accept the genial warmth of the bed. Very are many marked . with consequences that are frequently unpleasant either to man or itself. there is every reason to believe that if man were much from but inclined to be on good terms with it. and even in a country like our own. Indeed. has no places his foot natural will man upon its tail it of course retaliate. hostility to of The man. but with a few exceptions the snake never goes out of its way to attack man. and even the poisonous kinds. or should be objectionable in species are beautifully its appearance. we are never able in after to completely emancipate ourselves from the prejudices childhood. Even as does sometimes seek that warmth. were it it made welcome. snake. and will always avoid a contest if the opportunity be afforded to it. the feeling would suffers be more than reciprocated. where life poisonous snakes are rare. Unfortunately for the snake. and the consequence that in the countries where snakes abound. in all respects for the life they sorts The harmless have frequently been tamed. that the snake is a creature to be severely let alone. cold. harmless and venomous species. one of the first things impressed upon the minds of little children by their mothers is.42 that is THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and are capable of considerable affection for their masters . and they are admirably adapted have to lead. or the human human it is. and submit to familiarities without any show of resentment. . dwelling. have no objection to be handled. If upon the other hand. instinct that enables man is not endowed with an him at once to distinguish between the is. their movements for the most part graceful . when deprived of their fangs and accustomed to the presence of man.

and even among the moderns evil. but man is given to dislike anything that he does not understand. The eye . the that to the effect that earthquakes are due to movements of a gigantic serpent immured deep down it in the centre of the world. progression the worm. of the snake has unquestionably operated is to his prejudice it an entire want of expression about of which baffles the effort man to penetrate its mask. It is remarkable. whose mode of somewhat there similar. but unfortunately man not always just in his dealings with the lower order of creation. Had the snake been endowed with an eyelid and a clear liquid eye. As man has at all times 43 of deifying been it is in the habit creatures of which he is afraid. The snake varies in dimensions far more than does any other living creature. Had the snake been gifted with is the ordinary powers of locomotion. has escaped the same odium. not surprising that snake worship has existed to a very considerable extent among most of the primitive peoples of the world in localities where the snake it is is a good deal in evidence. intimately associated with the author of all Among the almost infinite snake. probable that he would have excited a smaller amount of disfavour. man would have been more inclined to respond to its advances.THE SNAKE. and to It is give it the place it requires by his domestic hearth. doubtless unjust that the snake should suffer from a defect for which is it is not personally responsible. and the mysterious and silent to movements of the snake were as to him so unaccountable however. The dog perhaps approaches most . and to get at the creature's inner nature. number of legends that surround the in and testify to the is deep respect which it has always been held. that is excite antipathy.

Undoubtedly the snake in prehistoric times grew to much larger dimensions than at present. it is easy to understand that had the snakes all been originally so furnished. it in this respect. Upon the other hand. either from accident or from incautiously grasping a round stone under the belief that it was a bird's egg. be with those who argue that he must Had it not been so. . but the dog is to a great extent what man has made him by careful breeding and selection and yet even in that case the great St. large in proportion to the tiny toy terrier as is the giant boa little of tropical forests by the side of some of the slender whip snakes. with the necessary apparatus for passing that poison survival or selection to believe that his descendants through hollows in the fangs. Indeed.44 nearly to THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and that their descendants might have been born without them. as described by beholders. have knocked out their fangs. No theory has been offered by men of science why some fangs. it is difficult could by any process of have established poison bags in their jaws. Bernard is not so . and skeletons of snakes have been found in America by the side of which the largest existing python is absolutely insignificant. some of them might. its they rival in size the largest sea-serpent. and there have been hot arguments whether the original father of or was not so furnished. species of snakes should be provided with venomous while others have no such advantage. and man has reason to congratulate himself that they probably dis- appeared before he had any opportunity of coming into contact with them. certainly appear to all snakes was The balance of probability would have had venomous teeth. The serpent that kept a whole bay was but a pigmy to these extinct Roman army at creatures.

of a race of snakes similarly As might be expected. The smaller and from them sprang the blind worm and other species of harmless snakes. The larger individuals paired and keeping the one object steadily before them. there can be no reason to poison doubt that. Having no offensive weapons. indeed. who. being descended from an ancestor which had. received with enthusiasm. largest snakes all belong Being unprovided with the teeth that enabled their congeners to slay their prey or combat enemies. Darwin's rest. a snake having lost his fangs could be the father deficient. in some cases. appendage. like the crocodile. the misfortune to lose his tail. We of the 45 have. together. they would recognise at once that some entirely novel means must be hit upon. begot a race of tail-less cats. the idea once mooted. It was. then. in time their descendants attained the . However. to a snake of exceptional genius that the idea occurred of squeezing a foe to death. whose descendants have to the present day lacked the usual caudal If. either by traps or otherwise. a cat could transmit this accidental peculiarity to his descendants. drown it. system of natural selection would do the individuals remained small. the to the non-venomous species. we may suppose. They could neither bite nor tear their prey they could neither stun it with blows. but to be carried into effect against any but the smallest of creatures it was clearly necessary that the fangless snakes should attain far larger dimensions than those possessed by any of the species furnished with poison fangs.THE SNAKE. : nor. Mr. an example of similar action in the case Manx cat. doubtless. The idea was. the fangless snakes would naturally devise other means to procure a living.

So far there which man and has been no marked change in the sentiments the snake have entertained towards each . process. limits. though still vastly greater than those of the poisonous snake. the serpent must have seen that unless he were to perish of hunger it was necessary his bulk. disappearance of the huge prehistoric animals.46 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. were yet in exact proportion to the size of the animals that were henceforth to furnish him with food. mastered and made a meal of the Mastodon as easily as the With the largest boa now existing could dispose of a rabbit. and it is when man has peopled it the world to probable that at no its utmost the snake will find that is incumbent upon him to go. other from the earliest times distant date. . the exact reverse of that by which he and by a long had built up he diminished himself to dimensions which. for him to reduce his size. who could have gigantic proportions of the fossil serpents.

after tion. that it human being would have been probable he would have ranked even higher than the monkey as a type. little THERE they ought as They large are regarded as creatures of account. their inability to stand which has sunk the frog so low in the scale of creation. must have been struck with the extraordinary resemblance. and their mouths and general emptiness have told against them. Had standing upright. a minor considera- and the low estimation arises in really from an irreparable which frogs are regarded misfortune which has befallen the Avhole race upright. can be no doubt that frogs do not stand as high to do in the estimation of the world. though why this should be so can hardly be explained. if not as an ancestor. Any one who has seen well executed specimens of frogs set up in the of attitudes human beings. It is this inability namely. seeing that several human beings possessing precisely the same characteristics are regarded as great statesmen. stout is his striking he possessed the power of resemblance to a somewhat so remarkable. But these physical peculiarities are.FROGS. of man. all. and a community of frogs capable of walking would undoubtedly be regarded by as the closest assimilation in the animal world to men human .

this would not account for the . forms and ways. In the earlier ages of the world there lost is this power . which had not.THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. evidence that frogs had not and the learned may without difficulty strong all assign the origin of the early legends of pixies. brownies. lost the power of walking. no doubt. their early first. ancestors of sitting in the water. Frogs. It may. owe this loss of the power of walking to the persistent habit of resulted in lumbago. of course. at naturally and finally deprived them - and their descendants of the proper use of their lower limbs. as yet. a habit which. and dwarfs to the accidental discovery by ignorant rustics of communities of frogs. be urged that even admitting the existence of troops of little manikins with human motions.

an argument fails to take into consideration the united pixies. first discoverer and thus we can see how. and are not all popular myths built up on the most slender foundations ? The frightened peasant who. would. describing the tribe of little men. Have not elaborate ghost stories originated upon no more solid basis than a shadow upon a wall. scared out Not content with of his senses. . is clearly identical with that of the philosophic There can be no reason why he should so long remain in the same attitude.FROGS.-V1I. upon the foundation afforded by the frogs who had not yet in the fulness of his details lost their power of walking upright.L. and elves would naturally be No one who has closely watched the habits of a frog can doubt that he possesses great thinking powers. like first came upon a tribe of frogs walking about upon reaching home. save that he is meditating. raised. long conversations and strange doings reported of 49 the were these nothing but frogs with But such the power of standing and walking upright. inherited or acquired. as his story spread. brownies and power of superstition and imagination. he would be sure to invent further wonders in the beings. human way of conversation. a fluttering garment. the whole super- structure of brownies. returning from work in the gloaming. W. and. or a wreath of evening mist ? Are not the Irish peasantry full of stories of the most detailed adventures with fairies. until the existence of a race of brownies would become The next rustic who came upon the locally believed in. magnify what he had seen. so it would grow. His habit of sitting motionless thinker. pixies. and a fund of information. tribe of frogs would of course outvie the . clad in green and brown jerkins.

has been the opinion of scientific inquirers that the frog could do a great deal more Certain it talking than he does if he chose. and will then.50 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. Although habitually silent. having experience of the proneness of the rustic boy to cast stones at him . and as a swimmer he is unrivalled. the lift force and power with which a chorus It tribe of frogs will up their voices in is astounding. The manner in which he will sit. That the frog possesses a strong sense of humour is is undeniable. During life that period of his he had neither means nor opportunities is of exchanging ideas with his fellows. is His weather-wisdom notorious . or when assembled in conclave. until a hand outstretched to seize him. making himself heard two or three hundred yards away. and the result the same taciturnity in afterlife that would be shown by a human being deprived during his early years of all friendly intercourse with others. he descries the approach is is of wet weather long before any change duller sense of spite visible to the man. such as being played with by a can cry like a child. He his sojourn acquired the habit undoubtedly during the period of under water in the guise of a tadpole. is that a frog. that the frog cares to break his customary silence. lively and even of singing. apparently unconscious of the approach of man. he is capable of sustaining a conversation. These accom- plishments he is chary of displaying in this country. when in danger. As an athlete he remarkable. with a whisk and lift plunge. but in countries such as Italy. is But it only on an emergency like this. where the boy is less aggressive and the frog more numerous. dive headlong into a pool. in leap of his comparatively disproportionate girth . and his head from . cat. he can long distances.

. that they build no abodes for them- selves but such abodes would be clearly superfluous in of creatures the case who absolutely prefer being -wet . human . been advantageous to them. for it is this which has deterred the fastidious from feasting on them. has been an urged. is a proof of is this. family. as argument against the near relationship of frogs to the . That frogs are dainty eating acknowledged by all who have tried them.'. the idea that th is something cannil preaching of a sti ism in the consumption being in very strong the - unculti va t e human It mind. In this . in evident enjoyment of the trick he has played.FROGS. 5' the water at a safe distance. doubt- less.'" respect their striking like- ness upon a small scale to the human race has.x-^.

is He up has no trouble whatever with for. they prefer marshy places. over the his family. . As it is. to being dry. as a family. claim to be on a level with a Digger Indian. at least. in life without assistance from fully Frogs vary in colour and habit in different countries as much as do the human race. being able to enjoy the pool at all times. and prefer to eat their food raw to In some respects the frog has an advantage cooking it. who are comfortably clothed in handsome waterproof jackets. This power of adaptation to circumstances must be taken as another proof of the intellectual development of the frog. Although. a large one. it would be . true. with great sureness of foot. frog is it endowed with courage is is a moot He has not. had the race received as much many consideration from animals. human which being. and he may feel that. been seen to dispute the passage of his favourite haunts with wild beasts. and the frog can. There are climbing other kinds which make their living among trees. or even but this may arise from magnanimity want of courage. some species never go near the water from the time they emerge from the tadpole state until they return to it full of family cares. and. there is man as has fallen to the lot of no saying to what point their intellectual faculties would have developed. Whether the point. from the first. with horses or oxen as well as from unjust to grudge a drink occasionally to thirsty animals. it cannot be denied that they compare not unfavourably with similarly neglected human beings. and feeding upon the insects that frequent them. rivalling the leaves in their hue. tadpoles are able to set themselves their parents.52 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.

and destroys those been who said venture on the surface of what he considers his water with promptitude and despatch. and that. As to insects. to Enough has surely show that at consideration in worthy of vastly higher the hands of man than he has been frog is it the the habit of receiving. it doubtless the race will be seriously that will and may be expected be discovered of character that they possess far higher and finer traits than has hitherto been suspected. .FROGS. would from their striking similarity to men. to them. powers of concerted singing. their meditative habits. were in not for that frogs unfortunate affliction attract great attention the matter of legs. 53 he is less tolerant. Now that attention has it been called studied. their and their great athletic attainments.

of the clumsiness of his appearance and and prepared at the shortest of notice to divest himself altogether of the legs which are such an encumbrance to him. his flight is slow and weary he is incapable of dodging his pettiest foes. Nothing could be more unfit than this insect to battle for existence . the Tipula oleracea would have set to work to shorten his legs. . the fault of his own that he has not done evidently something of the easy elegance and lightness That it is no gnat.DADDY-LONG-LEGS. we known are free from the presence of the to the scientific as Tipula oleracfa. The urgency is of his desire to commit suicide in the flames another . compensation for the ONE his coming of winter is that at that season daddy-long-legs. so we may be conscious is sure. This creature remarkable as being a standing protest against the Darwinian theory of the survival of the fittest. useless legs are and of to attain movement of his first cousin. to strengthen his wings. long. who comes among makes himself us in the autumn in vast hosts. Had there been anything in the theory. for the creature is painfully gait. and by as unpleasantly conspicuous as possible earnest and persevering efforts to commit is suicide in our lamps and candles. and his everywhere in his way.

For as a grub. He life. indeed. is it a problem which has puzzled the deepest thinkers. and one of the most destructive of the enemies of the farmer and the gardener. indeed. wrinkled. in the Tipula oleracea not the hundredth part is of the bulk of the body in all nature a creature . or nocturnal in their habits. else has and no one of his existence.DADDY-LONG-LEGS. his life Why in one stage of this creature should be altogether legless. and abnormal stupidity of the daddy-long-legs has been suggested that the is caused by his Nature. He himself is unable to see. he possesses no legs. tough tube. is questionable whether to with head. been able to discover. Even the rustic be found so badly provided mind. proof of his consciousness that he that the sooner is 55 a painful failure. nor is he He in has no means of defence. own ineffectual efforts to grapple with the problem. and he terminates his existence the better. he is a round. does not appear to have even Other insects are diurnal . which is slow to recognise . grub state his existence cannot be a cheerful one. and the he gladly yields up his life on the smallest pressure between human finger and thumb. the raison d'etre is certainly not ornamental. and no visible eyes . has given to brain. The Even observer has never seen him close an eye. but the Tipula day. and seems to have his no joys He the pleasure of going to sleep. while in the other he should possess an absolute superfluity of leg. useful. is active all and about and on the look-out closest in the for candles all night. him an to the infinitesimally small amount of While in the fly and the ant the head bears almost body it the same proportion as is it it does in the human species. unless he derives a positive pleasure from the act of devouring everything he comes across.

that is the work of the grub of the daddy-long-legs. and is credited with a character for harmlessness and blundering well-meaningness. turnips. are equally welcome. but it did not then strike him that each and every one of them was hard at work laying eggs. or ought to know. indeed. and then hastens to commit suicide at the first friendly light. The all roots of grass. indeed. sometimes as Peter or Harry-long-legs. and nothing comes amiss potatoes. cherished When little the villa gardener sees with dismay his piece of lawn turn yellow and gradually it wither up. and settling down their again. almost vegetables. is sufficiently well is deserved in his state as a perfect but wide of the mark indeed is The wrinkled tube one of the most voracious of creatures. views this unfortunate and mis shapen insect with good-natured pity and sympathy. The work of maternity once comthe daddy-long-legs waits till pleted. He had. he knows. were only movements an egg being inserted in the ground whenever the Tipula could find a spot in which she could introduce it. in the autumn watched swarms of these creatures blundering about on the grass. Natural History. nightfall. this As many will. to it. most of all because he a creature parts with his legs and wings so willingly that there can be no pleasure in tormenting who does not care whether he loses them ornot. if an opportunity be offered. The very village boys abstain from tormenting him. and. partly perhaps from their feelings of kindly contempt. more because he is too slow and stupid for his chase to cause any excite- ment . and that seemingly meaningless from crevice to crevice in the flights soil. which insect.56 facts in THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. taking short flights of a foot or two. in his larva stage. perform speedy . The Tipida is spoken of by rustics as Gaffer-long-legs.

DADDY-LONG-LEGS.
despatch
previous to the deposition of their eggs,
the wellbeing of their lawn at heart will

57

those

who have

do well

to light a fire of shavings or other brightly burning stuff in

the close vicinity of their grass for an hour or two every

evening when the daddy-long-legs
form.

first

begin to appear in

They

will fly into

the flames by thousands.
is

Some

may
tion

urge that such a

method

cruel, but

death in a large

body of flame is instantaneous. Indeed, ocular demonstrais abundant to show that these creatures, as, indeed,
most other
were
it

insects, are scarcely capable of suffering; for,
it

otherwise,

is

hardly possible that they should,

after repeated singeings,

continue to

fly at

a candle flame

till

they

finally

succeed

in destroying themselves.

Where such
are permitted
safety

measures as

this are not taken,

and the

flies

to deposit their eggs in the soil, the only
is

method of
rollers,

by

rolling the

ground with very heavy

so as to

destroy the grubs, but this has only a partial success, as

most of them are too deep below the surface from the pressure.
their

to suffer injury

Birds are valuable allies to the farmer and gardener in

war with the daddy-long-legs, but their numbers are

wholly insufficient to cope with the evil. Even the most voracious bird would be choked did he try to stow away more than a certain-sized bundle of straggling legs and

Moreover, the Tipula appears at about wings in his crop. the same time that plums ripen, and birds greatly prefer
stone
the
fruit

to daddy-long-legs.

As our own
any serious

taste inclines

same way, we cannot
this score.

find

fault with
it is

them

on

Spiders dispose of a few, but

remarkable

that,
is,

awkward and blundering

as the daddy-long-legs' flight
for

he very seldom intrudes into the meshes spread

him

58

THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.
spider.

by the
being,

He
fly

makes no

efforts to

avoid a

human

and

will

right into his face with the greatest

nonchalance; he will settle in his hair, and cling to his clothes, but he will almost always manage to avoid a spider's
web.
their

In the autumn spiders are extremely

plentiful,

and

webs spread from bush
in all directions,
it

to bush,

and from

tree to tree,

are a perfect nuisance to passers-by.
for

With the nets spread

them

is

wonderful
for,
it

how

the Tipula

manages always to avoid these snares ; they may be swarming in the garden,
careful search to find a single

however thickly will need a very
one of the webs.

specimen

in

This naturally gives rise to the idea that the daddy-longlegs is a far craftier insect than he is generally assumed to
be,

and

that his

awkwardness of

gait

and motion

is

assumed

merely to gain sympathy and toleration ; just as a woman pretends to be an invalid when she wishes to coax her

husband

into giving her something she has set her

mind

on.

There may be something in the hypothesis, but the smallness of head and lack of brains are against the theory ; and

we

prefer to believe that the insect's
is

power of avoiding the

snares of the wily spider

due

to

some

at present undis-

covered sense or

instinct.

The

daddy-long-legs

has not

been used to any extent for edible purposes, but there is no reason why he should not be as good as the locust, who is by no means bad ments could easily
eating.

Those who

are fond of experi-

collect a sufficient

number by

the aid of

a sweep net on any piece of grass during the

month of

September.

THE

APHIS.

the aphis

is

insignificant; collectively

INDIVIDUALLY the aphides are
damage
to

a

mighty army working incessant
locust, the caterpillar, or the

man.

Whether the

aphis effects the greatest injury
sary to man's existence to
is

upon the vegetation neces-

be found

in all

a moot point. Were the locust parts of the world, instead of being con-

fined within comparatively limited regions, the
certainly

palm would

be awarded to

it,

for the locust spares nothing,

The

and destroys every green thing as its armies march along. caterpillar and the aphis, although far more widely distributed, are less universal in their tastes, and fortunately
neither of

them has any partiality
It

for cereals, the great staple

of man's food.
it

may

well be believed, however, that were
is

not that the caterpillar

kept

down by

the ichneumon, and

the aphis by the ladybird and other foes, both would in a very short time multiply so vastly that having devoured every

other green thing they would be driven to fall upon the corn crops in their green stage ; for when approaching ripeness the cereals are far too hard for mastication even by
the jaws of the caterpillar, while the aphis might as well

endeavour

to obtain sustenance

from a

stone-wall.

It is

needless, however, here to enter into a detailed consideration as to the respective merits, or rather demerits, of the
59

60

THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.
;

three insect scourges
if left

it

is

enough

that

one aphis alone

is

fully capable, course of a single year into a host so mighty that it would cover the land and wither up and devour all green things.

to

its

own

devices, of developing in the

While the

caterpillar

devours the substance of plants, the
kills

aphis only sucks their juices, and

shoots that they are unable to put forth their leaves.

by so enfeebling the It is an
heavy green body

awkward, slow-moving creature, with
legs so thin
;

its

swelled almost to bursting with vegetable juice, supported

by
at
it

and
it

fragile that

they can scarce hold up

its

weight
its

and yet

seems

to pervade all nature,
fall

and

to appear

season in vast armies, which
it

almost simultaneously,

would seem, upon the plants
is

affects.

So sudden and

unaccountable
persons

their

appearance, that there are
still

many
firmly

who have

maintained, and vast numbers
is

believe, that the aphis
juices of the plants
his
it

spontaneously produced from the

The rose-grower will go into garden and watch the young shoots from the leaves making vigorous progress, and he smiles to himself at the
affects.

thought of blossoms.
or

how soon

the sprays will be covered with rich

A

cold night comes, followed perhaps by a day

two of

dull weather.

He

shakes his head as he inspects
delicate

his bushes,

and marks how the

young leaves are

slightly discoloured.

He

knows what
is

will follow.

Two
It
is

or

three days later every shoot

closely
its

packed with a layer
juices.

of the

green

fly

sucking up

vital

not

surprising that the grower absolutely refuses to believe that

the whole of this infinite

number
upon

of creatures were floating in

the air waiting to pounce

his plants at the very instant

when, weakened by the
its

frost,

they are the less able to resist

attacks.

What aphis that prey 61 difficult is that its renders the problem is still more the army not homogeneous. search of beans or peas. A week after a sharp frost on a in May morning the whole of the rose growers the district affected by the frost will find their plants attacked by the aphis. while the wail of the hop growers at the appearance of the district.THE APHIS. indeed. but the practical man refuses to The scientific explanation credit the suggestion. The aphis will pro- duce twenty-five offspring in but this will not account day or two of the pest making its appearance hundreds of thousands are to be found on every rose bush. in the The is aphis is prolific. like any way for the fact that within a . The bean is aphis differs from that fly . of the rose. and rejecting others one hovering its round the town looking out another scouring the rural for the rose-trees in districts in suburbs. but a plants number of them. and this again from the hop the and. but not prolific same way as the white ant. Could the female aphis. for it would be necessary to imagine not only one army of aphides ready to sweep down upon vegetation weakened by frost or east wind. its Each plant has own tribe upon juices. It must be remembered that is their appearance upon a certain plant not gradual. This greatly adds to the difficulty of explaining their simulta- neous appearance in such countless numbers. number of varieties of aphis exceedingly large. each selecting the particular all they love. but almost simultaneous. fly will rise simultaneously over a whole is that the appearance of the aphis in such vast numbers simultaneously is due to its prolific nature. daily. a third biding its time until drought or long spell of wet weather shall have weakened the hop bines to a point when they may be in a condition to suit its palate.

have pounced down upon it ? Nothing could be less scientific than these arguments. then. they themselves to the minds of the foolish multitude. common sense in them. but an infinite four hours.904.000. Moreover. produce eighty thousand per day. not a few. host of winged females. That many may pass the winter as eggs in the bark of trees and other places may be granted. in spite of the teaching of their instructors. it is a ratio that unless checked would by the end of the season absolutely cover the face of the earth. but as somehow commend there is. still believe the evidence of their own eyes that the aphis is the product of a certain unhealthy state of the juice of plants. had the vegetation been sickly. but the rate of increase is incredible when we know that each female can produce but twenty-five young in twentyIt would need. what becomes of the armies of green fly that would. for it the young ones so speedily become mothers one aphis will that is calculated the descendants of during the season number 5.900. start off in search of peas or beans. the argument that the whole of the rose trees in a garden have been covered by the offspring of comparatively few females who found their way there might be accepted readily enough . and they grow robust and strong. But although the increase at the rate of twenty-five per day by no means accounts for the almost simultaneous appearance of countless millions.62 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. to account for the phenomenon. who. One objection on the part of scientific men to the . the termite. but no one has yet ob- served the vast hordes streaming out from their places of concealment ready to roses or hops. tion. in seasons favourable to vegetawhen neither frost nor east winds nor prolonged wet nor drought weaken the plants.

and then . whose should be spent in ceaseless efforts to counteract the effects of this fertility. soap-suds. Happily nature. 63 respects lives spontaneous generation theory is that the aphis in other is an exception to the general law that governs the of all other creatures. while in a moment of light-heartedness producing creatures possessed of such extraordinary powers of multiplication. cannot coil itself up like a wood or assume a threatening aspect like the Devil's Coach-horse. and fumigating apparatus. thought proper to furnish them with a vast number of foes. well. vided with armour. indeed. and the process of multiplication and if re- multiplication goes on with much regularity as the world. male sex had no part whatever in the economy of the It is only late in the autumn that the males appear. it is and eggs. It is not necessary for the that appear in spring aphis to have a father. even without counting man. it is unprolouse. are all The aphides as females. for man that the six thousand million possible descendants from each spring aphis do not put in their appearance. It is is simply a helpless and unresisting victim. tobacco juice. It is clear that when treating of a creature so unique in " its habits and ways. Chief among these life stands the ladybird. and of no visible place or advantage in the general scheme of creation. its Nature has handed over the aphis defenceless to stroyers. It de- possesses neither jaws nor sting it . whose destiny to do as much damage as it can to vegetation. but there are as indefatigable numerous others almost with his and voracious. the word " impossible should never be used even by are scientific men so absolutely sure of what they assert as It is men.THE APHIS. all not until after pairing that the females take to laying the previous generations having been born alive.

