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The Maximum Processing Gain of the Spreading Signal in Multipath Fading Channels

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**The Maximum Processing Gain of The Spreading Signal in Multipath Fading Channels
**

Wanzhi Ma, Jun Wang, Ying Shen, Youxi Tang

National Key Lab of Science and Technology on Communications, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China Email: tangyx@uestc.edu.cn

Abstract—Considering the joint algorithm of coherent detection and non-coherent detection, we focus on the maximum processing gain of spreading signal, which is 2-dimensional spread spectrum signal, relative to binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and transmitted in rich scattering multipath fading channels. In this paper, we first investigate the processing gain of spreading signal and analyze its expression. Then, by increasing signal bandwidth or symbol period infinitely, we obtain that the processing gain is bounded, and the maximum processing gain is determined by the channel parameters and the energy-per-bit to noise density ratio (Eb/N0). By analysis and simulation, it is shown that the processing gain is not more than 30dB, when the spreading signal relative to BPSK, with Eb/N0 20dB, the maximum Doppler shift 100Hz, and the negative exponential factor 5E-6, is transmitted in rich scattering multipath fading channels. Keywords-Rich scattering; spreading signal; processing gain; signal bandwidth; symbol period

gain of spreading signal in a multipath fading channel. Our contribution in this paper can be described as follows. Considering the joint algorithm of coherent detection and non-coherent detection, we derive the expression of the processing gain with the signal bandwidth and the symbol period, and analyze the maximum of it. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In section II, the system model is introduced. In section III, the expression of processing gain is derived with the signal bandwidth and the symbol period. Afterward, in section IV, some numerical and simulation results are shown. Finally, section V concludes this paper.

**II. SYSTEM MODEL
**

The system for the 2-dimensional spread spectrum communication system is shown in Fig. 1 as in [5], where DS-SS means Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, DMC-SS means Discrete Multicarrier Spread Spectrum, DFT means Discrete Fourier Transform and IDFT means Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform. In Fig. 1, bP = +1 is the input pilot symbol, which is spread by a 2-dimensional spread spectrum matrix αp βp , and

I. INTRODUCTION

With the development of wireless communications technology, the spreading signal is widely used in the field of wireless communications. On one hand, spreading signal is the most common basic signal which helps finishing time and frequency synchronization of wireless communications, on the other hand, wireless communication systems with spreading signal have anti-interference and low probability of intercept properties. The processing gain of spreading signal is defined as the ratio between the input and the output signal to noise ratio (SNR) as in [1]. Furthermore, in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, the processing gain of spreading signal is proportional to the ratio between the signal bandwidth and the symbol rate as in [1] and [2]. By considering direct sequence spread spectrum system under the AWGN channel, given signal bandwidth and bit rate, the author analyzes the processing gain and the bit error probability (BER), of binary phase shift keyed (BPSK), quadrature phase shift keyed (QPSK), and 16 quadrature amplitude shift keyed (16QASK) spreading signal in [3], and concludes that the processing gain of 16QASK spreading signal is maximum while BER of QPSK spreading signal is minimum. Besides, by applying the parallel data transmission with n orthogonal spreading sequences other than the serial data transmission with one spreading sequence, the processing gain grows by n times as in [4]. However, there has been little research on the processing

978-0-7695-4357-4/11 $26.00 © 2011 IEEE DOI 10.1109/CMC.2011.77 362

bD = ±1 is the input data symbol, which is spread by 2-dimensional spread spectrum matrix αDβD , where β is the pseudorandom spreading sequence in DS-SS unit, and α is the pseudorandom spreading sequence in DMC-SS unit. The output signal X P and XD is represented respectively as XP = bPαP βP (1)

XD = bD αDβD

bP

X

P

(2)

X

s (t )

bD

X

D

ˆ b D

R

r (t )

Figure 1. System model. Where bP and bD denote the input pilot symˆD denotes the bol and the data symbol of transmitter respectively, and b output data symbol of receiver.

