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Chapter five

5.1 Introduction Surface is the boundar of an ob!ect that "eparate" that ob!ect from another object, substance or space. Surface texture is repetitive or rando# deviations from the rea$ surface that for#" the three-dimensional topo%raph of a surface. Ever surface has some for# of te&ture that ta'e" the for# of a series of pea'" and va$$e ". These peaks and valleys var in hei%ht and "pacin% and have properties that are a re"u$t of the (a the "urface was produced. For example, surfaces produced by cuttin% tools tend to have unifor# spacing with defined cutting direction" whilst those produced by %rindin% have rando# spacing. In "urface texture there are many factor" that, when combined, characteri)e a surface s profi$e. For example!
• • • •

the #icro"tructure of the #ateria$" the action of the cuttin% tool" the in"tabi$it of the cuttin% tool on the material" error" in the machine tool %uide(a " deformations due to stress patterns in the component.

#urface *ua$it can be i#portant when dea$in% with! $. $ubrication - small indentations can ho$d lubricant" %. re"i"tant to (ear - smoother surfaces (ear less" &. too$ life - rou%h surfaces will correlate to shorter tool life" '. fati%ue(stress raisers" ). corro"ion - smoother surfaces ea"ier to c$ean, $e"" surface area to erode" *. noi"e reduction - smooth surfaces make less noise when rubbing, for example #e"hin% gears" +. fit - pressure seals could leak through pits. Surface texture includes rou%hne"", (avine""+ $a and f$a(". Rou%hne"" consists of the finer irre%u$aritie" of the surface texture, usually inc$udin% those irre%u$aritie" that re"u$t from the inherent action of the production process. These irregularities are considered to include traver"e feed marks and other irregularities (ithin the $i#it" of the roughness "a#p$in% length ,Fig.).$-. $

,avine"" is the #ore widely "paced component of "urface texture. .nless otherwise noted, waviness inc$ude" all irre%u$aritie" whose "pacin% is %reater than the rou%hne"" sampling length and $e"" than the (avine"" sampling length. ,avine"" may re"u$t from such factor" as #achine or work def$ection", vibration, chatter, heat-treatment or warping strains. Rou%hne"" may be considered as being "uperpo"ed on a -(av . surface.

Fig.).$ /haracteristic components of technical surfaces.

/a is the direction of the predo#inant surface pattern, ordinarily deter#ined by the production method u"ed. 0athe turning, milling, drilling and grinding typically produce surfaces with lay. F$a(" 0defect"1 are unintentiona$, unexpected, and un(anted interruptions in the topography typical of a part surface such as "cratche"+ cracks, holes, tear", inclusions, etc. For# is the %enera$ shape of the "urface, ignoring variation" due to rou%hne"" and (avine"". Rou%hne""+ ,avine"" and For# are rare$ found in i"o$ation. 1ost surfaces are a co#bination of all three and it is usual to assess them separately. There is no set point at which roughness becomes waviness or vice versa as this depends on the si2e and nature of the application.


Fig. & . Error" of for# is considered to be that deviation from the no#ina$ surface cau"ed by error" in #achine tool ways.For example. all of which are not included in surface texture. %uide"+ insecure c$a#pin% or incorrect a$i%n#ent of the (or'piece or (ear. the waviness element on an optical lens may be considered as roughness on an automotive part.).% 3ictorial display of surface characteristics.

