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ELECTROLYTES SODIUM - Sodium is the most abundant cation (pronounced cat-ion) in the blood and its chief

base. It functions in the body to maintain osmotic pressure, acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses. Very Low value: seizure and neurologic symptoms.
Sodium, serum: 135-145 mEq/L Sodium, urine: 135-145 mEq/L

POTASSIUM - Potassium is the major intracellular cation. Very low value: Cardiac arrhythmia. Potassium, serum: 3.5 - 5.0 mEq/L Potassium, urine: varies with diet

CHLORIDE - Elevated levels are related to acidosis as well as too much water crossing the cell membrane. Decreased levels with decreased serum albumin may indicate water deficiency crossing the cell membrane (edema). Chloride, CSF: 118-132 mEq/L (CSF = CerebroSpinal Fluid) Chloride, serum: 98-108 mEq/L Chloride, sweat: 0-35 mmol/L Chloride, urine: varies with diet

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) - The CO2 level is related to the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide in the lungs and is part of the bodies buffering system. Generally when used with the other electrolytes, it is a good indicator of acidosis and alkalinity. Normal Adult Range: 22-32 mEq/L Optimal Adult Reading: 27 Normal Childrens Range - 20 - 28 mEq/L Optimal Childrens Reading: 24

CALCIUM - involved in bone metabolism, protein absorption, fat transfer muscular contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting and cardiac function. Regulated by parathyroid. Calcium, ionized: 4.4 - 5.1 mg/dL Calcium, serum: 8.4 - 10.2 mEq/dl Calcium, urine: 100 - 300 mg/24 h

PHOSPHORUS - Generally inverse with Calcium. Phosphorus, serum: 3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL SODIUM/POTASSIUM Normal Adult Range: 26 - 38 (calculated) Optimal Adult Reading: 32

ANION GAP (Sodium + Potassium - CO2 + Chloride) - An increased measurement is associated with metabolic acidosis due to the overproduction of acids (a state of alkalinity is in effect). Decreased levels may indicate metabolic alkalosis due to the overproduction of alkaloids (a state of acidosis is in effect). Normal Adult Range: 7 - 16 mEq/L

CALCIUM/PHOSPHORUS Ratio Normal Adult Range: 2.3 - 3.3 (calculated) Optimal Adult Reading: 2.8 Normal Children’s range: 1.3 - 3.3 (calculated) Optimal Children’s Reading: 2.3

infections with sepsis. hypothyroidism and pregnancy. hypothyroidism. Low values can occur from premature destruction states such as Immune Thrombocytopenia (ITP). entrapment of platelets in an enlarged spleen. The hematocrit is the percentage of the blood volume occupied by red blood cells.drstandley. myocardial infarction.drstandley. ineffective production in the bone marrow. liver insufficiency. High Hgb can occur due to lung malnutrition. High triglycerides associated with pancreatitis.110 mg/dL. diabetes is diagnosed with a *fasting* plasma glucose of 126 or more. and nephrotic syndrome.LDL Cholesterol is considered "bad cholesterol" because High density lipoproteins (HDL) is desired as opposed to the cholesterol deposits form in the arteries when LDL levels are low density lipoproteins (LDL). optimal. toxemia. liver disease. cigarette smoking or excess production by the bone marrow. or excessive bone marrow production of blood cells.drstandley. especially if the triglycerides are over 500 mg.160 mg/dL http://www. Normal Adult Range: 35 . has been associated with heart disease. High values can occur with bleeding.shtml Triglyceride is fat in the blood when elevated.shtml their doctor to get their LDL Cholesterol well below BLOOD (LIPID LAB VALUES) FATS high. Low Hgb or Hct suggest an anemia. Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG) is defined as reading of fasting glucose levels of 110 . established coronary or vascular disease may be instructed by malignancies. living at high altitude. high values suggest either deficiencies of B12 or Folate. An LDL level of less than 130 is ount. or bone marrow failure from diseases such as myelofibrosis or leukemia. and malabsorption.shtml . A precursor.shtml White Blood Count (WBC) is the number of white cells: High WBC can be a sign of infection. tml The normal range for a fasting glucose is 70 . pancreatitis. Increased levels may be present in artherosclerosis. or recent blood loss with replacement by newer (and larger) cells from the bone marrow.This helps diagnose a cause of an anemia. metabolic ount. brain infarction.shtml Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) . hyperthyroidism. Normal Adult Range: < 130 mg/dL CHOLESTEROL/LDL RATIO Normal Adult Range: 1 – 6 http://www. two types of cholesterol. acute blood loss. http://www. Low levels are should be followed up by your physician. http://www. Decreased levels may be present in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.shtml Platelet Count (PLT): This is the number of cells that plug up holes in your blood vessels and prevent bleeding. Normal Adult Range: < 200 mg/dL Normal Adult Range: > 30 mg/dL http://www. anemia and infection.shtml Hemoglobin (Hgb) and Hematocrit (Hct): The hemoglobin is the amount of oxygen carrying protein contained within the red blood 100 is Elevated cholesterol has been seen in artherosclerosis. malnutrition. http://www.drstandley.drstandley. Low values suggest iron deficiency. Low white CBC counts can be a sign of bone marrow diseases or an enlarged spleen. values greater than 160 are considered high risk and diabetes. drug effects (such as heparin). Those who have seen in depression. According the the 1999 ADA criteria. Low WBC is also found in HIV infection in some cases.

