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Types of Interactivity Within online learning (and distance learning in general), frequently there is mention of interaction or interactivy.

For example, one may discuss the interactivity of an online course. Within the research literature, four types of interactivity have been defined. In 1 ! , "ichael #. "oore proposed three types of interactivity. 1$ 1. Learner-Content$ interaction between the learner and the content or subject of study. %. Learner-Instructor$ interaction between the learner and the expert who prepared the subject material, or some other expert acting as instructor . &. Learner-Learner$ interaction between one learner and other learners, alone or in group settings, with or without the real-time presence of an instructor. 'hen in 1 (, )aniel *illman introduced a fourth type %$

(. Learner-Technology or Learner-Interface$ interaction between the learner and the technologies used to deliver instruction . When interactivity is discussed on this +eb site, +e have attempted to specify one of these specific types and intend it to mean the definitions specified above. In many cases, +e have substituted student for learner and teacher for instructor.

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http://www.anitacrawley.net/Resources/Articles/Keller%2 !%2 principles.pdf
Designing Asynchronous e-learning http://www.alleninteractions.com/online/TDM090201.pd
Web 'ools and 'echniques

http://www.guidancecom.com/archi!es/ToolsandTechni"ues or#$earning%y&uidance'ommunications.pd
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"ichael -llen, a #uide 'o G<9earning c.m[ 0=nyv s1er182e a1 al3bbia0ban a motiv3ci/val 0apcsolatos m/ds1ertani megfontol3sai 0=1\l ad 0=1re n4h3nyat. -llen s1erint a tanul3s t4nyleges has1n3ra a pedag/giai folyamat =ss1es t4nye182e 0=1\l a motiv3ci/ van a legnagyobb hat3ssal. - motiv3ci/ fenntart3s3val 0apcsolatos pedag/gusi teend80et gya0ran Deller nyom3n a1 Mgyneve1ett -R;L<modellben s1o0t30 felsorolni. Az ARCS-modell G1 a bet[s1/ a figyelem, relevancia, magabi1toss3g 4s el4gedetts4g s1ava0 0e1d8bet[ib8l 3ll =ss1e, 4s r=viden a 0=vet0e1804pp 2elleme1het8. Gls8 l4p4sben meg 0ell ragadni a hallgat/s3g figyelmét. G1 a1 3llapot csa0 a00or tart/s.that/, ha a tanul/0 Mgy 4r1i0, ami elhang1i0, releváns. Gmiatt felt4tlen\l tis1t31ni 0ell a1t, hogyan 4rinti0 a1 elmondotta0 a tanul/0at, milyen el8nyei0 s13rma1na0 a1 adott anyag elsa23t.t3s3val, stb. - tanul/0 maga iztosa! 0ell, hogy legyene0 ahho1, hogy 2/l tel2es.tsene0. *a Mgy 4r1i0, hogy tMl1ottan nagy er8fes1.t4se0et 0ellene tenni\0, a00or nem tud230 ugyana00ora 0edvvel folytatni a tanul3st. Wn3ll/ mun0a eset4n egy<egy lec0e tel2es.t4s4he1 s1\0s4ges s1intid80et is 4rdemes megadni. Y4ge1et\l pedig elengedhetetlen, hogy a tanul/0 minden al0alommal elégedetten, si0er4lm4nnyel te0intsene0 viss1a a tanul3ssal t=lt=tt id8re. G1 leg0=nnyebben bi1tos.that/, ha 0=1vetlen\l has1nosna0 4s al0alma1hat/na0 t[ni0 s13mu0ra, amit a1nap megtanulta0. -1 -R;L<ban meg2elen8 gondol0od3sm/d s1erencs4sen 0it4r a tanul3si folyamat n4h3ny olyan t4nye1824re, amelye0et a1 ele0troni0us tanul3s terve14se0or oly0or s1em el8l s1o0ta0 t4ves1teni. Gl8nye, hogy a1 al0alma13s ter\let4n igye0s1i0 megragadni a pedag/giai 0utat3si eredm4nye0et, enne0 ellen4re 0=nnyen f4lre4rteht8, 4s tal3n nem a leg0on0r4tabb m/don t3240o1tat2a a1 o0tat3sterve180et arr/l, hogyan is 4rhetn4ne0 el min4l 2obb eredm4nye0et. Tová i elátáso!

