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University of thi-qar Marshes research center

A survey of Socio - Economic and social status in the Villages of Al-Jwaiber .
tribe : Al-dawara , Al-braij, Al-safha and Al-abra
Jan. 2007


Content page number Thi qar governorate……………… ……………….4 chapter One : introduction , general………..…10 framework of the study 1.1 the project of the study……………….11 1.2 the objectives of the study …………….12 1.3 the significancy of the study …………12 1.4 difficulties of the study ………………12 1.5 sample and limitations of the study ...13 1.6 tools of the study …………………….13 1.7 procedures of the study ……………..13 chapter two : social status - the most…………..15 important social indicators 2.1 geography ……………..………………….16 2.2 typography …………….…………………16 2.3 population…………………………………17 2.4 economy ………………………………….17 2.5 culture …………………………………….18 2.6 emigration and displacement …………..19 2.7 schooling …………………………………19 2.8 dwelling and facilities ……………………..27 chapter three : economic indicators for ………….29 the society under research 3.1 income…………………………………………….30 3.2 live stock………………………………………….32 3.3 weakness points in the economic system ……………………….34 3.4 suggestion and recommendations……………….35 3.5 questionnaire …………………………………..36


The study team Activities
1. general supervising and external coordination 2.Preparing tools ,methodology and workshops of the study 3. social arrangement in AlJwaiber villages 4. Survey 5.Field management

Dr. Ali Esmail Al-snafi ,the chancellor of Thi qar university Marshes research center, university of thi-qar Dr. Talib Hussein Ukab , the manager of marshes center A team from marshes research center Mohammed Humood Ibrahim , socio – anthropological researcher in marshes research center Collection and sorting team in the MRC. Mohammed humood ibrahim /A researched in the MRC Sadiq Zuwair lijlaj /MRC Dr. Ali Esmail Al-snafi , the chancellor of Thi qar university

6. Data collection and sorting 7. Social analysis 8. Economic analysis 9. Revision ,evaluation and translation


55% of the total employee in the small factories in Iraq ). However the population reached 1. there was no intermediate industrial factories in Thi-qar governorate . of factories No. Industrial factories 2004 No. The wages that paid to those employee are 1.552 km2 and is located in southern Iraq to the north of Basrah governorate and shares internal boundaries with the governorates of Missan . Rural population represents 41.405 making it the sixth most populous governorate in Iraq . However .8% of the total small industrial factories in Iraq).763.962 in 2005 (5.066.2%.000 ID (represented 2.Thi-qar governorate Introduction Thi-qar governorate covers an area of 13. Industry Sector Industry sector have an important location among another sector in economic development process and employment . 15-64 years 53. Qadissiya and Wassit .000 are estimated to live in the governorate's capital Nassiriyah city . of employee 1022 2929 Value of production Salaries X 1000 X1000 1763066 ID 21223093 ID Value of all requirements 12549414 ID 4 .In 2005 the population below 15 years represented 43. 530.8% . Nassiriyah city was founded in 1869 by Sheikh Nasir Al-Sadoon of Muntafig tribal confederation .2 % of the total population .crowding index in thi-qar is 130 person /km2 .43% of the total Iraqi population ).9% and urban population +58.Thi qar population is expected to be 1800 000 in 2007 . The 2004 ministry of planning and development cooperational UNDP survey projected the population of thi_qar governorate to be 1. The employee number who work in the small industrial are 2929 (4.Trans mutational and mining industry (except oil) The number of industrial factories : There are 1022 small industrial factories (5.2% males and 49.9% and above 65 years 2.472.6% of the total wages paid the employee of the small factories in Iraq ).518. Muthana.males to females ratio is 101/100 (50.8% females ). Essential indicators 1.