64 to be slain. THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. The closest observers have been unable to detect any signs of playfulness or of any other form of enjoyment in the aphis. from the juices of which sprung. Its existence is as monotonous and as that of the vegetable the juices of whiclv it drinks. it is popularly believed to have .

swimming. carriage.GEESE. and even when and holds formation itself in is readiness for instant action. or flying. and easier to surprise a house guarded by the most wakeful of watch-dogs than to approach one around which geese have taken W. L. A similar in the latter file. phalanx. spirit Of all birds all it is the most military its . and keeping readiness to range close order should necessity require such a up movement. It which speaks of reminiscences of the advances with its comrades in solid feeding preserves the same order. NO military its thoughtful man who believes in the transmigration of souls can doubt for an instant that those of men pass a portion of their period of change in the bodies of geese. habits. In their wild state sentries always at night it is keep guard over the feeding flock. up their quarters. although exercise the goose prefers travelling in single of the column preserving itself in its each member distance in accurately. The watchfulness of the bird is proverbial.VII. It carries its head well upright. Whether walking. with a certain amount of military stiffness. preserved while swimming and flying. stock. the goose shows its military instincts. 65 The fact that f geese . and customs in point to being ani- mated by a which some former phase of existence has passed through the hands of a drill sergeant.

themselves. that they have not been utilised further in this direction. will fight among against other creatures. upon the other hand. they can be cheaply kept. many nurserymen neighbourhood of London their fruit who keep two It is singular. but they rarely exhibit valour and are almost universally afraid of is man. of mild temper with . that. the gallinaceae. but. still indeed. or three geese in their gardens to give notice of the approach of marauders upon and flowers.66 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. they are not feared by the as armed burglar much a savage watch-dog . Of all birds they are the most courageous . on the contrary. and. and can bring up a family which can be turned to other purposes than that of sentinels. fiercely many other birds. Rome by giving warning of the approach of the Gauls is historical. Even now and the goose there are is employed in many in the places as a watcher. They as is certainly have the drawback however great their valour. and the goose was saved while the watch-dog slept ever afterwards honoured by that military people. The goose. indeed.

It has doubtless observed that the horse. web feet. for there can be no doubt whatever that the goose possesses an intelligence far above that of average birds. its 67 comrades. they do so in good military order. obtain their sustenance by grazing in the and has therefore abandoned family habits of feeding upon It marine plants and retains its insects. and although they will retreat before a man. and it is rare indeed that quarrels of a serious nature arise even in a large flock of little them . belief in its silliness. the and the sheep. any contingency that may This adaptability to circum- stances has given rise to the supposition that the military spirits inhabiting the bodies of geese belonged in their life- time to the gallant corps of marines. but altogether erroneous. They will close up together and face a dog. for its use. and depends sustenance upon what it can pick up on in the estimation fields. showing a brave front as they fall back. they will boy who ventures to interfere with them. so as to be in readiness for arise.GEESE. bullock. who stand high its of man. and has taken to grazing. but when prefers the dry land to the water . and ready sized instantly to bull to their feeding approach of a attack even a good- assume the offensive is if an occasion offers itself. calling a child a silly or a stupid . the land. In its wild state the goose domesticated among is us it an aquatic bird. it even when a pond small portion principally for handy passes but a very of its its time upon the water. and will fiercely resent the ground . themselves equally by land and sea. who always distinguish The goose has suffered as expressed grievously owing to the popular. How this belief by goose first originated has never been explained. however. but they have fear of other creatures.

but and to is ready in their defence to face the largest dog. in their former state. and abandoning their their usual habits of military evolution with This clearly enough points to the fact that these geese were. and there is nothing that so angers it Under such circumstances its moveas to be hurried. faster ments are awkward. Under ordinary circumstances its in the goose is dignified deportment. that same circumstances. its It is the appearance when so bustled borders on the ludicrous that excites the anger of the goose.68 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. al- . oppose a threatening and formidable demeanour even to a intentions human being whom towards them. comrades. for it is to be observed that after such an exhibition it is a long time before it recovers its usual placidity of demeanour. Unlike the hen. but even in this matter she does not exhibit the perpetual fussiness of the hen. following them about like dogs. is not perpetually roam- In the proper season she lays a sufficient number for the perpetuation of her race. she suspects of aggressive is So courageous her attitude under such circumstances. soldier-servants. that even the fiercest dogs will turn tail before her onslaught. and when compelled to walk much than its ordinary gait. and were never of a military character. At times geese have shown themselves capable of strong personal attachment to their owners. She allows her young ones considerable freedom of action. and the ordinary boy. so far as we know. no doubt. whose duties lay in personal attendance upon officers. happen any other bird or beast under the consciousness. and brings up a family more or less carefully . the female goose ing about laying eggs. it is often on the verge of falling on its nose a misfortune which does to not.

its congener. though he may pretend to deride her anger. will 69 keep at Undoubtedly the goose when attacking would have a more dignified appearance did it keep its head back in readiness for a stroke. hissing .GEESE. bygone and the reminiscence of bayonet exercise. however. This. cry of the goose is The scarcely melodious . A flock of geese advancing to the attack. the swan. is clearly the result of drill. its hissing is almost peculiar to itself. being alone with it in the possession of the faculty of raising this angry and threatening sound. a respectful distance from her. instead of advancing with outstretched neck. as does the swan.

the man with some of most goose also bestows upon him the It is most comfortable of beds. which it picks up its own living. the goose anything. flesh Were the goose a rare bird. and will all eat this scraps of any is kind of food. and the goose can fairly claim to be the working man's greatest luxury in the way of food.70 loudly. extreme to a child. it its but little outlay in rearing. his But. however. and its so costly as to it is wealthy. be seen only on the tables of the probable that it would be considered as the in very greatest of luxuries. At Christmas time geese can be bought in London at sixpence a pound. will graze on grass. to its numbers. The final result of eminently It is doubtful whether any kind of bird affords such excellent eating. in addition to supplying tasty food. Although fashion has ordained that the turkey shall occupy the place of honour on the Christmas board of the well-to-do. and will eat it It will it browse upon water weeds. and even animals vastly superior in bulk and strength exhibit signs of trepidation when is thus assailed. to produce the same effect of elasticity as the bed stuffed with good goose feathers. satisfactory. and the manner requires Owing. Its it flesh is so plentiful that at certain seasons of the year can actually be purchased at a lower rate than butcher's meat. the flesh of that bird is dry and tasteless in comparison to the juicy and well-flavoured meat of the goose. its rations. true that the hand of innovation has produced many contrivances of steel and iron. THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. with complications of springs. not particular as to As might be expected. and it may be owned that in summer time the . delights in corn. are sufficiently and terrifying in the alarming to the average woman.

render it courage and military habits admirable when alive . higher place than affection really Its occupies in the esteem and of mankind.GEESE. but in the depth of winter it is a poor substitute for the warmth and cosiness Altogether. its flesh and its feathers it should win for our warmest regard after its death. 71 spring bed possesses certain advantages. the goose deserves a far it of the feather bed. .

undertaken at first from a thirst for vengeance. The in it possessor. but its depredations are more noticed and cause greater annoyance. his heart is filled with grief and rage. is not generally classed under it natures. In a large country garden. This pursuit is a fascinating one . although the head gardener may gnash the his teeth when he finds that heavy raids have been or his tender young vegetables. of in England. watched. indeed. dozen of his pet seedlings raised under a handlight. but is it is in the villa the hunt most actively pursued. it is soon . and with the greatest The chase is kept up. in every garden assiduity. damage done is comparatively so small that it is scarcely But the ravages committed in a villa garden catch noticed. is in the summer time year hunted extensively. eaten off a quarter of an inch above the surface on the very morning after being planted out. if fond of his little knows every plant by sight. made upon his beds of petunias the eye at once. lying watered. A -/~~x LTHOUGH the head of the the slug ferce. and when he finds a domain. and tended with pride and pleasure upon the ground.SLUGS. and he becomes from that day a determined slug-hunter. gardens of London that It is not that the hatred towards the slug is stronger there than elsewhere.

when attacked. a moist that anything like a good bag can be as defenceless as the pigeon. of his eyes on upreared stalks. as the scientific would their us. pursued for for its 73 own sake. we gory. a strong point in his character. until he chooses from hunger or inclination to The and walk abroad. this remains visible for hours. indeed. ingenuity. it is possible that he stows his eyes with Secretiveness is. the other required for slug hunting than for but whereas the one amusement is a is the destruction of ravening beasts. slaughter of innocents. but his native craft enables him to baffle his pursuers. to and it enables him hide himself with such marked success that. across his trail As the fox doubles to throw off the hounds. We which he somewhere away in his body. unlike the snail. he are aware that he possesses carries makes no show of them. leaves a trail behind him. the snail. a rudimentary shell. marked success in the sport. Many high qualities are requisite It requires watchfulness. he can defy the most careful searcher. and equal care.SLUGS. The slug is and no greater share of courage pigeon shooting. The creature is fully aware of the danger which this shining evidence of his passage would entail upon him. or. know from put to story how his cousin. for it is only when the ground is patience. and stands therefore in a far higher cateThe slug trusts neither to speed nor fierceness . and a certain intrepidity as to the risks from night air and damp feet. so does the slug . slug. tailors. his flight a troop of by the exhibition of tell horns. is hoped for. knowledge of the habits of the prey and of its likes and dislikes. But if the slug possesses eyes.

for People who write books about gardening give instructions guarding plants from snails. instead of returning to his home at daybreak. ditions the But even under these favourable con- problem has proved insoluble. or The lime to be spread round each plant. and may be found underneath. and nearly broken his back. morning with a of success for the slug is so fond of them that. He has tried the experiment. and in the morning his most cherished plants have fallen before the destroyer. as these keep the soil beneath them moist. and can then be studied at leisure. Men have been known enthusiasm of the chase to sprinkle finely powdered charThe use of a bellows coal over a trail of this kind. pressed firmly into the ground. his return to his hiding-place at daylight upon twist double and Daedalus in the until his trail is a very labyrinth which himself could not solve.74 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and medical men cannot too strongly dissuade their patients from undertaking a pursuit which experience has shown will eventually terminate in madness. in the laid fair on the chance ground. He has spent hours. gardener knows that one might as well try to keep a fox from a hen-roost by making a chalk mark on the door. soot. and often recommend a circle of sawdust. and hunting that the only cure the persistent down of the enemy. he clings to them. He knows is that there is no prevention. are a good trap. Pieces of orange peel. Pieces of board six or eight inches square. and the slug loves moisture and takes . all the particles save those adhering to the shiny is which thus rendered permanent. There are various methods if of attaining this end. in applying these pretended villa remedies. gorged with over-much eating. removes trail. may be searched .

and seldom over an inch in and the brown slug. for he knows that the enemy may be thinned never be exterminated by such means. But the snail. 75 Much execution may be done by these and similar traps. The legitimate sport is the night hunt. after a light rain. only slightly slimy to the touch. utilising The nourishing soup. Hitherto failed. and nothing but prejudice prevents it from becoming a valuable article of food. all efforts to turn the slug to profitable use have and mankind have been content it. triangular in section. very much larger and heavier. to destroy without we know. of cabbage or lettuce leaves cast down in the but that he will favourite haunts of the slug. The two garden length short . thin in figure. and dumpty in figure. the search. to the full-grown animal as long and as thick as a man's little finger. may be found by the score from the tiny glistening speck no larger than a pin's head. way of its ever becoming Inventive minds have sugenthusiast was convinced that glue. while another has gested other uses for the slug would it. notably the the woods. which in the would seem to be an obstacle useful for culinary purposes. active. but the enthusiast regards these devices with contempt. has but a soft skin. by the light of a lantern. and enterprising. it On these. species are the white slug. There are others he knows. refuge under them. slimy. but these great black slug of concern him not. makes a good and snail. on a warm night of all sizes.SLUGS. while the slug possesses a coat of extraordinary toughness. An make an admirable pointed out that the skin of large specimens. and with a coat of the toughness of india-rubber. The slug-hunter recognises two species of slugs. carefully . living as it does in its shell.

more rare and valuable the better it is it likes them. seedlings of all sorts its food is abundant. It has. the delicacy of itself palate which proves its Did it content with the abundant cabbage or the full-si/ed lettuce. and costs it can eat and enjoy cabbage leaves. feet. owing to the impossibility of finding any material of equal durability and toughness for the other portions of the glove. and audiences grew tired before the conclusion of the performance. but it is its fastidiousness of appetite. and a most dis- criminating nothing. men would not grudge it its share. rare. and ruin. been used by showmen at fairs to spell out names from letters scattered at random on the stage . Although has higher tastes. All efforts to tame or educate the slug have been vain. as they took no fewer than four hours to spell out a word of five letters.76 tanned. the slowness of The exhibition was abandoned. of the penny paid at the door. has a keen scent. its its craving for the young and the weakness for the quarter . so far. it has the keenest relish. make imperishable fingers for gloves. and none would trouble to hunt it with lantern and traps . its The in fact. a gourmand. The has never yet been carried out. indeed. owing movement of the creatures. and the slug is. for there visible can be no doubt eyes. but it is well-known that the creatures were directed to the desired letters by small pieces of cabbage-leaf fastened beneath to them. and did not stay to obtain the full value But although. appetite. it For young melons and cucumber plants it it loves. It manages to enjoy itself vastly. would latter idea THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. the slug has failed to afford either profit or gratification to man. although unprovided with the slug or other organs. its existence cannot be that. termed a failure.

it is likely to afford sport for the suburban gardener for generations to come. . the end is apparently of its far off. and causes it to be hunted At present. for in spite foes the slug flourishes exceedingly. and whatever be the prospects of other game.SLUGS. vengeance upon its track. 77 of an inch next to the ground of the stalks of seedlings. however. which sets to extermination.

and the sleek and. SO accustomed are we to the pig apt to forget that he is in his sty that we are naturally one of the most valiant of animals. in defence of offspring. would utter as decided a his return negative. or the . crisp rasher. the difference Between the wild boar and the domestic pig is as wide as between the aboriginal Briton alderman . . consuming the succulent ham. and it demands quantity rather than quality. would. fighting valiantly to the last. doubtless. in both cases. the pig's undoubtedly at the root of It cannot be called present condition and status. Those engaged officer. and ready to face pig has improved or man and his wife to die. a sturdy hold his own and against most wild and desperate fighter. for naturally vigorous disposition 78 is devoted to putting on fat. though to bring civilisation has done much. Whether the deteriorated under the hand of is man depends upon the point of view from which he in regarded.THE PIG. reply in the affirmative while the Indian on from a morning spent in the fierce and hazardous sport of pig-sticking. able to beasts. and the whole energy of its a gourmand. eating has done more Gluttony is about the change. It is content to eat and to sleep alternately. is not particular as to its food.

THE The consequence is. small as he will when in attack the jaguar. while the wild pigs of Paraguay are equally fierce and formidable. it PIG. and. with bristling spine. and refuse to retreat until scores have by his rifle. after a ciated as an article of food. period of repose and extra feeding. pig or as a venerable great-great-grandmother. His tusks formid- are very able weapons. In his wild state the boar is swift of foot. hairs. clad in a coat thick of coarse. will. with absolute confidence. having driven a hunter into a tree. in the assault. although case. Even tiger the will royal shun a this contest with sturdy warrior. in either and. many may fall almost certainly prove the conqueror in the end. the pig is. equally appreOther animals become tough in old age . and lean than this. will remain round fallen it. . His cousins and share his courage. for 79 is ready market at almost any Whether as the toothsome suckingperiod of existence. The bands peccary of Mexico. or until they are driven away by hunger. unless absolutely driven to relations all it by hunger. is. the pig all knows its duty to man better and is ready at times of its life to bring itself into the condition fitted for the knife. and he can use his strong forelegs to strike with effect. or even man.

it is is still well clothed with hair . little were it lingers in his eye an expression of savage defiance that speaks of a consciousness a prospect of slavery. which for the greater portion of the year picks in a state his living in the forests of semi-wildness. pig. the pig because he is It is difficult to imagine more unreasonable one. of latent power ready to break into open war did he see emancipating himself from his degrading There dirty. penned it He of is kept by man in a filthy stye. that he almost wholly loses his natural covering. and.8o THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. As in his wild state he the dirt. in within the narrowest possible limits. only when kept entirely in confinement. The pig of Italy and up Sardinia. so far as the estimation in which man holds him. and deprived of the decencies life. and it is the height of injustice to blame the pig for a hairlessness which is solely with hair. would seem not that there still to have lost his warlike virtues. is practically im- possible that he could be otherwise than dirty. indeed. due to the fact that he is kept in comparatively warm quarters. like the Britons The domestic of the when under wicked the tutelage Romans. were he covered which he Man is tolerant of dirt when it is not brought prominently under his notice. The pig is an eminently vocal animal. him to reach the greater portion of his body. renders it impossible for themselves. is a prejudice against a. Under such is circumstances. too. and even in the . The fact flexible that his skin lives becomes dirty from the cdnditions under would matter comparatively little. protected by a coat of smooth bristles from nature has not bestowed upon him the long and tongue that enables the dog and cat tribe to clean His short neck. as with us.

and no one takes the trouble to fatten him. No one has yet. doubtless. adopted the pig as a drawing-room pet . while he might.VII. his skin may compare not unfavourably with that of the shaved poodle. in this respect far surpassing any other animal. so far as we are aware. In Ireland it complacently accepts the position of a family .THE bosom of his PIG. . if tended with the same care bestowed upon the lap-dog. cat has He possesses a large variety of notes. where flesh is not in demand. but principally among the high notes . while the pig's tones embrace the whole gamut. he readily assumes in Africa the office of scavenger in general. member of the and the East. and performs that role admirably. a steady. be trained with very 6 little w. at He piece . although he has at times been taught to spell and to perform other feats requiring as high an intelligence as that of singing. Properly educated. His tail is of the pug. while the lower ones would be the an extensive vocal triumphs of a very high kind. the pig should be capable of register. The pig is capable of adapting himself to all and any circumstances in which he may find himself. It is a little singular that no persistent effort should have been made to utilise the pig's vocal powers in this direction. L. nor knock down valuable ornaments from the chimneyis. if 81 to family he maintains man The monotonous. its upper notes being as and no more unpleasant than the corresponding ones of an operatic soprano. clear envy of a basso profundo. conversation. from the deep grunt of discontent to the wild shriek of despair. superior would not run up curtains like a kitten. while in point fully as curly as that of sprightliness he to the bulldog. there is no reason why he should not shine in that capacity. any rate in his younger days. and yet.

for would have been well had he been. a lordly dish . In all the descriptions of the banquets of our forefathers swine's flesh stands in the very first position. viewed with extreme abhorrence. for his feet are edible. affords a great variety of food. with contempt it but as he shares this feeling must be regarded rather as a proof of the want of perspicuity on the part of man than of any demerit on that of the pig. at a time when the country was covered with a dense forest. he his is a good swimmer its and the popular fore feet. chitterlings and fat tripe are relished by many. in his first flurry at finding himself in an un- accustomed element. brawn has always been regarded almost to the as a delicacy and pig's flesh good whether boiled or roasted. becoming an efficient guard in the house. the best. properly garnished. sheep must have been comparatively few and rare. like the when once fairly driven to it . scratch his cheeks somewhat severely. The much more common personage than the the greater part of shepherd . encouraged to do so. and it dog. is. . The pig does not naturally take to the with the dog. as all acquainted his habits are aware. that he cuts own throat with like many other popular beliefs. wholly erroneous. indeed.82 trouble into is THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. although it is true that he will sometimes. In the early days of our history the pig formed an even more important swineherd was a article of food than he does now. water. and from his superabundant we have the lard so useful to housewives. . is The is boar's head. He with certainly capable of affection. at is pronounced likes and dislikes. . and. belief. The pig can be eaten last scrap. much The pig. has In the East the pig or. indeed. article and seems to have been a more common of nutriment than beef. salted or smoked. and.

83 His skin furnishes an excellent His bristles are unrivalled for the manufacture of brushes. The pig is an admirable emigrant. he to the is contented. and no small proportion of our cousins. flourishing wherever it has been introduced from the sunny islands of the South Seas to the rigour of a Canadian winter. . exist almost entirely upon his flesh. and applies himself vigorously flesh work of putting on extensive families.THE PIG. and appears to be almost indifferent to climate. Our ancestors showed their wisdom in the warm appreciation of the pig. So that it can be given sufficient food or obtain it by foraging. the Americans. The contempt and rearing frequent and with which the pig is too generally regarded should be exchanged for a respectful admiration of his numerous and varied excellences. leather.

save in the matter of the destruction of choice vegetables. bright greens. soft. crickets. who deposited the egg upon them. yellows and browns with rich scarlet. yellow and smooth. far the greater portion of its life it and it has business to do. many of the caterpillars are well-nigh as gorgeous in their raiment as the most beautiful of butterflies. flies.CATERPILLARS. its The caterpillar is in- in variety of hue. "O UTTERFLIES and gnats. but chiefly affects black. for which. bristling with thick. and hairless at others . bands or blotches of white. and white. a very porcupine among its fellows. after all. no one has made the closely examined. but up to the present time. bees. the one an allpillars . as far as we Yet. silken coat like velvet and occasionally long. in fact. ashen grey. have inspired writers of poetry or prose know. The caterpillar is free from the flippancy and vanity of the butterfly in play who spends by flirtation . and indeed Sometimes it almost every variety of brilliant colour. JD and many other . Cater- from the time they are born give evidence of the possession of two predominant faculties. and does conscientiously. finite is. ants. caterpillar his theme. . stiff hair. its mother. is covered with a short. insects. solely responsible. and is indeed a character to be admired.

danger and the efforts to escape the eye of their teeming foes. while a great many caterpillars guard themselves against unpleasant surprises the first in by establishing themselves from a place of concealment. and fastening with silken threads. is as not unfrequently happens. skin. that the keenest eye would fail to detect the difference . between the outer and inner proceeding at once to Others. on the approach of danger. When. There pillar. trusting to fortune to clods of earth. fall and drop to the ground. in any case. and establish a rampart against their foes by throwing round their dwelling-place a thick curtain of silken . the chosen hiding-place in the heart of a bud just beginning to form. and establish themselves a domicile tissue. and there passing the greater portion of their lives. all its nothing pugnacious about the catermeans of defence being more or less passive is in their character. the results are naturally the death of the flower. others will substance. will Another kind. between two until the shamming death danger has. and rough and knobby of stand upright. A not inconsiderable section no sooner leave the egg than they set to shelter it work to form themselves a by turning over the edge of the leaf. and extreme exasperation its upon the part of owner. passed away. so as to form at once a house and a Lastly. a greyish-brown in colour. there are the caterpillars hiding-place. the knowledge of constant . Some eat into will its hide on 'the under side of a leaf. This they do in accordance with varied instincts inherited from progenitors. enlarge their house and to satisfy their appetites. imitating so exactly the appearance of a little bent twig. as they believe. but.CATERPILLARS. devouring appetite 85 the other. will curl themselves up. who live in communities.

the caterpillar then comes to the rescue. and for the them into a rich and luscious food birds. doubt true. against whom none of their cunning devices of concealment avail. from which he species emerge as a butterfly or moth. which their insect foes it threads. Although partial to seeds and fruits. they would eat less. knowing that their This is no plumpness is their danger. it can hardly be made the subject of reproach to the caterpillar. The fold will : mission of the caterpillar may be considered as two- he has to reach the chrysalis stage. to devour . birds are not vegetarians in the broad sense of leaves. Their great foe and relentless birds. But. exterminator is the ichneumon. but as it is true also of sheep and bullocks. The ichneu- mon varies in size as greatly as does the caterpillar himself. in some respects at least. the term. and he and relished by sheep occupy of vegetable matter into a form in which it can be digested birds. and in the course of his many hundred converts It times his own weight not very long life eats of vegetables. or. and then perpetuate his is an admirable machine for the conversion . and He possesses an appetite of extraordinary voracity. may be said that.86 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. after all. He stands to the feathered world. through cannot break. . the instincts of caterpillars must be defective. many would starve had they nothing but whether of the rose or the cabbage. and forms the intermediary link. vast as it is the number of caterpillars who go to feed the cannot be said that birds are by any means their chief enemy. while even birds seem to hold in high respect. for he can discover them unerringly in their inmost lurking-places. indeed. in exactly the in relation to same position that the ox and the man.

like a dog quartering a turnip field for Up and down. who soon begin to gnaw away at its It is to be hoped. no thicker than a bodkin scarce be seen with the habits. He repeats this two. What the sensations of when thus treated no one has so far attempted to explain. then. slightly. according to the caterpillar will grow. although with a slender . for it the sense of duty of the caterpillar. he hunts. There can be feel It doubt that it is all its efforts profoundly discouraged . and then pursues vocation as little if nothing had happened. below and above. his own size. and it would not do to lay more the caterpillar are than the caterpillar can support. He wastes no time with him. and that to which His young ones must be fed where they are hatched. it that doubtit less knows that has received air as its death wound. and that its last. that goes as doggedly if on as before. hurrying from one leaf to another until he finds a caterpillar. tiny that they can naked eye but all are alike in their Watch one. tube. and showing no sign of pain or disturbance at the birth of foes. large or small. eating as largely and steadily as nothing had occurred.CATERPILLARS. that will never soar in the its a bright-winged butterfly. prying into partridges. as he settles Straightway he begins to hunt upon a up and down with quick eager motion. Some of 87 them are as long as wasps. leaf. three. it must to elude the foe have been wasted. but thrusts the long ovipositor through the skin. every cranny. little The organs of the caterpillar are simple. body. chrysalis state will be It speaks well. some so . and places an egg there snugly. or half a dozen times. that it suffers but interior. It is more than a and it is probable that its sensibility . indeed. operation quietly as is It gives a little wince each time the its performed.

