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EXPERIMENT NO. 6 AIM: STUDY AND CALIBRATION OF SINGLE PHASE ENERGY METER. APPRATUS REQUIRED: Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name Wattmeter Voltmeter Ammeter am! oa" #an\$ Single '(ase )nergy *eter Range 0-750 Watts 0-300 volts 0-10 A 1 %& +00 R,%W-. 50 -/ Quantity 1 1 1 1 1

THEORY: 0(e total !o&er 1onsume" 2y a loa" "uring an interval o3 time is )N)R45.

W(ere. )6)nergy. '6 'o&er. 060ime 73 t(e voltages 8 1urrents not 1onstant 8 (ave n-values over t(e time t. t(en

## 7t 1an also 2e e9!resse" as 1ontinuous integral o3 'o&er i.e..

0(e unit o3 energy is Watt se1on" or :oule. #ut its 1ommer1ial unit is %ilo&att-(ours or %W( &(i1( is "e3ine" as t(e energy 1onsume" 2y a loa" o3 1000 &atts over a !erio" o3 one (our.

Energy Meter 7n"u1tion ty!e energy meters are most 1ommonly 3orm o3 an A. 1. %W( meter use" to measure t(e energy 1onsume" in any a.1. 1ir1uit in a !res1ri2e" !erio" &(en su!!ly voltage an" 3re;uen1y are 1onstant. in "ay to"ay li3e 8 in in"ustrial installation. )nergy meter is an integrating instrument &(i1( measure t(e total ;uantity o3 ele1tri1al energy su!!lie" to t(e 1ir1uit in a given !erio". 0(ese meters measure ele1tri1al energy in %ilo&att (ours. PRINCIPLE: 0(e #asi1 !rin1i!le o3 in"u1tion ty!e energy meter is ele1tromagneti1 in"u1tion. W(en an alternating 1urrent 3lo&s t(roug( t&o suita2ly lo1ate" 1oils <=urrent 1oil 8 'otential =oil> !ro"u1es rotating magneti1 3iel" &(i1( is 1ut 2y t(e metalli1 "is1 Sus!en"e" near to t(e 1oils. t(us. an e.m.3. is in"u1e" in t(e t(in Aluminum "is1 &(i1( 1ir1ulates e""y 1urrents in it. #y t(e intera1tion o3 Rotating magneti1 3iel" 8 e""y 1urrents. tor;ue is "evelo!e" 8 1auses t(e "is1 to rotate. 0(is is t(e same !rin1i!le &(i1( is a!!lie" in t(e single-!(ase in"u1tion motors. =onstru1tion? An 7n"1tion ty!e single !(ase energy meter. (as 3ollo&ing main !arts o3 t(e o!erating me1(anism? 1. @riving System 2. *oving System 3. #ra\$ing System 4. Registering System

DRI ING SYSTEM "evelo!s tor;ue to rotate t(e moving system. 7t 1onsists o3 t&o ele1tromagnets one is 3orme" 2y 1urrent 1oil 8 ot(er one is 2y voltage 1oil or !ressure 1oil. MO ING SYSTEM essentially 1onsists o3 an aluminum mounte" on t(e s!in"le &(i1( is su!!orte" 2y 'ivot-:e&el #earing system. Sin1e t(ere is not 1ontrol s!ring. t(e "is1 ma\$es 1ontinuous revolution un"er t(e a1tion t(e "e3le1ting tor;ue. BRA!ING SYSTEM 1onsists o3 a !ermanent magnet o3 = s(a!e" 1overing a !art o3 rotating "is1 to !rovi"e 2ra\$ing tor;ue. #y 1(anging t(e !osition o3 2rea\$ing magnet. t(e Alu9 lin\$age &it( t(e "is1 1an 2e 1(ange". t(is tor;ue is o!!osite to "riving tor;ue.