The technician may indicate whether it is hemolyzed (dissolved blood) or non-hemolyzed (intact red blood cells). but it can vary greatly depending on when you drank fluids URINALYSIS last. Creatine Kinase is muscle enzyme found in the heart Creatine Kinase-MB 0 . Rarely.shtml Leukocyte esterase: Normally negative. Up to 10% of children can have protein in their urine. more than 0-2 white blood cells. casts . This looks for white blood cells by reacting with an enzyme in the white cells. the LDH is said to be flipped. Glucose: Normally there is no glucose in urine. which is highly suggestive of an MI. SGOT will begin to rise in 8-12 hours and peak in 18-30 hours. the LDH-1 value will be less than the LDH-2. The blood SGOT levels are elevated with liver damage (hepatitis) or with an insult to the heart (heart attack). http://www. while LDH 1 rises. In the acute MI.90 U/L http://www. Also alled aspartate aminotransferase (AST). CARDIAC LAB after an acute MI.drstandley. this usually indicates a urinary tract infection. LDH-1: 18 . the elevation can last 10 days. LDH 45 . White blood cells in the urine suggests a urinary tract infection. SGOT is released into blood when the liver or heart is Increased CK-MB is seen with heart muscle damage. kidney stones. http://www.shtml Creatine Kinase aka Creatine Phosphokinase (CK) .com/labresults_urinalysis. Nitrate: Normally negative.Specific Gravity (SG): Most urine is around 1. muscle injury can cause myoglobin to appear in the urine which also causes the reagent pad to falsely indicate blood. Creatine Kinase (male) 25 . It is used as a late marker to detect a heart attack.drstandley. pernicious and megaloblastic anemias.Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase is an enzyme that is normally present in liver and heart cells. or if you are dehydrated.It is a injury.Total LDH will begin to rise 2 to 5 days after an MI. blood in the urine. http://www. Strenuous exercise. Increased SGOT or AST is seen with liver disease. also called SGPT).drstandley. White blood cells in the urine suggests a urinary tract infection. When the LDH 1 is higher than LDH 2. LDH is an enzyme released in the blood with cell injury. the LDH 2 remains constant. high doses of aspirin and other medications lowering May increase when using cholesterol-lowering medications. progressive muscular dystrophy and pulmonary emboli.70 U/L (LDH) Lactate dehydrogenase .drstandley. A positive glucose occurs in diabetes.shtml Blood: Normally there is no blood in the urine. SGOT aka AST 7 – 40 U/L . or bleeding from a bladder or kidney tumor. surgical liver enzyme and may increase when using cholesterolprocedures. Leukocytes are the white blood cells (or pus cells). Bilirubin: Normally there is no bilirubin or urobilinogen in the urine. renal tubular cells or bacteria.shtml Creatine Kinase (female) 10 . Leukocytes are the white blood cells (or pus cells).Levels CK-MB CK isoenzyme .40 percent SGOT . malignancy. trauma.It begins to increase 6 to 10 hours VALUES rise 4 to 8 hours after an acute MI (Myocardial Infarction).010. days. can elevate CK. Sediment: Abnormal findings would include more than 0-2 red blood cells. It is also elevated with liver and kidney disease. Blood can indicate an infection. myocardial infarction (MI) and some medications.90 U/L Normally.shtml Protein: Normally there is no protein detectable on a urinalysis strip. crystals. or an infection. Protein can indicate kidney damage. and remains peaking at 16 to 30 hours and returning to baseline within 4 elevated for up to 72 U/L and muscles. Increased CK-MM is seen with skeletal muscle Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT.33 percent LDH-2: 28 . http://www. It also may increase when using cholesterolALT 5 – 50 U/L lowering medications. weight lifting.drstandley. A flipped pattern appears 12-24 hours post MI and persists for 48 however. SGOT is a liver enzyme that is released into the bloodstream following injury or death of cells. peaks in 24 hours. Leukocyte esterase: Normally negative.