and the most absolute maintained in the feeding house. caterpillar. good temper and forbearance different extend to individuals of families. all. and. just as it is about to assume the chrysalis state. each caterpillar continues its work of eating. its The caterpillar is distinguished for imperturbable good temper . cites irritability or anger. without evincing the slightest sign of It irritability. or shortly after it has done so. or even dissatisfaction. largest caterpillar The The state.88 is THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. intolerant silence is of noise of any kind. or walk across its back. It is fills it not that noise ex- but it with such disgust that it falls ill and speedily dies. wholly regardless of the multitude feeding around Its may its press it on every side. in confinement. the caterpillar's even among human beings. away It is to way through its skin. calculated that fully 80 per cent. it. slight. Gardeners would be . Still it is it inevitable that it must suffer more or goes on until. and less but the little ichneumons make fly their after a brief repose. recommence the deadly work of their parents. of caterpillars are slain by ichneumons. and that the nearness of the family tie produces this feeling of universal benignity. it dies. and the whole race appear to be imbued with a spirit of admirable courtesy and gentleness. Even when browsing in hundreds upon a fellows leaf. entirely species and coming across a small one makes no attenjpt to bully or interfere with it. no one has yet witnessed a good stand-up fight between two of them. after this host are its brethren. develops qualities of a it quite distinct nature to those which exhibits in the wild is The silkworm caterpillar. . moreover. But family ties are not always found to have this effect. for example. and. may be said that.

attention told to two or three discharges of a gun the whole race throughout the extent of is The caterpillar clearly worthy of . were the wild caterpillar equally suscep- tible. would extirpate a garden.CATERPILLARS. much greater and study than it has yet received and as we are look to the ant and the bee as examples of patience and industry. in that case. gratified. as. so we may advantageously take a lesson of little courtesy and good temper from the hitherto caterpillar. 89 perhaps. regarded .

in a good deal of unseemly exultation and boasting at the expense of his foe. but he watches over their safety with anxious to leads them the food is the most abundant. and the display 90 . gait. Whatever whether clad in brilliantly-coloured is panoply or in burnished black. and prone to will fight take offence . He possesses. his martial mien. erect and martial in proud of prowess. he he is needlessly quarrelsome. if victorious. and will even scratch the ground to procure dainties for them. and the cock bird of the variety that has become domesticated by man has lost' none of the qualities that distinguish is THE males of the gallinaceous family may be regarded as types of what best and most chivalrous his wild congenitors. while. all foes. he indulges his hue. the faults of the human with type . his obstinate courage. ready to die is rather than acknowledge his defeat. in man. Not only does he guard them spot where from care. Splendid in his appearance. will challenge to combat a distant stranger for whom fighting's he has no dispute whatever. with his bright eye. the cock the type of the true warrior. He is among birds what the knight of chivalry was among his the herd of humanity in the Middle Ages. he yet the mirror of courtesy among his dames. fierce in battle. and sake. too.THE DOMESTIC FOWL. his readiness for battle.

and ready to answer the most distant challenge uttered by another male. appearance. especially in that branch of the family in which the martial qualities are carried to their highest the game is fowl. The male of the pheasant. Throughout observable in whole of gallinacese same a characteristics are more or are airs all less grouse. is The it early Greek writers mention it as a bird held from remote antiquity in high honour. and their numerous cousins and relations.THE DOMESTIC FOWL. proud of displaying their to their wives. a formidable weapon. the cock is furnished by nature with a dagger. and at . The period at which the fowl was first domesticated lost in obscurity. and graces pugnacious to a degree. and Peisthetserus says that is called the Persian bird. marked degree. blackcock. but it upon the his spur that relies for victory. of a certain foppery in the care that he bestows 91 upon his While other birds fight with beak and wing. The cock can use he mainly the the his development beak with effect.

one time reigned over that country. the cock. or have been introduced by Phoenician traders. It may either have come through Northern India. by careful breeding to render accidental peculiarities permanent. although it is not known how the breed was introduced into Greece or the South of Europe. good judges in matters gastronomic. in the case of the its fighting powers.92 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. It figured early on Greek and of Roman coinage. that we must look for the ancestors of the domestic fowl. for islands in the South Seas. and by other methods . it it to Britain when came any tells was here before the invasion of Ctesar. it vast periods is evident that their domestication must have taken place in the very earliest times. and even in cock. and the goose. among peoples having no communication with each other. It is to the East. As poultry have been found domesticated in widely different localities. had already discovered those nations. or that there was a natural fearlessness and a desire for man's companionship on the part of the fowl that marked it out as specially adapted to be his servant and purveyor. yEsculapius. at brought rate. established by these a great variety of breeds have now been differing widely from each other in size and . although they bred them for pleasure probably. It that it was best when fattened and crammed the for in the dark. then. who us that the Britons abstained from tasting the hare. Mercury. The hand of man has brought about many changes in the bird by the intermingling of species. or Persia. and was carried in the public shows was dedicated by the ancients to Apollo. which must have been cut for off from communication with the mainland of time. Probably they Phoenicians tin. and Mars and the Romans.

Neither the cock nor his spouse possesses the power of singing. The hen is less selfish. and with occasional chidings when disposed to wander from her. the incessant talk by the mother to her children. guarding them. and her whole thoughts are centred upon her duty. 93 The breed its in general. But although so affectionate a mother and submissive a wife. a warrior. and is will produce a vastly larger number of eggs than she prodigal. to face hawk in defence of her children. productiveness in the matter of eggs. from the gentle cluck of contentment. which. but flesh.THE DOMESTIC FOWL. and in their husbands' absence defend their castles. above all things. owes its still popu- larity partially to its appearance and courage. plumage. boldly the dog or the when danger threatens. and as the wives of the knights of old would. a itself. the hen is mindful of her position as the spouse of a warrior . among birds as . As the wild bird not so can only be supposed that is this fecundity in the grati- matter of eggs upon the part of the hen a proof of trait tude for the food she receives from man. although they can utter a large variety of sounds. Other birds lay as is many eggs as they desire to have offspring. and teaching them with constant attention. so the hen is ready. the hen is the type of the careful housewife and affectionate mother. is. in While the cock should place her high in man's estimation. on occasion. don armour. to the cock's bold challenge the latter being as unique a sound the bray of the donkey among beasts. it able to hatch. its great more and to the flavour of to its power of increase. doubtless. Nothing can exceed the care and attention she bestows upon her young feeding them. and her triumphant announce- ment of the to battle is laying of an egg. She is no gadabout.

94

THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.
Poets have, with their usual inaccuracy, been accustomed cock with the dawning of

to associate the crowing of the

morn.
better.

The neighbours

of persons
the

who keep

fowls

know

cock appears to be entirely Unfortunately, unaware that it is possible to have too much even of a good hours of the day or night to lift up thing, and is ready at all
his voice in defiance of
all

or any within hearing,
to

or

accept the most

distant challenge

borne

upon
fect

the

air.

This

constitutes a grave de-

upon the

part

of
to

the cock.

Among human

beings

we
but

are accustomed

consider the constant braggart to be a coward.
suspicion can attach to the cock
;

No

such

it
it

is

a pity that he
useless to

cannot be brought to understand that
uttering defiances at
all

is

be

times,

when

the interposition of a

strong wire netting renders

combat impossible.
Just as the

The cock

can, however, be silenced.

donkey

cannot bray without straightening its tail, the cock cannot crow without standing perfectly erect. A light plank, or

THE DOMESTIC FOWL.
even a

95

lath, placed above his perch, so as to prevent him raising his head to the fullest, will effectually silence him. To the negro race the attractions of the domestic bird are

simply melon.

irresistible,

being shared, however, by those of the In the United States it is found that even the most

irreproachable conduct in every other respect, together with

a close chapel membership, fail to brace him to resist their temptations, and that the fowl-house and melon patch are
attractions irresistible to the negro.

Indeed, a yielding to

temptation in this respect is regarded by him as no more serious an offence than is the purloining of an umbrella or the cheating the Customs by an Englishman.

The domestic
eating,
is

fowl,

although

itself
its

affording

delicate

in

no way
its

particular about

own

food,

and

is

in

this respect

almost omnivorous.
natural food, but

Insects, slugs,
it

and worms

are doubtless
kinds,

delights in grain of all

with avidity vegetable refuse and kitchen scraps of every description. Neither fish, flesh, nor fowl comes amiss to it, nor does it, as far as it is known, suffer
will eat

and

from indigestion, although occasionally inconvenienced by But as the greater part of humanity also suffer over-eating.
from partaking of a much larger quantity of food than is necessary for existence, it would be unfair to blame the fowl

on

this account.

Upon
up

the whole, the cock and his wife

are, except for a

tendency to be quarrelsome and an inordinate
his voice

fondness for

lifting

on the part of the former,

a couple deserving our highest admiration, alike for the courage and valour of the male, the domestic virtues of
the female, and the assiduity which they display not only in

the multiplication of their race, but in the provision of a
large supply of

most wholesome and

nutritious food to

man.

THE SPARROW.
out of the whole feathered creation, one bird had to

IF, be

selected as the national

emblem,

it

is

questionable

whether, upon the whole, any could be found more suited He is a bold, daring to the position than the sparrow. bird ; where he settles he speedily makes himself master
of the position, and elbows out
all

rivals.

He

can adapt

himself to

all

climates

;

he

is

prolific,

and multiplies with

appalling rapidity.
in

He

can make himself at

home

equally

town or country, and manages to thrive where other birds would die. He has, of course, some characteristics
which Englishmen would perhaps repudiate, but
it

must be

owned

that the natives of every other country are almost
in crediting us with

unanimous

their

possession.

He

is

given to bullying the weak, and has an excellent opinion of himself. If a

quarrelsome,

combative,

self-sufficient,

foreigner were asked to describe our national characteristics,

some of these
and
it

qualities

would

certainly

be included

in the list;

any bird possesses so large a share of our national characteristics as does the sparrow. He
is

a question

if

is

distinguished

for

his

partiality

to

the neighbourhood
build as frequently
as a convenience,

of

human

abodes.

The

swallow

may
them

against houses, but he only uses
90

THE SPARROW.
and gathers
less

97

his

food or takes his pleasure entirely regard-

of the inhabitants of the house against which he builds.
sparrow, on the contrary, would just as
it.

The

lief

place his

nest near a house as on

He
;

will build in
if

a disused chimsuit

ney, or a gutter, or rain-pipe
his fancy,

but

none of these places

he

will establish his nest in

the ivy covered wall

near at hand, or in a clump of bushes, and, having so built, he proceeds to get at once benefit and amusement from his human neighbours. He regards their fruit trees and rows
of peas as planted for his special benefit.

He

sits

on the

edge of the roof and observes man as he walks in his garden with evident interest and amusement, and discusses
his peculiarities loudly

joining roof.

He

is

quite fearless of man's presence,

and volubly with a friend on an adand will

pursue his search for insects on the lawn within a few feet
of him
;

and he

relies confidently

upon receiving

offerings of

food in hard, frosty weather in return for his friendship. He alone, of birds, makes himself thoroughly at home in the

crowded
is is

streets, perfectly fearless of
it

passing vehicles.

He

gregarious by habit, and

is

to

be remarked that there
out a handful of

nothing

selfish

about him.
its

Throw
first if

crumbs upon the snow, and
call his

discoverer will joyously
fights

mates to share in
it is

it

;

and

arise

over the division,

apparent that there

do occasionally is no malice

about them, but
high
spirits

that, like the Irish, the

sparrow fights from

and " a love of divarshun."

of towns
is

While the sparrow is favourably viewed by the dwellers and their suburbs, it must be owned that he
not

regarded in the

same

light

in

the

agricultural

districts.

He

is

eminently a

Socialist,

and

inclines to the

doctrine of equal rights.
iv.

When

he

is

comparatively few in

L.-VII.

and so he betakes himself . in self-defence. The conse- quences of recoil this tyrannical conduct will. the general destruction of his peas. Even in this country he is fast driving out other and more useful birds . for it is his own habit obtains a footing. numbers man does not grudge him the small share he claims. or a wholesale to net raid upon his corn stacks. already begun many localities. toll and when myriads of sparrows demand apt to the agriculturist become rusty. upon the sparrow himself. and gun. in the long run. This would seem hard upon the sparrow has no right to take it amiss. future we may expect the sparrow to leave the country . With the decrease of the and gardens will insect-feeding birds. a crusade against the sparrow will be organised in all rural in districts. indeed. and has no leisure The few insects the to investigate his amiable qualities. the pests of our fields so multiply that.98 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. The farmer is regards his stacks and his crops as his private property. He sees the sparrow only on his predaceous side. and the house martin has almost disappeared from some localities. but when his numbers are legion it becomes another matter. but he to wage a war of extermination against other birds wherever he The native birds of North America are that rapidly disappearing before the army of sparrows have sprung from the few hundreds sent out to cope with the caterpillar which devastated the trees in the parks and open spaces in New York just as the aborigines of the country have been almost wiped out by the Anglo-Saxon settlers. The movement and in the has. the tits and the finches abandon neighbourhoods where he abounds. sparrow may destroy in his leisure moments weigh but little in the farmer's mind as against the loss of his crops of cherries.

99 where he is neither liked nor appreciated. Animated discussions. and that anything like As a converluxury would be thrown away upon them. warming sometimes into quarrels. There is a rush into a bush and a hot pursuit.THE SPARROW. and is evidently built on the be assumption that his offspring will. and then. a ragged collection of odds and ends. he is arise frequently but they seldom from these consultations upon the housetop-. but perhaps as well that this should be the case. the disputants separate amicably and proceed on their various business. a cheeriness and good-fellowship about his confident and inquisitive the days little chirp. the sparIt is little song. but he takes the rough with the the migrants . He has none of the restlessness of he has hard times here when the ground is frozen and food is scarce. the sparrow excels. The flight of the sparrow is not elegant . sharp angry cries. . unbearable in neighbourhoods where he abounds. sationalist numerous and His short notes are very fond of learning the opinions of his neighbours. like himself. and a momentary tussle . where his sprightliness and fearlessness render him a It favourite. is may be admitted that his voice it is not the strong point of the sparrow. and to establish himself altogether in towns. and occasionally in of his courtship he can emit a very cheerful habits. have to handy and shift for themselves. but hurls himself straight at his mark. for were he vocal the volume of sound would be is. last long. and of laying down the law himself. varied. and has no thought of seeking warmer climes. smooth. Although so domestic in his row takes but little trouble with his nest. the matter having been arranged. he wastes no time in graceful curves and turnings. There however. side.

so that he is almost unrecognisable as the alert little bird with long neck and sprightly movements that summer. and thrushes come to share the feast man throws out . Fortunately for the his flesh of it. but he would be at least as respectable a one. not be spared but that as Goths are found capable of lark. the . even come into the room through the open window. and are ready to take flight at the sign of his presence. . and there is but little Were it otherwise. starlings. not particularly toothsome. still less respect devouring that charming songster. the energy. emblem of the pluck. and reduces himself into the smallest compass. Doubtless. Contenting himself with the shelter of a bush. the hardiness. if indeed save who is will refuse to give them the little they need to sparrow. them from perishing. by the general consent of mankind. the would be shown to the friendly sparrow. lose their fear of him. unfitting A cock sparrow rampant would be a not push. Should anything happen to put us out of conceit with the lion. and the domesticity of the Englishman and even its self-sufficiency and its cockiness should not be taken amiss by a nation who are. encouraged. he fluffs out his feathers.ioo THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. His confidence is in the goodwill of we know in the man in the time but they never first of his distress will touching. Blackbirds. it is to be feared that he would . the most arrogant and self-sufficient people upon earth. the bird would be a less imposing national emblem than the eagle. especially when the latter is adorned with two or three heads. we cannot do better than instal the sparrow in his place upon the national arms. The sparrow and the robin will alone sill hold their ground. will light on the window fearlessly. and the man must be hard of heart and will.

the giddy This in itself will be a sufficient proof to future generations that the poets of our day did not suffer from the loss of their hair. 101 . attempted to explain the irresistible attraction which a bald head presents to a fly. therefore. owing to its its high to polish and capacity for reflecting light. that. the latter have on their part a for affection bald-headed men. as we know. and so exercises the same attraction to the fly as the globe of a gas light does to the nocturnal moth. be assumed as proved that the mental exercise of the elaboration of poetry causes a certain cerebral warmth which conduces view of the case to the and this will receive growth of the hair . indeed. so far as we know. the jocund fly. It has been suggested. for no bald-headed gently. an additional support should any portraits of Lord Tennyson be extant at the time when this investigation takes place. poets. whereas bald-headed men have a marked and unani- mous objection to warm and effusive flies. at worst. whenever they have condescended to fly. No philosopher has. it is assumed be a luminous globe.FLIES. or. ENGLISH take notice of the domestic favourable point of view. A far more probable solution is that. sportive fly. It is singular that. It man would view the foibles of the fly indul- must. have done so from a It is for them the fly.

and arranges his wings. circling and dancing in the air. the gravity with which he inspects and tastes the sugar and other articles on the table. by our far-off descendants. as Artemus Ward would have His restless. and the pertinacity with which he insists on committing suicide in the milk jug all these traits are amusing when you do not get too much of them. ' and enjoy the fun exactly as the street boy enjoys the similar sport of attaching a leather The sucker to the pavement and pulling at it with a string. they view a bald head as a delightful place of exercise for them. fly is. al- living in cool and shaded abodes for undoubtedly. the dwellings of the poor. way in perpetually charging any other of his species who flies which he brushes near him. flies the feet of are provided with suckers. the as an unmitigated nuisance.102 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. the earnestness and perseverance with his many-lensed eyes with his forelegs. well-to-do persons. Indeed. sufficiently and that as but few surfaces are smooth for the perfect working of these machines. and even with amusement. . fly is it may be many with the exceptions named. the confidence with which he treats all that is yours as his. invariably regarded rising in countries to the dignity of a scourge. an "amoosing which he is little cuss. though the wealthy man who dwells in houses of this kind may view the fly with gentle tolerance." and apparently the purposeless. be taken as a proof that the poets of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were well-paid and . such is not the light in which it is regarded in said that. fact that poets view the vagaries of the fly with a mild indulgence will also. In small numbers admitted that the in very small numbers it may be said.

but they cannot fly is Naturalists is. the fly. you allow him to settle flesh. he sees that he engaged in writing. indeed. and that his instant. But if in England it is still doubtful why the fly was created. upon this on the back of the hand. hands are ineffective for offensive purposes. fly No one. but to be engaged in a game of touch-as-touch-can with two or three of his comrades in the to business. relying instantly digs in neck. The however. who has pretended to be taking no notice whatever of him. indeed. this treacherous comparatively rare. unless. a sharp which is capable of drawing blood. the fly is will keep at a distance. but he has a cousin exactly resembling him. life He was intended to a burden by his buzzing. The common house up moisture provided only with a proboscis. somewhat resembling that of the elephant. cousin is Happily. and none of the poets appear to have been familiar with him. his settling. the patience of man.FLIES. and zeal by the he shows in rendering food uneatall able. So long as the man is wide awake. is There the consensus of opinion unanimous. likeness. The fly was made to try make human his tickling. that drowsiness steals over the subject. 103 The that raison d'etre of the tell fly has not yet been discovered. and by the cunning with which he circumvents the efforts of man to interfere with his designs. can watch a engaged in the work of human torment without entertaining a suspicion that he is possessed of a certain diabolical instinct. at once gives up his romps and takes Choosing the most sensitive . or other surface of lancet. how- ever. with which he takes . air. us that he belongs to the order of Diptera tell that he has but two wings us much more about him. who when. there is no hesitation on that point in foreign countries.

knowing that if she brushes them away worse will befall. The foolish man who sort. generally selecting a fresh spot each time. As autumn draws to its close. Besides. upon human beings become more for although his attacks persistent and annoying . the fly changes his habits. He ceases to gambol in the air. they tries fly are implacable. upon it. he begins when he commences not settle. and always to buzz evading any slaps aimed at him. and that they resent any interference with their ways. and madness in the crusade against aware of this. he alights his feet about. for assemble to revenge their slaughtered comFor every one slain a hundred put in their appearflies ance. and so are unable defend themselves. whether of the sticky or poisonous legions of rades. he causes watchfulness and drives away The who establishes himself in the kitchen enjoys flies higher delights than the of the house. an admitted fact possess a strong esprit de corps. But if war is waged upon them. point he can find. and begins to shuffle A score of times he repeats this perform- ance. and the more irritable a victim. will soon regret having done so. the probable result of perseverance them. so that even when he does sleep. who occupy other portions Cooks are notoriously an irritable genus. fly this game. The Egyptian woman is well and will allow a hundred flies to settle unis disturbed around her infant's eyes. while at other times he It is remarkable that flies noiselessly. paper. and a person under these that flies always in preference attacks It is conditions. they take good care not to be troublesome beyond a certain point. In a house where flies are undisturbed.104 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. the more a fly enjoys tormenting him or her. cooks often have their to hands a fly full.

that it is a belief among the unlearned that the fly. fly Taken all in all. is a migratory creature. a looking-glass. it. and that upon the approach of cold weather he seeks warmer climes. but cover their ignorance by saying that as they are sure do not migrate. It is urged. a certain proportion live over the winter. If he escape this fate. or even a particularly white piece : wall-paper is chosen. how can all the vast number ? of flies destined to be the parents of the countless myriads in the following year hide away so as to escape detection Scientific men flies have never attempted to grapple with the problem. must be admitted that the his life is has a good time of and that feeding. and the fly in turn becomes the victim. a the house ornament. upon finding death at will hand he selects some spot where his demise mistress of burnished of be particularly objectionable to the careful a window. and spreading to some distance around the spot where he has breathed his last. it is self-evident they must hide away somewhere . a white fungus growing out of his body. or is still his death is the cause of the white fungus. varied by Most other creatures labour hard for a not . a point of dispute are among contented to know the rest of mankind dead. with a strong show of reason. 105 than before. Unhappily. and as flies do reappear in the spring.FLIES. the learned that he is . and an obstinate. Whether whether this white fungus is the cause of his death. like the swallow. and with this it dictum the public must be content. taking refuge in warm nooks and corners. devoted solely to amusement. and hibernating there. and there he dies. blundering stupidity has taken their place. however. So seldom are they found. the quickness and the cunning are gone.

it some which a future generation turn to account. may be hoped. nor pierces holes in wood like the beetles. Man in fly is places his food on tables for him. edible or medicinal. He assumes no responsibilities. untroubled and builds mansions which he can by the weather. life inconsiderable portion of their in the preparation for and care of their young. nor lays family. for he has neither home nor the birds. will. nor spends half his time in the hunt for food like most quadrupeds. As the must be assumed possesses found in every part of the known world. sport. discover and . and that he latent virtue. The fly neither builds nests like up stores of food like the bees and wasps.106 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. it that he really has his uses.

varying islands stretching down to Australia. and India. Next. 107 and the noise . their most notable is characteristic the extreme shriller. are especially the parrot of Western Africa. although there are that some members. his family. having an exceeding wide range of distribution. harshness of their voices. Under the general denomination of parrots are included several distinct from the great macaw to the tiny paroquet. and more agonising to the human ear than the sound uttered by any other of the animal creation. Africa. the parrot is endowed with a delicate ear. and the group of species. which are at once more discordant. It is the more surprising that this should be so. being found in South America. since. to their colour. Brilliant colouring is the most striking characteristic of the family. THE seldom parrot is at once wise and amusing a conjunction observed in the human race. as his nice is evidenced by powers of imitation. and neighbours. and of the voices of his wife. of their almost Quaker-like in the quiet grey plumage. must be a serious drawback to his happiness. and there can be little doubt that the quality of his own voice.THE PARROT. being approached only by the feminine voice when raised in anger. Many parrots are gregarious in their habits. perhaps.

variation of their sociability. being distinguishable only from stuffed birds by the occasional droop over the eyeball of their white filmy eyelids. We few have opportunity of observing the domestic relations of the the larger parrots macaws and cockatoos for men enough to support the noise of more than one of these birds. and activity characterise the smaller parrots. every Among is the smaller species. marked by grace and agility. paroquets. At times they will exhibit for hours an extreme restlessness. down their perches. climbing up and of strange antics. . of these flocks is made by one prodigious. and indulging in a variety At others they will sit for long periods almost immovable. the angry scoldings. resembles more man it is than does the tongue of any other bird. and the death of one its generally followed speedily by that of less mate. being marked . and very affectionate in their Attachment between husband is intercourse with each other. the noisiest of birds. The mental characteristics of the larger parrots can hardly be termed agreeable. such as movement and They and are restless playful. It is singular that the tongue of closely that of this. hanging head downwards. The shrill screams. being singularly thick and fleshy peculiarity that it is doubtless due to this able to imitate the tones of the human voice so accurately as to defy discrimination. and hoarse ejaculations create a din not altogether dissimilar to that which must have arisen from a city in ancient times when being sacked by a victorious soldiery. the larger birds are marked by the striking moods. and a scolding match between a cockatoo are hardy and his wife would be sufficiently discordant to empty even the largest house of all other inmates.io8 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. While cheerfulness. wife is very tender and lasting.