z ) is the Gaussian X mn is the mth row and nth column of X . α 2P α M ) T . Channel time-selectivity is described by coherence time Tc . Assuming αm ˆ .423 . which is affected by the maximum Doppler shift as in [9]. − 0. (6) and (7). 2 1 where Tchip M j2π mt ⎞ (3) s ( t ) = ∑ X mn exp ⎛ ⎜ T ⎟ ⎝ chip ⎠ m =1 is the length of one chip in time-domain. Block type pilot arrangement. Bc and Tc are obtained by (5). lim Bc = t m (9) (4) where τ i = i Bs is the delay of ith path. for it is commonly used in wireless channels as in [7] and [8]. the received signal r ( t ) pass through the DFT unit. b.9 − 1 = 0 (π ) (7) where pi = Pi ∑P j =0 Q −1 j . multipath components can be divided into many scattering clusters.in D … β = ( β . of the mth row and nth column of R P and R D . In one distinguishable path. hi denotes the fading channel coefficient of ith path. After X passing through the IDFT unit. As in Fig. the received signal is combined with many multipath components as in [7]. and expressed respectively as B=⎣ (12) ⎢ min(Bs. rows and N columns. and the interval between two adjacent clusters is the time resolution of receiver. having been processed by down-sampling and de-adding guard time. so the amplitude distribution of the signal can be approximated very closely by the Rayleigh distribution as in [8]. and nmn complex Gaussian noise. c. Based on block type pilot arrangement. the time resolution of receiver is infinitesimal. Given the channel parameters. In rich scattering multipath fading channels. being processed by adding guard time and up-sampling. Besides. so (6) can be simplified as Λ=∫ then ∞ 0 ∫ ∞ 0 1e 2 tm − ( t +τ ) tm cos [ 2π ( t − τ ) Bc ] dtdτ (8) Bs −>∞ 0. and n ( t ) is the additive white complex Gaussian noise at time t . “■” is a chip of pilot. The negative exponential * −τ i tm . α α ) . we extract the chips of pilot from R to generate R P . The number of coherence rows B and the number of coherence columns T of R are readily obtained. D 1 D 2 D N D D 1 D 2 D T M … P which βP = ( β1P . Bc)Tofdmη ⎦ ⎥ = 0. “□” is a chip of data. two nmn with different m or n are statistically independent.0496 . assuming the multipath components are continuous. an output matrix X with M rows and 2 N columns is produced. In this paper. In detail. f t Figure 2. When the maximum multipath delay is larger than time resolution of receiver. and extract the chips of data from R to generate R D . β β ) . in distribution can be expressed as P i = E ( hi hi ) = e which tm is the negative exponential factor.geometric function. The mth dot product of R D and αDβD is defined as S ˆ are expressed ˆ and S row and nth column of H respectively as ˆmn = hmn P P h + nmn (10) D D ˆmn = hmn bD + nmn s (11) D P where hmn . Λ ) − 4 − 1 0.9 . Assuming the time-domain correlation coefficient ξ = 0. Both R P and R D are M D D P P βn = ±1 . the output signal s ( t ) is fed into antenna. Bc is determined by (6) and (7) in [10] Tc ≈ Λ = ∑∑ pi p j cos [ 2π (τ i − τ j ) Bc ] i =0 j =0 Q −1 Q −1 9 (6) T =⎢ ⎥ ⎣ min(Ts.5. αm βn = ±1 . When Bs is infinite. and produce the 2-dimensional received matrix R with M rows and 2N columns in the time-frequency plane. The received signal over a rich scattering multipath fading channel can be expressed as r ( t ) = ∑ hs i (t −τi ) + n (t ) i =0 Q −1 hyper. which is affected by the channel holding time distribution in [9]. XP and XD are combined as in [6]. one column of pilot matrix XP is inserted between two columns of data matrix XD . β2P β N ) . and F ( −0. P αp = (α1P . nmn are the respective additive white coefficient. After adding pilot symbol.1. the channel holding time follows a negative exponential distribution. which is reciprocal of signal bandwidth Bs as in [7]. each of which is one distinguishable path. Based on block type pilot arrangement. and 2 1 F ( a. Tc) Tofdm ⎦ (13) 363 . hmn denote respectively the fading channel P D . “□” is a chip of data. 2.5. and α = (α . on the assumption that the receiver has acquired time and frequency synchronization. and the the dot product of R P and αpβp is defined as H ˆ . (5) 16π fd2 fd Channel frequency-selectivity is described by coherence bandwidth Bc . “■” is a chip of pilot. there are infinite multipath components.