In connection with statistics of private sector buildings . the rate constitute to (902. the rate is (2. the rate mounted to (188) for new achieved buildings in Thi-qar .9) from the whole cost in Iraq mounted to ( 967.7%) from the whole area that mounted to (8.3%) from the whole building that mounted to (8170) . the rate mounted to (1.6) milliard ID .5)milliard ID . the rate is about (2. industrial buildings and others).represented 1.3) milliard ID.4) milliard ID . concluding (houses. constitute ( 1. the granted wages mounted to (1.5) milliard ID .4%) from Iraqi workers which their wages mounted to (109.G. The estimated cost for permits mounted to (27.4%) from the private sector permits mounted to (30583).6) milliard ID.9) from the whole cost that mounted to (831.4) milliard ID .9% of the total private buildings cost in Iraq (1148.the rate constitute to (2.0%) from the whole cost that mounted to (220. numbers of reconstruction permits giving to private sector .1 milliard ID .7) milliard ID . Essential indicators : The private sector permits in 2004 in Thi-qar governorate mounted to (1328) permits.Buildings : The central system of technologies of information prepare to carry out periodic surveys about building section so that to indicate on number of annual achieved buildings according to economic sectors . the building area mounted to (42.3) milliard ID The numbers of workers in private buildings sector mounted to (744) from the whole number that mounted to (42029) . numbers of workers . in dealings with construction materials used in private sector for 2004 mounted to (20. quantity and value of used construction material. The new buildings permits mounted to 1033 . The total cost of the private buildings in Thi-qar as 22.8%) from the whole area mounted to (2281) thousand m2 and the cost mounted to (4. the rate is (2. 5 .9) milliard ID. residential .4%) from the whole gained permits which mounted to (38687) .0%) from the whole cost mounted to (1038. commercial. wages and other merits .2) million m2 . The rate mounted to (2. the rate is about (3.1) milliard ID . it constitute ( 3.1) thousand m2 . buildings projects of public sector .7) million m2 the estimated cost mounted to (24. The building area mounted to (0.

6% Electrical power units For houses Commercial purposes Governmental use Agricultural use Industrial use Loss 273458 15698 68779 33242 75029 32993 6 .3%) of the total production in the governorate .04 % of the total electrical power in Iraq which are 21860046 MWt/hr).Drinking water projects The quantities of the drinking water produced in Nasiriyah are 102 million m3 (1.1 % Governmental use 14.75% of total production of drinking water in Iraq ).4% of the total free of charge supplied drinking water in Iraq ) . Drinking water million m3 Produced Free of charge Loss quantity quantity distributed quantity 102 5 11 Sale quantity 86 Electrical power The total sells of electrical power in Thi-qar are 466206 MWt/hr (2. The sold amount of drinking water are 86 million m 3 (84.7% Commercial use 3. The amount of drinking water supplied free of charge in Thiqar are 5 million m3 (2.2% Agricultural use 7.4 % Houses use 58. The electrical power in Thi qar are used for Industrial use 16.

7 are governmental and 1 is private .0 % of the total number in Iraq) No. of animals in Thi-qar Type 1971 Cattle 125893 Buffaloes 13558 Sheep 362561 Goats 27464 Camels 3819 governorate 1986 143851 17867 718330 36491 2005 2005 96740 6534 443185 49867 1643 Educational and social statistics 1.5% of the total number in Iraq) Sleep 362561 (6.0% of the total number in Iraq ) Goat 49867 ( 6. 7 .9% of the total number in Iraq) Buffaloes 6534 (5.6% (139) of the total doctors .7% of the total cultured area. Thi-qar also has 57 dentists and 82 pharmacists.7 % of the total hospitals in Iraq .8 % of the total number in Iraq) Camels 1643 ( 7.9% of the total beds in Iraq). Date palm trees and the mean of production 2005 Total no. however 71. The specialists represented 28. The total number of the patient's beds in all hospitals are 1137 bed ( 3.Health services The total number of hospital in thi-qar are 8 . The total numbers of the physicians in Thi-qar are 486 (3030 person/physician).9 % of the total cultured area. Barley cultured area (2005) are 326600 Donam which represented 7.4% are general practitioners . of data palm trees Fruitable trees Fruitable trees Mean production tree of / Production x 1000kg 577759 417475 417475 46.6% of the total date palm trees in Iraq ) .Agricultural statistics Wheat cultured area (2005) are 183500 Donam (Donam= 2500 m2 ) which represent 2.7 19480 Numbers of animals in Thi-qar governorate Cattle 96740 (7. represent 3.Thi-qar also has 83 health centers and 15 public clinic . The total numbers of the fruit able date palm are 74600 (1. of these 8 hospitals .