1 INDULGING IN A VARIETY OF STRANGE ANTICS." .

periences and that the traveller in Egypt exfeel when gazing at the Sphinx. The leer of his half-closed eye. as the that he has weighed man in . acquired a deep knowledge of human nature. We do not . the unpleasant feeling that the parrot has studied almost exclusively the worst side of human nature. feels the . the balance. have made the slightest Of benevolence there is no trace.no THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. in addition to his inborn stock of wis- result of years of careful study dom. and. human mind has failed and one of the problems which to solve is what there is that the parrot doesn't know. oy cynicism. and a consciousness of superior wisdom. the hypocritical demeanour of enough there is friendliness until a finger approaches near all to be seized this testifies sadly to the fact that the parrot has assimilated the worst qualities of man. malice." shows the intense self-pity with which he views his forced habitation among such his' trivial and contemptible companions. although he may be cajoled into temporary familiarity by the offer of favourite food. when watching one of these birds.say the assumption of superior wisdom. the mocking laugh. and his regret at own moral . Diogenes in his tub could hardly have been wiser or more cynical than an elderly cockatoo and a human being. come to the conclusion that he is al- There is. too. the expression of malice in his tones. although capable of affection towards his mistress. The deep emphasis with which he mutters " Poor Polly. and has together wanting. same consciousness of youth and inexperience that David Copperfield always suffered from in the presence of the irreproachable Littimer. One cannot but that the parrot has. because one can doubt the its no existence . while no sign that the better ones impression upon him. he treats all other persons with equal nonchalance and contempt.

an exceptional formation. and it is the contrast between this and his present lot that has soured the bird's temper and made him a cynic and a misanthrope. giving the bird great power of grasp. or to awaken a sleeping dog with a sharp bite. with a power and facility almost unequalled its among birds. enabling it at once to climb. any other object with amazing In bestowing this faculty upon the parrot. affords It is him a delight over which he will laugh for hours. is Instead furnished with a separate it.THE PARROT. He knows that under happier tircumstances he might have in his native wilds. and is is attached by a sort of natural hinge to He thus able to open his mouth to a very wide extent. and surrounded by respectful and admiring descendants. bone. or to hold its food while it devours it. has The foot. by those able to appreciate him. his malicious pleasure is unbounded. it among quadrupeds. too. Hardly less passing cat. and by imitating a trades- man's cry he can give a servant the trouble of going to the door. prominent a characteristic among parrots than cynicism is malice. for his wisdom. or force. to hang head downwards. grown a respected patriarch honoured. and entirely disregarded the possible consequences to man. The upper mandible same of the beak of the parrot bears the relation to that of other birds. a nut. degeneration. It is not surprising that. Nature had an eye solely to the creature's own benefit. as does the nose of the elephant to the similar feature of being fixed to the skull. the result in of association with them. a pleasure to him to interrupt if a quiet conversation with wild and sudden screams. and to grasp a finger. with power of imitating the human . The parrot delights openly and To seize the tail of a undisguisedly in giving annoyance.

it need only be pointed out that it possesses a remarkable facility in acquiring bad language. to Among civilised nations feeling has some extent died out.112 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and will pick up polite sailors' oaths far more the readily than it will acquire language. that the parrot a striking example of misapplied . regarding her with the aversion which the dog manifests towards the tramp. its its with its human-like manner of taking its it. food. Throughout the East the parrot has always been very of familiarity regarded as a bird possessed of mysterious knowledge and power. but even now servant maids generally regard their mistresses' parrots with dislike aversion. The aversion almost always mutual. is as supposed. the work of the a parrot cat. and of modulating the natural harshness of its voice. the parrot has from the oldest times been regarded with a certain superstitious respect by man. must regretfully owned talent. parrot's nature. and frequently bears a prominent part in Arab As a proof of the ingrained wickedness of the legends. and were regarded as objects of sacred reverence this by the people. seldom admitting the slightest approach on the part of a domestic. accents to the softest tones of that ofa woman. and mention to its mistress that a shattered ornament was not really. Upon is whole. ^Elian states that in India these birds were the favourite inmates of the palaces of the princes. and being never quite sure that the parrot will not act the part of a tell-tale. it although endowed be with remarkable physical advantages. close attention to everything that passes around and evident wisdom.

There is nothing appearance. the black-beetle of the a creature that excites an is London kitchen." cockroach. Where does he come from. There is nothing about its figure that should be displeasing to the eye. as it far as man is concerned. THE horse. such as gives rise to. and yet majority certainly excites in the of persons a feeling of aversion approaching abhorrence. It has not the habit of startling nervous persons by leaping suddenly upon them. notably the one popularly It is : known as the "devil's coach- extremity it unprovided with offensive weapons at either can neither sting nor bite. as do the cricket and grasshopper. absolutely harmless. amount of repulsion that cannot be accounted its threatening in for or explained. It is.THE COCKROACH. and especially IV. their future existence in the general antipathy to these creatures be accounted There are many unsolved problems connected with the cockroach. L. can the for. migration of souls the souls of evil and that only men are upon the assumption that condemned to pass a portion of form of cockroaches. no other insect The cold light of reason feeling. as in that of some of the larvae. fails to discover any ground for such a and it has been gravely adduced by some as a proof of the truth of the belief in the trans.-VII. 113 g .

and multitude. uglier. yet appears to have a mysterious attraction to his abodes mouse and the cockroach his cricket is only among insects. Next man's houses. in every found in vessels. a larger. in the house he lives and multiplies. and all efforts cabins are unavailing. and . or of fastening down the hatches and suffocating him with the fumes of sulphur. his when he the present in ships so strong hold many trading in hot countries flatness of his it is almost overpowering. he always takes up abode the habitation across man in provides for him: fields No It one ever is came him the or woods. and the rat will take up his abode in many with other localities. into way more repulsive creature than his English Once on board and there is scarce a ship afloat which he has not smuggled himself he is there to stay. share with But partiality for human dwellings. at any rate. loves his ships but the variety that especially in those trading with the East. the mouse has a country cousin. to to The body enables him chink and crevice. there is no way of getting is rid of him. the cricket rat but a domesticated grasshopper. man began to build houses ? his where did he abide before In in this country. the . He fears man and shuns the the the his society. and cousin. that in He multiplies with extrais ordinary rapidity. and has no any way closely connected him who to are dwellers in the open air. odour.Ii 4 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. fear of in crawl through every The the ship variety has keep him out of the none of that man that sends the kitchen at cockroaches scuttling of a every direction approach maid with a . and among quadrupeds. and short of sinking the vessel. blatta> as he is is is scientifically called. The cockroach relations in alone is never found elsewhere.

THE COCKROACH. is which show that he future wickedness. is walk. On board a ship the approach of a rain squall will bring them up from the hold into the cabins in tens of thousands . will watch him gravely with waving discover that he is and the moment they asleep will run over his head and face. The he is eccentricity in the movements of the cockroach has doubtless had a share in producing the feeling with which regarded. perambulate his cabin. and drive nervous passengers for refuge to the deck. and in vessels drop on to the where they abound they will blacken the ceiling. deep in the meditation of past sins or But when alarmed his speed is extrain ordinary : he is gone an instant like a flash. themselves to is on this account principally that nothing like an . his as he does not emerge from hiding places until the servants have gone upstairs and the lights are out. His ordinary pace is a fast though stealthy given to sudden pauses. his habits have never been examined very closely. Even in human nerves. but he able. exploding with a a description that his death he acts upon the sharp crack of so singularly of those thrilling many even who most greatly dislike the cockroach cannot bring slay It it. and gently nibble the skin on the tips of his fingers and toes. and it needs no ordinary quickness of eye and action to bring the avenging foot down upon him. light. Whether the is British variety is equally affected by the weather for a point at present undetermined. 115 They will fearlessly their posts on the deck-beams over antennae. take up his head. entangle themselves in his beard and hair. remaining immov- save for the constant waving of his long antennas. tables. The cockroach is an admirable judge of the weather.

with which nature has provided it it. lated wing-case that distinguishes the order.H6 organised war efforts are THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. indeed. sects Some have supposed their hiding-places that they charm the in- by the sounds of sweet music . restaurants. The which issues this cockroach. locust. and other supposed it about the . is made now and then waged against the cockroach. Feeble to get rid of it by scattering destroyers. small inroads ascends the serious upon its numbers. that the cockroach uses the means of locomotion It is possible that if . and that by it he is attracted to his death from . others that they possess a perfume which the cockroach cannot withstand. although effective to a certain point. or by setting traps for walk into but these measures. and did the operathey would be very largely patronised. while a few hold the belief that the insects are induced to leave their abodes by the use of cabalistic words. the wings being then folded up under the leathery It is reticurarely. stage is The only difference between the and second that they do not become winged until arriving at maturity. first and grasshopper. took to out-door exercise as its it it would do so but. kitchen. and it is and begins to pervade the house that There are men in London attention is paid to it. to beetle paste. and other dwellings. of cockroaches. Familiar instances of peculiarity are the earwig. it has no occasion whatever for the are even use of wings. and many people unaware that it . like most of the order of orthoptera to it belongs. stairs make but only when it who make secret. tors advertise their addresses Their methods are a but they are certainly efficacious. passing its life does indoors. retains the to its same form from the date it from the egg death. a livelihood by clearing houses.

can doubt that. the impetuous and hard- working wasp. are welcome and its It has a marked partiality for boot to digest leather. although is certain that species. and traps for ensnarement are generally baited with this liquor. enforcing their arguflourishes of their antennae. had they the power. and to devour a bishop if he fell in their way. its The cockroach not particular as to its food. is 117 is provided with them. it can carry on long conversations with its own head to and two of them may often be seen standing head in close confabulation. Other insects stand apart from them. or intoxicating nature. way. the creature or. with the cockroach is a strong proof that the insect world that viewed with the same marked disfavour by it excites in the breast of man. swarming out in their armies from dark recesses in search of garbage . It will blacking. any other of what may be called respectable insects. even able is drink water. the cockroach is at least so far as our ears are able to perceive. and indeed almost it. but he not of them. it Unlike the cricket and the grasshopper. but morally they stand apart. but Treacle or sugar in water attracts has a marked preference for beer. indeed. and will devour almost anything that comes in food consumed by man. . sweets all of kinds. but tendency rather towards liquids of a sweet it. is The cricket may dwell in their midst. while no observer has remarked a single case of friendship between the industrious bee. no one. all Crumbs to is of bread. indeed. it its mute. They are the rats of the insect world. ments with waves and logists Entomothe may assign the blatta a specific place among orders and genera of insects in accordance with their characteristics. fragments of fat or meat. they would not hesitate to follow the example of the rats on the Rhine.THE COCKROACH.

the abject terror with which the To the capable of inspiring the female mind. and to this have been able to for. male eye. Were the mouse unknown in England. in without any of the spitefulness which readily shows itself even the youngest of the cat tribe. be regarded as the most charming little pets ever introduced. but few rapidly acquires confidence in him. it and pick still after a very visits will. . possesses strange and mysterious powers he is fully the naturalists nor philosophers aware.is its bright eye.MICE. With little its soft coat and It . a*nd is all sorts of tricks. a few imported here would soon. is or explain. if undisturbed. man who will sit Mice at play are as pretty as kittens. although himself unaffected by day neither account them. That it mouse has been an enigma to the man. there are few prettier easily creatures. and most boys have. It is affectionate. the mouse is one of the most harmless and mouse inoffensive of created things. capable of acquiring it intelligent. very some time tamed and domesticated. men and mice first became acquainted with each SINCE other. kept mice as pets. It afraid of man. it might be thought. fearlessly up crumbs and watch close to the foot of any it. at or other.

and the terror with which they inspire women . granaries. in a very short time. and would rather be able to leave the pretty last little things alone. against mice . it. while its depredations in stacks. Thus man is it forced in self-defence to war but he does without ill-feeling. Such that that is is 119 It is the mouse as it appears to man. The is thing that would enter his mind would be to be afraid of them. has most destructive habits of burrowing in walls. and eating holes in flooring and wainscots .MICE. produce a famine It in the land. and other similar places are 'serious. true he if obliged to wage war with its for it is so prolific man and it other enemies did not keep down its numbers would.

their teeth. women have. The Greek and Roman the saying. In the Greek fable of the Lion and the Mouse. an entirely different and far more profound meaning. they cannot stick up their furs as can a cat in fact. nor spit . they never use . phenomenon. showed themselves to be at least equal But the to men in bravery. and yet women Man has wearied himself with conjectures as to this philosophers were posed by monies. parturiunt it. which has ignorantly been sup- posed to signify that a small matter was produced after great labour. in the dangers of a siege. and in endurance. . over and over again. face a lion in an arena. will fly in terror from a mouse . such as the Indian Mutiny. and. has. means of aggression. . when tamed. History records no example of a mouse attacking a man. in calmness. absolutely without quail before them. woman who would. it The philosopher clearly desired to signify that needed the labour of mountains to produce a creature capable of awing the female mind. the same feeling of respect and appreciation for the smaller animal is clearly shown. Some have gone so far as to trace back the enmity earliest times. They have no powers of scratching they cannot assume a threatening aspect they neither show their teeth. when critically examined. they are. and nascitur ridiculus mus. between the female and the mouse to the and the argument has been advanced that the word trans- . men with when they have seen them paralysed with terror by a tiny mouse. horrors of a shipwreck.120 to THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. him In many respects women In the are to the full as brave and courageous as men. growl. in times of great peril. pale but firm. absolutely unaccountable. and many a moment of sweet revenge and triumph has been felt by spouses of strong minds and shrewish tongues.

in fact. which is synonymous with subtle. of abhorrence for the mouse far above anything that can be accounted for by natural causes. Isaiah Ixvi. in return bruise the heel of its bruiser . The mouse does not. who cannot to notice that whereas the creature. Then. and. and That the Jews entertained a feeling whispering in her ear. so that this objection applies equally in both cases indeed. crushed by the human heel. the its This hypothesis is greatly strengthened by the fact that mouse does go on its belly . its head. it is true. putting aside the fact that the snake not a beast at all no modern investigator has ever claimed any particular amount of cunning for the serpent. really satisfy mouse. are fail in- spired by the mouse in the female really worthy of the attention of divines.MICE. facts. and the mouse. whole body. is still essentially applied to the is mouse while . for in some old paintings the tempter in pictured the form of a mouse sitting on Eve's shoulder." These coupled with the abject terror mind. says. and for every serpent upon which this process is performed it is done a hundred thousand times upon mice. is very frequently bruised. an explanation which alone seems to the exigencies of the case. and. 17 is proved by the fact that "Eating the abomination. translated serpent. bruises or raises blisters upon the human This is is no novel idea. in the account of the Fall of signified 121 Man. lated as serpent. and it apparently glides its stomach. again. The terror with which women regard the mouse finds . a tight shoe is the only article which habitually heel. indeed. the word cunning. but neither does the serpent. is said to be more subtle than any other beast of the field. alone among quadrupeds feet along on its cannot be seen to move.

who go beneath the surface. discompose. expression in various Man is has no peculiar liking for his nether integuments. for there are women who make parrots their pets. Among women." can question how keen is the consciousness among the sex of the possibilities of attack by their formidable opponents offered by the present style of clothing. Sometimes these are spoken of as bloomers. No one who has ever seen a woman stand on a chair and wrap her garments tightly round her ankles upon the alarm of " mouse. and are singularly treacherous withal.122 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and that the real reason why women desire masculine garb is that they may the better protect their lower limbs from the onslaught of the marauding mouse. there women The mere fact that be found who profess not to be here and afraid of . however. It cannot be pretended that it is the mere fear of being bitten which so unhinges the female nerves where mice are concerned. sometimes as divided skirts. all whom It neither scratches nor occasional bites at therefore. be argued that any fear of pain can at the bottom of their antipathy for mice. the popularity who go North. as evidenced by the eagerness with which cockney sportsmen. sometimes as knickerbockers. adoption movements are constantly taking place for the of male lower garments. don the Highland garb instead of trousers. of the ordinance which transformed " " the whole regiment into a kilted corps. and by among the young fellows who constitute the Scottish Volunteers. although parrots sometimes bite atrociously. The advocates of these garments venience base their arguments on the ground of health and conbut men. is cannot. pet spiteful cats. There are others who and and snappish lap-dogs. aware that these are but pretexts. are well . unlooked-for ways.

as their dressmakers tell them. . .MICE. who are not fond of who do and not not care for kissing their female friends in will dress There are even women who exceptions which of mice as they please. and the almost by women can be accounted for only upon the hypothesis of which we have above made the universal fear mention. jump up babies public. But these are prove rules. mice 123 in no way affects the general truth of the argument. in an open boat if it rocks . There are women who are not afraid of cows who will not .

and compares creature lifts with the wild its rapture with which the up voice when assembled above all is with five or six of for its its species upon the end of a garden is wall. hearthrug of their cat it walking into a parlour and lying down upon the own accord. The cat. for fire is the emblem of domesticity. is things gregarious in alien That domestication to nature proved also by the fact that there are no recorded instances of lions. has clearly assumed domesticated habits under innermost nature. cat is generally considered to it THE air be a domesticated animal. but would be more justly described as a gregarious one. but assuredly no opposition would offered to the lion or tiger itself in this manner. No it one who sees the placid and itself indifferent with which the cat conducts when within doors. In the case of the wild that such an may be urged advance on its part would be not be welcome. can question the feline an instant that the cat instincts. tigers. but it protest.CATS. or even the wild cats of these islands. then. who might yearn to domesticate The extreme repugnance which the state feline race in their wild evince for fire is another proof of the absence of any domestic yearnings in their breasts. and as against its must be admitted .

have been pets. It will is simply because it likes grateful to those who leg. of boots and its brushes. not because render them. cause but a momentary interruption of song . rub against a human but will also rub against the leg of a table with an equal air of affection. . It will not answer when called unless there be a prospect of food. laps. that the imputation of hypocrisy. is This absence of affection in cats the Darwinian theory. Showers of lumps of coal. five out of six kittens are concerns or removed and drowned. Had she had a particle of real love for her offspring. The do and it justice. but in all these countless generations the cats have not been able to get up a reciprocal feeling. Ladies have the absence of better subjects for affection doted upon them from time immemorial . fire. to brought against the animal. are the special characteristics of the cat. it be placed upon ladies' these attentions. something to nurse and play with. cats in itself an argument against in Since the days of ancient Egypt. An intense devotion to public assemblies of its kind upon housetops and walls. If. Friends of the species have endeavoured to urge in its favour that it is affectionate to its young. pretends to no fondness whatever for those it. 125 which has been freely cat. she would have cared for all alike. and to the raising of music. To gratify its passion for concerted music it will dare every danger. the mother in no way troubles herself.CATS. She certainly will look sharp but this only shows that she likes to have after the last. who care for to It will submit to be rubbed and stroked. Wagnerian in its absence of melody. but will gaze in stolid indifference at the as if wholly unconscious of being addressed. is hardly justified. however.

The predatory instinct is strong in these creatures. into the wet. and however well a cat treated. many other things are soft which are Some have pretended to see a resemanalogy can be traced to support so The fact that both love the fireside blance between the natures of the cat and the woman. noisy. It is habits. but this knowledge in no way them. is absolutely unheeded when raised in an agonised appeal for silence. in really occupied maturing plans for the surreptitious carrying off of pats of butter. but from drawbacks. . and hate going out sufficient similarity. it be fed or It is remains a thief to the end of its life. and that it is dangerous to rub either the wrong way. believed by those best acquainted with them that the greater portion of the time spent by a cat sitting in a state is of apparent somnolency on the hearthrug. not suffice to damp its ardour. which of will things it most hates. for raids of canary birds. has but one virtue free is soft. and even the voice of the mistress. There are not mice to catch in a great many houses. upon the larder. erratic in its The animal and It possesses thievish. all and even wet weather. has no real affection for it its mistress.126 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. It can hardly be doubted that cats are well aware that their gatherings for vocal pur- poses are hateful to mankind affects . but no sufficiently strong libellous an assertion. who an hour before bestowed bread and milk. can scarcely be considered as of importance to warrant the suggestion of general The feeble plea that cats catch mice cannot be admitted as an argument in favour of their general acceptance. many It vices. or for the assassination The lected question why the cat should of all creatures be se- by ladies as a domestic pet has occasioned high debate among philosophers of all ages.

A GATHERING FOR MUSICAL PURPOSES. .

even in the day time. from the keeping quality. for its and the knowledge that it is expected board by keeping down mice troubles it not as a mouse-catcher the cat is Even a poor creature taking half an hour over a job which a terrier of the size will It same perform in a second. then.128 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. has been urged that without cats there could be no cat shows. but they have hitherto turned deaf ears to the suggestion . but as they are most objectionable. and this may be conceded frankly. A man is not allowed to hire an organ or a German band if to play in front of his house. a neigh- bour object . the dog. to populate the whole of the so. she choose to do sirability Over and over again has the deof placing a tax upon these animals been pressed upon successive Chancellors of the Exchequer. why. the onus of proving why they should be abolished would rest with those who do not keep them . allows his wife to keep two or three cats. it The cat who can itself get milk given in a saucer . not one cat in fifty trouble itself to catch them. should he be allowed to keep a creature which renders night hideous with its caterwaulings ? The and if legislation which taxes man's faithful friend and com- panion. owing to the torture of nerves caused by their midnight assemblages. to say nothing of their destructiveness to well-kept gardens. district with their progeny. is not going to trouble by to at catching mice pay all. Were cats unobjectionable in their ways. it is and will notorious that where there are. it is for those who own them some good to prove that there is some compensation. and the reason is clear : Chancellors of the Exchequer are but . but mankind might get on without these exhibitions. some advantage arising of pets which are a pest and an annoyance to neighbours.

doing of every one else. venture to propose a tax upon cats. Blue Ribbon Armies. aunts. There are Salvation Vegetarians. . 129 No man having a wife would mortal. or cousins.CATS. matter in hand would command an enormous although the great proportion of the subscriptions and donations in furtherance of its object would be anonymous. lamentable habit of using strong expressions in the first place. calculated that at least 90 per cent. and have wives. as a step towards the suppression of swearing. sisters. and is the very first step which such a body It must take would be the suppression of the fallen into the cat nuisance. is and Anti-tobacconists. for few men would venture upon an open adherence to first a society which. would undertake to put down the domestic cat. Every one It cannot be doubted that sooner or later there will be an Association for the Suppression of Bad Language. interested in the well- Armies. under these circumstances. the midnight cat . Good Templars. Even ladies of irreproachable morals and conduct have admit that at least admitted the use of mental bad language. And is yet we are not altogether without hope. and until we have a minister who is without either a wife or other female rela- tions. The present essentially an age of association. even among the best of men. by the voice of and a pious divine has gone so far as to mental profanity is absolutely universal. under the irritation caused by hours of sleeplessness through the infliction of a concert on the tiles. of those who have have been driven thereto. the cat will remain master of the situation. A society which would take the support.

can hardly be ex. and kindly treatment even from children. Nor would and the the pretty markings on the back of the ladybird. it takes an ample toll of seed services and fruit for any service it may do in the way of destroying afford it insects. save as an instinct human and breast. It must be owned that the robin has no peculiar claims upon similarly protected the affection of man. on the grounds of benefits bestowed. Next. birds which surpass it in this respect . The jay's bright feathers do not protection from the keeper's gun. similar to that held by the robin among and by a feeling akin to superstition. but there are it many . as a protection for implanted by nature in the one of his greatest friends allies. but not it more so than has the sparrow to hold very high rank can scarcely be considered among the birds that render man vital by acting as exterminators of the pests of the fields and gardens. affection plained. perhaps.THE LADYBIRD. for there are many more brilliant and showy which it insects receives. THE is ladybird occupies among insects a position very birds. and the patch of red on the breast of the robin would scarcely in itself account for the general feeling in its favour. the ladybird . and. to the ichneumon. has a friendly confidence in man. indeed. It sings prettily.

but in the ladybird as a perfect insect live its earlier. as great a scourge as it the locust in the localities inhabits. were not for its vigilance. a brilliant four-winged fly . and by those of the Syrphidae. takes soil to down dead . and . and from the time when it issues from the egg to death its whole life is passed in the destruction of these pests of the farmer it and gardener. are are to be found earliest insects to on every plant. the Spanish it fly provides us with blisters. in its perfect state. and. in benefit to man. leaves herbage. this being. can vie with the ladybird in this respect. It may frankly be admitted that the ladybird is not. in this work of destruction. however. as they are. Its life is spent in the pursuit and destruction of the aphis. adornment of his the silkworm with a fabric for the female kind. directly or indirectly of But it may be doubted if any. which amongst the in the spring.THE LADYBIRD. and. and brings fresh the surface many beetles as scavengers. it which. useful than the ladybirds. one way or another. is 131 the most valuable of all insects to man. but a poor return for its destruction of vegetation. save only the ichneumon. is In its labours this way is ably assisted by the larvae of the Hemerobius. are far less common their But these creatures. animated solely by a desire to benefit man. would so increase that it would become. Not only does aphis. The and worm work acts as a subsoil plough. The bee fur- nishes him with wax and honey. the locust with a food. is in temperate climates. the cochineal insect with a dye. indeed. may be accepted that the great majority of insects are. being make appearance ready to meet the first invasion of the aphis. stage it is equally destructive them. which transfix and devour their thousands on their trident-like mandibles. which. upon the to its though less known.

this is quite a even that This. it The antiquity of this legend prodigious . There are a great most part spots. yellow. black. and is found over Europe and in parts of Asia and It is everywhere a favourite with children. of many is other recognised bullock considered none the not with the express a benefactor because he eats. fly away home.132 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. variety of ladybirds. but alike express that there is danger to the children as well is as to the house. with black. one of the group brought by the earliest arrivals in Europe from the Far East. the colours and markings of their coats these are for the red. Why this should Africa. be so find is not very clear. your children alone. or yellow. but for it would be much more easy to than for the verses that children this explanations the title especially endear " them to throughout country Ladybird. Your house is on fire. while coat rather because it keeps out the cold than because will some day furnish man with a garment. however. and in France they are called Vaches d Dieu or Betes de la Vierge. flesh. over Europe. and there can be little doubt that is it came to us from Scandinavia. ladybird. and are considered sacred to the Virgin. with but slight variation. or white The red with seven black spots all is the most common. As the legends current in Europe and Asia are but . secondary matter in said its opinion. and African children repeat an almost identical sentence over the ladybird. differing only in ." last There are two or three versions of the all two words. benefactors less may be The of man. purpose of making the sheep values his warm it but to gratify his appetite . all It is familiar to children.

THE LADYBIRD.

133

seldom found among the sons of Ham, it does not seem by any means beyond the bounds of probability that the
legend was in existence before the Flood, and that the children of the sons of Noah carried it to the various
quarters

of

the

world

when they

scattered

from

the

common

centre.

But, though there can be no dispute as to the

enormous

antiquity of these apparently non-sensible lines, scientific

men, although agreeing that there must be a deep and hidden meaning somewhere, are quite unable to arrive at
any consensus as to what that meaning can be.
years
it

As

of late

has been the habit of scientific men, whenever they

cannot find any other satisfactory explanation of an ancient legend or story, to assign it to one of the sun myths, " Ladybird, ladybird," must now be considered as included
in that

broad category, and so takes

its

place by the side of

the siege of Troy, the wars of the

Gods

with the Titans, and

other apparently widely diverse legends.
is

The

highest credit

due to

scientific

men

for

the ingenuity

shown

in the

invention of this sun-myth limbo, into which they are able
to shunt

tough

for

away all legends and traditions them to unravel. But, failing
if

that

prove too

to grapple with
it

the story of the burning of the ladybird's house,
certainly

would

be

satisfactory

legend that
call

we could get with certainty at the connects them with the Virgin. The French

de la Vierge, the German Unser Herretthuhn, own ladybird, which is, of course, a mere shortening of "Our Lady's bird," is a literal translation of the German name, the French differing only in calling the insect a beast, while the Germans and ourselves call it a bird. The most plausible supposition is that as the Virgin is in

them Betes

while our

I

34

THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.

many Catholic

pictures depicted as pierced to the heart with seven swords, the seven black spots on the red ladybird are
little

considered as typical of those wounds, the form of the
creature being not unlike that of a heart.

a destroyer of the green

Seeing the extreme value of the ladybird's assistance as fly, it has more than once been

seriously proposed to introduce breeding establishments for
its

multiplication

;

practicable, agriculturists,

and there can be no doubt, were this and especially hop-growers, whose
fly,

bines are cruelly ravaged by the green
vastly.

would benefit

bred in enormous quantities, and there seems no reason why the ladybird should be less
is

The silkworm

susceptible of cultivation,

if it

could but be taught to lay
Unfortunately, the ladybird

aside
is

its

habits of restlessness.

a frequent and rapid traveller, and the hop-grower would

have no assurance that his neighbour's gardens would not benefit more than his own by his labours in breeding it.