(13). It is readily obtained that ∑∑ H m =1 n =1 N B NT 2 mn follows the chi- xy = H B P ( x +1) T P ( y +1) m = B P x +1 n =T P y +1 ∑ ∑ ˆ mn H (20) ˆ mn denotes the mth row and nth column of H ˆ . Ts ≤ Tc The processing gain of spreading signal is expressed as η 2Ts Bc Eb N0 (1 + Bc Bs ) G= Bs > Bc. In order to simplifying (27). Tofdm is the length of one chip in time-domain after adding guard time. There are 4 different cases when we simplify (27). the decision variable b ˆ= * xy b S xy. equation (27) shows the processing gain of spreading signal. Without loss of generality. and nxyk denotes the noise of the kth data element in the coherence area of the xth row and yth column. ∑∑ H x =1 y =1 N B NT (22) square distribution with 2N B NT degrees of freedom. Bs > Bc. where NB = ⎣ η B⎦ (18) ⎢ BT ⎥ s ofdm NT = ⎣ (19) ⎢Ts TTofdm ⎦ ⎥. Ts ≤ Tc. the detection value b ˆD After BPSK demodulation of b is obtained. for H mn is a zero-mean complex Gaussian random variable with unit variance. assumptions below are given. ˆmn denotes the mth row and nth column of S where S ˆ is represented as Then. Ts ≤ Tc The processing gain of spreading signal is expressed as η 2BsTs Eb N0 G= Bs ≤ Bc. (17) ˆ are ˆ and S From top to bottom and from left to right. Therefore. G=1 (27) BT Psi Pni + 1 4 By considering the joint algorithm of coherent detection and non-coherent detection. and P si P ni is the output signal to noise ratio. it is assumed that the fading channel coefficients are identical over one coherence area. where H The data estimation for each coherence area is expressed as xy = S B D ( x +1) T D ( y +1) m = B D x +1 n =T D y +1 ∑ ∑ ˆmn S (21) ˆ. ˆD of (22) can be rewrote as The detection value b 364 . III. nxyk denotes the noise of the kth pilot element in the coherence D area of the xth row and yth column. respectively. and ⎣ ⎢•⎦ ⎥ denotes the operation of rounding down to the closest integer. is ignored. Assumption 1 is the numerical effect. (15) D The number of coherence rows B and the number of ˆ are obtained respectively as coherence columns T D of S BD = B (16) T D = T 2. (28) 2 (η Eb N0 + 1) B.423 ( fdTs ) ) G= Bs ≤ Bc. Ts > Tc (31) 4 ( 0. A. relative to BPSK and transmitted in rich scattering multipath fading channels.where Bs is the signal bandwidth. of the operation of rounding down to the closest integer in (12).423η Eb ( N0 fdTs ) + 1) then ˆ . Ts ≤ Tc. Bs ≤ Bc. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS The processing gain of spreading signal is defined as the ratio between the input and output signal to noise ratio as in [1] P P G = so no (23) Psi Pni where P so P no is the input signal to noise ratio. min ( • ) denotes the operation of extracting the minor one. Ts ≤ Tc (29) 4 (η Bc Eb ( N0Bs ) + 1) then 0. η is the ratio of the symbol period minus the total guard time and symbol period. each of which is called one coherence area. The number of coherence rows B P and the number of ˆ are obtained respectively as coherence columns T P of H BP = B (14) T P = T 2. in which one bit is transmitted. Ts > Tc The processing gain of spreading signal is expressed as η 2BsTc Eb N0 (1 + 0. which is two-dimensional spread spectrum signal.0124η 2Ts Eb N0 (30) lim G = Bs > Bc. Bs →∞ tm C. the output signal power and noise power is respectively represented as Pso = 1 B4T 4 N B NT ( N B NT + 1) Psi2 (25) 16 2 Pno = 1 B3T 3N B NT Pni Psi + 1 B2T 2 N B NT Pni (26) . H divided into N B × NT sub-matrixes. but statistically independent when located in different coherence areas. (18) and (19). Assumption 2 is that Eb N0 = BsTs P si P ni is constant. Bs ≤ Bc. 4 4 Equation (23) can be simplified to B2T 2 (1 + N B NT ) Psi Pni . Ts is one symbol period. Then the channel estimation for each coherence area is expressed as 2 * D ˆ = 1 B2T 2bD Psi b H xy + 1 BT Psi ∑∑ H xy nxyk + ∑∑ ∑ 4 2 x =1 y =1 x =1 y =1 k =1 BT 2 BT 2 NB NT N B NT BT 2 ⎛ P * P * D ⎞ + 1 BTbD Psi ∑∑ H xy ∑ (nxyk + ∑∑⎜ ∑ (nxyk nxyk ) ) ∑ ⎟ 2 x =1 y =1 k =1 x=1 y =1 ⎝ k =1 k =1 ⎠ N B NT N B NT BT 2 (24) where H xy denotes the fading channel coefficient in the P coherence area of the xth row and yth column.