health centers and health staff No. secondary school 21.4% . girls' rate is 13.9% . girls' rate is 39. The technical and university education : the survey results disclosed the number of Iraqi .alien students that existed in the colleges and institutes amountes to 11093 . . of private hospitals No. of governmental hospitals No.2% .No. secondary .8% from the whole number The survey results disclosed the number of students in educational units mounted to 314161 . of hospitals. vocational education school 0. of health centers No.Arab . of public clinics No.the teaching members at these institutions are 431.7% .4% . the number of teaching staff members amounted to 18894 . Iraqis are constitute 99.9% . of dentist No. teachers institute 0. of general practitioners No.1% .8%.Arabs and aliens 0. of pharmacists Male Females Total 7 1 83 15 110 29 139 244 103 347 34 23 57 58 24 82 Education sector The educational number amounted to 1203 . kindergartens constitute 2. of specialist physicians No.girls' rate is 59. girl's rate is 47. primary school 74. Educational units and staff 2003 Numbers of Kindergartens . primary . Iraqis are constitute 100% .% .7 % . vocational schools and teacher institutes in Thi-qar province No. Kindergartens 28 Students Males females 1522 1449 Total 2971 Staff Males 0 Females 269 Total 269 8 .

9 34. There is no significant variations in the percent of jobless people between urban and rural areas.24 9 .5 33.2 46.8 33.9 50.4 34.68 Total 43.2 45.1 19.04 Females 28.12 Rural Males 53.1 23.96 Total 50.9 33.39 Total Males 48.47 Total 46.5 54. The total number of jobless people in Thi-qar governorate reached 63000.2005 ) Year Urban Males 2003 2004 2005 45.6 27. Percent of jobless people aged 15 years and more (2003.6 34.95 Females 25.Primary schools Secondary schools Vocational schools Teacher institutes 892 264 9 10 134177 47630 4516 1620 95638 26106 640 863 229815 73736 5156 2483 4842 2544 245 45 8684 2076 149 40 13526 4620 394 85 Thi-qar governorate shows the biggest percent of jobless people ( aged 15 years and more) among other Iraqi governorate.4 11.36 Females 30.0 36.1 44.8 48.3 5.2004.

The study consists of three chapters . The drying process affected the life of the people in terms of the circulation of illiteracy . a reference has also been made to the sample and limitations of the study (place . subsequently . an account was made of schooling and 10 .the geography and typology of the area were tackled including the population according to sex and age . poverty and aime . then we explained the tools that have been used in the study . south of Iraq . value of the study in addition to the obstacles that faced this study . then . at the end . time and simple of the study ) . was initiated by a general description of Al –Jwaiber tribe . after that . The second chapter . which is entitled “ the social status – the most important social indicators “ . The first chapter .after that a reference was made as to economy as a traditional system . the aim of the study is to evaluate the social and economic status in Al. a reference was made as to the mechanism or procedures followed by the researched in the study .Chapter 1 Socio economic survey – for Al. finally . This problem increased after the drying of these marshes in the last decade of the last century .Jwaiber Summary This study is a socio –anthropological one . the aims. was divided into a group of correlated items leading . which is entitled : “ the general outline “ . the term” education “ was also explained as to the efficient role it plays in the overall life of the villagers particularly in terms of pertaining an incoherent and retarded social and economic system .Jwaiber villages in Thi-qar province . each of which is divided into sections according to a scientific . objective and accurate procedure . the study tackled the problem of emigration and displacement which the people of the marshes suffered from . to forming a comprehensive conception about the problem of the study .

of the way deliveries were handled and the medical care presented to the pregnant and the whole society in general . in these figures . Consequently . displacement and return in addition to the most important possessions of the families in the area . the facilities (or public services ) includes : medical care. the researchers made mention of the individual‟s income and the live stock each family have . types and areas of houses . Study subject It‟s a revised process and an evaluation for social – economic status in Al. These procedures take through surveying samples. 11 .later on . drinking water and electric power . This system is indicative of the traditional system which is so common in most of the marshes areas and the neighboring villages. the dwelling and facilities item was discussed .jwabier village that adherent to Al-Tar city about 50 km south east Nassiryah city – center of Thi-qar .this chapter also tackled the strength and weakness points in the economic system in the villages . in this chapter .this chapter consisted of 12 figures through which the researchers explained the indicators of population . illiteracy . after that . a bundle of suggestions were made by the researchers who think that these suggestions will be a good basis for the renovation of the economic system there . this chapter consists of a group of figures through which the researchers explained the different living standards and sorting people according to their economic status and the quantity and quality of the live stock they have. finally .also an account was made . schooling . Chapter three is entitled as “ the economic indicators of the society under consideration “ .necessity of the existence of a modern and developed educational system .