Few
the
its
it

beetles take so readily to the wing
little

;

it

runs

fast, too,

on

packed so snugly away under the flat side of hemisphere. Still, as the flea can be taught not to jump,
legs
flying
;

ought to be possible to restrain the ladybird from
if

and, in that case,
food,
it

kept amply supplied with

its

favourite

might be content to breed

in captivity,

and the

management of such an establishment would be a source of great interest and amusement to children. Owing, perhaps,
to
its

immunity from cruel treatment

at the

the ladybird exhibits no fear whatever of him.

hands of man, While the

spider will rush to a hiding-place, the caterpillar drop itself

from a twig, and the
its

flea

endeavour to escape by the aid of

prodigious activity from the touch of man, the ladybird

will

run unconcernedly across his hand, and, indeed, appears

THE LADYBIRD.
to take a pleasure in so doing, until, tired of the
it

135

amusement,
its

opens

its

wing-cases, and, after a preliminary flourish of
its

wings, goes off in a swift flight in search of

next meal.

Properly trained, the ladybird ought to be a skilful performer
of tricks, although

we

are not aware that any efforts have

been made
as
soldiers

in that direction,

but a regiment of them drilled

and taught
the

to

sound

of

bugle

should

manoeuvre accurately to the certainly be an attractive

spectacle.

THE

DOG.

has more reason to be proud than the transformaunder his hands of the wild dog into the domesticated The change was not early effected; during animal.
tion

OF
dog"

the various works of man, there are few of which he

everywhere used as one of opprobrium. " servant a dog that he should do this ? is in itself
is

Scriptural times "

it

had made but

little

progress.

The term
" Is thy
sufficient

to

show

that the possibility of the

dog being possessed of

many

virtues

had never occurred

to the speaker.

The dog

was, indeed, regarded
in three lights only
:.

down

to comparatively

modern times
is

as a scavenger, as a guard against wild
in the chase,

beasts,

and
is

as
still

an assistant

and

it

thus

that

he

viewed

in

the

East and by uncivilised

peoples.

It must be owned that the wild dog, or the dog such as he exists on sufferance in Oriental communities, has

but few higher claims, that he

is

by nature but

little

in

advance of his cousins the wolf, the jackal, and the coyote, and that he is cowardly, cringing, and ferocious according
to

circumstance.
;

His

virtues, in

fact,

are at

this stage

altogether latent

he has been cowed by a long course of misapprehension and ill-treatment, and displays only his
It is as difficult to
135

worst qualities.

recognise him as a near

the whole man from his Although rejoicing in undivided the dog is yet contented with an occasional word master. 137 relation to the civilised dog as to see the connection between a Digger Indian and a Shakespeare or a Newton. and is willing at once to abandon the most comfortable quarters to brave all weathers if his owner will but deign to take him with him. He will face any odds in his defence. his back and his demeanour become unmistakably approaching. and that in making him his companion and his friend he has developed virtues equal to those It may be said that there never he himself possesses. hostile as soon as of he perceives a tramp Dogs are judges character too. obedience. many varieties of unwearied devotion. was a man who possessed the proud stateliness of the St. or the courage and tenacity of the bulldog. is as in prosperity his fealty unbroken. its more and affectionate than In point of fun and vivacity the terrier in stands higher. race put affection. while in the exhibition fidelity.THE DOG. the unerring sagacity of the sheep-dog. and no coaxing or . The vainest masher is not daintier in his ways than soft the Italian greyhound. and will die in his service. Bernard. he always renders prompt and cheerful to shame. or the Blenheim. and affection. It is. The dog a fine discriminator of persons. then. or will bristle his master's house will be greeted with perhaps with a slight wag of welcome. and while a well-attired stranger who approaches silence. no small credit to man that he has discovered and brought out the grand qualities of the dog. fail Even roughness and in adversity is and unkindness to shake his devotion. is ready to spring up a score of times from the most comfortable sleep by the fireside in answer to his master's voice.

education to take to beer. about great varieties effects While careful breeding has brought in size. vegetables. are eaten by little him with apparent and he needs but very spirits. must be owned in- they are seldom mistaken in their tuitive likes and dislikes. provocation to become excited pugnacious he seems to be on the look out to assert himself. for affronts. but few things cheese. the poodle. The latter is ready or upon the smallest . its scarcely upon the dog's mental organisation can for be traced. the dog adapts itself readily to His preferences are for meat. some seeming to find their chief happiness in lying asleep on a soft cushion. by nature. others in an incessant pursuit of rats and other vermin. and good-tempered than the small one. Their habits may differ slightly. are yet identical in their possession of the and methods of dogdom. will blandishments seduce them into friendliness with one it of whose disposition they disapprove. and ever on the watch The big dog.138 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. although differing as widely from each other in appearance and shape as if they belonged to different virtues families. as a rule. relish. A flesh-eater the habits of those around. accompanying their masters to the There are dogs whose greatest joy is a swim. in some . wines. is much more gentle. and the big As might be expected from the analogy of man. dog. the toy terrier. and that. is generally quiet and dignified. Bernard and rather than race. and very slow to wrath. and even fruit. and appearance. fish. save the result of size such differences of disposition as are The St. come absolutely amiss to him : bread and pies and puddings of all sorts. like children. the pug. form. chase. upon the contrary. the Dachshund. patient. and the spaniel.

FORM.CAREFUL BREEDING HAS BROUGHT ABOUT GREAT VARIETIES AND APPEARANCE." IN SIZE. .

believe that the separation between themselves and their affectionate friends and loyal servants will not be an eternal one. it is it not difficult to a real lover of the dog to suppose that a future before At any rate. in discussing the some men. in a it. is man who has made the dog what he No such varieties of character are to be found in the wild dog. comparison between the dog and the man. or other Eastern towns. This is not remarkable. made in behalf of a favourite horse but the dog has assimilated himself so closely to man. of patience and of courage. and few would deny that too may have in point of intelligence. and. The Red Indian hound will expects confidently that his faithful companion in the chase in the country of the Great Manitou. semi-civilised and even the dog of Constantinople. They would before repudiate the idea that there was a future uniess an exception were other animals. there are some dogs It that are infinitely the superiors of that. It same types of dogs. deep down in their hearts. resembles his brethren as closely as one sheep in the fold does another. was not so long ago . since is. life others whose chief object of quarrel and then fight it seems to be to pick a in out. indeed. has become so much his companion and friend. and nobleness of disposition. that . But these differences are no greater than those we find existing in men even men of does not require a very wide range of acquaintance to enable us to fix upon a man whose tastes correspond respectively to those of one or other of these the race. the advantage is not always with the latter.HO THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. of generosity. the list might be almost it indefinitely extended. of fidelity to duty. and there are not a few Englishmen his be who.

THE DOG.
muzzling question, a
"

141

man

writing

to

a newspaper said,

Better

a thousand dogs should die than one

man

"
!

There are very few men who, appreciating dogs, would at all agree with this opinion. There are men whose lives
are are others

more valuable than those of a thousand dogs, but there whose lives would be dearly purchased by that of
is

one dog.
It

possible that

if

admitted to as

intimate

a com-

panionship with man, other animals might make as rapid a rise as the dog has done ; but there are few so well
suited for that companionship.

The

cat accepts kindness,
it.

but declines to be in any way
petting,

bound by

It

may

like

and may even run to greet a master or mistress, and follow them over the house but the cat takes little
;

interest in their conversation,

and keeps
is

its

thoughts

strictly

to

itself,

and

its

inscrutable face

a

mask which cannot

be penetrated. But beyond the cat the choice is limited. Rats and mice are easily tamed, but would never overcome feminine aversion. Sheep lack the liveliness necessary for
a pet.
Cattle are too large for our present style of house
giraffe,
;

while the

whose eye

is

probably the most lovely of

those of any of the brute creation, would scarcely feel at
ease in a drawing-room.

Lions, tigers, and other

of the cat tribe have been

made
gain

pets

become

dangerous
is

as

they

monkey
country,

too intolerant of cold to
his restlessness

members when young, but their strength. The become a pet in this

and

and love of mischief are against
if

him.

The mongoose,

perhaps,

more common, would be
It is

the most formidable rival of the dog.

admitted to

possess a high degree of intelligence, to be easily tamed,

and very

affectionate

;

but

it

could take the place only of

142

THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.
and would
little
fail

the smaller varieties of dogs,

from

its

want

of voice as a guard, and be of
burglars.

use in a tussle with
is

Take him

altogether, there

no animal possess-

ing one tithe of the qualifications of the dog for the various

purposes for which he is used by man, being capable of acting alike as a woman's pet, as a man's companion, as an assistant in the chase, as, in some countries, an animal of
draught,
ally,

as a vigilant
as the

sentry,
faithful

as a

powerful and valiant

and

most

and

truest of friends.

SHEEP.

THE
sheep
is

position of the sheep in the scale of the animal
Naturalists,

creation has not yet been assigned.

who

are guided by

mere

externals, have, indeed, agreed that the
it is

a quadruped, that
all,

herbivorous and ruminant

;

but, after

this

does not help us much.
;

Physically, the

sheep

may

stand high

mentally,
slug.
is

it

appears to be about
eats continually,

on the

level of the
is

garden

The sheep

and when he

not eating, he

thoughtful appearance ; He has his a suggestion as to the subject of his thoughts. good points as a producer of wool and mutton, but the

chewing ; this gives him .a but no savants have ever ventured

garden slug
yields a
fact

is

edible

and nourishing, and the

caterpillar

most valuable product for clothing ; therefore this cannot be considered as bearing upon the subject of
In
its

his

place in the scale of creation.
is

wild state the

sheep

said to be sagacious, but the stories of

like those of fishermen, are to
distrust.

huntsmen, be received with marked
its wild state, why when domesticated ?

If the sheep
it

is

sagacious in

should

become

so densely stupid

The dog and

the negro improve immensely in intelligence from contact with man, and are both capable of attaining

a high degree of reasoning power.

Dogs cannot, indeed,

144

THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.
but they
certainly

speak,

understand

much

of

human

speech, and learn to read the wishes of their masters at a
glance.

sermons

Negroes attain to the point of being able to preach a low test of intellectuality certainly, but still a
difficult to

proof of some intelligence.
It' is

believe, then, that the sheep can

have
it

deteriorated mentally from contact with civilisation, and

must be assumed that any supposed sharpness of the creature in its wild state must be due solely to the fact that it
is difficult

to approach,

and

crafty in eluding pursuit.

But
;

in these qualities the

domestic

flea is surely its superior

and most
running or

insects,
flying,

by feigning death, by speed in or by tricks of hiding themselves from
either

observation,

show higher powers of
the sheep

self-preservation than
it.

the most enthusiastic admirers of the sheep can claim for
It is true that

by

its

preternatural

makes up for its lack of intelligence gravity and thoughtfulness of demeanour.
half as wise as the sheep looks,
it is

Were every quadruped
clear that the

dominion of man over the animal creation
out.

would be played

The

ovine vocabulary

is

limited.

The sheep
of that
it

has, in fact, but
is

one sound, which
it.

it is

so proud
its

continually

making

Whether

calling

offspring, or protesting against

being driven along a high
this cry with

road, or as an utterance of opinion as to the appearance

and speed of a passing railway train, it raises precisely the same inflection and vigour.

Attentive observers have been of opinion that, like the

dog and cat, the sheep expresses emotion by different movements of its tail ; but none have attempted to classify these
varieties

of motion or to analyse the emotion contained

by them.

Like most timid creatures the sheep

is

crassly

JO .ADDICTED TO THE CHILDISH PASTIME OF FOLLOW-MY-LEADER.

recogbut it nise their mothers among a flock is probable that the sense of smell rather than of sight enables them to do so. The straight forehead and nose. has it has created many varieties in size . up the sheep Nature. who have managed to say something for most animals. of Mary followed her wheresoever she in The however. playfulness is capable of attachment to persons . . and will object to be driven into a pen. . that a lamb belonging young person of the went. assisted by barking on the part of a dog and bad language on the part of the shepherd. goes so far as to say that a flock. the lack-lustre eye. The animal. and its done nothing to alter the face stolidity. which so loves in a great tree are said that no two leaves exactly alike. and silly has been their favourite epithet for it. that the circumstance should verse shows is have been considered worthy of chronicle its great rarity. it remains in normal state of uniform Lambs. will induce early youth. have been unable to invent anything favourable concerning sheep . has it to enter. even though the interior be scattered thickly with the succulent turnip. and nothing short of prodding with a stick. Even the poets. and even the interference of man.146 obstinate. gave as hopeless. except in part no idea of humour is and even on the expressed only by a little frisking It has been said that the sheep of an incoherent character. of the lamb. One of the peculiarities about sheep the extreme similarity of feature which characterises the individuals variety that of the it is same breed. THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. . admitted of no variety short of complete change. The poet who has apparently devoted most attention to their doings. although coat. and an American to a ballad specifically states. name fact. indeed.

attention only in this respect. their breeders have regarded them solely in the light of producers of mutton and wool. to accepted the place in the animal creation that man assigned to it. and if its efforts did but produce faces it some change in the expression of their would be a boon to mankind. but naturally the sheep. Some have supposed that the sheep throughout its life is oppressed with a sense of duty which deadens all other faculties. and have endeavoured to improve them Had they turned their . sets itself deliberately to work is to prepare for the butcher's knife. There is no saying what a society for the improvement of the intelligent faculties of sheep might not effect. it intelligence devise a can hardly be considered a feature worthy of high commendation. To is this end. and has taken no pains to improve itself. Its stolidity is assumed because the formation of knows energy destructive to fat. it always eating when it it is not that sleeping. Unfor- tunately for the reputation of these animals. must only be regarded metaphor. no doubt is given to mischievous tricks sufficient but as this to due to a want of trick. the consequences might have been different . Having in some mischievous mysterious manner ledge that become possessed of an of its hereditary knowit the object life is to furnish mutton. of which tails 147 left he is writing. is is less Scriptural authority would seem to show that the sheep it a superior animal to the goat. developing their mental qualities. finding that no efforts were being made to improve its intelligence. of course. There is a limit now which any one save a breeder can obtain to the pleasure . and . on a certain occasion their behind them.SHEEP. as a This. his meaning being that they were wholly destitute of memory.

taken to the but as it is palpable that the attractions of the calling were the shepherds and not the sheep. as expressed by short stamps of fails the feet. This.I 48 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. any one who has watched at suckling its lamb must have been struck of its the absolute indifference attitude and its evident mute protest against the pro- ceeding. from the contemplation of a flock of sheep. animals. have tending of sheep . a pretence which to impose upon any one. and this simply It is true that Phyllis and from the want of variety. however. The manner in which they to themselves under is the wheels of any passing waggon or cart remarkable. . which so marked their wild state. not when engaged in tranquil mastication. Daphne. Singularly enough. as their some such as ants and bees. if it and wherever one goes the in a rest will follow. of selfis and would seem show is that even the instinct in preservation. for example the ridiculous feebleness of its attempt to be a formidable and dangerous assailant. There are many other points which might in an exhaustive essay upon the sheep be touched on. . even It be jump over a cliff to certain destruction. To it be able to obtain a fair idea of the stupidity of sheep is necessary to see them. but while driven upon a persist in placing high road. and many other maidens. and will defend their offspring against attack on the part of dogs. altogether lost in the domestic animal. they are addicted to the childish pastime of follow-myleader. has been urged in favour of sheep that they are affectionate mothers. will defend young even to the death while as to the affection it of the sheep. this proves nothing. can scarcely be considered a fair reason for placing them high in the scale of insects.

however. has been said although classed as a quadruped. . and that its true place in the scale according to its mental attributes should rather be among the molluscs than the vertebrates. to is 149 show that the sheep. as really an animal an impostor. Enough.SHEEP.

as man is not . manners have been watched in hives specially constructed their and the behaviour of the bees towards queen and towards each other has been as minutely investigated and described. its has been made the object of much study. almost as well known. indeed. as are the customs of the ancient Greeks or Romans. the field-mouse. in fact. with no fixed assaults. in fact. itself. the result and summarily This hasty and of man's natural does not really admire the bee because the insect stores up food for its winter use. habits and . but because he is He able to plunder that store. an irritable and hot-tempered creature. its forethought and prudence. viewed as an idler. a disturber of picnics. and is. The squirrel. and to make it available for his pwn purposes. circle aims and ends. is IT position bee is undeniable that the bee occupies a far higher The in the regard of man than the wasp. the other hand. on It is regarded with absolute as hostility. unjust conclusion selfishness.THE BEE AND THE WASP. is The wasp. . and many other creatures lay up stores for winter but. prone to unprovoked an intruder in the domestic a creature. to be promptly if put to death opportunity offer is. its held up as an example to the young for to strict It attention business.

to collect for his use it is no less admirable in the wasp. The latter is content to establish if home until any place that comes to hand. winter use. he does it necessary to profess any extreme admiration for the forethought of these creatures. who lives during that time. its cells with Did the wasp endeavour to emulate the bee. it would rightly be held up to derision idiot. in the roof of a house. of the bee. coming the bees in a will establish themselves in a hollow chimney. the bee has not the sense to in man it utilise man takes the trouble to bring the habitation it. In all other respects the wasp is the equal. as as an the only creature who imitates the folly of man in continuing to work until the last to pile up riches for others to enjoy after its death. The . knows perfectly well that its a short one that will die when the winter season approaches. to avoid the absurd and ridiculous not the its habit of collecting stores which he cannot profit by. no occasion whatever to prepare stores of food for their use. Even provides a hive for it. who dies before the winter. through the winter. it doing so but the wasp life is not a . if superior. and then and there begin to build their combs and prepare for the reception of brood and honey. The wasp is is perfectly it capable of storing up honey for slightest occasion for It its . and store honey. and that as these females will pass the winter in a dormant there is state in some snug recess beyond the reach of frost. and to shake the swarm into If the hive should not be forthtree. 151 not consider fond of dried nuts or shrivelled grain. or in any other place that appears convenient. If it is admirable for the bee. it Its instinct doubtless teaches that only a few of the autumn-born females will survive to create new colonies in the spring. did see the fool.THE BEE AND THE particularly WASP'.

and a marvellous example of the result of patient and persevering labour. energy. after being carried to the nest. The queen wasp her cell in point of activity. more industriously sets to work to build for it its house. attend her every move- ment. until it is full. a white palace. for these are fed upon insects. The queen wasp. and spread out with layers finer than tissue paper. walls and is all. is.t$2 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. obtained by gnawing posts. the juicy caterpillar and the plump body of the blue-bottle being the morsels which they mostly affect. and the labour required such an undertaking enormous. Wood. until the house. own is wasp. she is waited upon by a crowd of workers. who provide her with food. and each capture.and weather-tight. the wasp works as assiduously as does the owl to gather in field mice for the sustenance of its offspring . is The arrangement that which the inside the structure at least equal to bee can accomplish in the most perfectly- constructed hive. . and forestall her every wish. arranged. size from that of an apple to one as large as a man's head. it is The is cells are as regular and as carefully kept with the same scrupulous care and not necessary for the wasp to collect It honey and pollen for the use of its brood. and intelli- gence. far ahead of the queen bee. its rails. tongue in which varies in Layer after layer is spread. and cleanliness. a model of symmetry. by the side of which anything the bee can do is but poor workmanship. is stowed away in the cell with the and then the entrance securely sealed. and her functions are confined solely to the laying of her eggs. As soon as the latter leaves a perfect insect. egg. gates. In the capture of its prey for the use of its young. on the other hand. This is chewed up by the wasp's its strong jaws into a paste. timber that has lost sap. the material or other uses. is made rain.

this labour. she proceeds to build her cells When unaided. it may be admitted. while the wasp has no such faculty. on the contrary. and there disgorge the contents of their honey bag for the benefit of the workers. Nature. manufacturing paper. themselves with these. She is the life and soul of her community. naturally secretes the done for the former wax from which it forms its cells. and any one who watches it at work industrious in a quiet . and has to construct its cells as well as is its house from the paper is it manufactures. their second stage completed. until. the Having filled others collect sweets from flowers or fruit.THE BEE AND THE WASP. supervising the operations and working diligently and continuously herself. The bee is industrious. they are ready to issue out and to take their share in the work. There is no hurry about the bee. The wasp as fond of sweets as the bee. colony. and when a She has to feed herself while engaged on certain number of cells are com- pleted she has then to store them with food sufficient to support the grubs. she continues to set them an example of labour and perseverance. is 153 the founder as well as the mother of her she wakes up from her lethargy in the spring. Having fixed upon it. Even when she has an army of children. and if by any accident she dies before the other females. which are hatched late in the season. she sallies out to find a suitable spot for her future kingdom. much more for the bee than for the wasp. they return home. appear. and on entering the hive mount to the upper cells. but it is and methodical way. and while a portion of the community are engaged collecting materials. the community is entirely disorganised. the neuters cease from their labours. upon the work of and building. too. has and the whole colony perishes.

and that there The queen is laying not a single moment to be wasted. for ground up into paste. having entered at an open window. and supplies for the builders in. and is not to engaged community. The it. practical jokes of a dangerous kind and the wasp naturally regards these wanton attacks in the business of the nences. and are careful in avoiding the neighbourhood of the wash- house or kitchen upon such occasions and yet they make no allowance whatever for similar irritation on the part of . the materials for the houses to be her eggs. then. there is food the grubs to be gathered. no reason at once. especially Men take offence at practical .154 will THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. Many men know to their cost how small a 'thing rouses the temper of a woman engaged in the arduous operations of washing or cooking. there are collected. its There is. into the habits of the is bee and the wasp the more one convinced that the high . and gathered from a jam-pot. that when the its wasp It is is interrupted in work loses temper angry when. upon when actively more one examines respectively. to is be brought The work still has got to be done. and there no time to be fooling about. and less for it blame.' the busy wasp ! Again. blame if it because it waxes wroth is imputed to the wasp be flapped at with a handis kerchief or hat. and spread . a dish. tering about. it cannot pass. it finds that its way back to its through which hungry friends is barred by a strange smooth obstacle. whatever for surprise. but surely there this ? nothing surprising in jokes. be inclined to admit that it does a good deal of pot. it is The wasp has no time for this sort of thing knows how much there is to be done. as dangerous impertibe blamed for resenting them. or a jug for the wasp is not particular a supply of food.

who is a more vivacious. and should on all these accounts occupy a far higher place in man's esteem and regard than it possesses at present.THE BEE AND THE WASP. a wholly upon the side of the wasp. . esteem in which the former result of is 155 held by . man is simply the man's love is for honey and that the balance of superiority more more energetic. and a intelligent insect than the bee. a more industrious.

robust. like Their claws are not. to leave man their alone. can escape the hardships One gift. the bear should be has taught to dance. how. It is strange that. those of the feline tribe. and if wounded are amongst the most formidable and savage of assailants. warmly clad. few animals are more clumsy in their and movements than the bear.THE in BEAR. creating gifts. is by no means so peacefully inclined as the various species that exist cubs are in danger. pected from the fact that it is a vegetarian. and would be glad let it alone. of winter by indulging in a prolonged sleep. and. formed to tear or slay an enemy. The majority of bears are vegetable eaters. the bear is generally of an easy temper. was denied it moreover. but at once takes the offensive. bestowed upon it and hardy. 156 and . ever. if man would no means but This amiability If of temper by arises from want of courage. living as it does upon seals and fish. the bear. many good It is It is strong. this one of the few animals man being so. NATURE. bears will attack against on roots and fruit. It does not wait to be attacked. The polar bear. any odds. but are designed for digging up the roots that As might be exform a large portion of its sustenance. that of grace gait altogether.

it rarely rises to its hind feet except . doubtless it would have been tamed and kept in herds. which their to take in defiance of the efforts of them their indignant owners.THE BEAR. In the latter case the bear shows great docility. readily learning to obey its master. and has hunted it down ceaselessly. Unfortunately the bear possesses but few qualities that would render him of great use to man . In captivity the animal is readily tamed. the Asiatic as well as the hunting diligently for thick coats enable American species both the hives of wild bees. the cubs only being occasionally preserved for exhibition in the Zoological travelling Gardens. or with showmen. Next only to the monkey. coarse textile its hair is too into for working up its fabrics. and is milk- giving capacity small. there are few 157 more formidable foes. for there seems no reason whatever why it should not have been as completely domesticated as the sheep and the ox. Bears are fond of sweets. In a state of nature. man an has viewed it solely as animal for the chase. however. and frequently manifesting a lively affection for him. As. had it been otherwise. indeed. the bear is unquestionably the most human of animals in its motions and gestures.

and the somewhat certainly rustic it awkwardness of gait. the latter fast approaching extinction. It is true that its has none of the sprightliness of the monkey. the purpose of attack . It is first ceremony. and the bear might have stood in as high a position. gives it it a very human its appearance. too. its evidently good its intentions. in it The bear dance. they would always its make a speech. and that it frequently sits up on its haunches. upon the ground that they did not from illwill. and deprecating kill it anger. it. man is naturally disposed Valuing himself somewhat to value animals that approach most nearly to him. come under a different . would seem to mark as intended to and friendly companion to be a more genial man than the skittish and erratic monkey. will sit up. scratching itself. but simply from necessity. or If head. was any other animal. had it but accustomed it itself habitually to walk upright. for there can be no doubt that had it done so it would have stood much higher in the esteem of man. The polar bear and the North American grizzly. but gravity. and place paws over the wound just as a man will do. The American Indians held spect. and generally the bear was regarded with respect far beyond that paid to it unfortunate its for the bear that did not from the cultivate power of walking upon its hind legs.158 for THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. wounded. highly. indeed. The monkey is deified in some parts of India. but the fact that it is able to walk upon them. in which those engaged a religious imitated the movements of the animal. the bear in very high reThis did not. begging pardon. and uses its fore paws as hands either for the purpose of putting food to rubbing its its mouth. prevent them from hunting but. before feasting its on its flesh.

emblem of wrapped up in skins . watchful and the impression The bear more than any animal conveys of incompleteness. but. it will Germany than elsewhere. his none of the easy good temper of the ordinary is at once fierce and sullen. it may be because the habits of the people approximate more closely to his than do those of the natives of other countries. The bear has by general consent been voted to be the characteristic Russia. it would be unfair in fact it to judge the bear as . The bear is perhaps more highly appreciated in years or so. category altogether. doubtless because the peasants. differs widely from other species. In spite of his great bulk and power. upon the other hand. but it movements .THE BEAR. This being the case. and is and face expresses bear. and figures prostory. alert. be an altogether different animal. conspicuous position in their minently in At any rate it bears a folk-lore. all He quick perhaps the best swimmer of active in his quadrupeds. he has that none of that awkwardness land bears. upright would have gone but a short 159 and even the accomplishment of walking way towards endearing them to man. distinguished for the grace of its movements. It is many a legend and probable that the tale 'dear to English children of the three bears was derived from German sources. and it is difficult to avoid the belief that being slow of temperament it has taken much longer in its passage upwards from the germ than have other creatures. awkward and it or clumsy is simply incomplete probable that in the course of another million when is when the cycle of its changes is accomplished. The polar bear. indeed. and for its still closer resemblance to man. is distinguishes the various He can run with considerable swiftness.