multiple myeloma.primary.shtml RBC . Normal Adult Female Range: 12.100 fl Optimal Adult Reading: 90 Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration) Hemoglobin concentration (hemoglobin amount relative to the size of the cell) per red blood cell.20 g/dL and sensitive diagnosis of myocardial infarction in the emergency department This small heme protein becomes abnormal within 1 to 2 hours of necrosis. polycythemia or sickle cell anemia. hyperviscosity. serum (male): 30 – 90 µg/ml Myoglobin. hypofibrinogenemia (decreased fibrinogen levels).(Red Blood Cell Count aka Erythrocyte count) RBC count (female) 3. low plasma protein (due to liver or kidney disease). kidney disease. Elevated myoglobin may indicate muscle injury or µg/mL Tropinin T: < 0.0. Troponin T is valuable for detecting heart muscle damage and risk. newborns and infants http://www.0 .5 mill/mm3 RBC count (male) 4.Hemoglobin amount per red blood cell is the MCH. An increased SED rate (ESR) may be due to anemia. and drops to normal in about 12 . rheumatic fever.61 percent http://www.shtml HEMOGLOBIN (HGB) .Myoglobin .0 . HEMATOLOGY thyroid disease.drstandley.Peaks in 10-24 hours. macroglobulinemia .com/labvalues_cardiac.0 g/dL Normal Adult Male Range: 13. Lower than normals levels may be due to CHF.36 Hb/cell Optimal Adult Reading: 34 Hb/cell Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants http://www. Troponin T is a protein found in the blood and is related to contraction of the heart muscle. Normal Adult Range: 31 . peaks in 4-8 mL/kg Lower ranges are found in Children. pregnancy.shtml MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin) .0 . begins to fall off after 1-2 weeks.9 mill/mm3 RBC volume (female) 19 . hyperfibrinogenemia (increased fibrinogen levels in the blood). It picks up oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to the peripheral tissues to maintain the viability of cells.5 .46 percent Normal Adult Male Range 41 . (BLOOD) VALUES Normal Adult Female Range: 36 .17.3 . necrotizing vasculitis or polymyalgia rheumatica. A very high SED rate (ESR) may occur with giant cell arteritis. syphilis.drstandley.4 .5.31 mL/kg RBC volume (male) 20 . serum (female): 30 – 90 µg/ml http://www.shtml ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate -This test can be used to monitor inflammatory or cancerous diseases.10 µg/mL http://www. Tropinin I: < 0. TB or other inflammatory conditions.6 pg/cell Optimal Adult Reading: 30 MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume) . Normal Adult Range: 25.Hemoglobin is a protein that is carried by red rheumatoid arthritis.The hematocrit refers to the 'percentage' of one's red blood cells. Myoglobin is a protein found in certain types of muscle.shtml Troponin Complex .0.Average red blood cell size is MCV.drstandley.34.20 mm/hr HEMATOCRIT (HCT). osteomyelitis.shtml .53 percent Normal Newborn Range: 49 .5.5 g/dL Normal Newborn Range: 14 . ESR (male): 0 . systemic lupus erythematosus.15 mm/hr ESR (female): 0 .drstandley. Myoglobin.drstandley. Normal Adult Range: 80 .