scientific and precise results depending on firm search curriculums used in most world search centers.Analysis the capabilities and local economic strategies in connection with local sources and kinds of old –new economics . This kind of studies will setting up work in future during objective .Put a comprehensive view about all social . cultural circumstances for this village and the capability to apply the results on similar societies . 3. Difficulties of the study The most common difficulty that faced the researchers is the negative attitudes of the people under research. executions and the means of living …. 4. repression . arrests. 4. 2-Establishing an information basis about the village to draw up plans for any expectant developmental programs in mid.Distinction and specification for weakness and strength point in economic system for traditional societies . chase .. etc . economic .Study objectives: This study summarize it : aim at many achievements .latest future . Significancy of the study This come from the importance of definite aims because of blundering of governmental and nongovernmental offices competed in marsh and shared in increase the problems in this areas which bore the guilt of previous dictatorial regime like emigration . they usually do not give accurate information thinking that the correct information would not useful for 12 . we can 1.

the sample – style is one of the reliable procedure in the scientific research due to the reliability and reality of its results and it also saves time and effort . these work-groups had successfully applied the skills they had been taught in the work shop held for them in the MRC. All of these methods are very common in the social and anthropological researches . 5. these groups had done their jobs successfully . the three work – group themselves were distributed on the three villages . the survey teams are . this study has been implemented by the use of the socio13 . 7. These village are : Al – Dawara . The tools of the study The tools of the study are represented by the questionnaire sheet . in addition . interview and the direct scientific observation method. three villages of al-jwaiber tribe were selected . 6.him .Al-Aberat.Beraij . because of the difficulty of making a total numeration for the social . we have made . in advance a program which guarantees the formulation of items in the questionnaire and holding the workshops for training the researchers to fill the form properly and how to deal with the people under consideration . Sample and limitations of the study We have followed the sample-policy . the researches had distributed 100 forms . most of the times . Three workgroups had done the mission of distributing the forms on the people . The procedure of study This study depended on a mechanism which is highly depended on in the cultural anthropology *. AlSafha and Al. cultural and economic status for AlJwaiber villages in Al. unable to do the interviews and filling the form properly .Tar shire .each group was assigned to one village . as it were .

The second village is parallel to the first and is about 3. only three villages were selected . the most important of which is the “ interview” . The population of these villages constitute 10% of the total number of people for the nine villages . Although the three villages are situated in the eastern part of overall location for Al. These villages represent one third of the nine villages . the three village actually consists a triangle in which the third village is the summit while the second and third are the extremes of the base . these villages are : “Al Safha and Al.Braij.5 km and 2. the numeration of the society under research was done by the use of the “random sample “ method. the third village is about 4. the first village occurs on the left side of the Euphrates on the administrational borders of AlTar shire center .5 km from the first and second respectively . on the right side of the road that connects Al-Tar to Al. 14 .”questionnaire sheet “ and the “ direct scientific observation “ .Jwaiber tribe.Fuhood shrine . they are actually disparate from each other.Jwaiber tribe consists of . Among the nine village that and Al-Dawara “.anthropological methods .5 km to the north east of it .

This does not mean that (relational system *) in this tribe is a unified one which is based totally on blood relationship . This system is called “ Al-Kitba” . although each of the nine villages has its own name . on the contrary . This document usually specifies the rights and duties of the new emigrants so that they could be part and parcel of the tribe they made the agreement with the Euphrates . It refers to a written agreement between the new emigrants and the owners of the land that the new emigrant would like to settle in . This does not constitute a defect in the social structure . The system is also common in all the Iraqi tribes . Anthropological studies depended much on the systems of the social structure for any society intended to be under research . it is a common system in most of the tribes that in habit the lower parts of the Euphrates in Thi-qar province . Relational system is one of the system underlying the social structure for any society . and even in the end of Euphrates in Basrah. all of them adhere to the general name of the tribe – Al. while the second one is called al ukaika . The second branch flows 15 . population and location . the right branch is called Euphrates . branched to two rivers .before it reaches Suq Al-Shyukh city . the first one goes through “Suq Al-Shuykh” and “Karmat Bani Saeed “ cities bisecting them into two parts this river is itself subdivided into a group of small streams that pours out into the marshes .Jwaiber . In fact . many people in the tribe are descendats of other tribal origins .Chapter two Social status – the most important social indicators for Al –Jwaiber tribe Al-Jwaiber is a formidable tribe which consists of nine villages which are disparate as to their areas .