-1 al3bbi 4s1rev4tele00el rem4lhet8leg tov3bb 0on0reti13lhat/ a1 a ho1133ll3s, amely a1 -R;L<ban is megtestes\l$ 1. Ep.teni 0ell a1 el8rel3that/ 0imenetelre. -1 o0tat3s si0ertelens4ge eset4n t=bb probl4ma fog ad/dhat, t=bb id8t 0ell s13nni ugyana1o0ra a feladato0ra, stb. %. Fo0o1ni 0ell a tanul/ bevon/d3s3t a folyamatba. Ggyb8l d=nt4shely1etbe 0ell ho1ni 80et, r3 0ell d=bbenteni 80et, hogy van ves1tenival/2u0. *a egyb8l gya0orlati hely1etben 0ell helyt3llniu0, nincs r3 id8, hogy elun230 magu0at a1 instru0ci/0 el81etes tanulm3nyo13sa sor3n < his1en egyb8l 0i 0ell 0eresni\0 a 0on0r4t v3las1t 4s megtal3lni a hely1et ide3lis megold3s3t.

&. "inden tanul/ s13m3ra megfelel8 tartalmat v3lass1un0, amely M2dons3got tartalma1 s13mu0ra. (. 9egyen tets1et8s a t3lal3s$ s1erepel2en humor, i1galom, hango0, 1ene, 4s min4l t=bb i1galmas grafi0ai megold3s a1 anyagban. K. I.11un0 a tanul/ra t=bbl4pcs8s feladato0at. G11el is 0=1el.t2\0 a val/s hely1ethe1 a1 o0tat3si s1itu3ci/t. *a valamit nagyon r=vid r4s1e0re bontun0, a00or megs1[ni0 =nmag3ban has1nos>pra0ti0us lenni. C. Ii1tos.tsun0 4rdemi viss1a2el14se0et. R4s1letesebb meger8s.t4sre van s1\0s4g, nem el4g pus1t3n a1t mondani valamire, hogy 2/ volt. O. Erdemes 04sleltetni a1 4rt40el4st, mert e11el r3vess1\0 a tanul/0at, hogy =n04ntelen\l magu0ban is M2ra4rt40el240 a tel2es.tm4ny\0et, mi0=1ben egyre 0.v3ncsibba0 arra, hogy a tan3r mit fog mondani. G1e0 a tan3cso0 minden bi1onnyal seg.tene0 abban, hogy a1 o0tat3st 4rint8 elm4leti megfigyel4se0 min4l 0=1vetlenebb\l 0er\l2ene0 al0alma13sra.

3A tan4ro5na5 meg 5ell tanulniu56 hogyan 5ell tan7tani8. .5inner s9erint a !isel5ed:s meg!4lto9tat4s4na5 hat:5ony m;ds9ere a po9it7! meger<s7t:s6 m7g a %=ntet:s%<l a9 em%ere5 csa5 a9t tanul>45 meg hogyan 5er=l>:5 el a %=ntet:st. A9t mond>a6 hogy a tanul4s ?t>4%an @ dolog 4llhat:

1. a bukástól való félelem 2. a feladat nincs több, apró részre bontva 3. az utasítás hián a !. az e" értelm# utasítások hián a $. pozitív me"er%sítés hián a

"eaching with "echnology is competency-#ased and can #e customi$ed to meet your needs.

%ndividually tailored to you "he self assessment helps you identify your specific learning needs.

Allows you to focus on specific competencies &ach unit of study stands on its own so you can focus on a specific area of interest or need. 'ou can start with what interests you most and progress through the learning at your own pace.

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Apply your learning immediately in your classroom (reated #y educators) for educators *mall learning topics mean in +ust 2 -, minutes you-ll learn something.

&asy access from almost anywhere (ourses are accessi#le) when and where you need it) without travel and availa#le on any computer with an internet connection.

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/ighly visual) interactive and engaging &asy to navigate FR&& for educators. (ourses are accessi#le) when and where you need it) without travel and availa#le on any computer with an internet connection.

)iscusson forum$

"he most successful practices %0ve used and encountered include: a1 each wee2) as2ing a do$en more provocative open-ended 3uestions which are personally meaningful to students and suggesting they respond to the ones that most interest them4 #1 encouraging the sharing of personal reactions to the readings) with e5planation in regard to how and why students were personally impacted4 c1 using and/or setting up forums 61 with a personal discussion or coffeehouse area for each lesson 21 with a forum or thread for 7processing our process7 and ma2ing suggestions) and another one for technical issues ,1 with a naviga#le setup with new posts on top which ena#les participants to easily identify and access unread and most recent posts) to edit posts) and to collapse past threads d1 motivating participation in forums #y: 61 helping participants learn to cope with 7silence7 8receiving no response to their posts1 rather than withdraw 21 encouraging participants to respond thoughtfully to at least one post for every post they initiate ,1 e5plaining and modeling how posts generate responses #y including 3uestions and re3uests for feed#ac2 91 if the forum or :;* allows) having a system #y which participants can flag posts which they find to #e especially valua#le 8and perhaps a list of the highest scoring participants also availa#le for all to see1 e1 in chats) to 2eep directing the conversation #ac2 to the main topic if it #egins too stray too far 8unless a divergence is particularly meaningful1 #ut also ma2ing sure that after the official chat ends) that students can continue for at least half an hour on their own) continuing the discussion or informally 7shmoo$ing7 f1 providing several options for essays and pro+ects - analytic) creative) research-oriented - so that students can choose assignments particularly meaningful to them and harmonious with their own particular orientation.