It is evident that a re3uire#ent for the accurate measurement of a di#en"ion is that the variation" introduced by "urface roughness should not exceed the di#en"iona$ tolerances. 4n the part" where very "#a$$ dimensional to$erance" are given.peak-to-valley height. Fig.will be approximately four times . For example. the measurement of the dimension will be subject to an uncertainty greater than the re5uired tolerance. the rate of feed. It this is not the case.2 Re$ation of Surface Rou%hne"" to To$erance" 4ecause the #ea"ure#ent of surface rou%hne"" involves the deter#ination of the avera%e linear deviation of the #ea"ured surface from the no#ina$ surface. the fina$ surface depend" on the periphera$ speed of the (hee$+ the "peed of the traver"e.&.'x. 8 small chan%e in any of the above factor" can have a marked effect on the surface produced. it is nece""ar to "pecif a suitable "#a$$ surface rou%hne"" so useful dimensional measurements can be made.). bondin% material and "tate of dre"" of the (hee$+ the amount and type of $ubrication at the point of cuttin%+ and the #echanica$ properties of the piece being ground. The "tandard method of #ea"urin% surface rou%hne"" involves the deter#ination of the average deviation from the #ean surface. in surface %rindin%.). ' . the %rit si2e.5.the measured avera%e surface rou%hne"". there is a direct re$ation"hip between the di#en"iona$ tolerance on a part and the per#i""ib$e surface rou%hne"". as illustrated in Fig.& 6elation of surface roughness to tolerances. The abi$it of a proce""in% operation to produce a "pecific surface rou%hne"" depends on #an factors. 7alues for surface roughness produced by common processing methods are shown in Table $. 9n most surfaces the tota$ profile hei%ht of the surface roughness .

!illing $r%a hing &eaming "le tr%n $eam 'a#er "le tr%(Chemi al $%ring.1 Process 50 25 (2000) (1000) 12.025 (1) 0. )urning $arrel Fini#hing "le tr%l*ti grin+ing &%ller $urni#hing .ini#hing Non material removing operation San+ Ca#ting -%t &%lling F%rging Perm !%l+ Ca#ting /n0e#tment Ca#ting "1tru+ing C%l+ &%lling.20 (8) 0.40 (16) 0.5 (500) 6.rin+ing -%ning "le tr%(P%li#h P%li#hing 'apping Super.Tab$e1. Micro#eter" 5# 0Microinche" 5 in.10 (4) 0.05 (2) 0.80 (32) 0.6 (63) 0. Di# harge !a h. Drawing Die Ca#ting ) . Shaping Drilling Chemi al !illing "le t.3 (250) 3.01 2 (0.2 (125) 1.5) Material removing or separating operations Flame Cutting Snagging Sawing Planing. Surface rou%hne"" produced b co##on production proce""e".

). Tab$e 2.turned.2"34 50erage 5ppli ati%n 'e## Fre6uent 5ppli ati%n 5.'-. ground. 1anufacturing process .- Fig.).' :eneral indication of surface texture on drawings..6 Surface Te&ture S #bo$" The following specification " #bo$ can be u"ed on dra(in%s to "pecif surface te&ture" desired on a completed part . These data are furnished only for practical information and to provide an idea of the achievable roughness 6a for different processing methods. plated. 7referred "erie" rou%hne"" avera%e va$ue" 0Ra) * . The va$ue" of preferred series rou%hne"" average 0Ra1 are shown in Table %.Fig.

8ll textual dimension and notes should be read from the bottom of the drawing. the surface texture symbol itself with its textual values may be rotated as re5uired . The symbol may be specified following a diameter dimension.The point of the " #bo$ should be on a $ine representing the "urface.)-.). Surface te&ture " #bo$"+ con"truction and their #eanin%.Table &-. Tab$e 6.Fig.) 8pplication of surface texture symbols on drawings. an e&ten"ion line of the surface. + .). or to an extension line . or a $eader line directed to the surface. Fig.

. Tab$e 8. . /a " #bo$".S #bo$" for designating the direction of $a are shown and interpreted in Table '.

1 Surface Te&ture E3uiva$ent" The Table * provides e3uiva$ent values for the Avera%e 6oughness Ra. the approximate Rt values. < .6. 5. Surface te&ture e3uiva$ent". (avine""+ and $a by insertion of values in appropriate positions relative to the symbol. the Nu#ber". Tab$e 5. App$ication of "urface te&ture va$ue" to " #bo$. Tab$e 9.Table ) illustrates e&a#p$e" of designations of rou%hne"". the ob"o$ete triangular representations and these values are very approximate and should be used for guidance.