towards the south east parallel to the first bisecting many tribes that inhabit on its side . Typography All Al-Jwaiber villages occur on the out skirts of the marshes . which is represented by al. When this branch reaches “ Karmat Hassan” it subdivides itself into two branchs or subdivisions . These constituencies are al-Nassiriyah represented in Islah .the villages of Al-Jwaiber are situated . On the two sides of these branches and their brook . Al-Chibaish represented in al fuhood and suq al-shyukh . The first subdivision is called “ Al – Ukaika “ while the second one is called “Karmat Hassan river “ . the marshes cover many parts of the tribe‟s lands most of the year . This word means the small streams that branch from the main rivers and vanish gradually as they flow for irrigating the lands . which flow into the marshes .”Al-Fuhood” and “Al-Islah” .jwaiber tribe itself.Abrat * . Geography Adminstrationally speaking Al-Jwaiber tribe is associated with Al-Tar . and which are finally called Al. the villagers make use of the 16 . This shows the importance of the geographical location of this tribe . Suq Al-Shuykh city . the borders of this tribe are themselves the borders of al-tar shire with other shins “Karmat Bani Saeed „ . More over . 1. Some of the people fro Al-Jwaiber inhabit on the administrational border of the shire taking apart with other tribes that also surround the shire and are adminstrationally associated with it . hence the name “al-abrat village “ 2. it is like a triangle which separates the administrational borders of three constituencies . * al-abrat is the plural of “abra” which is a local nomination used by the villagers in most of the south of Iraq .

That is why . all their economic activities focus on the ecological system which is the system of the marshes environment interconnected with and is part of ecological system of the neighbouring . but these vocations are practiced in a primitive way .sometimes . in all the nine villages is about (10000) people . 3. limited from 19 years on .5 %) while the second group which is limited between (6-12) years is about (2550) which makes (25. limited from ( 13-18) is about (2100) which makes (21%) . they . Population The population of Al-Jwaiber . Economic system . strength and weakness point and local strategies will be dealt with in details in the second chapter which will be assigned to the economic indicators in the city under discussion . the last group . Economy The people of Al-jwaiber . are highly influenced by the surrounding environment . 17 . when these people were divided into age groups .5 %) . the people's main vocations are agriculture raising cattle and fishing . it was found that the group lower than 6 years . also use these banks for dwelling specially when the river water goes up in the flood season where the low lands are usually flooded with water .banks of the rivers as roads for the people and vehicles( these banks were made as dikes by saddam‟s government to dry the marshes) . the production is usually very limited and does not contribute . like all the neighbouring tribes . is about (2350) which constitutes a percentage of (23. in making the over production which is necessary for increasing those people's wealth . rural area . for both sexes . the third group. us about (3000) which makes (30%) of the total number of the Al-Jwaiber's population . The female percentage is a little bit higher – they are about ( 5250) females while the males are (4750) . 4.

They are many and they remain adjacent to the man during 18 . These channels are called socialization . As a result . the values system of these communities has always constituted a stumbling block for any process of change or development . this behaviour is prominent in both societies and communities through the activities of the daling life . if reformulated according to a modern scientific basis . these qualities become asocial behaviour for a given society . these activities are manifested in the economic life . work division .5. etc … According to the degree of development and knowlege of each society . Other routs are not official . Culture Culture is an anthropological term which refers to the group of traditions . the marshes communities has long lived a traditional culture which made them live in a state of cultural rumination . we cannot ignore the consequences of the cultural shock which is probably to happen if a fast process of change or development was applied . A man usually acquires his culture through a group of channels . values . Regrettably . Hence . beliefs and arts which distinguish one society from another . the socialization process is achieved through many routes . will contribute in accelerating the sought process of development . This term refers to the process by virtue of which people get their culture . At the same time . some of these routes are official like educational departments such as school and official constructive media . the community under research in Al-Jwaiber villages is a victim for the traditional cultural order which has always been making obstacle for the development in all the fields of life what we have just mentioned applies in particular to the economic system which . positive and traditional laws .

