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Gmail. Credit Cards Password Authentication ex. . Facebook Transfer of secret Military Messages Encryption is the science of changing data so that it is unrecognisable and useless to an unauthorized person. the data cannot be exposed to other parties.. computer science and engineering.. The most secure techniques use a mathematical algorithm and a variable value known as a “key”..CRYPTOGRAPHY Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. Decryption is changing it back to its original form. if the key (sometimes called a password) is only known by authorized individual(s). Cryptography today has applications in various fields which include : Electronic Commerce ex. Modern day cryptography includes disciplines of mathematics. This is the basis of the protection. ATM.

The examples include: a) SHIFT CIPHER : This is the most simplest form of encryption .The three main fields of cryptography are CIPHERS. STEGNOGRAPHY. and VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHY CLASSICAL CRYPTOGRAPHY MONOALPHABETIC CIPHERS: The key is such that each alphabetic character of plaintext is mapped to a unique alphabetic character in the cipher text. Also referred to as Caesar’s cipher as Julius Caesar is supposed to have used this cipher for military dispatches he wished to keep secret!!!!! In mathematical terms it can be represented by .the characters of plaintext are replaced by characters obtained after shifting by fixed number in the cipher text .

... So there can be only 25 possible shift ciphers as shifting by 26 will amount to same text and shifting by 27 will be same as shifting by 1 and so on. c>> x and so on... at bash cipher in which alphabets are simply reversed a>>z..Ek(x) =(x+k) mod 26 Dk(x) =(y-k) mod 26 where (x.... need not be a shift. b) SUBSTITUTION CIPHERS: The key is any permutation of letters.... D E F G. it reduces to Caesar’s cipher Example . for example plaintext cipher text ABCDEFGH IJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ CVBNMXZASDFGHJKLQWERTYUIOP So that a b c>> c v b There can be 26! Different substitution ciphers!! Examples are Caesar’s cipher (mentioned above).... b >> y.. y belongs to Z26) It can be seen that x=D k (Ek(x)) For example shifting by 3: plaintext Cipher text A B C D. c) AFFINE CRYPTOSYSTEM Mathematically it can be represented as 0<=k<=25 and 0<=a<=25 Ek(x) =a*x + k mod 26 and Dk(x) =(y-k) /a mod 26 It can be observed that for a=1.

5.23. 19.e. It will be clearer by an example: let key = a b c Plaintext= x y z Cipher text = x z b (shift of 0. 3 . POLYALBHABETIC CIPHERS: The mono alphabetic ciphers are relatively easy to break . In vigenere cipher. 17. 15.26) =1. 9 . 7 . so ‘a’ can take only 12 possible values {1. a) VIGENERE CIPHER The basic principal in all polyalphabetic cipher is the use of multiple but different mono alphabetic substitution techniques. each letter key value will denote the shift to be done for that particular letter i. 21. 1. 2 respectively) .11. the ‘n’ in the shift –n cipher.plaintext: A F F I N E C I P H E R x: 5x + 8 0 5 5 8 13 4 2 8 15 7 4 17 8 33 33 48 73 28 18 48 83 43 28 93 This encryption can be injective if and only if GCD (a.a polyalphabetic cipher is a vast improvement over this technique. Thus the total possible number of affine ciphers is 12*26 = 312. 25} and ‘k’ can take any 26 values .

(The larger .. In order to decrypt. 3. the message is the vector: Thus the enciphered vector is given by: Which corresponds to a cipher text “POH”. For example Consider the message 'ACT'. Each letter is first encoded as a number. and multiplied by an n × n matrix. if the key is of a lesser length than the plaintext. we turn the cipher text back into a vector. then simply multiply by the inverse matrix of the key matrix (IFKVIVVMI in letters) c) PERMUTATION CIPHER The permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. b) HILL CIPHER Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. A random permutation of size ‘e’ is generated. 0.. then use the key repeatedly till whole length of the plaintext is traversed. 'C' is 2 and 'T' is 19.Another example: key =ad Plaintext= a b c d Cipher text = a e c g (shift of 0. 3) The second example shows us an important technique.Z=25. modulo 26. but this is not an essential feature of the cipher. Often the simplest scheme is used: A = 0. A block of n letters is then considered as a vector of n dimensions. and the key below (or GYBNQKURP in letters): Since 'A' is 0. B =1.

the cipher text will have exactly the same letter frequency as the underlying plaintext . The input data is padded out to a multiple of the block size. Key = 2 1 3 Plaintext: CRYPTOGRAPHY Breaking the text: CRY PTO GRA PHY Cipher text: RCY TPO RGA HPY i. broken into a integer number of blocks.the value of ‘e’ more secure is the cipher). each of which is encrypted independently using the key. This is in contrast to stream ciphers which encrypt one bit at a time. Example: Let e = 3.e. RCYTPORGAHPY.The plaintext is then broken into segments of size ‘e’ and the letters within the segment are permuted according to this key. There are several modes for block encryption: a) ELECTRONIC CODEBOOK (ECB) MODE It is the simplest mode of operation for a block cipher.There is a limitation that the plaintext has to have a length which is in multiple of ‘e’.the general operation of all the block ciphers is the same – a given number of bits of plaintext (a block) is encrypted into a block of cipher text of the same size . BLOCK CIPHER The most important symmetric (meaning the same key is used for both encryption and decryption ) algorithms are block ciphers . Because the cipher doesn’t changes any of the characters. .

lost data blocks do not affect the decryption of other blocks. The disadvantage of ECB is that it aids known-plaintext attacks. b) CIPHER BLOCK CHAINING (CBC) MODE CBC is the most commonly used mode of operation for a block cipher. the output of the cipher must then be XOR-ed with the previous cipher text to recover the original plaintext. Prior to encryption. If the same block of plaintext is encrypted twice with ECB. CBC is more secure than ECB because it effectively scrambles the plaintext prior to each encryption step. ECB has the advantage of allowing any block to be decrypted independently of the others. The disadvantage of CBC is that the encryption of a data block becomes . which is usually a block of random bits transmitted in the clear. The first block of plaintext is XOR-ed with an initialization vector (IV). two identical blocks of plaintext will encrypt to two different blocks of cipher text. each block of plaintext is XOR-ed with the prior block of cipher text. Thus. After decryption.In addition to simplicity. Since the cipher text is constantly changing. the two resulting blocks of cipher text will be the same.