.Bm" Fine lapped . 6a on a drawing indicates 87>68:> roughness rather than peak to valley values.@%)Bm" 5. ???9ld surface roughness symbols which are still found on older metric drawings. ??.. =+ A $.=... Triangles... =$ A @.microns-. and for new designs.=$@ A $%. $@ .*Bm" 4earing #urfaces .:round finishes-.surfaces... They should not be used on new designs.or datums-. Ru$e" of Thu#b for surface finish e3uiva$ent of N grade and Ra values! • • • • • 6ough turned with visible toolmarks. A & this symbology on drawings for international suppliers. =* A @.8 Mea"ure#ent of Surface Te&ture In the part surface texture has been a""e""ed by the judgment of the inspector either by e e or even fin%ernai$...superfinished..=otes! $. %.. 62 or 6t on a drawing indicates peak to valley roughness measurements in micrometers .)Bm" #mooth machined surface. The eva$uation was done by co#parin% the "urface to be #ea"ured with "tandard surfaces...%Bm" #tatic mating surfaces ..

+-. a traver"e datum and a proce""or. which has a "'id that re"t" on the (or'piece.8 #odern typical "urface measuring instrument .). Thus. "'idded gages u"e the (or'piece" itself as the reference surface to #ea"ure rou%hne"" only. The profilometers are classified as (ith or (ithout "'id . S'id$e"" gage profilometer u"e an interna$ precision "urface as a reference. the "en"itive diamond tipped stylus is contained within a probe.). in addition to rou%hne"".* 6oughness e5uipment Taylor-Dobson #urtronic &3. 8s the stylus #ove" up and down a$on% the "urface+ the transducer convert" this movement into a "i%na$ which is then e&ported to a proce""or which convert" this into a nu#ber and usually a vi"ua$ profile . In "'idded gages.profi$o#eter C roughness tester. 9n an expensive fixed instrument the necessary %uide is of some for# of datu# bar that is usually $apped or precision %round to a high "trai%htne"" tolerance. The "t $u" must be #oved in a "trai%ht line to give accurate readings.).a gauge or tran"ducer.will consist of a "t $u" with a small tip .diamond.Fig. The surface is measured by #ovin% the stylus acro"" the "urface. This enab$e" gages to be u"ed for measurements of (avine"" and for#.*- Fig.Fig. $$ .

Fig.+ #kidded and skidless gage profilometers.). 9n the normal portab$e units the %uide is generally based on a "'id which "$ide" over the general surface ensuring that the linked "t $u" moves in a "trai%ht line parallel to the $oca$ surface.).. >xamples of measurement roughness with profilometers. $% .Fig.

Fig. :enerally it is the $on%e"t spatial (ave$en%th to be included in the profile measurement . The ran%e of sampling $en%th" is a 'e specification of a #ea"urin% instrument. Mean $ine 0M1: is the $ine about which deviation" are #ea"ured and is a line para$$e$ to the general direction of the profile within the $i#it" of the "a#p$in% length .* =ominal and 1easured profiles. 7ea': is the point of maximum hei%ht on that portion of a profi$e that lies above the #ean line and bet(een two inter"ection" of the profi$e with the #ean line. Sa#p$in% $en%th 0$1: is the nominal "pacin% within which a "urface characteristic is deter#ined. Fig ).). $& .).Fig. unless another angle is specified. . The "a#p$in% length is also known as the cut<off length. 8lso is known as center $ine.+-.*-.+ Traverse 0ength.).Ter#" regarding "urface texture pertain to %eo#etric irregularities of surfaces and include! 7rofi$e: is the contour of the "urface in a plane measured nor#a$. or perpendicular.a$$e : is the point of maximum depth on that portion of a profi$e that lies be$o( the #ean line and bet(een two inter"ection" of the profi$e with the #ean line.Fig. to the "urface. Sa#p$in% length is the normal interva$ for a "in%$e value of a surface para#eter.

