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Alilio, Jan Paulo C. BSCE2-4 1. Voltmeter - is an instrument used to measure voltage.

For instance, a voltmeter can be used to see if there is more electricity left in a battery. The creation of voltmeters became possible when Hans Oersted invented the most simple voltmeter in 1819.  Parts:  Positive input terminal (usually red)  Negative input terminal (usually black)  Display, where you'll see the results of the measurement. If your meter is analog you'll have to read the results from a scale. If it's digital, the results will show up as a reading on an LCD or LED screen How to use:

Before using a voltmeter you'll have to determine whether the current you're measuring is a direct current (that flows in one direction) or an alternating current (that flows back and forth). Make sure you're using a voltmeter that's compatible with the type of current you're measuring, or that your voltmeter is set to the appropriate setting. Turn the dial to select the range of voltage you're measuring. You're now ready to use your voltmeter: 1. Attach the positive input terminal lead to the positive end of the circuit (or whatever you want to measure the voltage of). 2. Attach the negative input terminal lead to the negative end of the circuit (or whatever you want to measure the voltage of). The voltmeter will turn itself on and measure the difference between the voltage at the first point and the voltage at the second point, telling you how much voltage is traveling between the two points.

2. Ammeter - is a measuring instrument used to measure the electric current in a circuit.  Parts:

is an electrical instrument that measures electrical resistance. 3. you'll want to "scale down" rather than "scale up".  Step 3 Turn the ammeter on and set the selector to detect direct current (DC) amperage.  Step 2 Observe the inputs for an ammeter.  Step 5 Select progressively lower current ranges until you get a measurable result. . This will avoid damaging the ammeter by subjecting it to a level of current that it's not prepared to measure. If the ammeter has a selector for the range of current to display. Touch the probe from the ammeter's negative terminal (COM) to the positive terminal of the light bulb. However. The output is commonly marked "COM" for common ground. A simple ammeter may only be able to detect amperage but a multimeter can detect various electrical quantities and will need to be "told" which quantity to measure. the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the positive terminal of the light bulb with the other lead. Similarly. Ohmmeter . How to use:  Step 1 Examine the structure of a simple circuit. If your ammeter has this option. a commercial multimeter should have a specific input for measuring current (typically marked "A" for amperage. select the highest available setting. the opposition to an electric current. The negative terminal of the battery is connected to the negative terminal of the light bulb with a lead.  Step 4 Disconnect the positive lead from the light bulb and touch the probe from the ammeter's input (A) to the positive lead from the battery. The simplest possible circuit may be shown with a battery and light bulb. A very basic ammeter might have one input and one output.

"  Select an ohmmeter suitable for your project. and usually range from 0-10 to 010. circuit. testing a powered circuit can "cause damage to the meter. Zero resistance should be observed when your probes are connected directly to each other. These may also be colored red (+) and black (-). As the instructions for our Blue Point volt/ohmmeter state. digital devices may have similar ranges or "autorange". and more resistance is to the left. and *you*. Notice that the scale reads in the reverse direction of most conventional measuring scales. and you can adjust this by holding them together and turning the "adjust" dial until the needle on the scales is at zero ohms.  Check the ohmmeter to see if it has a battery.000 ohms. less resistance is to the right. . as well as your own safety. For multifunctional meters. If you just bought an ohmmeter. You must have a completely dead wire or circuit in order to ensure accuracy in measurement.  Plug your test leads into the sockets on your meter. Your ohmmeter will supply the voltage and current for your circuit so NO other power is necessary. or packaged separately with instructions for installing it.  Zero your meter if it is equipped with a zeroing dial. or negative plug. Analog ohmmeters are very basic and inexpensive. Parts:  How to use:  Disconnect completely and/or turn off all power to the circuit you are testing. and a "positive" plug. you will see a "common". the battery may have come pre-installed in your unit. that is. reading the resistance of your device or circuit and selecting the correct range automatically.