It figured in the Roman where it was probably goaded alien to to a savagery altogether its nature. It is evident that the ancient astronomers were wags. being the only animal after whom of two constellations have been named. its bones are found plentifully among those of other it cave-in- habiting animals. Romans conquered Britain it vanished. it It may be one time assumed that was at regarded in the Old World with something of the superstition with which it was held in the New. ' of is It remarkable placed - both bears in are by the climbing ancients close to proximity to its is the pole. even before the wolf. do to him. The bear was present a very striking resemblance once common in England . and was still numerous in the island when the . as to the present day no bear pit considered complete unless provided with a pole. with hoods of the same over their heads.i6o in THOSE OTHER ANIMALS winter. however. and has been nearly first exterminated throughout Western Europe. probably in delicate allusion powers. and while apparently . arena. them to > Were we should at there three possibly be a bl e arr i ve a satisfactory the children's that explanation story.

its evil and it is man's fault rather that they do not dwell comfortably and sociably W.THE BEAR. the outlines of the various animals in the constellations being purely imaginative and arbitrary. in for there is nothing whatever the position of the stars forming these constellations that in any -way indicates the figure of a bear. Summing up the bear. when such comparatively insignificant creatures as the ram and the fish were pressed into the service. quietly poking fun at the unlearned.L. were It would be difficult otherwise to account for the position assigned to Ursa Major and Ursa Minor.-VII. 161 bent solely upon giving names to the constellations. It . said that that its good qualities predominate over than the bear's together. . It is somewhat singular that the bear did not figure among the signs of the zodiac. it may be ones.

having enticed the it. the honest fisher- man. and shoots down and his birds while feeding. regarded with a sort of special affection by the community. studded with deadly hooks . or hides himself in a bower. and. hidden from view. while himself keeping. the unreasonable nature of his prejudices. next objection fly that catches it in a net .THE SPIDER. are in nothing shown more strikingly than in the view he takes of His objection to the spider is based upon the kills its prey and devours it. its hides from view. THE and the spider. and no is one imputes it to him The fisherman. but for every as harm. So do the great is majority of creatures on earth. the spider catches the fisherman will take a thousand also in a net. it The fish. rushes out and devours But how about man ? cunningly devised and tempting lures over the fish. that. as far as possible. it it is urged against the spider having set fly its net. The trawler arms himself with glittering fly-fisher casts The imitations of fish. the wild-duck gunner paddles up noiselessly in a punt. and. the fact that he catches is not considered in any way reprehensible. his fish in at a net any rate in his case. He is spoken of as the hardy fisherman. into bower. fact that it want of balance in man's appreciation of things. . Then. indeed.

Others. lofty moral superiority towards the who uses or the gifts nature has bestowed upon for him not spider is for sport amusement. to the annoyance of good housewives. quartering the ground with restless activity. dwelt below the water. who. and cunning to capture his prey all sorts. festooning cornices with filmy drapery. Man of uses and skill. a dexterity. long before man invented the diving bell. must quiver in their webs with righteous indignation. Let us. allow themselves to be wafted vast distances through the air. We have no doubt that such spiders as may be engaged about their business. and in so doing exhibits a skill. within view of slaughter so perpetrated by human beings. and therefore builds less its web and as a There are others are fierce and active. then. as they pass unsuspectingly overhead. waits. Some for preference build thick webs in dark corners. There is the water spider. have no more maudlin sentimentality about It the cruelty of the spider. obtains its food by the chase. and pouncing upon the prey with the spring of a tiger. The spider has a wonderful power of adaptability to The great fat-bodied spider of our gardens circumstances. is necessarily slow-moving. and. burdened by nature who who hunt their prey on a sunny wall dog might hunt a rabbit. and yet he assumes a tone of spider.THE SPIDER. building its . and a patience unsurpassed by any living creature. will throw out a few threads. tiny creatures these. He would laugh to scorn the accusation that he was a lurking assassin. and exults in his success. brings 163 them down craft. but existence. No recorded as having employed a large body of his friends to drive up two or three thousand half-tamed flies to be slaughtered by him as a form of amusement. floating upon them.

Were it other- wise. and yet. the spider passed over as an objectionable creature. Then. little is it.1 64 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. It its and is. fruits of it its and upon the theory that there is no right proceeds at once to rob a neighbour of the labour. But when this is immediately adopts radical principles. a it. of no account. who have so domesticated it that it would come at their call. in property. open at the bottom. and then can dwell nest there like a thimble. while the ant and the bee are held up is as examples to our children. it against comers. holding this tightly down. it undoubtedly. . laboriously carrying down bell it little globules of air and releasing is them beneath in the too. It is not to be pretended that the spider possesses no bad qualities. With individuals of own an species exceptionally quarrelsome. it web all will build its house and defend exhausted. until the water expelled. using the tools with which nature has provided greater power of adapting itself to circumstances than does the spider. advanced So long constructs it as its supply of the viscid fluid from which holds out. and. there the spider who builds for itself a box in the ground with a hinged lid as skilfully contrived as any of man's inventions. socialist. if not affection. Not even the and a more perfect aptitude for it. can defy the efforts of any foe likely to assail ant shows a wider intelligence. will not only kill. take food from their fingers. The spider is capable of being tamed. and it silver has prepared for itself. it would stand on a its far loftier level it is with man. but eat a conquered adversary. and to instal itself in the property from It is a little singular that which has ejected the owner. and has before now been made a pet of by prisoners. and come to treat them with absolute fearlessness.

who is much life larger and a more powerful than the male. perhaps in remotely distant times. and that having in course . Being the stronger. the socialists 165 have not adopted the spider as the badge and emblem of their creed. devour us by their extravagance . a character of far darker blot than this rests upon the the female spider. So strange an exception is is this to the general rule of nature. is Our escape from the fate of the male spider are less strong than largely : due to the fact that our females we indeed. . almost. he . stands female spider. we may be for sure that that section females who clamour equality would be content with nothing less than absolute supremacy. we are unable to find any justification for this conduct. in spite of physical weakness they not unfrequently hold us in subjection. The female spider lives up to this. that one driven to suppose that the female spiders must. She is an and will defend her bag of eggs with her excellent mother. but they have. fortunately for man. the human of race. and occasionMetaphorically. Looking at the matter from man's point of view. have suffered from terrible treatment and ill usage at the of ages hand of the males. but she is mournful example of the working of the rights of women This can never occur in carried out to the fullest extent. Unhappily. they may ally rule us with a rod of iron. no ability to carry out to the fullest the methods of the The spider. it must be owned. because.it is the stronger.THE SPIDER. alone in the commission of this crime of uxoricide. happily. in recognition of the identity of their principles. but when she has no further use for him she simply kills him and eats him. if not altogether. Were otherwise. she does not argue with her husband.

less but it would be unfair to other it highly gifted creatures were we to pass over silence. absolutely' clear that the true explanation of their conduct but it is some events of an altogether exceptional kind must have occurred in the history of the spider to bring about so unexampled and unnatural a state of things among the two sexes. . We do not assert that this . they far now revenge upon them back ancestors.1 66 to THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and to embitter to such a degree the female against It is the male. greater attained strength than is possessed by their the wrongs of their is mates. trait lamentable to have to record so evil a in the character of one of the most intelligent and and in intellectual of insects.

There is no reason for supposing. interfere with at him any other way. the obnoxious . and the mosquito are strictly selfish. but keep a respectful distance. Gnats. that the gnat takes the he undoubtedly is of man's companionship. the gnat been endowed with as great a first power of making itself obnoxious as it its cousin the and investigation by would have been the subject of anxious inquiry man. fond as however. appear to be purely disinterested and to regard the doings of man with They will attend him in pleased and curious interest. As it is. however. if not among the flea. flying in a cloud over his head or a pace or in their attentions. the troublesome striker attract attention the vast patient herd live and die almost unnoticed. other pursuits un- They do not. In this respect closely resembles classes among man. neglect of man to heart. what are called the working The noisy spouter. quite alone to In this respect he stands almost. demagogue. and it and dies in undisturbed obscurity. created things. two in front of in him . sketching. it attracts but slight lives attention. in fishing. like the midge.THE GNAT. for the attentions paid man by the bug. while their interest in him or when is engaged bounded. A . his walks. HAD mosquito.

indeed. Flying in a soft . Gnats. partly because they were born so. a stinging proboscis.1 68 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. Caterpillar cause the web. common work. or. at least. the ichneumon. for the various needed work of the bee. and habits. The aphis feed crowded in close herds. It is it may. Their are great balls and dances. through a lane as the shades of a spectacle specially attractive to falling are They will frequently on such occasions form themand falling selves into filmy clouds. has dark limbs and body. but probably more becities. however. size. is a protection against and specially against their most deadly foe. rising in rhythmical measure. and the English mosquito. a much closer relation to the mosquito than to the gnat. if it its head a lovely plume. and a bare head. its vibrations are too rapid for the ears of man to The more detect. would seem to be full of pleasure and enjoyment than that of any other creature. be termed times larger than the many gnat which is the subject of our remarks. The gnat is scarce more substantial than a cobweb. utters a sound. life of the gnat. and ant communities dwell together. expressive of satisfaction and good-will. strolling young couple evening are gnats. is but their power of locomotion so small that they live and die where they were born. appearance. wasp. The summer evening gnat must not be confused with a cousin of his which occasionally infests low-lying and This bears both in point of marshy neighbourhoods. numbers do so titudes are Other insects that consort together in large Mulfor mutual convenience or protection. although short. their their enemies. and has upon It is silent. congregate gatherings simply to enjoy the companionship of their friends.

and are also frequently marked by rhythmical fallings and risings . by the beating of the innumerable gossamer wings. Naturalists have puzzled themselves in vain for any expla- nation of the object of these dancings. perhaps. partly by the whispered conversation or song from innumerable throats.THE GNAT. is a dual one . is too simple to be received with approval by the scientific mind. and flights. they rise fall constant motion. Well may the gnat be transparent. doubt that some of the character of a dance. low hum accompanies the motion. Man does not so rejoice in his existence. but Flights of these are engaged in by few individuals only. and a dewdrop sufficient to afford refreshment to thousands. and action partakes. lifeless on the surface of is a stream. indeed. drops pupa case to that when. He has not such unbounded satisfaction in the companionship of multitudes of his fellows. and in this 169 cloud scarce more palpable than steam. It drinks. The gnat's life. but they are short outbursts of playful joyousness. nor throughout all nature is there any parallel to the great gatherings Flies. do join in sportive chases and dancings of the gnats. starlings and some other gregarious birds approach more nearly to the gnat assemblies. to it is impossible to extent. caused partly. however. an exercise expressive of pleasure and happiness. and not comparable with 'the constant and prolonged dances in comparatively which the gnat spends the greater portion of its existence as a perfect insect. for it is doubtful whether it takes any solid food from the time of its its emergence from it its existence terminated. that it The natural one. like that of most insects. A faint. . is the outcome of a joyous and happy disposition. and ever changing in form.

the air contained within the latter causes to float on the surface. it The gnat larva obtains the animalculae on which head. drawing in the air by two little tubes. feeds by means of two ciliated organs on the These are in constant motion. and when the tiny mass is examined through a magnifying glass it presents the appearance of a honeycomb studded with tiny points. the gnat even in this stage is obliged to breathe. and it assumes the pupa state. They and feed upon organisms even more diminutive than themselves. When the perfect insect formed inside the pupa it case. The gnat breaks through the upper side . floats until the young ones life are ready to take to the water tiny tubes then the lower ends of the open and the larvae swim away. The female gnat selects and sheltered piece of water. but never- active . and create a current by which its food is drawn into its mouth. it still breathes. is completed. Their in the water resembles that of most other aqueous creatures.o THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. It is it is. situated now on is the anterior part of the body. If no accident befall it. they may be compared to long small-bore bullets. still in form. pointed some quiet at the upper end. though an inhabitant of the water. first but unlike most others. the portion is and much the longest spent in the water. At the end of about fifteen days this state of its existence to the surface. and somewhat rounded theless.i. and therefore frequently ascends close where it draws in the air through a little tube situated at the apex of the body. But. and lays her eggs upon its surface. and are the prey of the smaller water beetles tiny fish. lightly to adhere They are placed closely together and each other. now doubled up. the little raft . a stagnant pool In form for preference.

since it is no proof for or against may be the result of blind instinct only. raft until it has attained sufficient strength to This the most critical it moment of the gnat's existence the fluid in which to it. in delights to disport itself. it The fact that all insects deposit their eggs in situations unsuitable for their own existence. would upset the boat and drown its occupant. Whether man this will ever be able to place himself sufficiently en rapport with the lower creation as to be able to solve to determine. . and knows not whether the gnat has any rememit brance of the very different existence surface of the water over which. the theory. and stands upon the skin a little is it 171 has quitted. "able as he is to acquire with more or less difficulty the languages of all other varieties of man. we have no means of is determining the actual rate of speed at which it can fly. but suitable for that of the larvae. and the former. or the passage close by of a fish or water beetle. in those of any other insect. The dog and the horse are in this respect distinctly his superior. which serves as fly. he has failed signally in comprehending that of even the birds and animals with whom he is most in contact. unquestion- ably understands at least the gist of his master's words. .THE GNAT. Man has not been able to solve the problem whether thought as well as life is continuous during the three stages of existence of the gnat. has lately existed would now be fatal and the tiniest ripple caused by a breath of wind. before the gnat has gained strength to fly. or. indeed. passed beneath the its perfect state. and many other problems must be left to future ages So far. when admitted to close companionship. it As not the custom of the gnat to waste its strength by travelling ahead in a straight line.

and at the. their numbers will be apparently undiminished. however parently undisturbed. termination of the storm. This would seem to show an amount of speed and activity relatively unrivalled in any other living creature. will heavy rain-shower A swarm of gnats caught continue their gyrations ap- movement being so quick that they are able to dodge the raindrops in their descent .1 72 it is THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. . very great is That in a certain. their sight and heavy.

But even as matters stand. in which we may include ant. not elected or ants. and exhibiting the spectacle of a nation acting in accordance with natural laws. Were each and particle of the brain of man animated by a vigour sagacity equal to that which vivifies the tiny speck of brain matter in the head of an ant. and wasps. or to appreciate even faintly the wisdom and power that man would we may in that case possess. its for size.THE ANT. popularly known as the white Here although in reality belonging to another family. with advantage learn much from the ant. It must be their painful to republicans to find that in the great majority of communities of what we are pleased to consider inferior In creatures. bees. there is a natural head. that it is John It altogether unnecessary may at upon any description of once be assumed that. imagination altogether fails to picture the result. especially from the more highly organised tropical varieties. the monarchical principle distinctly prevails. it is the most intelligent of all created beings. we see regular communities dwelling together. the termite. 173 . governed by own laws and customs. its customs and habits. the most completely organised of such communities. THE Lubbock and to enter ant has been so thoroughly exploited by Sir others.

and there is no emulation. which stands at the head of such comis munities. in this chosen by vote. And here we come to example of a republic. Among animals mutual protection and convenience. that congregate for as horses. of the whole military class. These communities are evidently fection to those of the first class. There the neither intriguing nor currying for popular favour strongest and bravest assumes the position by right of his strength and bravery. who may be considered who . In the ant nation. no gradation of rank. who attend upon her . sheep come creatures may be taken as a of duller brain. carried out to the We . where none are superior to others. there and is always a leader . of which the type. the dull level of equality and fraternity. and no rising of one nature's individual above the rest. with these Nature has very clearly pointed out that in all highly organised communities the monarchical system is that best adapted for securing order and progress. strength. such and elephants.174 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. One cannot doubt. while among those of the lowest type of intelligence a republic serves the purpose as well as any other system. but case he assumes the position by right of superior sagacity. the ruler and mother her courtiers. stags. have the Queen. that and less for the general benefit of the whole . that for those in a advanced stage of progress a dictatorship is the preferable form of government. but born to the purple. No_ scientific man has been able to discover in his election to the post any trace of the process is known in the United States as lobbying. and may be termed a natural dictator. examples before us. the monarchical principle fullest extent. inferior in order and per- Thirdly. the as the nobles. valour.

and carry them back into the recesses of the city when rain threatens. while below them are the bulk of the community. must be painful that they are warlike members of peace in the extreme. of labour is The result of this perfect combination the erection of edifices. are is which they con- that strikes all and labour combinations unknown to them. and classes are content to do It their allotted work contentedly. see that all is done with order and middle regularity. to willingly. and generally supervise and control the operations. direct the operations. generally larger 175 but furnish the fighting and The over- and more intelligent than the mass of workers.THE ANT. the huntsmen. was but a poor creature by the side of the warrior ant. by the side of which efforts are in man's greatest puny. and societies to know that the principles of universal brotherhood have among them made abso- The bravest knight of the days of early lutely no progress. romance. do not labour personally. feed the young. population. and the cowherds who tend the insects from whom the ants obtain a supply of natural honey. who take charge of the eggs. comparison utterly dwarfed and One reason of the great success of the ant communities. chastise the indolent. transport the pupae into the sun. regularity with and of the perfect order and duct their operations. there are the slave who are the servants of the whole community. class. as the type of the facturers. Lastly. These may be taken the merchants and manu- Then there are the nurses. captives in war. are ready to die in defence of their country. the labourers and masons. fearlessly with the who will do that battle largest and strongest animal may . and zealously. riding out to attack the giants. seers.

draw the edges of the their jaws wound together and then apply ants. The wound bodies of the insects are then nipped but the heads retain their grip. if suffering from severe cuts. and if overtaken fall Such an army. city. cut.176 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. will suffer himself to be torn limb from limb without relaxing his grasp. completely Well it is for man that the scheme of Nature did not bestow upon the ant bulk as well as wisdom. having once upon his foe. the many reasons is man that its it has for gratitude to Provithe ant was gifts. valour. were the victims to their furious assaults. individuals no larger than mice. furnish an army infinitely more numerous and formidable Attila. Even now all smaller animals fly in terror at the approach of an ant army. venture to disturb the peace of his fixed his hold and. . Among dence. Had the ant been only of the size of the domestic cat. and industry. who fix one on each side of the off. fall thap the hosts of Tamerlane or The earth would shake under their tread of their jaws resist . not the least not endowed attain to the with bulk in addition to full other To warm power of its intellect. A single ant hill would fishes alone would survive. dif- from man. until the is and form a perfect suture healed. requires a climate. The ant of fering in this respect temperate regions bears the same relation to the tropical ant that the savage of the tropical zone bears to the civilised . who suffers intellectually both from the extremes of heat and cold. who. forests would before the power the elephant himself would be unable to their onset. The he would have been absolutely Lord of Creation. would yet be irresistible. Advantage is taken of this extraordinary tenacity of grip by some primitive peoples.

177 communities of more temperate climes. employment to the juvenile rural population. There would be a great opened to the farmer if our scientific men could but discover a some method of producing a bird which would be combination of the domestic hen with the ant. demand the full thousand eggs a day but even were that amount divided by a thousand. and the other rough huts. for while the one inhabits caves and tunnels in the ground. than to spite at the superior fecundity of the ant. furnish eggs would diets. 12 . It is not only . tale of eighty We should not . thatched with the spines of the dwells in a palace far larger in proportion to fir. uniting the and tranquil habits of the size one with something of the fecundity of the other. the white ant its size than the abodes of the most powerful monarchs of the human race to that of their inhabitants. and become the commonest and cheapest of all is There a book already in existence that gives instructions for cooking eggs in a hundred different ways. the result would still be The collection and packing of the eggs would satisfactory. man who may it.-VIl.L. The ant of the villa garden and the red ant of the woods are but very ignorant savages compared with the termite. with advantage take lessons in from the ant the domestic hen would do well one respect to imitate The white ant lays eighty-six thousand eggs a day throughout the season well cause the an amount that may total of hen to be ashamed of her miserable It is three or four eggs a week.THE ANT. in Doubtless many fresh methods would be discovered preparing the abundant and nourishing food that would W. that the partiality of all by no means improbable is birds for the pupae of ants less due to a gastronomic future liking for them.

would be in this way finally solved. now so much mooted. . Whether such a much-to-be-desired consummation is to be arrived at by the inoculation of the hen with the blood of the female white ant. or by some other men. It is method. of our raising eggs sufficient for our consumption without dependence upon foreign sources. be thus placed at the service of humanity. if successful. with the certainty that. they would be of real utility to the human race. There would be the additional advantage. that the problem.1 78 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. is a point that must be left to scientific only necessary for us to indicate a subject of research to- wards which their studies and investigations may be directed.

and although its dwells in communities. although final extinction silk for has been greatly delayed by the substitution of beaver skin in the manufacture of hats. be no doubt that . them from killing when opportunity It may be remarked parenthetically as somewhat singular that the Indians. separate and The sagacity of the beaver. disappeared in Europe.THE BEAVER. whereby the value In some respects the of the beaver has greatly decreased. each family has distinct from that of others. There however. this was considered one of their greatest dainties. It constructs houses. and their shares with the bear the place in esteem. is a point that has not been it determined. have never taken to the wearing of high hats. naturally cause to it be held in considerable veneration first by the Indians. It was for its flesh that they hunted it . although they have had the beaver always among them. and its rapidly dying out in America. its and its man in actions and gestures. and builds dams. THE already beaver is one of the animals that appear fated It to die out all under the encroachment of man. resemblance to it own abode. has is but if not quite. it trees. beaver fells is the most human of animals. can. although this feeling in it no way prevents offers. Whether the beaver entertains the same admiration for for the sagacity of man as the latter does that of the beaver.

i8o THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. it would . so can go in or out without fear of capture by the way. and here it takes refuge when man attempts to break into its house in this respect following the primitive peoples. These myths have been dissipated by more accurate observation. in plastering and smoothing the exterior and interior of its house. pile with Were it endeavour to drive down a thick its tail. him as a very formidable foe. regards and as that it it takes as many precautions to avoid his attacks its does against It is to those of chief four-footed foe. the wolverine. the sagacity of the It was said to beaver has been exaggerated by report. it avoid the well latter that builds its houses with their entrances that it below the level of the water. be acquainted with the tail art of pile driving. and to use its after the fashion of a mason's trowel. As might naturally be expected. who abandon their dwellings example of many and seek refuge in almost inaccessible caves at the approach of a foe. The beaver to has no natural means of pile driving. It digs holes or caves in the banks of the river below the water level. it Against man adopts another method of defence.

especially when circumstances restrict the space available for house building. the . dam liable is constructed in a straight line to where built in a be swollen greatly by rain. himself could not better appreciate the In streams where the supply of water is constant it is unnecessary for the beaver to build dams. and then grasp it under water. . except that timber forms a smaller proportion of the mass. is but each abode has its separate entrance. which is composed principally of mud and stones. the boughs interlaced. two or more families will live under the same roof. capable of resisting the stream even in flood. sagacity and great steam. and privacy thus preserved. concave form. is it Where the flow of but small. may be. The houses themselves are built much after the fashion of the dams.THE BEAVER. as the purpose of these is only to maintain the water at a level sufficient to cover the entrance of their houses. it has not been able to invent a pile Its driver worked either dams are formed from the trunks to a shallow by mechanism or by and arms stream. That the beaver should allow the wolverine this opportunity detracts somewhat from its character for foresight. Even in these cases the beaver often miscalculates lie the length of the wolverine's fore leg. and stones and clay from the bottom are heaped upon them. and the latter will for hours patiently awaiting the passage in or out of a beaver. of trees floated down point in the here they lodge. injure 181 that with the downward impulse as its organ to a degree altogether incommensurate it would impart to the pile. Man necessities of the situation. Sometimes. so as to break the force of the it is current. others are piled upon them. water across it is until the whole forms a solid mass.

habits of the beaver when at home have not sufficiently The been studied to enable them to be described with any accuracy. like the otter. It may be considered probable. the vole. and its it will. but. that the females meet and compare notes as to their families and domestic arrangements. distant cousin. they being and his family can dry and comb more particular in the latter respect lie than the human female of the present day. its In captivity dog. feeds entirely upon it vegetables. its whose habits most but like closely resemble own. As may be expected. There is a platform raised above the level of the water. a fish-eater. like the accommodate itself to circumstances. The beaver its is not. nature in making the beaver a . but whether they visit each other and have entertainments analogous to afternoon tea is unknown. evident by the way in which they will congregate on the roofs of their houses. however. beaver bestows no pains whatever upon the furnishis as bare as that of an The Arab ing of its house. or anything else that It is master may be taking. one of the most fruitful topics of gossip must be the quadruped wanting. whose tastes wholly in the direction of disorder and fuzziness. the interior of which tent. where the beaver their fur. very easily tamed. the beaver having a marked objection to such That they are sociable in their habits is investigations. as it does not appear that any of the beavers stand to each other in the relation of master and servant. pudding. and becomes extremely affectionate to those and attached around it. tastes become modified. eat almost anything in the way of vegetables. and eat meat. will.1 82 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. its favourite diet being the stalk of an aquatic plant which in appearance resembles a cabbage stalk. however.

pets. chisel-like edge is obtained : the enamel growing as fast as it is tained. whereby a cutting. These are composed of an extremely hard coat of enamel. . a pity that the beaver has not been domesticated in a colony at work would be a most interesting this country. doubtless aids in smoothing the surface.THE BEAVER. a sharp edge is constantly mainSo excellent a cutting instrument is it. and its the approach indicated by a loud-sounding flap of the broad as the beaver climbs over This tail. but no reason for believing that it is the absolute purpose of plastering. inches in The beaver can It sits down trees of ten diameter. by which means the tree fall is able to make in any desired direction with an accuracy as great as that of the cleverest It is woodman. beavers when at work always place one of their of danger tail. the rest of the tooth being of a comparatively soft substance. and they occasionally give a flap with there is down it. for feature in a park. builder furnished it 183 with teeth of extraordinary hardness and wonderful cutting powers. and always branches like a squirrel while performing makes one side of the cut a good deal it higher than the other. is number on guard. Like many and the young would furnish most amusing other animals. that so interesting an animal is It is used by them for much to be regretted rapidly disappearing from the face of the earth. house in the course of construction. worn away by use. upon the work. that the the days before iron Indians in was at their disposal used to to cut fix beaver teeth in wooden handles with which their bone and fashion cut its horn-tipped spears.

soft coat. That the squirrel. migrate south it has a and perilous journey fall to undertake. care. become one of man's itself. an incarnation of Bohemianism. it is greatest and bushy tail. while long. but in winter its lot. a journey which countless thousands from these vicissitudes. away the time. The bird may have as joyous a life during the down summer. bound neither by rule nor method. and to exhibit so It much is gaiety of disposition. to if it if it tarry in northern climes. its bright eyes. the type of liberty and freedom. and restraint.THE SQUIRREL. The frisks squirrel is free In summer he and frolics among the foliage of the woods. with its pretty ways. snugly ensconced waking up only occasionally to feed upon the hoard of nuts or grain that he has providently stored away in anticipation of that time. and during winter he sleeps in the hollow of a tree. and an existence free from labour. of an airy joyousness. and will then on an instant make its teeth meet in the hand that holds it. its activity. its alertness. arduous. the effect being similar to 184 . has not pets is due to the squirrel it However tame and affectionate may become it is and capable of becoming both in a high degree given to sudden alarms. as the squirrel. victims. is a hard one indeed. AMONG enjoy playful quadrupeds there its is none that appears to life more heartily.