. at least five consecutive lengths are taken as standard.@" %. Traver"in% $en%th: is profile length traversed to e"tab$i"h a repre"entative evaluation length. )" . Fi$ter": >lectronic or mathematical methods or algorithms which "eparate out different (ave$en%th" and a$$o( us to "ee only the (ave$en%th" we are intere"ted in. These are different depending on the standard used and on the issue of the relevant standard. Rou%hne"" Avera%e < Ra." @. @" %). AA.Eva$uation 0a""e""#ent1 $en%th 0/1: is the $en%th used for #ea"ure#ent. It is always $on%er than the eva$uation length.1 Rou%hne"" 7ara#eter" Rou%hne"" parameters are the finer irregularities in the "urface texture which are inherent in the production process. For this length. These are a #ea"ure of the vertica$ characteristics of the "urface. This para#eter is also 'no(n as /enter 0ine 8verage .#tandard values are! @. @. The identification of the "urface texture u"ed a nu#ber of para#eter".nited Eingdom or 8rithmetic 8verage .C/A. 5. $' . care must be taken to choose a value which will inc$ude all the surface irre%u$aritie" to be the . The hi%her the number of 6a the rou%her the surface.Bm-.8.. %)" @. @-. 1. In specifying the cut-off. Cut<off: is the e$ectrica$ response characteristic of the measuring instrument which is selected to $i#it the "pacin% of the surface irregularities to be included in the assessment of surface texture. 0.nited #tates. The univer"a$$ recogni2ed and co##on$ used rou%hne"" parameter. It is expressed in #icro#eter" . Cutoff is rated in #i$$i#eter" .in the . For this length. at least five consecutive $en%th" are taken as "tandard. Ra is the arith#etic average of the ab"o$ute values of the measured profi$e height deviation" divided by the eva$uatin% length.

%- Fig.).-.). or the inte%ra$ of the absolute value of the roughness profile hei%ht over the evaluation length . An .).&l In both cases the #ean line is $ocated so the "u# of areas above the line is e5ual to the "u# of areas Fig.). be$$o( the line.<-.8lso the avera%e roughness is the area between the roughness profile and its #ean line.).).Fig. Fig. 8s an example we can examine a surface that has a trian%u$ar profile .Fig. Ra = ∑A = A l $ + A% + .Fig.$@-. Ra = $ L z ( x ) dx @ L∫ .$- To calculate the roughness using "a#p$e" at evenly "paced positions ..$@ 7alue of 6a using areas. The evaluating length 0. Ra = ∑h = h l $ + h% + ..).$$-.Fig... The roughness can also be calculated by area ... + hn l .). $) .< 6a using arithmetic average of profile heights deviations.).).

$$ 8 surface with a triangular profile.Fig. ?i"advanta%e" G Not a good di"cri#inator for different types of "urface" .$%-" G Not a good #ea"ure of "ea$ed surfaces" $* . Ra = ∑A = ' + ' =$ l .). cutting tips. speeds. feeds. The advanta%e" and di"advanta%e" of using for #ea"urin% surface rou%hne"" the Ra parameter are listed below! Advanta%e": G The #o"t commonly u"ed parameter to #onitor a production process" G Hefault parameter on a drawing if not otherwise specified" G Avai$ab$e even in the $ea"t sophisticated in"tru#ent"" G Stati"tica$$ a ver stable.lubricant-.g. cutting fluid . Fe can find the surface roughness using Fe can also find the surface roughness using hei%ht" or area"+ Ra = ∑h = $+ % +$+ @ +$+ % +$+ @ = $ n .no di"tinction is made bet(een peaks and valleys .). These numbers may vary significantly if the height method does not take enough samples for a rougher surface texture.Fig. repeatable para#eter" G =ood for rando# type "urface". such as %rindin%> G 8 %ood parameter where a proce"" is under control and where the condition" are a$(a " the "a#e+ e. =ote the results are the same with both methods.

$% Three roughness profiles that have the same 6a value although they seem to be different. r#" has the effect of giving e&tra weight to the hi%her values .). + hn% n .Fig.). is known as root #ean "3uare 0r#"1. 2. $+ .).). Root Mean S3uare Rou%hne"" 0RMS1 < R3.Fig. =ote! This value i" typically 11@ hi%her than Ra.).dx L∫ @ L .Fig. 65 is more "en"itive to pea'" and va$$e " than 6a.'- or.$& /alculation of 6oot 1ean #5uare 6oughness.$&-. This is obtained by "3uarin% each va$ue and then ta'in% the s5uare root of the #ean . because the a#p$itude" are s5uared. Rq = h$% + h%% + .)- Fig. Rq = $ z % . 8nother method of calculating an average. much used in "cientific measurement and "tati"tic".. x.$'-.). Co#pared with the arithmetic average..

