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1b) m2 Af jet cross-section after flashing (2.1b) m2 Ah cross-sectional area hole (2.22) m2 Aj jet cross-section after evaporation droplets (2.167) m2 Ap cross-sectional area pipe (2.31) m2 Ar area ratio (2.49) AL normal liquid surface in the vessel (2.58) m2 AR area ratio defined by (2.134b) b radius (2.6) m bdisp cloud radius (2.177) m be exit radius (table 2.4) m bf jet or cloud radius after flashing (2.6) m bj jet or cloud radius after evaporation droplets (2.176) m c molar or volume fraction (2.159) c' atmospheric concentration (2.214) kg/m3 cdisp c after expansion to ambient windspeed (2.179) cj c after evaporation droplets (2.155) cw molar fraction of water (2.159) cwv molar fraction of water vapour (2.159) C arbitrary constant (2.32) C* arbitrary constant (2.33) (N/m2)·m3? CAA combined Arrhenius and Arnolds constant (2.67) kmol1/6·K1/2/m1/2 CAr volume ratio parameter in TPDIS (2.103) CD1 constant Diers model (2.59) CD2 constant in Diers model (2.62a) CBi polynomial constants in Morrow s model (2.129a) CBr density ratio parameter in TPDIS (2.104) CCi polynomial constants in Morrow s model (2.118a) Cb blow-down correction factor (2.48) Cc contraction coefficient (2.27) Cd discharge coefficient (2.22) Cds constant related to droplet size (2.143b) Cf friction coefficient (2.27) CLp artificial constant in Tam s model (2.137a) m Cp specific heat at constant pressure (2.26) J/(kg·K) Cp,L specific heat liquid phase at constant pressure (2.77) J/(kg·K) CTam correction factor for initial mass flow rate (2.137b) (-) Cv specific heat at constant volume (2.18) J/(kg·K) Ca constant of decay in Tam s model (2.131) 1/s Ce constant (2.3) CCa subconstant in Tam s model (2.134) 1/K CFv auxiliary variable (2.68a) m Cfmf constant (2.2) 2.6 Cs constant Walden s rule (2.66) m dd droplet diameter (2.143a) m dh hole diameter (2.208) m dp (inner) pipe diameter (2.31) m dv vessel diameter (2.68b) m d0 droplet diameter at ground level (2.151) m dM maximum rain-out droplet (2.148) m dR radius ratio defined by (2.134a) D diffusion coefficient (2.144b) m2/s

161) J/kg LN(x) natural logarithm of argument x 10LOG(x) common logarithm of argument x ?li distance along the pipe from rupture to interface (2.3 height difference in third regime (2.0 pipe inlet height (2.118) F2 function of pressure (2.148) m H specific enthalpy (2.105) m hL.0 idem at initial storage temperature (2.144c) Pv° saturated vapour pressure (2.47d) pf final pressure ratio (2.6.9a) Nt number of time-steps (2.4) J/kg He specific enthalpy at exit conditions (2.1) m CPR 14E Chapter 2 of the Yellow Book 2.5) J/kg ?hL height difference during the flow (2.202) m i time-step counter kB droplet evaporation coefficient (2.w heat of vaporisation of water (2.3.2 pipe height at end of second flow regime (2.31) m lv length cylinder (par.96) m hL.7 Lv heat of vaporisation (2.127) N/m2 F3 function of pressure (2.47b) pcr critical flow pressure ratio (2.1b) N/m2 Pc critical pressure of the chemical (2.96) m ?hLp head loss defined by (2.70) m hL.47c) P (absolute) pressure (2.1d) N/m2 P0 initial pressure (2. 2. 2.214) (kg/m3)n·s fD Darcy friction factor defined by (2.Dc toxic load (2.1a) J/kg Hf specific enthalpy after flashing (2.128a) N/m2 fFv1 flow dependent parameter in Diers model (2.94) kg/(m2·s) hf fluid height (2.201a) fF Fanning friction factor (2.95) N/m2 .12) p pressure ratio (2.1b) N/m2 Ph (hydraulic) liquid pressure (2.6.126) m n number of moles (2.46) N/m2 PaL external pressure above liquid (2.146) m2/s Ki resistance coefficient defined by (2.195) N/m2 Pi upstream pressure at interface (2.116) J/kg H0 specific enthalpy at initial conditions (2.204) F1 function of pressure(2.3.65) fFv2 flow dependent parameter in Diers model (2.8) N/m2 Pa ambient (atmospheric) pressure (2.11) Pr Prandtl number (2.116) J/kg HV specific enthalpy of vapour (2.129a) F4 function of pressure (2.66) J/kg Lv.68A) m/s2 G mass flux (2.140) J/kg HL.156) J/kg HL specific enthalpy of liquid (2.93) m hh height leak in vessel (par.65) g gravitational acceleration (2.1a) J/kg Hj specific enthalpy after evaporation droplets (2.1) m hL liquid height (2.11a) N/m2 Pe exit pressure in the pipe (2.209) lp pipe length (2.96) m hL.105) m hs source height (2.e pipe outlet height (2.195) N/m2 PR reduced pressure (2.

8 T absolute temperature (2.178) K Te exit temperature (2.98) RH relative humidity (2.9a) J/(mol·K) Re Reynolds number (2.3.155) K Tm melting point (2.35) kg QV vapour mass (2.0 initial mass outflow (discharge) rate (2.35) kg/s qS.113) K Tj temperature after evaporation droplets (2.2) K .3) K dTsc.81) kg R gas constant (2.42) s ?tE duration release remaining liquid (2.3.0 initial vapour mass (2.150) s tv duration vapour blown-out (2.208) m SL specific entropy of liquid phase (2.71) kg Q0 initial total mass content (2.130b) s 2.35) s tE maximum time validity model (2.11) T3p triple point temperature (par.111) J/(kg·K) SV specific entropy of vapour phase (2.1d) K T0 initial temperature (2.3) K TB normal boiling point (2.121) kg/s qS.11b) K Td droplet temperature (2.113) K Tsh shatter temperature limit (2.111) J/(kg·K) t time from the start of the outflow (2.2.e exit flow rate (2.157) sp circumference of a pipe (2. 2.82) kg/s Q (total) mass content (2.14) kg/s qS.Fm=1 initial mass flow rate vapour only (2. 2.29a) N/m2 qS mass flow (discharge rate) (2.4.39c) K TR reduced temperature (2.83) kg QH heat transferred into a system (2.72) kg QV.146) K Tdisp temperature after expansion to ambient (2.81) s tB time constant in the Wilson model (2.18a) J/mol QL liquid mass (2.118c) N/m2 ?P pressure drop (2.8) K Tc critical temperature of a chemical (2.P* corrected pressure (2.0 initial sub-cooling (par.12) s t0 time when droplet reaches the ground (2.4.

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