% li2e to ta2e a 7layering7 approach with teaching: 6. *tudents are assigned te5t#oo2 readings < power point lectures over the course of 6 wee2 2. Additional materials are included and titled 7if you want to 2now more7. *tudents who want more practical application of the su#+ect have the option to ta2e their learning a step further. ,. A hands-on la# that puts their learning into practice is assigned < due the following wee2. "his means students have had = days to read material < do la#s. >ery detailed comments are provided when points are deducted to help students improve on wor2. 9. &ach wee2 a discussion is due that is related in a controversial way to the wee2ly readings. ?iscussions typically involve listening to podcasts or watching videos. *tudents must respond to others postings. !. &ach wee2 % e-mail a 7wee2ly challenge7. %t0s not for a grade < participation is not mandatory. "hese challenges #uild upon each other so that at the end of 6@ wee2s) students have actually moved towards a healthier lifestyle. % encourage 3uestions < updates on each challenge. ;a2ing myself availa#le in this way increases student involvement and helps create the 7trust7 that was referred to in the Arinhaupt article. Finally) % constantly send relevant e-mails a#out health < fitness to students. % sent out a lin2 this wee2 for a free we#inar a#out cancer < diet. % had a student than2 me #ecause she was +ust diagnosed with thyroid cancer < signed up for the we#inar to learn more... those are the moments that give me satisfaction.

Aelow are some e5amples of the strategies used for each category. 6. Fostering student engagement: *tudents post responses on various 3uestions into a Forum) these are summarised and included in a wee2ly online 0mini-lecture0 Bee2ly online learning modules include hyperlin2s to relevant clips) readings and other resources A wee2ly summative assessment tas2 such as a 3ui$) relating to the topic for students to selfassess in a non-threatening way 8not compulsory and answers are also provided in a separate folder1 2. *timulating intellectual development: Bee2ly learning modules include learning activities) for e5ample) locating professional competency standards wee2ly modules include refelction points which are then used in wee2ly online chat sessions ,. Auilding rapport with students: As2 students to introduce themselves on the forum and tell everyone a little a#out themselves ;ini-lectures are recorded and uploaded without editing) for e5ample) once a #ird flew nto the window while % was recording and my reaction was left in. % was also running late with mar2ing one time and re3uested a formal e5tension from the students who thought this was 3uite funny and granted it.

Fostering student engagement:

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*tudents are important and they must feel li2e - helping them on every step of their professional development in relation with a particular topic can0t #e made #y i$olating a su#+ect even if focus is re3uired. %0m inclide to #elive) #ased on my e5perience and after reading the 6th wee2 material that simulating their memory with a game li2e scenario #ased on their particular #ac2ground or choice could help. A #log shared with a close networ2 of pears could help also in creating a more engaging way of aproaching the learning outcome "he idea of a chatroulette scenario when people can connect random with collegues who are active at a particular time on a platform in a audio and video environment could also #e tested A phone call li2e *2ype or creating a community of online help on a volunteer #asis can show some results.

*timulating intelectual development:
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;aind maping their particular progress and showing analitical results of their performence with a point #ased sistem could help. A very common tool is that of #adge effect which % em inclined to #elive that wor2s at every age

Auilding rapport with students:

*howing how ideas form #y thin2ing with a loud voice your mental process - without no prepaired script - could show to students that they have the same logic of statement or they can improve / develop one. %n this way they will see the human li2e nature of a teacher and minimise the gap.

How do instructors discourage procrastination and keep students on track?

At the start of the course give clear guidelines. Cften these are worded in an official language where the e5act meaning is not clear. &ven though assignments su#missions are clearly stated it is a good idea to send a #rief reminder on the day #efore. "his may give friendly nudge.

What are the benefits/repercussions of strictly enforced vs. flexible due dates?

Fle5i#ility has no definition. Cnce you allow fle5i#ility it can e5tend from a few hours to few days. "he only unofficial fle5i#ility that can #e given is a penalty for su#mitting assignments late- say 2 % reduction in grades.

Should online courses include proctored exams or should all assessments be accessible from the home?

Droctoral e5aminations have no place in online ;CC(s. %f we have created enough motivation in a student to learn he shall not get the urge to copy. %n any case most of the assignments are made after studying the material provided #ut if we encourage them to ma2e research on the internet then the learning has that much more value. % am of the opinion that even in face to face courses proctoral e5aminations should #e open #oo2 process with only a restriction on time.