the hard and tough marshes environment and the intentional or uninterntional policies of the former Iraqi government on the other . All these policies came to devote the catastrophe of these people and to increase the traditionality of their life . The second reason was the persecutive measures made by the previous regime which made people migrate .his life time . These include : family . and as we have mentioned formerly . local community and unofficial information . Emigration and displacement The marshes people were subject to emigration and displacement all the last decades for many reasons . 6. 7. education retrogress and the circulation of diseases and crime .The schooling retrogress in these areas has many reasons . One of these reasons wais the excessive increase or decrease in the water level which will cause the loss of the source of living made available by water .equipment and adequate staff necessary for making successful schools . That is because . the horrible increase of the illiteracy 19 . neighbours . The inferior educational system in the villages under consideration has made the socialization traditional and unproductive . companions . the circumstances of the marshes people are very hard . the second reason is the declining of the schools in the south of Iraq in general and the marshes area in particular .in addition . These schools are short of suitable buildings . It goes without saying that migration has bad effects which lead to poverty family rupture . Hence . Schooling Schooling is one of the most important routes for the socialization of any society in the world . on the other hand . The first and most important of which is the reduction of the social awareness that does not consider school as a necessary place for developing the individuals .

that will make it easier for the reader to under stand the significance of the other percentage for the other age groups . 20 . the extent of the cultural problem result from the above percentages. This problem is reflected on the overall life of those people and on all the activities they do in their life . to leave the school at the early stages of learning .the percentage of those who study in the intermediate stage is (4. the percentage of those who have finished the primary school is (23%) while those who finished the secondary school (or the college) constitute only (2%) . the percentage of illiteracy is 26% while the percentage of those who still study in the primary stage is 31% . so . As for the offspring . The influence of the people's traditions on coeducation .6%) while those at the secondary school are only (1%) . 2. The horrible amount of escape from schools .level among these people . These figures suggest the following : 1. at best . they finish the primary stage only . hence we realize . In this research we neglected the age groups below six years . by the same token .the percentage of the illiteracy among the house holders is (43%) while the percentage of the literate householders is (25%) . the females are forced after a short time from their study . The research realize the importance of the existence of an educated father in the family .

(2) percentages of males and females in Al guber trip(9 villages).(3)percentage of males and females of youngs in the Al jueber(3 villages).430% female s mal es 21 .5% femal es males fig.560% 51. 48.fig. 47% 52.

fig.(5) groups age for population of Al jueber trip (10000 persons). (26-30) 15% 35% (20-25) 12% (5542) 13% more than 55 25% (3141) fig. under 6 years age 23.000% 22 .(4) groups of age for the head families.500% (6-12) 26% more than 19 30% (1319) 21.

(6) state of the education for head families. primary 23% intermediate 7% literacy 43% 25% read and write secondray 2% 23 .fig.

(8): Date of Return to Al-Juaber Village(100 Families) in the lastv tenth years(1997-2006).m 15% (401500)sq. of Years 24 No.m (201300)sq.000% 20% more than500sq.(7) total area for houses (sq.m 22% (100200)sq.m) (301400)sq.m 35. 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 No.fig.m 8.000% Fig. of Families .

(10): Materials using in Houses Bluiding Reed 4% Blook and Bricks 30% Clay 66% 25 Percentage (%) 60 .Fig(9): Percentage of Houses Equipments 80 Houses Content Refrigerator Houses Content TV Houses Content Cooler Houses Content Cooker Houses Content Air Condition 67 70 43 31 16 0 Houses Equipments 50 40 30 20 10 0 Fig.

Doctor 23% 11% Traditional ways 66% 26 .Fig.(12): Healthy Conditions for Childbirths.(11): Percentage of Poplation about them openion in the forms residential compilers separate Houses in residential compilers 41% separate Houses 59% Fig.

e .8. they constitute only 30% of the total number of the sample . it is 27 . the lifestyle for those people .most of these deliveries were not being taken care of during pregnancy . while 4% live in houses built of reed . The number of rooms in these house varies from one house to another . To make this water available . The percentage of those house comprise of five or six room was only 11% . which is a must for any process of development ( the medical care is particularly important for developing the human who constitute the working hands ) .the people in all these villages have to drive for over half an hour to hit the closest clinic . The people who preferred to live in separate quarters are 41% .6% . it is not actually available in the specified villages . reflected clearly on the nature of their habitation . by the same token . like education . the quarter of the people were like separate houses consisting of a barn for the animals .4%. B-Medical care Regarding the medical care .those whose house consist of three or four rooms constitute 44% of the total number .Dwelling and services A-Dwelling The slender incomes mentioned above bring out the real value of the consumer services that the people of the villages can get .the drainage networks are also nonexistent . etc … . the lack of drinking water is a problem by itself. he percentage of the deliveries done by a legalized midwife is 10. raising cattle and poultry . It is also worth mentioning that 66% of the families under survey live in mud houses. C-Drinking water As far as drinking water and drainage system are concerned . i. It is worth mentioning that most of the deliveries in these villages are done by a local midwife . those whose house consist of one or two rooms are 45% . medical care . they also have to drive for an hour and a half to reach the closest hospital . A for those who live in houses built of brick . the native of these villages spend much of their slender incomes. he percentage of the deliveries which were done by obstetrician is 23% . It is worth reminding that the average number of family members for the people under research is more than (8) members . Drinking water is brought from remote purification station . the percentage of such deliveries is 65.