The input is broken into two equal size blocks. It takes two bit pattern of equal length and performs the logical XOR operation on each pair of corresponding bits. At each cycle. which are then repeatedly cycled through the algorithm. generally called left (L) and right (R). and 0 if they are the same. ] FEISTEL CIPHER It is a scheme used by almost all modern day block ciphers. and the result of the hash is XOR-ed into the left block. The result is each position is 1.dependent on all the blocks prior to it. . a hash function (f) is applied to the right block and the key. A lost block of data will also prevent decoding of the next block of data. The blocks are then swapped. if the two bits are different. The XOR-ed result becomes the new right block and the unaltered right block becomes the left block. [XOR is bitwise exclusive or operator. The process is then repeated a number of times.

It uses a 56 bit key. The private key is kept secret. Advanced Encryption Standards (AES): Each AES cipher has a 128-bit block size. with key sizes of 128. respectively MODERN CRYPTOGRAPHY: PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY The distinguishing technique used in public key cryptography is the use of asymmetric key algorithms. Each user has a pair of cryptographic keys — a public key and a private key.Examples of block ciphers are: Data Encryption Standards (DES): It is a feistel type substitution permutation network (SPN) cipher. This method is now considered obsolete. Messages are encrypted with the recipient's public key and can only be decrypted . 192 and 256 bits. where the key used to encrypt a message is not the same as the key used to decrypt it. whilst the public key may be widely distributed.

e. cipher. but the private key cannot be feasibly (i.with the corresponding private key. in actual or projected practice) derived from the public key.. cryptographic protocol or key management scheme. anyone can encrypt messages using the public key. Security depends on the secrecy of that private key. . The keys are related mathematically. PGP and GPG In an asymmetric key encryption scheme. This process is also called "cryptanalysis “. CRYPTOGRAPHIC ATTACKS A cryptographic attack is a method for circumventing the security of a cryptographic system by finding a weakness in a code. and is the approach which underlies such Internet standards as Transport Layer Security (TLS) (successor to SSL). but only the holder of the paired private key can decrypt.Public key cryptography is a fundamental and widely used technology around the world. It was the discovery of such algorithms which revolutionized the practice of cryptography beginning in the middle 1970s.

it begins with a cipher text and searches for matching publicly-posted plaintext data. This is also often performed on attacks versus public key encryption. where a cryptanalyst has access to a public key. Brute Force Attacks: A brute force attack systematically attempts every possible key. With simple ciphers. such as the Caesar Cipher. This can be done with a decryption oracle (a machine that decrypts without exposing the key). frequency analysis can be used to break the cipher. This is most common against asymmetric cryptography.TYPES OF CRYPTOGRAPHIC ATTACK Known Plaintext and Cipher text Only Attacks: A known plaintext attack is an attack where a cryptanalyst has access to a plaintext and the corresponding cipher text and seeks to discover a correlation between the two. A cipher text-only attack is an attack where a cryptanalyst has access to a cipher text but does not have access to corresponding plaintext. . Chosen Plaintext and Chosen Cipher text Attacks: A chosen plaintext attack is an attack where a cryptanalyst can encrypt a plaintext of his choosing and study the resulting cipher text. It is most often used in a known plaintext or cipher text-only attack. A chosen cipher text attack is an attack where a cryptanalyst chooses a cipher text and attempts to find a matching plaintext.

STEGANOGRAPHY Steganography is the science of hiding information. we can take the binary representation of the hidden data and overwrite the LSB of each byte within the cover image. in Greek it means “covered writing “. As an . In this method. If we are using 24-bit colour. There are a large number of steganographic methods . the role of steganography is to hide the data from a third party. LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT (LSB) INSERTION: The simplest approach to hiding data within an image file is called least significant bit (LSB) insertion. the amount of change will be minimal and indiscernible to the human eye. ranging from invisible ink and microdots to secreting a hidden message in the second letter of each word of a large body of text and spread spectrum radio communication. Whereas the goal of cryptography is to make the data unreadable by a third party.

Gray-scale images. suppose that we have three adjacent pixels (nine bytes) with the following RGB encoding: 10010101 00001101 11001001 10010110 00001111 11001010 10011111 00010000 11001011 Now suppose we want to "hide" the following 9 bits of data (the hidden data is usually compressed prior to being hidden): 101101101. too. as the reader might imagine. we get the following (where bits in bold have been changed): 10010101 00001100 11001001 10010111 00001110 11001011 10011111 00010000 11001011 Note that we have successfully hidden 9 bits but at a cost of only changing 4. This description is meant only as a high-level overview. If we overlay these 9 bits over the LSB of the 9 bytes above.example. of the LSBs. are very useful for steganographic purposes . are more dramatic. or roughly 50%. Similar methods can be applied to 8-bit colour but the changes.