423η Bc Eb ( N0Bs fdTs ) +1) then Bs →∞ lim G lim G = 0.2dB Ts →∞ lim G = Bs →∞ 0. in the case where the signal bandwidth is smaller than the coherence bandwidth. What's more. the simulation results approximately agree with the analytical processing gain results. and the negative exponential factor 5E-6. (29). (36). does not increase infinitely as signal bandwidth or symbol period increases infinitely.NUMERICAL AND SIMULATION RESULTS TABLE I. in the case where the signal bandwidth is smaller than the coherence bandwidth. 4. the processing gain of spreading signal.423Bc ( Bs fdTs ) ) G= Bs > Bc. From (28). 20dB . the processing gain of spreading signal does not increase linearly. Bs > Bc. According to TABLE. while the symbol period has a minor influence. As shown in Fig. exists and is determined by Eb N0 and channel parameters. and the symbol period is smaller than the coherence time. as the signal bandwidth or the symbol period increases. There exists the maximum of the continuous function in a closed interval [11].005245η 2 Eb N0 Bs > Bc. Then. fd = 10Hz . and the guard time is 1/9 of the total symbol period. it can be observed that the processing gain increases with the decrease of fd . when the signal bandwidth is larger than the coherence bandwidth. when the symbol period is larger than the coherence time. the limit of the processing gain exists as the signal bandwidth or the symbol period increases. (29). we can observe that as signal bandwidth increases linearly. the processing gain increases linearly as the signal bandwidth or the symbol period increases. in the case where the signal bandwidth is larger than the coherence bandwidth. the processing gain of spreading signal does not increases linearly. and given Eb N0 and channel parameters. which is two-dimensional spread spectrum signal transmitted in rich scattering multipath fading channels. 6. (32) bandwidth or symbol period increases infinitely. the processing gain of spreading signal is not more than 30dB. for it is assumed that the fading channel coefficients are identical over one coherence area in analysis.2dB 39. Therefore the processing gain is a continuous function on Bs and Ts . From (35). and it increases similarly as lim G = fd increases. 365 . Ts > Tc (35) (36) 10dB 10dB 20dB 20dB 10Hz 100Hz 10Hz 100Hz 29. (36). I. and the symbol period is larger than the coherence time. the limit of the processing gain exists as the symbol period increases. (31). the maximum processing gain of spreading signal.005245η 2 Eb N0 fdtm 0. 3-6. THE LIMITS OF THE PROCESSING GAIN. and(34). In (28). when Bs ∈ [ 0 . In conclusion. In conclusion. ∞] . which is two-dimensional spread spectrum signal transmitted in rich scattering multipath fading channels. which is two-dimensional spread spectrum signal in rich scattering multipath fading channels. Ts > Tc. 3 and Fig. tm = 5 × 10−6 . From (30). and the symbol period is larger than the coherence time. From Fig. while the fading channel coefficients are only partial correlation in reality. but approximately yields the limits shown in (32). and (37). the limits of the processing gain of spreading signal are shown in TABLE. the processing gain increases as Eb N0 increases. Ts > Tc Bs > Bc. The gap between the simulation results and the analytical results is approximately 3dB. From Fig. Ts > Tc (33) 4 ( 0. 100Hz and Eb N0 = 10dB. moreover. it can be observed that the processing gain increases with the increase of Eb N0 . Ts > Tc The processing gain of spreading signal is expressed as η 2 BcTcEb N0 (1+ 0. we can observe that as symbol period increases linearly. but approximately yields the limits shown in (30). (37) fdtm From (28). From (32).2dB 29. with Eb N0 20dB. Since the coherence bandwidth has a major influence on the processing gain. Eb N 0 fd Ts →∞ Bs →∞ D. and the symbol period is smaller than the coherence time. 4 and Fig. explains that by considering the joint algorithm of coherent detection and non-coherent detection. 3 and Fig. IV. and (34). 5. and Ts ∈ [ 0 . Firstly. while the numbers of subcarriers and chips in time-domain are determined by signal bandwidth and symbol rate respectively.10575η 2Bs Eb N0 fd Bs ≤ Bc. the limit of the processing gain of spreading signal exists.Ts →∞ lim G = 0. the limit of the processing gain exists as the signal bandwidth or the symbol period increases. 6. the maximum Doppler shift 100Hz. in the case where the signal bandwidth is larger than the coherence bandwidth. when the spreading signal is relative to BPSK. the limit of the processing gain exists as the signal bandwidth increases. BPSK modulation is considered. Since the coherence time has a major influence on the processing gain. the sub-carrier length of two dimensional spread spectrum is 1KHz. (31). Ts > Tc. ∞] . I and Fig.10575η 2Bc Eb N0 fd Bs > Bc. Consequently. some basic simulation parameters are given as follows. the processing gain is constructed by one polynomial dividing another. (35). From Fig. by considering the joint algorithm of coherent detection and non-coherent detection. while the signal bandwidth has a minor influence. 3-6. 5 and Fig. as signal To validate the analytical results. From Fig.2dB 19. by considering the joint algorithm of coherent detection and non-coherent detection.

