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CHAPTER SEVEN

Consumer Learning

Learning Objectives
1. To Understand the Process and Four Elements of Consumer Learning. 2. To Study Behavioral Learning and Understand Its Applications to Consumption Behavior. 3. To Study Information Processing and Cognitive Learning and Understand Their Strategic Applications to Consumer Behavior.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Seven Slide 2

Learning Objectives (continued)
4. To Study Consumer Involvement and Passive Learning and Understand Their Strategic Affects on Consumer Behavior. 5. To Understand How Consumer Learning and Its Results Are Measured.

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Chapter Seven Slide 3

In Terms of Consumer Learning, Are These New Products Likely to Succeed?

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Seven Slide

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Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 5 .These Ads Might Induce Learning Due to the Familiar Names Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 6 .Learning ‡ The process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 7 .Elements of Learning Theories Motivation Cues Response Reinforcement ͻ Unfilled needs lead to motivation ͻ Stimuli that direct motives ͻ Consumer reaction to a drive or cue ͻ Increases the likelihood that a response will occur in the future as a result of a cue Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Two Major Learning Theories Behavioral Learning ͻ Based on observable behaviors (responses) that occur as the result of exposure to stimuli Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Cognitive Learning ͻ Learning based on mental information processing ͻ Often in response to problem solving Chapter Seven Slide 8 . Inc.

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 9 .Behavioral Learning ‡ Classical Conditioning ‡ Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 10 . Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.Classical Conditioning ͻ A behavioral learning theory according to which a stimulus is paired with another stimulus that elicits a known response that serves to produce the same response when used alone. Inc.

Inc.Models of Classical Conditioning Figure 7-2a Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 11 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 12 .Figure 7-2b Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Inc.Discussion Questions ‡ For Coca-Cola or another beverage company: ± How have they used classical conditioning in their marketing? ± Identify the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli. Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. the conditioned and unconditioned response. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 13 .

Inc.Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts ‡ Repetition ‡ Stimulus generalization ‡ Stimulus discrimination ‡ Increases the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus ‡ Slows the pace of forgetting ‡ Advertising wearout is a problem Chapter Seven Slide 14 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall .

Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 15 .Why Did Gillette Use Two Different Ads to Advertise the Same Product? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

Repetition of the Message with Varied Ads Results in More Information Processing by the Consumer Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 16 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 17 .Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts ‡ Repetition ‡ Stimulus generalization ‡ Stimulus discrimination ‡ Having the same response to slightly different stimuli ‡ Helps ͞me-too͟ products to succeed ‡ Useful in: ± product extensions ± family branding ± licensing Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 18 . Inc.Discussion Questions Stimulus Generalization ‡ How does a pharmacy like CVS or Rite Aid use stimulus generalization for their private brands? ‡ Do you think it is effective? ‡ Should this be allowable? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

Which Concept of Behavioral Learning Applies to the Introduction of These Two Products? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 19 . Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 20 .Stimulus Generalization Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 21 .What Is the Name of the Marketing Application Featured Here and Which Concept of Behavioral Learning Is It Based On? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 22 . Inc.Product Category Extension Stimulus Generalization Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

Publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc.Strategic Applications of Classical Conditioning Basic Concepts ‡ Repetition ‡ Stimulus generalization ‡ Stimulus discrimination ‡ Selection of a specific stimulus from similar stimuli ‡ Opposite of stimulus generalization ‡ This discrimination is the basis of positioning which looks for unique ways to fill needs Chapter Seven Slide 23 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

What Are the Names of the Marketing Application and the Behavioral Learning Concept Featured Here? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 24 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 25 . Inc.Stimulus Discrimination Product Differentiation Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 26 .Instrumental (Operant) Conditioning ‡ A behavioral theory of learning based on a trial-and-error process. Inc. with habits forced as the result of positive experiences (reinforcement) resulting from certain responses or behaviors.

A Model of Instrumental Conditioning Figure 7. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 27 .9 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

Inc.Reinforcement of Behavior Positive ͻ Positive outcome ͻ Strengthen likelihood Negative ͻ Negative outcome ͻ Encourages behavior Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 28 .