This peculiarity of the squirrel has militated to prevent any close affection and friendship between it and man.THE SQUIRREL. and has been the main reason for man's allowing it to go its own way and to enjoy its life in its own fashion. In this country the squirrel does not multiply to an extent that would render it a scourge and a nuisance where it abounds. It may be assumed that the squirrel has no direct intention of giving pain. It may do some damage by gnawing young shoots . and even a ferret requires no more careful handling than does -a squirrel. that 185 driven into the which would be produced by four small chisels being flesh. but the result unfortunately does not depend upon the intention.

this exceptionally fine like by and bushy appendage. trees. dignity that squirrel it is. he does not. but from the hair being short it and smooth the makes but of little show. The tail of the kangaroo as long in proportion. the turkey. It is nature in thus this his chief personal not quite clear what was the object of endowing the squirrel. adorned as he on side in in cleaning he seems to place no store on adornment. the peacock. that upwards of a hundred thousand have been course of a year on a single estate. managed her train. and is a good deal larger than the English variety. causing terrible depredations attired in the among his crops. where the squirrel is among the most troublesome of the farmer's foes. too. as we have been its taught every organ has special functions. the killed in the Nature has been extremely bountiful to the squirrel in matter of his allowance of tail. warm brown coat and grey like a The of its variety there is not is British cousin. and of the is altogether lack. but tabby cat. with a magnificently large striped black and bushy tail. and the bird of paradise. and if one is ab- . So numerous are they in some parts. being held out stiffly in rear. put consequence but except for the pains he takes it and keeping it in the best possible condition.1 86 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. no other quadruped may be ing in approaching him in this respect. This is not so in the Western States of America. and upon the whole the squirrel lives its life unmolested. extremely deficient in grace. while the squirrel manages his as gracefully as a grand dame of the court of Louis XIV. but the farmer does not reckon it in the list of his enemies. . and buds of the and the woodman may therefore be compelled to wage war against it. It is is greatly to the credit of the squirrel that.

their foes. has a particularly good idea of brimful of life. its movements being hardly follow them. speed. and overflowing vitality . similar disposition an excellent husband. the squirrel has less occasion for extraordinary speed in this respect than have many other creatures who need it to elude the pursuit of tail. as it adds so very greatly to its. bulk as to much reduce its specific gravity. served by the tail He has few enemies. Kittens and puppies It is fun. but no other animal maintains through life the same love of hard exercise for its own sake as does the squirrel. and thus enables it to drop from bough to bough with almost the lightness of a descending feather. and exercises itself to the fullest for the mere pleasure of the thing. similarly the squirrel is unlike some bipeds of faithful. squirrel affords it is surprising that the demeanour of the that it no indication whatever itself. but generally for . and grace. amuse and enjoy themselves. domesticated and constant. the squirrel is In point of for its size probably the swiftest of so rapid that the eye can it quadrupeds. in the way of speed. 187 normally enlarged it is because such enlargement was either essential to the safety of the individual.THE SQUIRREL. But given the length of its bushiness is probably an advantage to the squirrel. activity. acted as a protection against his foes. him more easily to procure his But it is not very clear that any of these objects are of the squirrel. in addition to those of its very handsome appearance. He and his wife pair not for a season only. it delights in testing its powers. Although so gay and sprightly. and for a short distance would need a With so many advantages very swift dog to overtake it. and although undoubtedly a long tail adds to the quickness with which an animal can turn. or enabled food.

When walking or driving through districts in the United States where the squirrel abounds. is excellent eating. The wants result.1 88 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. so full joyous freedom. . The squirrel is gifted with a large share of curiosity all he takes a lively interest in that is going on around him. The squirrel should never be kept in captivity it it is as gross an act of cruelty to confine it is a punishment to must be the pain to a and activity. however. Hunters. line it it with dry moss. If man to be kept in its how of great life creature so restless. its as the real it English farmer would have against that a rat pie. The squirrel. rails. like the rat. in however well its it may be attended the great majority of cases all. he is armed with a gun. so happy and as it is to cage a skylark. its who shoot for skin highly appreciate is flesh. and watch the coming passenger. indeed. store it with nuts and grain for the winter. is that. scores of these little creatures will leap up on to fallen trunks of trees. and will not move until he is within a in few paces of them. as the squirrel. bring up their families. should be in a roomy aviary. home in the hollow of a tree. their only regret being that there not more of . to. enclosing shrubs and parts of trees of a sufficient size to enable it to indulge to If kept at some extent in its natural habits. After choosing a suitable life. as well as birds. as might be expected. it. and convert into one of the most cosy of abodes. unless. or other vantage points by the side of the track. . soon come to understand that he is dangerous. they snugly establish themselves there. in a cell. which case they. in and appears to be particularly interested man. it speedily pines and dies. although even where he abounds many it persons have as great a prejudice against eating ordinary delicacy.

his food as well So constant are these migrations. that is computed that even if they started as distinct nationali- ties constant intermixture must have so leavened is them that the whole race a language now practically all. as it were. he can perform the longest among the other belongings whom he has temporarily attached him- At the same time. time being. and sheep among animals. it so assiduous are fleas in their attachment to man. cattle. an initself habitant of starting all terrestrial portions of the globe. or whether. he manages if possible to become the personal attendant and companion of his fellow-voyager for the as his lodging with him. long time without nourishment. and to carry. centre.THE FLEA. homogeneous. the was. WHILE flea great pains are devoted to the breeding of horses. of several kinds of birds. flea thrive. flea but the habits of the admirably fit him as a traveller . and has managed to first place. and speak partial common to Although to comfort. to that and to the propagation of fish. Whether the from a earth. he is a natural stowaway. and being able to subsist for a journeys without inconvenience of the traveller to self. in the has been left to shift for itself. it common is speedily spread over the a point which has not been decided. .

is bound by no and rules. and there is nothing that he enjoys more than being hunted. but his preferences lie in the direction of crowded tenements. and the dirtier and more untidy the better. and anger and even execrations do not shake his attachment. he could kick an ordinary-sized 33 miles 1004 yards Mankind has therefore good reason for man congratulating itself upon the fact that the flea has not. it is The power of his hind legs is prodigious. for a flea who took into his head to grow even as large as a cat would be a very formidable creature. the hovel of the Mexican. well for or sideways with equal ease. will exist in the sand. however. and then disappearing it into air. in the course of his career. The habits of a flea have not been sufficiently investigated . showing himself occasionally to inspire his eager pursuer with hope. had any ambition in the direction of size. in his hind legs as has the flea. entering thoroughly into the spirit of the thing. forward. He is of a lively disposition. or the hut of the Persian. The flea. It has been calculated by an American man of science that if the mule had the same proportionate power and 21 inches. the flea is by no means and makes himself equally at home in the tent of the Arab. With other creatures is generally safe to infer that they will leap forward. and that the smallest and most active only survived in the struggle for existence. affection for man he will . and can spring backward. man that he prefers to remain small. the snowhouse of the Esquimaux. The flea rivals the dog in his cling to him to the last. his and occasionally taking up abode in the warm and particular. cosy dwellings of the rich.190 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. the cottage of the Spaniard. He and wait patiently for the chance passage of something he can devour .

indeed. As it cannot be reasonably supposed that Nature gifted the flea with such abnormal saltatory powers merely that he should be a cause of bad language among the human The kind. by a succession of springs. upon the contrary. In the earlier periods of his history. the prodigious size of his countable . take to jumping except when inclined to drive human beings on the search for him into a state of frenzy. had Homer turned . unless it he lived in the hair or fur of animals. and stirred Ulysses to occasional wrath . and estimating the rate at we have. the flea hind legs would be acis essentially a runner. that he ever does wonderful. doubtless. dwelt in the tent of Achilles. then. historians. therefore.THE FLEA. he was present at the Siege of Troy. like that of the grasshopper. he could have had no occasion whatever to jump. for why otherwise should Nature have endowed him with so these limbs flea ? much power in If the ordinary mode of progression of the were. but. it would have been well. but it is to be presumed that he does so. to enable us to state with certainty 191 whether he uses his hind legs as weapons in his contests with other insects . and the speed with which he can make his way through the thick fur of a cat or the hair of a dog is It does not appear. Yet. Unfortunately. no means of . fails altogether here. in dealing with the are silent as to the length of his leaps. which he has progressed in this accomplishment during the last two or three thousand years. that living creatures develop by the useful to survival of the fittest such powers as may be most be supposed that the flea's legs have developed only since he made his acquaintance with man. Darwinian theory. some other explanation must be sought for. the early flea. when them.

others to his partiality for dirt while others again go back to the days of the Flood for the explanation. . Upon . taking altogether. they must have scattered over the East. and there. theory. since. it Doubtless others can be it advanced but. Some put it down to the fact that he loves heat . the flea insecticide doubtless multiplied prodigiously during the long voyage. after the departure of man and rested. and vast numbers must have been left behind . The flea is capable of being tamed. being poor travellers except when carried. would have clung to the Ark until it but in time. at any rate. it is flea went in his thousands and as men in charge of all the animals can have had but time to attend to the flea. they and their descendants have It remained ever is would be rash to say that this the only plausible .192 for a THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and other contiguous countries. have shifted them- Some would have early started on fell their travels. Not knowing what was going on outside. others to pieces . and of affording . and given us a the flea of those days. and as. the colony would be taken by surprise when the animals suddenly quitted the Ark . these must. solid information respecting Although abundant everywhere. powder was not invented in those days. the animals from the for mountain on which the Ark selves as they best could. this point travellers are agreed. he prolific is found to be most all and numerous in the East. certainly appears the most probable explanation of the abundance of the flea in Asia. While other animals went into the Ark morally certain that the the four little in pairs. so far as is known. and it may be said in Russia also. moment from recording the struggles of the Greeks little and Trojans.

he tries again and again. as does the fly. glass done by placing him flea. his eyes are and never prominent. He young and the tender. to sit on the box. He is clad in shining armour. for This discourages him. but does not despise age. he is joyous. would no doubt be able to rehabilitate Although he may be forced is the flea in public estimation. recovers thoroughly from the effect of his terrible blows against the glass. until at last. a captive and Free. The first step in the process is to restrain his natural inclination to in a low. and seldom is lives Like a caged eagle he mopes out his more than a month or six weeks after his education completed. he arrives at the conclusion that there is something altogether wrong with the atmosphere. unable to account the phenomenon.. however. make himself happy under any circumstances. can g'. or to to be alike broken. perform other feats. after some days. he will His is. and during It is a pity that no one will chained. flat jump. the true gipsy spirit. 193 to man by is various little tricks. he himself perfectly clean. : do for him what Sir Such an to investigator John Lubbock has done for the ant.THE FLEA. which lively is is wonderfully tough and strong. life. \r. Even in his most joyous moments he I L. he pines and dies. lively.-VII. taking great pains to clean himself with his hind legs. After this the rest is easy. in fact. He never. . He can be taught to drag a little carriage. and half-stunned. live in dirty places. but. amusement This lid. and although he may have loves the his preferences. strikes the glass with great violence.c on anywhere. box with a The supposing that he has an open space overfalls head. Free. and that jumping must be abandoned. jumps.His heart and his spirit appear to fire a tiny cannon.

. the indolent native of the South. and the contemplative Oriental.I 94 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. . and the gentle irritation thereby caused affords means of occupation and excitement to the lazy. noisy his attentions to man are unwearied. Fully and properly understood. the flea might take high rank among the benefactors of man. mendicant. and rouses them from the lethargy in which they might otherwise sink.

some of the Northern it is States of America. no power of making himself obnoxious. And yet he is endowed with a subtlety. sign of his almost diabolical nature. Norway and Sweden. a malice. and a fiendish thirst for blood unparalleled save in the leech. sounding his trumpet as vehemently by the shores of the Arctic Sea as beside a sluggish stream on the Equator. is THERE to excite alarm even in the nothing in the appearance of the mosquito most timid breasts. or of his The mosquito is found in almost every climate and country.THE MOSQUITO. rather than the injury It is it inflicts that drive men to madness. at its worst in the It is probably seen north of Russia. and among marked and in all the varied blessings for which a Briton has cause there is to be thankful scarcely one so peculiar and so as the absence of this creature. not that they are greatly grudged the drop or two of . In these countries hardly safe to leave a horse out at night. these animals have undoubtedly been killed by the poisonous bites of It is the methods of the mosquito their innumerable foes. the British Islands being almost alone in their happy immunity from its presence . for although we may safely discredit the legends that horses have been carried off bodily by mosquitoes.

but at all these and similar measures the mosquito The is only resource affording even a partial pro- tection In theory this device is enclosed within a curtain of gauze ought to be unassailable. favourite to be beforehand with a man. however great the pains bestowed in seeing that present when the man was no mosquito was tucked up inside them. Heroes who would face the spring of an infuriated tiger. the the in flea. If they would but come and have their bug and meal peace and quiet. settle. and to hide some- . would lull his foe into a lethargy laughs. shrill challenge of Man from this persecutor. their investigation complete. and lead a column to the cannon's mouth. their approaches and departures. they fix on what appears to them the most penetrable that point. and the long and agonising suspense that precedes the moment when. though often considerable. Man follow the theory. will quail and cover their head with the sheet when they hear the the mosquito. cows the spirit of the bravest man. It is their shrill trumpeting. it was hoped. blood they extract. and begin their meal. man might bear it. the mosquito will be there. Its Do what plan man is will. . He has invented pastilles. Unfortunately the practice does not the mosquito curtain. and has hung up boughs of shrubs to which sup- posed that the mosquito has an objection. whose smoke. we the doubt whether history records a single example of complete success having attended arrangement.196 THOSE OTHER ANIMATES. are not very much more so than those of our own midnight assailants. and the pain and inflammation of the wound. has endeavoured by many means to defend himself He has rubbed himself with medicait is ments. excellent. However secure the curtains.

a light is brought and placed on a table near the curtain. be it only the size of a knitting-needle. as it seems. his attendant flaps a towel wildly. the mosquito sounds a triumphant bugle-blast close to his ear. be made to dislodge it . latter is well The aware of at this this. Stronger and stronger grows the hope as the minutes pass on. This is. Then the ordinary man sits up in bed all as if he were shot. be examined. where until 197 effort will. unfortunately. at it is sure to find some point which the tucking up has been imperfectly done. and under cover is of this he plunges hastily through the orifice. Drowsiness steals over him.THE MOSQUITO. But most of all it relies upon entering with the would-be sleeper. but the manage in But even one way or other to evade the the exceptional cases where it is routed in mosquito knows that it is but for a time. and down to rest. and swears. There is a shout for the attendant. similar experiences. in spite of a thousand man flatters lies himself that this time he has evaded the mosquito. the will will. towels will be flapped here and there. and at last it almost blooms into certainty as he finally turns over and composes himself for sleep. when. out. The best and most patient of men have found it absolutely impossible to avoid using bad language at this crisis. will has entered his muslin tent. and in the event of the curtains being absolutely new. the Then. which at once closed behind him. He listens first for the is sound of wings. but creetly silent. but universal. every it man nook and corner mosquito search. moment the mosquito dis- Then he untucks a small portion of the curtain. just as consciousness is leaving him. the . it will find it and get through . Then the battle begins in grim earnest. If there is a hole in the curtains. Every knows. the curtains be shaken.

body has swelled to heavily flies away. arms outside the sheet ready for instant action. he is sound asleep will it this time move. pours in a tiny drop of blood. making a rapid dash at the nose or ear. remains quiet until its victim dozes off. Hours pass. it is. then disappearing and lying silent for some minutes. the one silent and watchful. and his face swollen and disfigured by bumps almost beyond knowledge. more usual. now resting for a time in a corner. as may be more dire and disastrous. is In the vast majority of cases the man's watchfulness in vain. agile. in the dozen have entered. ubiquitous. The mosquito has had amusement enough.198 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. intent on exasperating and not on attacking its victim. and the sleeper morning wakes with perhaps an eye closed. the man his other. and fastens its itself to the curtain. and then having drunk till venom to dilute the many times its original size. where it falls an easy victim to the is vengeance of the sleeper in the morning. The existence of the mosquito can be accounted for only that upon the ground he was sent as a special trial to man's temper. against the mosquito. meaning Not until business. Then it settles lightly upon him. A trial can hardly be considered as a trial when the result is certain. but in that case Nature evidently miscalculated the amount of self-control that man possesses. the will man is victor. Such flict when one mosquito has found an entrance. half a still imagined. ^nd the breakdown of man's temper under the attacks . and Nature asserts herself. and now. then again. Occasionally. is the conas When. and with a rapid clutch it grasp and annihilate the mosquito as passes by his face. inserts its delicate proboscis in one of the pores of his skin. very occasionally.

Good resolutions crumble to nought before it. in and voracity. and that by this means man may be him. and that some future Pasteur or Koch may discover a bacillus capable of creating a contagious and fatal disease among mosquitoes. and the native of the Arctic Circle and he of the Equator alike in their respective languages utter words of We may hope. The It trial would have been that case ample. of mortals are as The most patient and the most stoical much moved by it as their weaker brethren. craft. however. sound is to be heard on earth. it but exceptional men might have passed through unscathed. of is 199 the mosquito universal and complete. was the addition of the No such exasperating trumpet that settled the matter. relieved of a burden almost too heavy for . It would have been enough had the mosquito been endowed with activity. that science despair and profanity.THE MOSQUITO. has not yet spoken its last word.

The eye of the ox is soft and inspired modern poets. can doubt that the cow does a great deal of thinking. however. We have. No one can watch a herd of cattle ruminating tranquilly. which so no sage has made it his business to open. A LTHOUGH little the cow is always with us.THE COW. In this respect it is among beasts as is the owl among birds. No one. without being impressed with the conviction that they are Whether they are meditating over the thinking deeply. legends that have been handed down to them of the time them when they wandered wild and free on mountain and moor. Queen of the Gods than . Her brain is to us a sealed book. and the Greeks could find epithet for the . but the beauty. it has not its recognised no more complimentary to call her ox-eyed. transformed the wild cow into an eating stuffs machine a vehicle for the conversion of feeding into milk far and meat. or are wondering why man return. while he requires no active service in as he does from the horse. we meditative ancients know not. busies himself in supplying with the food most to their liking. indeed. we know but in the -/X about her beyond her likes and dislikes matter of food. by dint of long per- severance.

THE COW. is the Orientals. The Arabs and occult. mouse. and somewhat Next singular that although she feel- has lost ing much of that timidity. while of speech frequently bestowed on is horses. The dog. no instance of a cow being It may be is similarly omitted but the dog It is dog is an animal looked down said that the upon in the East. the horse inspires her with no but the sight of two or three cows in a lane throws . in their This gift shown by the is fact that. with their deep knowledge of the it were evidently impressed with the so stored with knowledge that to put her idea that the cow's brain would be a danger legends the to mankind were she able is thoughts into words. . We may own credit her with having arrived at a conclusion to her tion as to the points that satisfac- have engaged the attention of a Darwin or a Spencer. but one can scarce conjecture that the cerebral organisation of the cow was beforehand with man in the discovery of the steam-engine or the electric telegraph. there never admitted to the in- timacy of man. is The cow. and birds of many kinds. a really more alarming not afraid of. storks. she largely inspires the to the among the female sex. she . Such an eye should 201 certainly indicate a philosophic mind. is animal. and. having been habitually repressed. has not acquired the traits of character that distinguish it in Western countries. the ordinary woman terror fears the cow. it But in whatever light the matter it is cannot be doubted that is unfortunate for the world that so profound a thinker as the to cow is unable communicate her conclusions to man. it is in its wild state a timid animal. there so favoured. and it is in this direction that we must regard it as probable that the cow's ruminations are directed. as distinct from the bull. looked at.

feats of activity quite she will -in climb a five-barred gate. with as much .202 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. On such an occasion a woman will perform beyond her at ordinary times : her off her balance. regardless of rents or scratches. or squeeze herself through a gap a hedge.

is In her wild state the cow compelled to take considerable exercise in order to obtain a sufficient amount of sustenance . but she afterwards tossed the dog. It has been calculated by mechanical engineers that the amount of energy required to switch away flics with a cow's tail is equivalent to that which would raise a weight of seven pounds one a hot day her tail foot. by sending the fly. be hardly questioned that the timidity excited in the female mind by efforts to the of antiquity. has developed habits of laziness. thus . a in cow a will times the course of minute. done much to counteract the effects of this tendency. has . or that the specimen chosen to perpetuate the race in the Ark was rendered savage and dangerous from its long imprisonment there but no legend that would give favour to either theory . nor that the animal's disposition is peaceable in the extreme . We believe that this unreasoning terror has its origin in the pernicious nursery legend of the horn. has come down to us. the domesticated animal. Intelligent observers estimate that flies upon switch when thirty the are troublesome. cow must be founded upon some It may be that Eve had trouble lost in legend her first procure lacteal fluid from the cow. it can. therefore. and it is the pictorial representations of her while performing this feat that have impressed the juvenile mind.THE COW. speed and 203 alacrity as she would manifest in leaping on a chair in the presence of that ferocious animal the mouse. The mere fact that there are few precedents for a woman being tossed by a cow goes for nothing. having no need to do so. the It is true that that all cow with the crumpled related to have suffered animal is maiden forlorn to milk her. She has become constitutionally averse to exertion but Providence.

and vaguely wondering whether beet or turnips more taking feiting form the staple of her supper. with the acquisition of the sideway motion the cow's leg lost the power possessed . In the course of the Darwinian let us say a mole into a cow. and puts her whole heart into personally. Each of the countless generequired to bring her to her present form kept contingency steadily in view. She can walk. The cow is best seen in a state of down or standing in the shade of a will repose. as that excites the envious admiration of the horse was to be expected. tree. but she is a lamentable spectacle when she runs. and the cow is able to kick side- ways in a . then. there are few animals to the eye. The fault lies in nature rather than in the individual. she as is not to blame in that the result is. rations this cerned. it was clearly in the creature's mind that the day would come when she would be milked. an exhibition. it would be to his interest to envelop his cattle in mosquito curtains during the summer months. so far as the milkmaid is consideways. considering the clear that number of cows in in Great it is an amount of power is comparison to which that of Niagara as nothing is being wasted.204 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. too. to the ground Britain. a superb success. process of transforming. and practised kicking The result is. The poetry of motion does not exist in the case it of the cow. and yet is clear that she takes the greatest it . Either as lying dreamily chewing the cud. sufficient. a failure. . pains about her running. manner but. lift nearly six tons' weight one foot from so that. if other- expending an amount of energy per hour wise employed. without forour respect. The thoughtful agriculturist will surely perceive that as an expenditure of energy means loss of flesh -and decreased production of milk.

however. . and deliberately sacrificed gracefulness of action to the joy of being able to kick over a milkmaid. fair. while mastodon butter might have been able to hold its own against margarine and other fatty compounds.THE COW. and foreseen her capacity mastodon. what may be called the side action predominates over the fore and aft. fairly future to enjoy at least one piece of On the whole. but this may be disputed. and to be of Some may feel inclined to say. and of a steady and nature. so 205 pre-eminently by the horse and mule of delivering a good. . but for her progression to her present status she has to thank the care and attention she has received from man. may regret that it should be so. in this direction. great importance to man. The cow deserves great credit for developing herself into her wild type from some wandering germ or other. and considered that she was perfectly justified in making some sacrifice in order to enable the cow of the lively fun. The lover of grace but has no right to comThe original plain of the cow pleasing herself. and her abnormal secretion of milk. Doubtless the cow knew her own business. It is due in a great degree to the attention that man has bestowed for putting upon her that she has developed her capacity on flesh. mole protranquil bably foresaw that her far-off descendant would be a creature of few active enjoyments. and would be affording mountains of flesh and tuns of milk. which he might have turned his attention to the in that case would now be grazing in vast numbers among the woods planted for his sustenance. the cow may claim to be an eminently worthy and respectable animal. Had man not found her ready to his hand. square kick backwards and even in running. of vital importance .