R)47S0)R7N4 S5S0)* \$ee!s t(e re1or" o3 energy 1onsume" 2y loa" t(roug( &orm &(eel or !inion gear mounte" &it( s!in"le o3 moving "is1. "OR!ING W(en t(e energy meter is 1onne1te" in t(e 1ir1uit. t(e 1urrent 1oil 1arries t(e loa" 1urrent an" t(e !ressure 1oil 1arries t(e 1urrent !ro!ortional to t(e su!!ly voltage. 0(e magneti1 3iel" !ro"u1e" 2y t(e S)R7)S magnet <series 1oil> is in !(ase &it( t(e line 1urrent 8 t(e magneti1 3iel" !ro"u1e" 2y t(e s(unt magnet <!ressure 1oil> is in ;ua"rature &it( t(e a!!lie" voltage <sin1e t(e 1oil is (ig(ly in"u1tive>. 0(us. a !(ase "i33eren1e e9ists 2et&een t(e 3lu9es !ro"u1e" 2y t(e t&o 1oils. 0(is sets u! a rotating 3iel" &(i1( intera1ts &it( t(e "is1 an" !ro"u1es a "riving tor;ue an". t(us. "is1 starts rotating. 0(e num2er o3 revolutions ma"e 2y t(e "is1 "e!en"s u!on t(e energy !assing t(roug( t(e meter. 0(e s!in"le is geare" to t(e re1or"ing me1(anism so t(at ele1tri1al energy 1onsume" in t(e 1ir1uit is "ire1tly registere" in %W(. 0(e s!ee" o3 t(e "is1 is a":uste" 2y a":usting t(e !osition o3 t(e 2rea\$ing magnet. Aor e9am!le. i3 t(e energy meter registers less energy t(an t(e energy a1tually 1onsume" in t(e 1ir1uit. t(en t(e s!ee" o3 "is1 (as to 2e in1rease" &(i1( is o2taine" 2y s(i3ting t(e magnet nearer to t(e 1entre o3 t(e @is1 an" vi1e-versa. At 1onstant angular s!ee" t(e !o&er is !ro!ortional to t(e angular

s!ee" in r.!.s. We 1ali2rate & an" energy meter 2y time test. et % 2e t(e meter 1onstant o3 energy meter. &(i1( is t(e num2er o3 revolution !er %W( energy 1onsum!tion. W(en 1onne1te" to measure energy. i3 "is1 ma\$es R num2er o3 revolution in t se1on"s. 0(en t(e rea"ing o3 energy meter is?

et %W6 'o&er in %ilo&att 3rom &attmeter rea"ing. R6 No. o3 revolution ma"e 2y "is1 in BtC Se1.

)nergy re1or"e" 2y meter un"er test et t(e &attmeter rea"ing 2e %& &atts o3 energy 1al1ulate" 3rom t(e &attmeter 8 sto! &at1( is given 2y

## )nergy 1onsume" 2y &attmeter <)s> 6

'er1entage )rror 6 6 PROCEDURE: 1. *a\$e t(e 1onne1tion as !er t(e 1ir1uit "iagram. 2. @e1i"e t(e num2er o3 revolution to ta\$e t(e rea"ings. 7t s(oul" neit(er 2e too small nor 2e too large. 5ou may \$ee! t(is 2et&een 4+ Revolutions. 3. %ee! t(e loa" at minimum an" s&it1( on t(e !o&er su!!ly. 4. 0a\$e t(e rea"ing o3 )t. W an" t 3rom t(e energy meter. &attmeter an" sto! &at1( res!e1tively. =al1ulate )s 8 'er1entage error. 5. 7n1reases t(e loa" in 5-10 ste!s u!to rate" value o3 t(e energy meter an" ta\$e t(e rea"ings. S&it1( o33 t(e su!!ly. Arom t(e o2servation o3 t(e magnitu"e o3 error at "i33erent loa"s !re"i1t t(e nature o3 t(e error as given 2elo&? 1. W(en su!!ly is on an" t(ere is no loa". i.e.. &(en its !ressure 1oil is only energi/e". i3 meter rea"s energy 2y rotation o3 "is1 it is 1ertainly D=R))' )RRERF. 2. 73 at very (ig( loa"s. it rea"s less it is 1alle" as AR7=07ENA )RRRER. 3. 3. 73 at very (ig( loa" meter rea"ing is less. it may 2e "ue to D@5NA*7= #R)A%7N4 0ERQG)F an" re;uires over loa" 1om!ensation. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

S#. N\$.

## T() N\$. \$, e Re-\$#.t(\$ &*e n*&R' &!"/' +'

PRECAUTIONS: 1. *a\$e sure t(e 1onne1tions 1are3ully an" get it 1(e1\$e" 2y your instru1tor 2e3ore you s&it1( EN t(e su!!ly. 2. 0a\$e t(e rea"ings 1are3ully. es!e1ially t(e energy meter rea"ing an" sto! &at1( o!eration must 2e simultaneous. 3. @onCt tou1( t(e live &ires. 4. @o not t(e energy meter 2eyon" its rating. 5. 0(e in!ut voltage must 2e \$e!t 1onstant &it( t(e (el! o3 autotrans3ormer. RESULT: 0(e given 1-!(ase in"u1tion ty!e energy meter is 1ali2rate" &it( t(e (el! o3 a stan"ar" &attmeter an" sto! &at1(. 7t is 3oun" t(at !er1entage error "oes not remain 1onstant rat(er it varies in magnitu"e 3rom no loa" to 3ull loa".