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Definition of Terms: 1. Blowdown - is the removal from boiler of water containing concentrated dissolved and suspended solids. 2.

pH - a scale that measures how acidic or basic (alkaline) a substance is. A pH of 7 is neutral, a pH less than 7 is acidic, and pH greater than 7 is basic. For boiler operation, boiler water should be kept alkaline to avoid damage of boiler pressure parts. 3. TDS - (Total Dissolved Solids) is a measure of the combined dissolved solid content like inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or microgranular (colloidal sol) suspended form; The two principal methods of measuring total dissolved solids are gravimetry and conductivity. 4. Sugar Test - A method for detecting the presence of sugars in the water of a steam generating system by using an indicator composition comprised of potassium permanganate and an acetate in an aqueous solution. After a period of time, depending upon the temperature of the sample tested, the color of the sample is observed to determine if sugars are present in the water termed sugar entrainment. The condition is called sugar entrainment, and the range measurements are “slight”, “medium “, or “heavy” entrainment as the case maybe. 5. OH Alkalinity - also known as caustic alkalinity is the result of hydroxyl ions in liquid like boiler water that relates or verify the pH measured. A ph of 10.5 to 11.5 is equivalent to about 200 – 400 ppm. This is necessary to avoid damage to the boiler from corrosion but too high will cause foaming or caustic attack called embrittlement. 6. Residual Sulfate - the amount of free sulfate particle or oxygen scavenger to help ensure reduction or kept at minimum corrosion of boiler water side due to the presence of oxygen in boiler water. 7. Residual Phosphate - the amount of free phosphate particles or anti-scalant in boiler water to help reduce to a minimum or eliminate formation or build up of scale in the boiler water side. The phosphate causes calcium and magnesium to precipitate when it can be removed by blowdown. The other antiscalant component is the polymer that attached to the impurities and prevent them from sticking to the boiler surfaces. 8. Silica or SiO2 - are limited of its presence in the boiler due to its potential to form hard scales that may deposit in the turbine blades or its property to associate with salts forming calcium and magnesium silicate which have low thermal conductivities. 9. Blowdown Valves - boiler appurtenancies that is fitted to a discharge pipe at the lowest point of boiler shell operated to reduce parameters (TDS, pH, silica, and phosphate concentration).