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**Three-Phase A.C. Circuits
**

Learning Outcomes

This chapter introduces the concepts and principles of the three-phase electrical supply, and the corresponding circuits. On completion you should be able to: 1 Describe the reasons for, and the generation of the three-phase supply. 2 Distinguish between star (3 and 4-wire) and delta connections. 3 State the relative advantages of three-phase systems compared with single-phase-systems. 4 Solve three-phase circuits in terms of phase and line quantities, and the power developed in three-phase balanced loads. 5 Measure power dissipation in both balanced and unbalanced three-phase loads, using the 1, 2 and 3-wattmeter methods, and hence determine load power factor. 6 Calculate the neutral current in a simple unbalanced 4-wire system.

**3.1 Generation of a Three-Phase Supply
**

In order to understand the reasons for, and the method of generating a three-phase supply, let us ﬁrstly consider the generation of a singlephase supply. Alternating voltage is provided by an a.c. generator, more commonly called an alternator. The basic principle was outlined in Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles, Chapter 5. It was shown that when a coil of wire, wound on to a rectangular former, is rotated in a magnetic ﬁeld, an alternating (sinusoidal) voltage is induced into the coil. You should also be aware that for electromagnetic induction to take place, it is the relative movement between conductor and magnetic ﬂux that matters. Thus, it matters not whether the ﬁeld is static and the conductor moves, or vice versa. For a practical alternator it is found to be more convenient to rotate the magnetic ﬁeld, and to keep the conductors (coil or winding) stationary.

85

86

Further Electrical and Electronic Principles

In any rotating a.c. machine, the rotating part is called the rotor, and the stationary part is called the stator. Thus, in an alternator, the ﬁeld system is contained in the rotor. The winding in which the emf is generated is contained in the stator. The reasons for this are as follows:

In this context, the term ﬁeld refers to the magnetic ﬁeld. This ﬁeld is normally produced by passing d.c. current through the rotor winding. Since the winding is rotated, the current is passed to it via copper slip-rings on the shaft. The external d.c. supply is connected to the slip-rings by a pair of carbon brushes.

(a) When large voltages are generated, heavy insulation is necessary. If this extra mass has to be rotated, the driving device has to develop extra power. This will then reduce the overall efﬁciency of the machine. Incorporating the winding in the stator allows the insulation to be as heavy as necessary, without adversely affecting the efﬁciency. (b) The contact resistance between the brushes and slip-rings is very small. However, if the alternator provided high current output (in hundreds of ampere), the I2R power loss would be signiﬁcant. The d.c. current (excitation current) for the ﬁeld system is normally only a few amps or tens of amps. Thus, supplying the ﬁeld current via the slip-rings produces minimal power loss. The stator winding is simply connected to terminals on the outside of the stator casing. (c) For very small alternators, the rotor would contain permanent magnets to provide the rotating ﬁeld system. This then altogether eliminates the need for any slip-rings. This arrangement is referred to as a brushless machine. The basic construction for a single-phase alternator is illustrated in Fig. 3.1. The conductors of the stator winding are placed in slots

G E J stator

C

N

L

A

rotor

B

M

S

D

K H

F

Fig. 3.1

Three-Phase A.C. Circuits

87

around the inner periphery of the stator. The two ends of this winding are then led out to a terminal block on the casing. The rotor winding is also mounted in slots, around the circumference of the rotor. This ﬁgure is used to illustrate the principle. A practical machine would have many more conductors and slots. Since the conductors of the stator winding are spread around the whole of the slots, it is known as a distributed winding. As the rotor ﬁeld sweeps past these conductors an emf is induced in each of them in turn. These individual emfs reach their maximum values only at the instant that the rotating ﬁeld ‘cuts’ them at 90°. Also, since the slots have an angular displacement between them, then the conductor emfs will be out of phase with each other by this same angle. In Fig. 3.1 there are a total of twelve conductors, so this phase difference must be 30°. The total stator winding emf will therefore not be the arithmetic sum of the conductor emfs, but will be the phasor sum, as shown in Fig. 3.2. The ratio of the phasor sum to the arithmetic sum is called the distribution factor. For the case shown (a fully distributed winding) the distribution factor is 0.644.