806 Some. and turn out a creature with a its multiplicity of in the arms. Nature would seem to have created the octopus in an idle moment. It stands alone. and with of its head middle succeeded to perfection. in order to show how she could diverge from her regular course. but was so horrified with the monster she had made that she stomach. the sea anemones those lovely inhabitants of pools among rocks. . and endowed it with a diabolical dis- position. mouth any living thing that its passes within reach. usual. distorted shape will not bear the grasp and and stretching out its arms studded with suckers to draw down to its. LTHOUGH dignified by the name of a fish. beloved by gourmands who dwell on the shores of the Mediterranean.THE OCTOPUS AND CUTTLE A JL\. FISH. apart from to all living creatures. the cuttle fish has nothing in common its with the finny is inhabitants of the sea. with scarcely a point of resemblance its any of them. perhaps. The octopus resembles an its ogre dwelling in its cave. The cuttle fish varies in size from the squid. nearest relations being. conscious that light. without body or legs. save that existence passed beneath the surface of the water. to the monster octopus who throws his arms round boats and drags them to the bottom. she As threw it into the sea.

the professional The waving weeds lull money-lender bears a close resemblance to this creature. arms. beasts. in the Indian seas. shores they are. it Its and even body or rather its stomach is its this must be almost cut into pieces it before will relinquish the hold has obtained of a prey. On our own size. that by their resemblance to great seaa passing fish into a sense of security. and the hacking off of one or more of its tentacles does not seem to cause it any inconvenience. and Nature apparently placed it there as the crowning effort in the work of construction of this monster. " but comparatively large ones for it may be taken that the . there doubt that enormous specimens are occasionally met with. happily. The beak of a parrot is the last thing one would expect to find in the centre of these waving tentacles. " The Toilers Victor in Hugo was at least not considered by him to be im- and that he had heard from fishermen of the existence of creatures as large as the one he described. are reported to grow to a size them formidable even to ships. thirty and these could well pluck a sailor from the deck of a ship. Among birds. sailors embrace and dragging the wrapping them from the deck or can be little shrouds. and that these would be formidable to small vessels. and we shall find that. To find we may seek in vain one we must go for to man. are repre- sented in the case of the money-lender by flattering and . and fishes a prototype of the octopus.THE OCTOPUS AND CUTTLE that renders in its FISH. The octopus appears almost insensible to pain. never met with of formidable are encountered not far south desperate struggle described by of the Sea possible. Bodies have been cast ashore whose arms have measured feet in length. 207 indeed. Even allowing for exaggeration. only vital part. in his way.

and there is no reason to suppose that they are gifted with strong powers of imagination fish . there is every reason for supposing that the which form the staple of the diet of the octopus suffer less in the process of destruction than almost. fish Happily. insensible to pain. drawn. and at once puts an end to its existence. and swallow up him and his belongings. it may therefore be believed that although a it may struggle to escape from the grip of the tentacle. can to a certain extent enter into the feelings of a large proportion of the animal creation. catching the eye of the unwary. that seizes a feels none of the horror human victim when once grasped by one of the larger species. or does strictly view its any higher impulses ? own methods and ? ? conduct from a itself that it business point Does Is ? it it persuade its it is an estimable character in own the private circle affectionate and domesticated Has . or to get himself en rapport with Is it While man its thoughts. and yet the shudder at the thought of entering a cave The analogy is man who would in the depth of whose waters the octopus is lurking. upon terms to suit all pockets . Fish are certainly does the victim of the money-lender. unctuous advertisements. once the suckers catch hold. will enter the professional money-lender's den with an unmoved countenance and an even pulse. in all ways extremely close. as in the case of the octopus. it Has it naturally cruel. there nearer and nearer the victim struggles. and that its doom is hidden from it until the savage beak seizes it. to the parrot is is no escape . if not entirely. in spite of his mouth that will tear him to pieces. but. it is beyond his power to imagine himself an octopus. persuade him that money is to be had for asking. which.208 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS.

209 congeners. by cutting their Fish he captures either throats. a great deal of humbug about human Some of the cuttle fish are large manufacturers of ink. or by shooting them. and their chance of obtaining food would be small were it not for their power of ejecting ink. mouth or And it yet he criticises severely the methods of the because like a animal creation. even at that most closely resembling those which he himself employs in slaying the creatures is on which he feeds. and there no reason. and exchanging views as to the flavour of the various fish that form its diet. These. only plays the same game as those is and so on ad infinitum? around it. either He himself kills the creatures he requires for food by knocking them on the head. its He shudders at the cat because plays with victim just as the angler does. veiling themselves and thus clouding the water and W. The subterranean world it sees around it is full of strife and destruction. that the octopus should be Man is singularly intolerant in such of the same opinion. and he is shocked at all methods of killing. "The It large fish eat the smaller fish. is He prey in fact. or as to advantageous spots for ambush ? We can answer none of these questions. because those methods are repugnant to us. We fear that there susceptibilities.THE OCTOPUS AND CUTTLE power of discussing passing events with its FISH. instead of anchoring themselves to the bottom. fisherman He its dislikes the spider catches it prey in nets. but by different methods.-VIL from . no pleasing man. matters. It certainly has but a small chance of leading a higher life. There is. with nets or with a hook which sticks into their throat.L. float near the surface. in wait for its shocked because the octopus lies and lassoes it as it passes.

and. of course. why not the cuttle fish It would. and explanations that explain it and retractions that leave the matter as was Seeing that the peculiar variety of ink secreted by the cuttle fish is of a very valuable kind. less But this could doubt- be effected. a habit which also affords them a method of escape when themselves attacked by the shark or other formidable enemy. escape under a cloud of misleading nothing. Indian ink and sepia are both so valuable that such an enterprise ought to pay handsome profits. words. This method is not unknown to man. phrases. and even if an octopus should do the same there could be no very valid ground for complaint. and ? if the oyster can be cultivated. be necessary that the retaining walls of the gigantic aquarium indicated should be impervious to the passing of cuttle fish even in their earliest stage. it is probable that the flesh of the . As the squid when cooked furnishes a somewhat gelatinous food not altogether dissimilar to calf's head. In the latter case one occasionally breaks out and causes consternation. possibly. damage. before. Otherwise the proprietors would be liable very speedily to be indicted as a nuisance by the lodging-house keepers and owners of bathing machines of the nearest sea-side watering places. it is somewhat remarkable that no enterprising manufacturer has as yet taken the matter in hand and established an aqueous farm for the breeding and rearing of cuttle fish.210 sight THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. and several who. that the cuttle and then no argument could be adduced fish should necessarily be a nuisance to their at neighbours that would not equally apply to the wild beasts a menagerie. well-known instances might be adduced of public men after having by loose assertions brought a formidable opponent down upon them.

and the we feel for form and habits has blinded us to the benefits that it. It is be open to clear from these remarks received the careful dislike that the cuttle fish has not hitherto consideration that its it deserves. 211 might be utilised for the manufacture of therefore. their breeders. mock turtle.THE OCTOPUS AND CUTTLE larger varieties FISH. might with culture and domestication be derived from . and another source of revenue would.

he would have smiled it is the smile of incredulity. so is only within the last ten or fifteen years that he has attained to the knowledge of the existence of the demon bacillus.THE BACILLUS. But just as but within the to the present century that mankind has awoke enormous it power and usefulness of steam and electricity. or could describe with any approach to accuracy the difference between the allied . Secretiveness must be assigned the Since this first place first among its the characteristics of the bacillus. which exercised a so laboriously arranged and happiness of and much larger influence upon the man than any of those which he classified. man appeared upon earth scourge must have carried on deadly work. and heaped up a hecatomb of victims in comparison to which those who have perished by war or by famine are but an insignificant handful . Even yet comparatively few people are aware of the personal peculiarities of the bacillus. and yet man has pursued his way in the blindest ignorance of the very existence of his indefatigable enemy. HAD fortunes the learned Linnaeus been informed that there existed a creature of which he had taken no account. who has sprung at a bound into the position of man's deadliest enemy.

and the scientific men who its are so actively busying themselves in counteracting of describing its work are very chary personal peculiarities. He has furnished his ships with lifeboats. will probably lead to a revolu- The artist of other days who wished was in to to the beholder that the personage depicted peril of his life convey imminent could find no better means of doing so than by placing behind him a shadowy figure with a death's head and skeleton arms holding a dart. man has been sorts of pains to protect himself against minor dangers. typhoid. and the beholder is will at once underbe able to stand not only that death impending. of course. Against the wild beast and the snake he has waged He has covered himself with armour to protect himself from the weapons of human foes. and the artist of the future will have only to depict hovering over the principal figure a bacillus. but will distinguish from the characteristics of the bacillus whether it will take the form of consumption. he has placed trap-doors in the roofs of his houses to afford an escape in case of . This will be of vast utility in the painting of arise historical personages. the disease of which they died being clearly indicated by the accompanying bacillus. at the shortest taking all computation. open warfare. or other disease. small-pox. tribes. will in future be appended to every posthumous portrait. This childish representation can no longer be tolerated. which. It is mortifying to human vanity to reflect that for some sixty centuries. it When these are more generally understood tion in art. in absolute ignorance of the bacillus fiend in his midst. 213 each of which represents some form or other of disease or death.THE BACILLUS. later as to the as no questions can centuries cause of their death.

and. in whatever passes as his sleeve. has not even had the satisfaction slayer. has long since discovered to him the existence of innumerable creatures. who slays the whale for its oil. Of knowing who was his TYPHOID BACILLUS (Natura The microscope eye . in illustration fact. like a soldier brought down by a long range bullet. He has muzzled the dog in order to escape the fabulously re- mote hydrophobia. laughing." Proud man. has been slain by his invisible foe. "Out of sight. been a new and terrible of the saying. and the elephant for its ivory. invisible to the naked he has learnt that the water he drank teemed with ani- . THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. And yet time the bacillus has been carrying on his work unsuspected. and he strict has laid down regulations to diminish the chances of his being He has blown up by explosives. and has invented the safety lamp as a protection for those who work risk of in mines. fenced himself in by sanitary regulations to preserve himself against the CHOLERA BACILLUS (Natural evil effect of foul smells.214 fire. and has flattered himself that by these and many other precautions he has done what he could to ensure for himself all this prolonged life. as he yearly sweeps away his It has. out of mind. SMALL-POX BACILLUS (Natural tens of millions of victims. the bacillus.

that countless numbers of them were borne with the floating dust in the air. others a and disgust . and man stands aghast alike at the terribly destructive and deadly nature of and attacks. its bacillus. or inhaling them in the atmosphere. of extremely thin and . needs no great powers of prevision to perceive that the discovery of the bacillus must lead to an enormous revolution in our methods of life. of their minute skeletons that a layer of composed solely them reposed on the depth of ocean . We may expect that just as our ancestors clad themselves in to armour so in protect future the we themselves against human weapons. Some of these discoveries caused certain sense of uneasiness him wonder and admiration. and now we are beginning to form some idea of the number and deadly nature of our foe. in the first place. changed by the discovery of the his foe. mated atoms. to composed. that 215 many of the rocks were . he ceased to trouble himself about them. and went on his way The case has been wholly regardless of their existence. flexible glass. we shall assuredly embark upon a prolonged and desperate warfare with him. perhaps. Inventors will. shall wear some sort of covering. but when he dis- covered that neither he nor his ancestors had suffered any material inconvenience from imbibing these countless hosts in their drinks. who It are bent upon taking his life. traveller own impotency to guard himself against His feelings resemble those of the solitary who finds that the forest through which he is at his passing is swarming with desperate and determined enemies. devote all their energies to discovering a means of defence against his attacks. It is not man's nature to submit passively to that tyranny and oppression.THE BACILLUS.

216 THOSE OTHER ANIMALS. present the bacillus shows himself to be almost invulnerable but. like Achilles. is It is upon this line combat with him out. and infusions of his own unable to support a diet consisting of A boiled decoction of his relations. but it can now be seen that the Ancients and the Orientals bacillus. the children were accordingly confined in towers prisons to and prevent the fulfilment of these prophecies. The passages to our lungs will doubtless be defended by a respiratory apparatus that will filter him out of the air While thus we endeavour in every way to as it passes in. at any rate for a time. we know. all While known. death. we shall take the offensive against him when he succeeds in eluding these Unfortunately. prevent the bacillus coming in contact with our skin . likely. or we may paint ourselves on emerging from our baths with some compound which may be discovered to be lethal to him. These have hitherto been entirely misunderstood or not understood at all. so far as is . defend ourselves against his attacks. be fought This discovery has thrown a lurid light upon many ancient and Eastern legends. to be destroyed by his children and Arab stories abound with instances where princes and rulers having been warned that their offspring would be the cause of their . alike had some kind of prevision of the was pre-figured in the legends and that this creature . Hitherto. he has a weak spot at present in his heel. and effecting an entrance. originating in human fancy . at precautions. he has none of the hardihood of the is cannibal. such tales have appeared mere fables. to defy drugs and poisons with which he can be attacked while dwelling in the human frame. is fatal children or cousins that our to to him. able. Saturn was.

fairies. In legendary tales man. It is with invisible powers that this battle has to we are happily able to do. in were it needed. but. though op- posed by the invisible powers of the air. early stage of the conflict impossible. valiant. at this bacillus. Printed by Hazel]. for belief that man will in the end come out fearless. & Viney. 217 is This another proof. be waged. . London and Aylesbury.. the good Chemistry and we may venture swarming confidently to hope for a final victory over the legions of the bacillus. of Saturn and of the Arabian rulers. and from this we may gather much aid. Watson. as comfort. there is good ground conqueror. of the vast store of knowledge possessed It is former times by the Orientals. to between man and the form any very definite opinion as to the side with which victory will finally rest . Ld. always proved himself the victor. and determined. and summoning to our all the hidden powers of Electricity.THE BACILLUS. judging from the past.

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' and nd please Saturday Review. cloth. ESSAYS IN LITTLE" is one of the most entertaining and bracing of books. his manner always bright and engaging. THE PRESS. 'The Gilded Pill. A New Series of Monthly Volumes designed to supply the Public with Entertaining Literature by the Best Writers. . I. " Mr. BOUVERIE STREET. with Portrait. OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. By ANDREW LANG." to The Last Fashionable Novel on one page attacking grimly the modern ttle (in. 6.. the author of 'I'd be a Butterfly and things of that sort. Lang is in his most rollicking vein when treating of the once popular Haynes Bayly. 55 delightful. Tale of a Family Tree. . SAWN OFF: A By G. each. and in tempering wit with morality.NN. .. Its irst issue is a volume by Andrew Lang." every class of reader. Globe. No one nowadays has a style at once so light and! so well bred." Daily Graphic. his broad literary sympathies. and in this volume he is seen to advantage. Lang is in satiric ecstasies he revels in its unconscious inanity. FF.. entitjed ESSAYS IN LITTLE. the judgment the new 'Whitefriars Library" should compass the very laudable designs of its projectors.a 'Letter to a Young Journalist'). " Mr. Svo. generally speaking. . With Bayly's twaddling verse Mr. VOL. and his sound critical instinct to great Times. 6d. Fenn has succeeded well in enlivening morality with wit. on newspaper tendency to tittle-tattl another devising a bright parody in prose or verse. from 'Homer and the Study of Greek. E.-ESSAYS IN LITTLE. and frequently advantage." Mr.'' Athenceum. Lang's light and dexterous touch. entertaining and unsensational fiction. VOL. and exhibits Mr. . Lang is here at his best alike in his most serious and his lightest moods." Daily News. And at all Booksellers' and the Railway Stalls. Fenn is an excellent story-teller. and with equal success. Mr. "If it is well to judge by firstfruits (and. "The volume is delightful." Review of Reviews." Mr. Andrew Lang's fairly be said to be aflush with the finest promise. MANVILLE OPINIONS OF " Mr. ' ' ' ' . " An amusing volume. burlesques it repeatedly with infinite gusto.G." Daily Chronicle. II. Full charming and recreative essays are is right). Fenn is a favourite writer with the public.' Both 'Sawn Off" and the other story. . 2S.' are good examples of light. LONDON HENRY & : CO. The first monthly volume of the new series may Mr. " 'The Whitefriars Library' has begun well. It is always pleasant. We find him turning without effort.&{r* MjnMnars Crown !f ifrrarg of (Uti anb fjumour. and His tone is always urbane. "Another volume of the excellently designed 'Whitefriars Library.

E. VOL. 6. and here Mr. A New Series of VOL." Scotsman. .-THREE WEEKS AT MOPETOWN." Saturday Review.-A BOOK OP BURLESQUE : Sketches of Stage Travestie and Parody. and this volume will be enjoyed quite as much as anything she has ever written.' There's fun at your asking. By WILLIAM DAVENPORT ADAMS. afford scope for some very pretty descriptive writing. " We find the book genuinely amusing. III. written in a bright and happy spirit. " A clever skit upon life at a hydropathic establishment. Adams deserves distinct credit for his exhaustive compilation on the subject of English burlesque. OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. By PERCY FITZGERALD.G. wherever you look. " One needs scarcely to be reminded that the author of Molly Bawn is a writer of distinct Hibernian wit and verve. "The portrait of the place. ' not a dull page. and the sketches of the various characters who inhabit a fashionable hydropathic establishment are drawn with lifelike fidelity." By the Author of " Molly Bawn. [Ready. the And at all Booksellers' and Railway Stalls." Daily Graphic. [Ready. " Mrs. "A Leader." Publishers' Circular. Some of the character-studies are perfect miniatures. " An enjoyable and amusing volume. and the people who go there are very amusing to read about. V. . IV. our principal native bur- "A volume And most welcome on table or desk. volume which contains a good thing on almost every page. Is Davenport Adams' Book of Burlesque. but if further proof were required it would be found in A Little Irish Girl. OPINIONS OF THE PRESS." Referee. Hungerford never fails to be prettily piquant. which is certain to be widely read . LONDON : HENRY & CO. in this writer's popular vein the book is amusing. . and the different types of character that are met. " In all senses the writing is uncommonly clever. Adams discourses wisely and well on lesque. There is occasional exaggeration.. . ' ' ' VOL.. " Mopetown is a charming place." Punch. you'll declare." Publishers' Circular." Gentlewoman. "A LITTLE IRISH GIRL. " In all respects a delightful story. in the book. all "Mr." Globe." Pictorial World. Fitzgerald shows to lull advantage.Cjxe MIjtMriars fibrarji ai Wiit anfo Humour. the book sparkles with irresistible specimens of wit and humour. BOUVERIE STREET. and full of amusement and instruction." Scottish " Mr. "-Public Opinion. " This eminently readable volume is a useful and acceptable contribution to the history of the English Drama.' " Daily Chronicle." OPINIONS OF THE PRESS. but never the least unkmdness the book is healthy and thoroughly refreshing. Monthly Volumes designed to supply the Public with Entertaining Literature by the Best Writers." Academy.

fresh." : STAR and witty. 35." REFEREE: SCOTSMAN new comic writer. surprises." reader must be very dyspeptic who cannot laugh consumedly at his funny conceits. FREEMAN'S JOURNAL: "Very clever and amusing. THE BOOK OF THE*HOLIDAY SEASON." " : book of genuine is fresh and original. which is saying a very great deal indeed in its NORTHERN DAILY NEWS: "The : : : favour. brimful of genuine humour and fun. CLUB. 348 pp." SUNDAY TIMES: "Read. ZANGWILL. GEORGE HUTCHINSON. He is full of clever epigram. Zangwill has an original way of being funny. 6. Agreeable satire. MAN Brimful of funny ideas. ." interesting.." ARIEL: "The cleverest book ever written" (Author's own review)." EVENING NEWS: "Not one in a score of the amusing books which come from the press is nearly so amusing as this. We own to having laughed heartily. FIFTH EDITION. With ILLUSTRATIONS by ST. delightful piece of humour.' capitally told by a fresh young writer. Full of amusing things." Store of GLOBE " A clever and interesting book. laugh over. and a happy JAMES'S GAZETTE audacity of whimsical invention.GREAT SUCCESS." SPORTING TIMES " No end of fun." " It's JUDY Zangwillian. the book will furnish a stock of 'good things' upon every conceivable subject of conversation. E. The style NEWCASTLE DAILY CHRONICLE: "Really clever and amusing. His book is a splendid tonic for gloomy spirits." OF THE WORLD: "Witty to excess. THE BACHELORS' By I." PICTORIAL WORLD : " One of the smartest books of the season. There is a touch of the devilry of Heine in Mr. : " Mr. comically expressed. Hood or Douglas Jerrold might have written the book. " Some exceedingly clever fooling. : : and appreciated the cleverness and the cynicism." DAILY GRAPHIC "A genuine humourist. paradoxical and e pi grammatical. LONDON HENRY & : CO.C." GRANTA A humour. 6d. NOW READY. Zangwill's wit. highly humorous and instructive. Crown 8vo. BOUVERIE STREET. and profit by the history of 'The Bachelors' Club. To gentlemen who dine out. Not a dull line in the book." PELICAN " He who holds in his hands the passport to such a region of fun may snap his hands for a little at fate." " : Any one who has listened to what the wild waves say as they beat the shores of Bohemia will read the book with enjoyment and appreciate its "A careless merriment. BRIEF EXTRACTS FROM FIRST PRESS NOTICES." YORKSHIRE HERALD: "A quaint.

that often becomes dazzling in its effect. but Mr. It must be read to ' : : A FUN " On Fame's drum it will beat rub-a-dub-dub." WEEKLY DISPATCH "The history of the Club is told with charming fluency. BOUVERIE STREET. ZANGWILL. 33. Crown 8vo. Zangwill has raised expectations that will not be easily satisfied. Zangwill to rank as a genuine humourist. FIFTH EDITION. ALLY SLOPER: : BRIEF EXTRACTS FROM LATER PRESS NOTICES. "We have few genuine humourists. Mr." LITERARY OPINION " Far above the average mechanical stuff that does duty for humour. The ordinary civilised mortal is not likely to enjoy it.G. Zangwill is certainly one of them.' and 'The Fall of Israfel best. but all are amusing." SPEAKER " It is impossible to read this book without being delighted with it. and all coruscate with puns.. 348 pp." " book almost impossible to review in such a way as to give the reader an adequate idea of its genius." His quips are quaint." DAILY CHRONICLE humourist DETROIT FREE PRESS be appreciated." funny book by the very funny editor of Ariel. but quite devoid ol bitterness. AT ALL LIBRARIES. whimsical variety. Mr. THE BOOK OF THE HOLIDAY SEASON. AND THE RAILWAY STALLS. Zangwill never misses the oppor: : : ' : : tunity of saying a clever thing." " The author has a delightful vein of humour. LITERARY WORLD: "Entitles Mr." MORNING POST: "The author has a manner of touching upon the foibles of the day. THE BACHELORS' CLUB. BOOKSELLERS'." SPORTING TIMES " No end of fun. It is full of good things. but Mr." " The author : is one entirely born to the motley. Zangwill has it in : LADY abundance." GLASGOW HERALD " Would-be wit." LLOYDS: "Ingenuity of incident is combined with a wealth of reflective wisdom. full of playful malice." SATURDAY REVIEW: "We like the stories of 'Hamlet up to Date. The skits are rather sombre in their eccentricity. and dramatic power this delightful and clever book . With ILLUSTRATIONS by GEORGE HUTCHINSON.NOW READY." PUBLISHERS' CIRCULAR " We have laughed with genuine enjoyment. E." ARTIST " The tales are quite as good as the shorter things of Charles Dickens. The book is full of good things." : " With all his fun he is not a funny man. 6d. . LONDON: HENRY & CO. By I." SUNDAY SUN : "A : . which is : OBSERVER one of the best gifts of the humourist." " Much that is REVIEWS REVIEW OF genuinely novel and amusing.' he is a literary in all the seriousness of claiming a place in literature. The best book of the month. his satire delightfully exhilarating." HEARTH AND HOME: "Humour is a rare gift. 6.

it is believed. and 8vo. Social. E." etc. the boys and girls to whom it may be presented. STORIES OF HISTORICAL SCENES AND EVENTS. The boys and from her Young who have drunk in delight girls and we hope they are many " Echo. BOUVERIE STREET. A By Tale of the Araucanian Indians and the Mythical Trauco People. aspects of . DAVENPORT ADAMS.' " The story is romantic and interesting enough todelight boys and girls alike. forand murders. and scenes. Full particulars are given of plots and conspiracies. A An BOOK ABOUT LONDON. are brought forward in a new dress. "A storjr of pure adventure. with illustrative anecdotes and full explanations gathered from a vast number of authentic sources. easily accessible now. H." Globe. ' ' ' LONDON : HENRY & AND AT ALL CO. III. 6s. 35. with all the light of recent research thrown upon them. and Literary. " Another pleasant book for the young from Lady Florence Dixie. ANIWEE Or.By W.G. executions and hair-breadth escapes and many favourite old not stories. and the adventures with the Trauco people are as novel as they are thrilling. Crown PART PART PART I. STORIES OF CRIME AND MISADVENTURE. This work is the result of very extensive labour. As a story simply this work appeals to. . its its Men and Women. By LADY FLORENCE DIXIE.. NEW WORK FOR THE YOUNG. Its Memorable Places." Daily Graphic. Traditional. Squares. Castaways will find their reward in this new story of Aniwee. The Streets of London : Alphabetical Index to the principal Streets. In this volume an attempt has been made to present in a series of striking episodical narratives the principal events in London history. and will be heartily accepted by. with their Associations Historical. It contains more than a thousand succinct references to remarkable persons. a completer view than has before been attempted of the diverse associations which lend so profound an interest to the Streets of London. The Warrior Queen. History. A COMPANION VOLUME. full of incident. and offers. STORIES OF FAMOUS LOCALITIES AND BUILDINGS. and Thoroughfares. and related with much smoothness and animation. A BOOK ABOUT LONDON. Crown 8vo. and some of the more striking geries London life. LIBRARIES AND BOOKSELLERS'.. II. 6d. incidents. 6. the Author of " The Young Castaways. . Parks. BY THE SAME AUTHOR. with Frontispiece. In large crown 8vo 55.

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'61(B8994s4)444 .UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY Los Angeles This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. JAN 3 o 1975 Form L9-50w-4.

000870304 3 A PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE THIS r BOOK CARD^ \ University Research Library .

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