Are there other course policies that foster student success?

A lot has #een mentioned as to why students do not +oin discussions. &ven % have found sometime that discussions are not necessary a learning place. /owever a controlled discussion should #e arranged where at least once a wee2 the faculty +oins the discussions and leads the same. "his may encourage students to come on the forum and +oin. Eormally the faculty 2nows the type of the 3uestions that normally arise and the same could #e answered. After assessment of every wee2 is over would it not #e god idea if the faculty comments on the results generally and point out some of the pro#lems that have surfacedF

*trategies used in my online teaching have included:
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regular wee2ly announcements feed#ac2 comments on #log entries introductions to forthcoming learning modules engaging and stimulating'ou"u#e clips humorous 'ou"u#e clips "ips and /ints for assignments - as a resource document #ased on student 3uestions regular online live chat sessions intercative feed#ac2 #etween students on aspects of learning modules and assignment aspects learning goals and learning activities outlined at start of module include what is in ne5t module and review of previous module) and preparing for the ne5t module activities

'o implement hybrid learning, individual teachers can$ 1) Flip their classrooms %) "ove to a Ltation Rotation model &) Wor0 +ith their school to create a 9ab Rotation model

% agree - the primary goal in primary school is to help the students #ecome independent learners. "his is a progression unto itself) however. 6. Cn day 6) we tell the student everything so they get started. 2. After a few lessons we show them how #adges and other recognitions/rewards can wor2. ,. After a few lessons we have them understand the value of a goal/target. 9. After a few lessons more we let them have some say in the allocation of time #etween su#+ects. !. Derhaps a little later we help them learn how to pic2 from among multiple 8approved1 learning aids for a particular concept. @. &ventually we help them learn how to search for learning aids outside the predefined ones. =. At some point we introduce them to the concept of as2ing for help. G. "his eventually e5pands into showing them how they can help others. H. Bhen they are ready we have them colla#orate with others in +oint efforts. 6 . Along the way somewhere we show them how to find and employ organi$ation tools) #rainstorming and other techni3ues. 66. "hen we help them start to 3uestion things and to pull for information. 62. Be then help to not always #e satisfied with whatever they are given/presented. 6,. Be then help them start to 3uestion things that go #eyond the 2nown scope of their su#+ects/classes 69. Be show them how to find/discover techni3ues for researching and e5perimenting 6!. etc. All these things happen over time in its own progression 8the a#ove is a simple crude e5ample1. "hese items need to #e woven into the other su#+ects or perhaps they should even #e a su#+ect in its own right 87:earning to :earn71. :i2e everything we are tal2ing a#out in this course) different students will progress on these items at their own pace also.

'he definition of high<quality blended learning include three dimentions<<< 1. "astery- ased and student-centred learning e#periences$ +hich focus on the individual]s authentic mastery of 0no+ledge. Ltudents, as the learners and self<monitors during the course of learning, ma0e their o+n study plans and ad2ust their pace, time, location and methods of learning^ +hile teachers, as the facilitators, provide students +ith assistance and advice +henever student see0 for one. %. Integrated %ays of learning$ +hich fully mobli1e educational resources, such as classroom, libraries in and out of school, labs, internet, etc. Ltudents could achieve their study ob2ectives through various +ays, under different timetable and by using +ide resources. Ltudents could study individually, in groups or under the supervision from teachers. &. &on-superfial change in learning$ +hich means not simply use technologies as tools, but ma0e the technology as inseperable part of the +hole learning experience.

Fublications from ne+spapers to research 2ournals are filled +ith claims about the Internet and its value for education, yet research is 2ust beginning to evaluate uses of these ne+ information resources in the classroom. -s part of the Pniversity of "ichigan )igital 9ibrary Fro2ect, this research +as underta0en as a first step in designing tools for secondary students to access a digital library. 'he Web offered an initial site for learning ho+ students interact +ith digital resources and use standard tools. 'he Web can be seen as a site for student inquiry in science, using it as an information resource that opens the boundaries of the classroom and creates the possibility for students to pursue questions of personal interest. 'his study loo0s at students in Cth<grade science classes as they use the Web to carry out an inquiry<based assignment. 'heir understanding and enactment of their assignment to do research on the Web, their engagement in information see0ing, and their use of Web technologies are explored and analy1ed. Findings include evidence that students use Web technologies easily but simplistically^ that information see0ing is a complex and difficult process for these students, +ho see0 to reduce the tas0 to finding an obvious ans+er or finding a good Web site^ and that developing students] understanding of content through use of the Web is a challenge for students and teachers.