com/labvalues_hematology. hypothalamic malfunction and low levels of magnesium. alcoholism. cardiac and damage. T Cells. kidney infection. or infectious mononucleosis. Decreased ALT in combination with increased and muscles.3 percent http://www.(White Blood Cell Count aka Leukocyte count). Neutrophils.WBC .0. carcinomas. heparin and serotonin.33 percent EOSINOPHILS and EOSINOPHIL COUNT . Normal Adult Range: 30 . B Cells.75 percent AST (Aspartate transaminase) also called SGOT (Serum ALT (Alanine Transaminase) also called SGPT (Serum Glutamic Oxalocetic Transaminase) or ASAT (Aspartate Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase) or or ALAT (Alanine Aminotransferase) .shtml LYMPHOCYTES and LYMPHOCYTE COUNT .(Elevated levels may indicate an active viral infections such as pancreas (liver cells). and in some cases excessive magnesium ingestion.12.000 .) Normal Adult Range: 25 . ALP levels in plasma will rise when large bile duct obstruction is present or there is intrahepatic cholestasis or infiltrative diseases of the liver. rubella. liver damage.(Basophilic activity is not fully understood but it is known to carry histamine.) Normal Adult Range: 0 .000 . Includes Basophils. Normal Adult Range: 0 . chickenpox.shtml MONOCYTES and MONOCYTE COUNT . protein deficiency. When a cell is damaged it leaks this differentiating between the causes of liver damage. malnutrition and a number of vitamin deficiencies. Band Cells. but is also present in red blood cells.56 IU/L Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme in the cells lining the biliary ducts of the liver. Normal Adult Range: 5 . Eosinophils.120 IU/L GGT (Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase) Elevated levels may be found in liver disease. or skeletal growth with elevated readings.shtml . We heart and liver.(This is the main defender of the body against infection and antigens. hepatitis or paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose. ALT HEPATIC (LIVER) ENZYME VALUES Elevated AST levels are not 'specific' for liver damage rises dramatically in acute liver damage. cholangitis.) Normal Adult Range: 3 . The lab values are raised in acute liver also see increased levels in mononucleosis.shtml PLATELET COUNT . alcoholism. chemical pollutants or skeletal muscle.drstandley.drstandley. newborns and infants NEUTROPHILS and NEUTROPHIL COUNT . leukemia 'monocytic' or lymphomas. pregnancy. High levels are found in allergic reactions.AST is an enzyme associated with liver Aminotransferase) is an enzyme present in hepatocytes cells found primarily in the liver.) Normal Adult Range: 1 . Monocytes Normal Adult Range: ALP is also present in bone and placental tissue.) Normal Adult Range: 54 .drstandley.(Elevated levels are seen in tissue breakdown or chronic infections.7 percent BASOPHILS and BASOPHIL COUNT . The ratio of AST to ALT can be useful in myocardial infarction. drug abuse.40 IU/L Normal Adult Range: 7 .drstandley. It is used extensively as a tumor marker and is also present in bone injury. High levels may indicate an active infection.000/mm3 Higher ranges are found in children. enzyme into the blood where it can then be especially the cholesterol levels is seen in cases of a congested liver. newborns and infants. Low levels are sometimes found in hypoadrenia. It is seen in tissue damage. http://www.aka Thrombocyte Count Normal Adult Range: 150.62 percent http://www.(Elevated levels may indicate an allergic reactions or parasites. such as viral because it can also be used as a cardiac marker.000/mm3 Higher ranges are found in children. Decreased levels can be found in hypothyroidism. heart. kidney. bile duct obstruction.42 IU/L http://www.400.

tuberculosis amongst many others. poor dietary habits. Elevated levels of LDH may indicate liver damage. malabsorption. IgG. diarrhea.1. and some drugs involved in impairment of kidney function. alcoholism.2 mg/dL Uric Acid. diarrhea. malabsorption and liver or kidney disease.128 mL/min URIC ACID .12 percent of total protein BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) . metals. fever. Decreased levels of the enzyme may be seen in cases of malnutrition. Bilirubin is taken up into hepatocytes. lipids. Creatinine. liver disease.3 .6 . kidney damage.2 . Normal Adult Range: 6.1. .2. or multiple myeloma. Globulin. Normal Adult Range: 45 . Decreased levels may be due to a poor diet. Lower levels in immune compromised patients. and with toxemia in pregnancy. rheumatoid arthritis. malabsorption. poor diet. inadequate iron intake. Increased levels are seen in lupus. liver disease.shtml RENAL LAB VALUES CREATININE . malabsorption.Globulins have many diverse functions such alcoholism.drstandley. conjugated (modified to make it water-soluble).6 .1.drstandley. Low levels may be indicative of kidney disease. third-degree burns and edemas or hypocalcemia Albumin. myelomas.4 g/24 h Creatinine. Lower levels are seen in poor diets.8 . dehydration. serum 3. Increases are usually found in cellular death and/or leakage from the cell or in some cases it can be useful in confirming myocardial or pulmonary infarction (only in relation to other tests). and possibly a diet low in nitrogen bearing foods. urine: 10 .0.shtml ALBUMIN . mononucleosis. muscle degeneration. infections.97 .3. IgM. CSF: 3 . decreased levels are seen in people with an inefficient liver.LDH (Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase) is an enzyme found in many body tissues. chronic infections.5 g/dl http://www. certain drugs. liver disease. and toxic effects to some drugs. kidney disease. Elevated levels are seen with chronic infections. which is then excreted into the intestine. shock. liver disease or pregnancy. low fluid intake.Low levels are sometimes seen in kidney damage. High levels are seen in liver disease(rarely) .varies with diet http://www. Urine (male) . adrenal exhaustion or low tissue or organ activity. Bilirubin is a breakdown product of heme and heme is a part of hemoglobin in red blood cells.Increases can be caused by excessive protein intake. Normal Adult Range: 7 . Elevated levels are sometimes seen in kidney disease due to the kidneys job of excreting creatinine.2 mg/dL PROTEIN.shtml PROTEIN LAB VALUES GLOBULIN . urine .0 -8. and IgE). including the liver. hypoglycemia.5 g/dL Gamma globulin.8 g/24 h Creatinine clearance (male) .100 mg/24 h http://www. hemolytic anemia. leukemia.drstandley. exercise or heart failure. TOTAL .2 mg/dl Creatinine.5 . and secreted into the bile. liver disease. protein starvation. intestinal bleeding. low levels of exposure to the sun.High levels are noted in gout. and lupus are present. Urine (female) . serum: 3.major constituent of serum protein (usually over 50%).0 . serum: 2. and antibodies(IgA. Normal Adult Range infection. the carrier of some hormones. Uric Acid.5.137 mL/min Creatinine clearance (female) . or severe burns.18 mg/d http://www. high protein diets.90 U/L TOTAL BILIRUBIN (TBIL) Elevated in liver disease. excessive fat digestion.5 g/dL Albumin.88 . liver damage or an overly acid kidney.shtml .com/labvalues_proteins. liver damage or low nitrogen intake. serum levels may be due to poor nutrition.