 Zero Adjustment or the Zero Ohms collector knob. you may not read continuity even when the complete circuit is intact. If you are reading the ohms on a resistor in a printed circuit board. Because many circuits contain "gate" devices (transistors or semiconductors). If you read "infinite ohms". this suggests a burned out component somewhere in the circuit. If you bought a 1000 ohm resistor.also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm meter).  Turn the ohmmeter off when not in use. Because the principle of the Multitester is “The higher the measurement of the voltage.  Isolate components in a hard wired electrical circuit to test them individually.000 ohms. is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. you can place a probe on each conductor on the resistor. the other to the other end. Occasionally the test leads will become shorted while the device is stored. however. and note the reading on the instrument. which makes it difficult to test complete circuits with only an ohmmeter. you will have to unsolder or unpin the resistor to assure you are not getting a false reading through another path in the circuit. and capacitors.this use to calibrate the tester whenever you wanted to measure the resistance. Use you flat screw driver to set this knob to calibrate the 0 voltage of your tester.  Touch one probe to one end of a circuit. there is no path for the electrical current to follow. Multi-tester . then read the meter to see if indeed it reads 1.  Parts:  The Dial or the Infinity knob.this is the zero collector whenever you calibrate the beginning as 0 voltage both the AC and DC measurement. To get an idea of the accuracy of your readings.000 ohm range. Choose the circuit or electrical device you want to test. buy a few different resistors from an electronics supplier.  Read the resistance of a run of wire or a branch of a circuit to see if there is a short or open break in the circuit. 4. the lower the resistance”. For practice. diodes. draining the battery. To assured that . The name alone as Infinity knob because 0 voltage region of the tester is the infinity region of the resistance. or a broken conductor. and in simple terms. from a piece of aluminum foil to a pencil mark on a sheet of paper. you can use almost anything which conducts electricity. and select the 1000 or 10. or some other device with a known resistance value.

And the voltage both AC and DC from 0-250. If the niddle didn't took to the zero ohms just rolled the knob clockwise until the niddle position in the zero ohms.     the tester calibrated to zero Ohms just follow this procedure. you are looking for the resistance the path holds to the flow of electricity. Resistance or ohms. Range selector knob. or increase the length of the pipe. electric motors and other components will show some resistance. and the sittings is the resistance. Be sure to sit this if ever you wanted to measure the voltage. then you measure the voltage. less power will flow. the black is the negative (-) and the red is the positive (-).  How to use:  When you check resitance. 10 and it depends of the range and settings you sited. Written here the voltages AC and DC. Meter scales. smaller wire. this will cause blown of your VOM and may possibly cause damage of your VOM.  Remember that a "0" Ohms reading means the same thing as a direct short. or path with no resistance. If ever you wanted to measure a voltage. The pointer or niddle. Range and settings. When you increase the resistance with different materials. and the Amperage). commonly the resistance or ohms scale have a measurement from 0-2k ohms depend of the range and settings.there are two test probes of the VOM. When you downsize the pipe.this part of the tester located center down of the body of the VOM is use to select the range and settings of the VOM the (AC and DC.this is the bases of the measurement where the graduation bar drawn in the body. or longer length. example DC just know the polarity or the positive and negative.position in the whole corner of the range selector know. Then connect the test probe red to the positive line of the circuit and the black probe to the negative or the ground (GND) of the circuit or of the dry cells. The same rule applies to electricity.use to point or read the measurement using the meter scale base of the range and settings you prepared during the test of a device or line of a voltage. Think of it as a pipe. If you forgot to sit this part. Test probes. So if you wanted to measure be sure to know what you wanted to measure so that you can sit your settings. example Voltage AC 220 Volts. Take the two metal tip of the test probe of the VOM connected Then look at the meter scale of the tester. and the amperage ranges. You will see that light bulbs. while a solid . notice the niddle the pointer if it takes to the zero ohms situated right of the meter scale. Resistance. less water can flow.50.

Set your meter to the range that you think the resistance will fall into. I usually start with the highest scale. Place the leads on the two points you are testing. and check the reading. that means there is a contact and path for electricity to flow. If the batteries are below a certain level. being careful that the leads do not touch each other. If there is "0" ohms. .    length of wire checked end to end will show no resistance unless it is very long in length. you are measuring the "Resistance to electrical flow" Note the reading on the scale. Try the highest scale first. the manufacturer may provide specs for Ohms. If you are testing components. it may cause readings to be inaccurate. More expensive models will usually notify you when the batteries are low. Start with a good meter with good batteries. Remember. but most meters today are very friendly and have only 3 or 4 ranges.