F E 30Њ B C D G H K L J

M A AB, CD etc. are conductor (coil) emfs. AM is the phasor sum

Fig. 3.2

Now, if all of the stator conductors could be placed into a single pair of slots, opposite to each other, then the induced emfs would all be in phase. Hence the phasor and arithmetic sums would be the same, yielding a distribution factor of unity. This is not a practical solution. However, if the conductors are concentrated so as to occupy only one third of the available stator slots, then the distribution factor becomes 0.966. In a practical single-phase alternator, the stator winding is distributed over two thirds of the slots. Let us return to the option of using only one third of the slots. We will now have the space to put two more identical windings into the stator. Each of the three windings could be kept electrically separate, with their own pairs of terminals. We would then have three separate singlephase alternators in the same space as the original. Each of these would

The circuit representation for the stator winding of such a machine is shown in Fig. Thus we have the red. voltage VR VY VB 0 180 360 θ (deg) Fig. However. then they may be represented both on a waveform diagram using the same angular or time axis. The corresponding waveform and phasor diagrams are shown in Figs. They are identiﬁed by the colours red. mutually out-of-phase by 120°. What we have. six-wire system. yellow and blue phases. LOAD 1 LOAD 2 LOAD 3 Fig. the three phase windings are shown connected. each one to its own separate load. 3. What we now have is the basis of a three-phase alternator.4 . yellow and blue.3 Since the three generated voltages are sinewaves of the same frequency. in effect. In either case. since each whole winding will occupy 120° of stator space.3. The three winding emfs will of course be mutually out of phase with each other by 120°. 3.88 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles also have a good distribution factor of 0. In this ﬁgure. and as phasors.966. The three stator windings are brought out to their own separate pairs of terminals on the stator casing. are three identical single-phase alternators contained in the one machine. 3. The term three-phase alternator is in some ways slightly misleading. or phases.5 respectively. These stator windings are referred to as phase windings. This arrangement is known as a three-phase. three-phase alternators are rarely connected in this way. 3.4 and 3.

3. 3. The yellow phase lags the red by 120°. In this diagram. for any reason. if you prefer. 3. leads the red by 120°). VR VB VY Fig.5 we need to select a reference phasor. If. The sum of the vectors may be determined by drawing them to scale. blue. If. as in Fig. the three phasors have been treated as any other vector quantity. i. B applies at all times. red. Four-Wire System It is not necessary to have six wires from the three phase windings to the three loads. It may be seen from the waveform diagram that at any point along the horizontal axis. yellow. This fact becomes even more apparent if the phasor diagram is redrawn as in Fig. We shall assume that the normal sequence of R. blue. the rotor was driven in the opposite direction. provided there is a common ‘return’ line. Circuits 89 VB VR VY Fig. then the phase sequence would be reversed. and the resultant found by measuring the distance and angle from the beginning point of the ﬁrst vector to the arrowhead of the last one.2 Three-Phase. Each winding will have a ‘start’ (S) and a ‘ﬁnish’ (F) end.6. and the blue lags the red by 240° (or. as in Fig. the phase sequence is red. 3. yellow.Three-Phase A.6.6. By convention.e. the reference is always taken to be the red phase voltage. The common connection mentioned above is achieved by connecting the corresponding ends . The windings are arranged so that when the rotor is driven in the chosen direction. the ﬁrst and last vectors meet in a closed ﬁgure.6 3. the sum of the three voltages is zero.C. the resultant must be zero. Y. 3.