and chronic thyroiditis.220 ng/dL THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH) .8 – 1. It functions in the body to maintain osmotic pressure. It functions in the body to maintain osmotic pressure. Is secreted by the pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones. acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses.26 mcg/dL http://www. It functions in the body to maintain osmotic .Sodium is the most abundant cation (pronounced cat-ion) in the blood and its chief base. When T4 and T3 are too high. causes the release and distribution of stored thyroid hormones.T3 TOTAL Normal Adult Range: 75 . serum: 135-145 mEq/L Sodium. A change in the level of TSH in the blood may signify a malfunctioning of the thyroid gland.Sodium is the most abundant cation (pronounced cat-ion) in the blood and its chief base. severe liver acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses. TSH secretion decreases. Very Low value: seizure and neurologic symptoms.drstandley.produced by the anterior pituitary gland. Very Low value: seizure and neurologic symptoms. serum: 135-145 mEq/L Sodium. hypothyroidism.drstandley. serum: 135-145 mEq/L Sodium.0 miliIU/L http://www. Sodium.sht ml http://www. cirrhosis. acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses.shtml SODIUM .com/labvalues_thyroid. urine: 135-145 mEq/L http://www.drstandley.drstandley. Very Low value: seizure and neurologic symptoms.Increased levels are found in hyperthyroidism. when T4 and T3 are low. and hepatitis. acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses.A TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormoone) Test is performed to assess the activity of the thyroid gland.Sodium is the most abundant cation (pronounced cat-ion) in the blood and its chief base.drstandley. It involves measuring the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood serum. malnutrition. and hyperestrogenis status. TSH secretion increases.11 mcg/dL Thyroxine-Binding Globulation (T3-UPTAKE) . urine: 135-145 mEq/L http://www. Normal Adult Range: 10 .sht ml THYROID LAB VALUES FREE T4 INDEX (T7) Normal Adult Range: 0.drstandley.8 ng/dL TRIIODOTHYRONINE . Low levels can be found in SODIUM .shtml SODIUM . metastatic malignancy. Sodium. Normal Adult Range: 0. serum: 135-145 mEq/L Sodium. Very Low value: seizure and neurologic Decreased levels are found in hypothyroidism. Sodium.Increased levels are found in hyperthyroidism.Sodium is the most abundant cation (pronounced cat-ion) in the blood and its chief base.sht ml SODIUM .drstandley. Sodium. THYROXINE (T4) .com/labvalues_thyroid. Normal Adult Range: 4 . urine: 135-145 mEq/L http://www. acute thyroiditis. normal pregnancy. urine: 135-145 mEq/L http://www.5-5. It functions in the body to maintain osmotic pressure. and pulmonary insufficiency.