Sep 2002. 4th ed.” IEEE Broadcasting. A. Bahai.. 366 . Eb N 0 = 20dB . Song. and S. 48. Q. The processing gain performance versus the symbol period. Bs = 8KHz . NJ: Prentice Hall. Vancouver. China. Zhang. (No. IEEE ICCCAS. Wong. “Exact Expression for the Coherence Bandwidth of Rayleigh Fading Channels.60832007. NJ: Prentice Hall. REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] K. f d = 100Hz . Puri. R.60902027. tm = 5 ×10 . Jun. BC. vol.005625s . Canada. T. “High Processing Gain. 1296-1299. [5] Y. Aug 1977. S. CONCLUSION In this paper. “A Column-Orthogonal Two Dimensional Spread trum Technique. pp. 874-878. 2001. vol. and Important National Science & Technology Specific Projects. G. 2001. and A. f d = 100Hz . Upper Saddle River. Spread Spectrum Systems. DIXON. T. Spec2002. Mag. New York: McGraw-Hill. Mag. we derived the processing gain of spreading signal. Milstein. tm = 5 ×10 . “The Spread Spectrum Concept. National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. H.2009AA01Z236). Rate Proc. Leung. Ts = 0. 55. “A. L. B. which is two-dimensional spread spectrum signal relative to BPSK. pp. Ergen. ICC '89. 223-229. Li. Digital Communications. H. “Optimizing the Processing Gain for Coded DS Spread Spectrum. BPSK.005625s . No. BPSK. the processing gain of spreading signal does not increase infinitely.” in IEEE MTTTWA' 95. C. [4] [6] S. A. tm = 5 ×10 . pp. Jun 1989. Wideband Wireless Digital Communications. Figure 4. 25. Figure 3. Eb N 0 = 20dB . High Data Spread-spectrum Signaling for Wireless Communications. M. J. Rappaport. 689-691. Proakis. Mag. [7] [8] [9] [10] R. A. and the maximum processing gain exists. pp. V. 2001. −6 BPSK. New York. Coleri. Ts = 0. Channel estimation techniques based on pilot arrangement in OFDM systems. pp. The processing gain performance versus the symbol period. 748-755. vol. 45-50. Wiley 1984. Feb. −6 G(dB) f d =10Hz f d =100Hz f d =10Hz f d =100Hz f d =10Hz f d =100Hz f d =10Hz f d =100Hz Figure 6. Wireless Communication Principles and Practice..” in proc. The processing gain performance versus the signal bandwidth.” in proc. July 2007. Bs = 8KHz . 2nd ed. The processing gain performance versus the signal bandwidth. Chengdu. Scholtz.. America. It is shown that as signal bandwidth or symbol period increases infinitely. Molisch. −6 −6 BPSK. and transmitted in rich scattering multipath fading channels.V. Boston. 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 104 105 Eb Eb Eb Eb N 0 =10dB N 0 =20dB N 0 =10dB N 0 =20dB Analysis Analysis simulation simulation 107 Eb Eb Eb Eb N 0 =10dB N 0 =20dB N 0 =10dB N 0 =20dB Bs(Hz) 106 Figure 5. X.” IEEE Commun. F. tm = 5 ×10 . 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River.” IEEE Commun.60901018). pp. 1995. No. considering the joint algorithm of coherent detection and non-coherent detection. Tang. vol. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the National 863 High Technology Development Project (No.2.2009ZX03003008-01).

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