S F F F S S Fig. star-connected generators to supply the grid system. This is one of the reasons why the power generating companies use three-phase. then the 3-phase. 3. If a 4-wire. such as the National Grid System. If the power has to be sent over long transmission lines. 4-wire system yields an enormous saving in cable costs.7. However it is difﬁcult.7 If the three loads were identical in every way (same impedance and phase angle). either the three ‘F’ ends or the three ‘S’ ends are commoned. the conductor csa would only need to be 1/3 that for the single-phase system. The load in this case is known as a balanced load. The two lines from a single-phase alternator would have to carry the total 600 A required. If a 3-phase. The resultant current returning down the neutral wire would therefore be zero. This form of connection is shown in Fig.4 and 3.5:6 (the 0. and the common wire in the centre is called the neutral. The three outer wires are called the lines. For example. Let us now consider one of the advantages of this system compared with both a single-phase system.5. then the currents ﬂowing in the three lines would be identical. Also. For this reason the neutral is left in place. but of course. the three loads also are connected in star conﬁguration.5 being due to the neutral). in practice. If the waveform and/or phasor diagrams for these currents were drawn. they would be identical in form to Figs. being six lines would entail using the same total amount of conductor material. and the three-phase 6-wire system. since it has to carry only the relatively small ‘out-ofbalance’ current. With the resulting 4-wire system. it is made half the cross-sectional area of the lines. 3. Thus. and is known as a star or Y connection. 6-wire system was used. and the neutral is not strictly necessary. These three currents meet at the star point of the load. . to ensure that each of the three loads are exactly balanced. Suppose that three identical loads are to be supplied with 200 A each. 3-phase system is used there will be a saving on conductor costs in the ratio of 3.90 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles of the three phases together. 3. then each line would have to carry only 200 A.

and then ﬁnd the resulting phasor sum.8 A line voltage is the phasor difference between the appropriate pair of phase voltages. and may be referred to in general terms as Vph.9 .Three-Phase A. or speciﬁcally as VRY. However. 3. 3. mathematically. ϪVYN VBN B 30Њ 0 30Њ VRN A C VYN Fig. The corresponding phasor diagram is shown in Fig. Circuits 91 3. Thus. 3. the simplest way to subtract one phasor from another is to reverse one of them.3 Relationship between Line and Phase Quantities in a Star-connected System Consider Fig. VYB arid VBR respectively. This is called a line voltage.9. VRY is the phasor difference between VRN and VYN. This is.C. IL Iph Vph IN Iph Iph IL Vph N VL VL R B Vph VL Y Fig. the same process as saying that a Ϫ b ϭ a ϩ (Ϫb). or speciﬁcally as VRN. which represents the stator of a 3-phase alternator connected to a 3-phase balanced load. there will also be a difference of potential between any pair of lines. In terms of a phasor diagram. 3.8. VYN and VBN respectively. The voltage generated by each of the three phases is developed between the appropriate line and the neutral. These are called the phase voltages. which may be generally referred to as VL.

in star configuration. 3. We shall use the ﬁrst of these. and OA ϭ VRN then VRY ϭ 3VRN Using the same technique.10.9. The star-connected system provides two alternative voltage outputs from a single machine.1) The complete phasor diagram for the line and phase voltages for a star connection is shown in Fig. considering the circuit diagram of Fig.11.92 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles Note: If VYN is reversed. Since triangle OAB is a 30°.8. For this reason. 90° triangle.OA so OB ϭ and since OC ϭ VRY . The phasor difference between VRN and VYN is simply the phasor sum of VRN ϩ (ϪVYN). 3. it is denoted either as ϪVYN or as VNY . 3. Geometrically this is obtained by completing the parallelogram as shown in Fig. the line and phase currents must be the same. 60°. Thus. I L ϭ I ph (3. Another property of a parallelogram is that its diagonals bisect each other at right angles. This parallelogram consists of two isosceles triangles. triangle OCA consists of two equal right-angled triangles.2) We now have another advantage of a 3-phase system compared with single-phase. VL ϭ 3Vph (3.OA 2 but OC ϭ 2 ϫ OB ϭ 3 . the stators of all alternators used in electricity power stations are connected in star conﬁguration. in star configuration. 3. This is illustrated in Fig. Hence. OAB and ABC. OB 3 ϭ OA 2 3 . it can be shown that: VYB ϭ 3VYN and VBR ϭ 3VBN Thus. 3. – then the ratios of its sides AB:OA:OB will be 1:2:Ί3 respectively. such as OCA.10 Hence. Also. These machines normally generate a line voltage . C B 60° A 30° O Fig.