D.these demands were made in many world conferences and forum since the beginning of the nineties of the last century . distribution and cheapness of the power have a great influence on supporting the economic and social development especially the rural and remote areas.this demand is expected to be even more cumulative in the few next years because of the rapid increase in the population .2) hour daily . life in these villages does not improve through furnishing with lights or the use of power in the agricultural production or the agricultural industry . the shortage of power contributed also to the increase of migration from the countryside to the city . In addition.even the electric connection does not contribute to supplying these villages with enough power .worth saying that great emphasis was made in relation to the installation of desalination stations and drainage networks for all the people . most of the electric networks are incapable of meeting the cumulative demand for electricity .Electricity The availability . As such . The time of providing electricity for the fore-mentioned villages does not exceed (9. 28 .

climate .Chapter 3 Socio-economic indicators of Al-Jwaiber villages Introduction Poverty can be ascribed many complex and multidimensional reasons. age and available resources in addition to many other reasons . there is a complete consent that the political and economic stability and the existence of state investments in the economic and social infra -structures are important prerequisites for achieving constant economic growth and the reduction of poverty in the rural areas . we must study the accompanying economic and social situation . like the perspective treatment of the agrarian section and disregard for the infra-structures (social and economic ) . as a matter of fact the improper governmental policies . this is so because the diversity of the levels of poverty is affected by sex . There is a great diversity between all the poor in the countryside concerning the problems they are facing and the possible solution for such problems . This study pays a great attention to estimating the economic and social situation for some of the villages in Al-Jwaiber tribe ( Al-Dawara. 29 . have contributed a lot to the circulation of poverty in the country . medical care and other food requirements which could be done by carefully designed program for public employment . housing . income and the place of living (rural and urban areas ). On the other hand . age . The percentage of poverty in the countryside is about 63% on the world's level. The poor in the countryside face much worse conditions than the poor in the cities concerning consumption . health facilities . Al-Safha and Al-Abra ) in Al-Tar shire .side and city on a bar . This descendence of the standards of living was accompanied with a state of backwardness in all the fields : the limitedness of production . Al-Braij. medical care drinking water . sex . education . transportation and communications . In order to understand poverty . These reasons include : education . and because of the great ignorance of the poor villagers with economy . Moreover. public policies should focus on important affairs such as making available the agrarian lands and credit for the poor and making it easy for them to obtain education . the standards of living in these villages descended to a great extent through a long period of time .

If we know that the average of family members in the society under discussion is (8) . The importance of these indicators in this study lies in specifying their general direction which is highly important in making an estimate of the economic and social status . the individual's income may be high but we cannot guarantee that the same individual enjoys a high living standard . 30 .insignificance or negativity of saving ability together with the insufficiency of the skilful human resources .the chosen families were divided into four group according to the monthly income : Group First group Second group Third group Fourth group income 100 000 or less (ID) 101 000-200 000(ID) 201 000-300 000 (ID) 301 000 and more (ID) From figure (13) . However . the family income . the distribution of wealth .That will be equal to (9) $ per month which means (30) cents daily . saving and barrowing . sometimes more. it is clear that the percentage of the families with (or less than ) 100 000 ID as a monthly income is (54%). work conditions . this indicator is still important in all the development writings including this study . They could be presented in average like the individual's income per year. These indicators are of economic and social benefit . Individual's Income Individual's income is one of the most important economic indicators though it not reveal the real standard of living for that individual . medical and educational services .500)ID per month . 1. For shedding more light on this indicator in the society under discussion . Economic and Social Indicators These indicators explain the economic and social structure for the society in the villages . wages . expenditure . etc …. unemployment. they include : employment . more than (12. we can conclude that the individual's share of this income is not at best .