Reinforcement of Behavior Extinction ͻ A learned response is no longer reinforced ͻ The link is eliminated between stimulus and reward Forgetting ͻ The reinforcement is forgotten Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 29 . Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 30 .Strategic Applications of Instrumental Conditioning ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Customer Satisfaction (Reinforcement) Reinforcement Schedules Shaping Massed versus Distributed Learning Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Observational Learning (modeling or vicarious learning) ‡ A process by which individuals learn behavior by observing the behavior of others and the consequences of such behavior Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 31 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 32 .Information Processing and Cognitive Learning ‡ Cognitive Learning ± Learning involves complex mental processing of information ± Emphasizes the role of motivation Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 33 .Figure 7.Information Processing and Memory Stores .10 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

Discussion Questions ‡ How do advertisers drive consumers to rehearse information? ‡ When does this work against the advertiser? ‡ Can you think of examples of advertisements which drive you to rehearse? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 34 .

1 Generic Framework Promotional Model Tricompetent Model DecisionMaking Model Innovation Adoption Model Innovation Decision Process Knowledge Evaluation Behavior Attention Interest Desire Action Cognitive Affective Conative Awareness Knowledge Awareness Knowledge Interest Evaluation Evaluation Persuasion Purchase Trial Decision Postpurchase Adoption Confirmation Evaluation Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.Table 7.Theoretical Models of Cognitive Learning . Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 35 .

Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 36 . Inc.Involvement and Passive Learning Topics ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Definitions and Measures of Involvement Marketing Applications of Involvement Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion Hemispheral Lateralization and Passive Learning Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.

and have limited information processing Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. have little perceived risk. ͻ High involvement purchases are very important to the consumer ͻ Low-involvement hold little relevance. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 37 .Involvement ͻ Degree of personal relevance that the product or purchase holds for that customer. Inc.

I thought about how the military might be useful for me The slogan did not show me anything that would make me join the military I have a more favorable view of the military after seeing the slogan The slogan showed me the military has certain advantages The slogan was meaningful to me The slogan was worth remembering Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 38 .Measuring Involvement with an Advertisement .3 Subjects respond to the following statements on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from ͞Strongly Agree͟ to ͞Strongly Disagree.͟ The message in the slogan was important to me The slogan didn͛t have anything to do with my needs The slogan made me think about joining the military The slogan made me want to join the military While reading the slogan.Table 7. Inc.

Inc.Marketing Applications of Involvement ‡ Ads in video games ‡ Avatars ‡ Sensory appeals in ads to get more attention ‡ Forging bonds and relationships with consumers Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 39 .

visual cues. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 40 . and holistic perception Copyright 2010 Pearson Education.Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion Central route to persuasion ͻ For high involvement purchases ͻ Requires cognitive processing Peripheral route to persuasion ͻ Low involvement ͻ Consumer less motivated to think ͻ Learning through repetition.

Inc.Hemispheral Lateralization and Passive Learning ‡ Hemispheral lateralization ± Also called split-brain theory ‡ Left Brain ± Rational ± Active ± Realistic ‡ Right Brain ± ± ± ± Emotional Metaphoric Impulsive Intuitive Chapter Seven Slide 41 Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall .

What Is the Name of the Learning Theory Concept Featured in This Ad and How Is It Applied to Air Travel? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 42 . Inc.

Inc.Hemispheric Lateralization Both Sides of the Brain are Involved in Decision Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 43 .

How Is Passive Learning Applied to the Promotional Appeal Featured in This Ad? Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 44 .

Inc.The Ad is Targeted to the Right Brain Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 45 .

Measures of Consumer Learning Brand Loyalty ‡ Recognition and Recall Measures ‡ Brand Loyalty Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 46 .

Inc.Measures of Consumer Learning Brand Loyalty Three groups of factors ͻ Personal degree of risk aversion or variety seeking ͻ The brand͛s reputation and availability of substitutes ͻ Social group influences Four types of loyalty ͻ ͻ ͻ ͻ No loyalty Covetous loyalty Inertia loyalty Premium loyalty Brand Equity ʹ the value inherent in a well-known brand name Copyright 2010 Pearson Education. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter Seven Slide 47 .

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