Three-Phase A. connected in series.1 Q A 415 V. The phase voltage derived from the 415 V lines is 240 V. By means of transformers. then it is necessary only to calculate values for one phase of the load. 33 kV.12 .1 H. Rph ϭ 25 . A Whenever a three-phase supply is specified. For more localised distribution. The figures for the other two phases and lines will be identical to these. and 415 V. 3. transformers are used to step down the line voltage to 132 kV.C. Worked Example 3. The last three of these voltages are supplied to various industrial users. (b) the line current drawn from the supply. this voltage is stepped up to 400 kV for long distance transmission over the National Grid. VL ϭ 415 V. and is used to supply both commercial premises and households. since we are dealing with a balanced load. 11 kV.11 of about 25 kV. Calculate (a) phase voltage. 3-phase supply is connected to a star-connected balanced load. f ϭ 50 Hz. Circuits 93 VBN VBR 30° 30° VRN 30° VYN VRY VYB Fig.1 H Fig. 50 Hz. Each phase of the load consists of a resistance of 25 and inductance 0. Lph ϭ 0.1 H IL ϭ Iph 25 Ω Vph VL 0. 3. and (c) the power dissipated. the voltage quoted is always the line voltage. Also.

13 . then the total power is: P ϭ 3 ϫ Pph watt ϭ 3 ϫ 893. since a 3-phase load may also be connected in this way.15 I ph ϭ Vph Z ph amp ϭ 240 40.4 Delta or Mesh Connection If the start end of one winding is connected to the ﬁnish end of the next. 422 Z ph ϭ Rph L Z ph ϭ 40.68 kW Ans 3. The delta connection is not reserved for machine windings only. the result is the delta or mesh connection. then the phase current may be calculated: X L ϭ 2 fL ohm ϭ 2 ϫ 50 ϫ 0. 3.98 A In a star-connected circuit.982 ϫ 25 Pph ϭ 893. This connection is shown in Fig.98 A Ans 2 R The power in one phase.29 hence P ϭ 2.29 W and since there are three phases. IL ϭ IPh therefore IL ϭ 5. and we now know the phase voltage.13.1 hence X L ϭ 31.15 so I ph ϭ 5. Pph ϭ I ph ph watt ϭ 5.42 2 ϩ X 2 ohm ϭ 252 ϩ 3 1 . 3.94 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles (a) VL 415 ϭ 3 3 so Vph ϭ 240 V Ans Vph ϭ (b) Since it is possible to determine the impedance of a phase of the load. and so on until all three windings are interconnected. IL F Iph S Iph VL S F Iph S F IL IL Fig.

for the delta connection: VL ϭ Vph (3.15 .14 The phasor diagram for the phase and line currents in delta connection is as in Fig. Circuits 95 3. The three phase currents are mutually displaced by 120°.C. 3. 3. 3. 3. Using exactly the same geometrical technique as that for the phase and line voltages in the star connection.5 Relationship between Line and Phase Quantities in a Delta-connected System It is apparent from Fig. Note that the provision of a neutral wire is not applicable with a delta connection.3) It is also apparent that the current along each line is the phasor difference of a pair of phase currents.14.13 that each pair of lines is connected across a phase winding.4) IB(ph) 120° 120° 120° IR(ph) IY(ph) Fig.Three-Phase A. Thus. it can be shown that: I L ϭ 3 I ph (3. provided that the load Iph IL 30° 30° Iph 30° Iph IL IL Fig. and the phasor diagram for these is shown in Fig. 3. However.15.

there is no requirement for one. and each phase or line current would have to be calculated separately.1 that the power in a 3-phase balanced load is obtained by multiplying the power in one phase by 3. f ϭ 50 Hz The circuit diagram is shown in Fig.... In many practical situations. A Zph ϭ 120 . then these equalities do not exist. PphϭVphIph cos φ watt where cos φ is the phase power factor. total power. 3. I L ϭ 3 I ph amp ϭ 3 ϫ 5 therefore I L ϭ 8. Vph ϭ VL ϭ 600 V I ph ϭ Vph Z ph amp ϭ 600 120 so. it is more convenient to work with line quantities. 50 Hz. This technique is beyond the scope of the syllabus you are now studying.6 Power Dissipation in Star and Delta-connected Loads We have seen in Example 3. Worked Example 3. P ϭ 3 ϫ Pph ϭ 3 ϫ Vph I ph cos φ watt.[1] . as will be the three line currents....16. VL ϭ 600 V.. 3-phase supply... IL Iph VL ϭ Vph 600 V Z 120 Ω Fig. When this load is connected to a 600 V. and (b) the line current drawn.2 Q A balanced load of phase impedance 120 is connected in delta. I ph ϭ 5 A Ans (b) in delta.. 3. determine (a) the phase current.66 A Ans 3. Under balanced load conditions the three phase currents will be equal.96 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles is balanced. If the load is unbalanced.16 (a) In delta...