). .$* Hefinition of the surface roughness parameter 62 $.). $. when the surface is hand$ed. The respective r#" values are $*. Ma&i#u# pea'<to<va$$e roughness is the vertica$ distance between the top of the hi%he"t peak and the botto# of the deepe"t valley within the sampling length .* $.$) Herivation of maximum peak-to-valley roughness.$' /omparison between 6a and 65.).'.$)-. 6. the "ucce""ive increase of one in the hi%her value being exactly counterba$anced by decrea"e of one in $o(e"t value. It is the #a&i#u# of a$$ the pea'< to<va$$e values.* and %% .a$$e Rou%hne"" <R .'. Ten 7oint Aei%ht of irre%u$aritie" B R).*- Fig. This parameter corre$ate" well with tacti$e assessment Fig.Fig. showing that the increa"e in the hi%he"t figure out(ei%h" the decrea"e. The arith#etic average is 8 in each case.Fig.) %. Ma&i#u# 7ea'<to<.'..+.). 8.). Rz = $ ) ∑ y pi + y vi ) i =$ ( ) .* . This can be illustrated with three groups of values! &.

is the $en%th of the bearin% surface expressed as a percenta%e of the a""e""#ent length 0 at a depth+ or Kslice level. leaving a f$at bearing area. from the :erman Iehnpunkthohe A ten point It can be thou%ht of as a $appin% plate honin% off the pea'". This para#eter can be e&pre""ed as the Abbott<Fire"tone bearing curve.$*-.). tp = a$ + a % + a& + a ' + a) × $@@J L .).c A cutting depth- Fig. 7rofi$e Cearin% Ratio Btp.).from the :erman Tranganteil A bearing fraction and p surface depth-. Thus tp is u"efu$ whenever bearin% surfaces must be ana$ )ed for (ear or $ubrication properties.of the profile bearin% length at any "pecified depth Cc< in the profile to the evaluating length-L. #ea"ured perpendicular to the ba"e of the chart .This is another way of avera%in% the pea'<to<va$$e values to reduce the effect of the odd scratch or "puriou" irregularity. and is the #ean distance bet(een the five highest pea'" and the five lowest va$$e " within the sampling length.hence the use of the symbol 62 for this parameter. $< . Cearin% area ratio depth is critica$ for #achinin% processes that have characteri"tic peaks. is the ratio" .$+-. It is u"efu$ because it "i#u$ate" wear at variou" cutting depth" of the "urface. . Cearin% ratio. The bearin% ratio curve is generated by p$ottin% a curve at variou" depths.$+ Herivation of bearing ratio. It is ba"ed on ten points within one sampling $en%th .K be$o( the hi%he"t peak.Fig. 5. such as %rindin%+ hard turnin%+ or #i$$in%.expressed as a percenta%e. Cearin% area ratio . symbol tp .Fig.

shaped c. This t pe of curve repre"ent" a "urface that re3uire" very $itt$e depth to obtain a supporting "urface. a f$at curve is de"irab$e. %@ . R' .reduced peak height.C /on%<ter# running surface which will inf$uence the perfor#ance and $ife of the co#ponent./ubricant filled profi$e valley area.The "$ope of this curve can be u"efu$ in determining how fa"t a surface will (ear and the di#en"iona$ si2e chan%e likely after wear-in.). Mr1 C Materia$ component re$ative to pea'"" A1 C Materia$ filled profi$e peak area.turned b. a. Fig.8bbot-Firestones curve-.core roughness depth. Hifferent profile shapes and 8bbot-Firestone curves for various machining processes.reduced valley depth. /haracteristic values of the material content . For hi%her bearing $oad". Mr2 C Materia$ component re$ative to va$$e "" A2 .C Top portion of the bearin% surface.$. Rv' .).ground d. which will 3uic'$ be (orn away when the co#ponent begins to run.honed Fig.$<.C The $o(e"t part of the "urface that retain" lubricant. Rp' .

%$ .