the at most average for one member's share of the income is 37 500 ID per month . that will be equal to (19) $ per month which means (65) cent daily .A member's share of the income is. (25000) ID . it goes without saying that such incomes cannot satisfy the need of the families under discussion . that will be equal for (28) $ per month which means (90) cent daily . at best. The third group constitute (4%) .As for the second group . Fig 13: Individuals income Concerning the fourth group . Fig 14 : Economic status 31 . that is why 90% of those families think these incomes are insufficient . Figure (14) indicates that the percentage of the poor families is (65%) of the total number of families under discussion . the percentage is (16%) . the percentage of the families is 26% .

the percentage was 11. 32 . 43% of them were registered to have a fridge . The grazing lands are by themselves not so grassy and are usually neglected and misused .at a large scale. milk and wool. 2-livestock Raising livestock is . This type of pasturage is improper because it is difficult to look after the cattle while it is moving . no family was registered to have an air conditioner ( AC) .7% of the total number of animals.9% with (6) males and(26) females of which there are 23 milkers . Regarding buffalo . the most common occupation for the residents of the villages . those who have a cook stove were 16% .According to figure (14) also . they constitute 30. The modern techniques in raising cattle are so limited . The. those who have a water – based air conditioner were only 31% . As for bovine. the percentage of the well. Sheep constitute 53. unfortunately the native of these villages depend on the roving pasturage .to – do families is 18% where as the percentage of the in – between families (neither poor nor rich) is 17% . villagers are also more interested in increasing the number of the animals than increasing their production in terms of meat .1% with 48 males and 301 females of which there are 221 producing milk. the percentage of goats is 4. The number of calves is (34) while the number of cows is (168) of which (86) produce milk. Regarding the consumer goods these families have .6% with(8) males and (66) females of which there are (34) produce milk. As shown in figure 15 . diseases and the decrease of the growth average because of the servers climatic conditions in the area. Finally. The animals are also more liable to stress. the number of the livestock being possessed by the locals of the villages under consideration is (657).

Fig 15 : Number of animals in the studied village 33 .

. cultural and economic life . there are great available capabilities at this society . We must find opportunity for education for both sexes with establishing qualitative courses and train the people in harmony with establishing projects coincide with it .the illiteracy among different age groups . .The existence of barren . these problems include : . anarchist as well as the whole economic system depend on fragile elements .the obvious absence of services . 34 . The compelling circumstances that causing by economic blockade specially in 1991-1997 lead to crush most of these restrictions .we discuss the issues which form the whole frame of the people social . .the spread of poverty as a result of unemployment and low wages. the youth provide the greatest share that contribute in successful economic and industrial projects establishing at the regions contain many laborers in addition to need to straighten through professional administrative and financial training .Weakness points in the economic system In the Previous chapters .the spread of traditional ideas that play an essential role in people convictions . . We face real problems in the socioeconomic system of the studied area .

These can be summarized as . . prevention of plant diseases .A center for milk collection. fishing . . .A factory for paper production . in medium and short periods for reconstruction of economic system by a form contribute side by side with the general social order . hand crafts .The geographical location is suitable to establish the following factories -A factory for compressed raw reeds production.Suggestions and Recommendations We suggested implementing many strategic projects .Encourage the exploitation in small projects like domestic animal fields. Training courses in agriculture . farm animals care.Agricultural and reclamation through establishing irrigation and draining systems at the region. 35 .

Questionnaire Type of the house: Bricks mud reed others ( numbers of units in each type): Date of marriage: Family size : age Education job level Father Mother Other family members (Sons and daughters ) : sex Education job level 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Animals Type No Males Females Milk producing females Cows sheep buffaloes goats Time require to reaches the health centre ( hours ) Time require to reaches the main hospital ( hours ) No. of family members read and write Males Females No. of those complete the education Males Females Are there clean drinking water Yes No Is the drinking water reaches the house or it taken from desalination stations Is the electricity supply stable? Yes No The period of electricity supply to the house ( hour / day) Income of family ( I D / month) 36 . of children /family (6-15 years) joint the school : Males Females No . physician assistant . of parturitions by medical aid : Type of aid ( physician . nurse ) The availability of primary health care during pregnancy: Yes No No.

Is the family income sufficient for its requirements? Yes No Can the family cover the urgent demand (100 000 ID) Yes No Is the house contains Refrigerator Yes No TV Yes No Air conditioner Yes No Air cooler Yes No Cook stove Yes No Cloths washing machine Yes No Are you: rich fair poor If an international organization built houses for you. what are the types of houses preferred by you? What are the services needed in these houses: Electricity Drinking water Heavy water swage Communications Health services Schools Markets Others 37 .