VL ϭ 400 V (a) the circuit diagram is shown in Fig. in both star and delta-connected loads is exactly the same. to a 400 V. Calculate the power dissipation in each case. and (b) in delta. A Zph ϭ 100 .5) and substituting these values into eqn [1] will yield the same result as shown in (3.17 IL ϭ Iph VL 400 V Vph Z 100 Ω Fig. 3. Vph ϭ VL 3 . This is demonstrated in the following example.3 Q A balanced load of phase impedance 100 and power factor 0. and I ph ϭ IL Substituting for Vph and Iph in eqn [1]: P ϭ 3ϫ VL 3 I L cos φ therefore P ϭ 3VL I L cos φ watt For a delta-connected load. Vph ϭ VL and I ph ϭ I ph 3 (3. Thus. Circuits 97 Considering a STAR-connected load.8 is connected (a) in star. However.Three-Phase A. Worked Example 3. 3. the value of power dissipated by a given load when connected in star is not the same as when it is connected in delta. cos φ ϭ 0. 3-phase supply.17 . the equation for determining power dissipation.8.5) above.C.

93 ϫ 0.93 A P ϭ 3 VL I L cos φ watt ϭ 3 ϫ 400 ϫ 6.28 kW Ans (b) The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. 3.84 kW Ans Comparing the two answers for the power dissipation in the above example. 3. three-phase supply. IL Iph VL ϭ Vph 400 V Z 100 Ω Fig. and (c) the load inductance.18 Vph ϭ VL ϭ 400 V I ph ϭ Vph Z ph amp ϭ 400 100 so I ph ϭ 4 A but I L ϭ 3 I ph ϭ 3 ϫ 4 so I L ϭ 6. A VL ϭ 400 V.98 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles VL 400 volt ϭ 3 3 so Vph ϭ 231 V Vph ϭ I L ϭ I ph ϭ Vph Z ph amp ϭ 231 100 and I L ϭ 2.4 Q A balanced star-connected load is fed from a 400 V.18. R ϭ 10 . (3. it may be seen that: Power in a delta-connected load is three times that when i t is connected in star configuration. Calculate (a) the line current drawn.8 therefore P ϭ 1. (b) the load power factor.8 therefore P ϭ 3.31 A P ϭ 3 VL I L cos φ watt ϭ 3 ϫ 400 ϫ 2.6) Worked Example 3.31 ϫ 0. 50 Hz. P ϭ 15 000 W . The resistance in each phase of the load is 10 and the load draws a total power of 15 kW. f ϭ 50 Hz.

3. ϭ 0.22 mH Ans Lϭ Rph φ Xph Zph Fig.2581 ϭ X ph Rph so.36 h ence.f.47Њ tan φ ϭ 0. X ph ϭ 10 ϫ 0. Pph ϭ I ph Pph ϭ so.19 (a) The power in one phase will be one third of the total power.C. so P 15 000 watt ϭ ϭ 5 kW 3 3 2 R watt but.968 Ans (c) φ ϭ cosϪ1 0.581 Ϫ ohm ϭ 2 f 100 and L ϭ 8.968 ϭ 14.Three-Phase A. p.f. Circuits 99 R 10 Ω VL 400 V L Fig.581 XL 2. ϭ 15 000 P ϭ 3 VL I L 3 ϫ 400 ϫ 22.36 A Ans Pph 5000 10 (b) P ϭ 3 VL I L cos φ watt so.20 . I L ϭ I ph ϭ ϭ R I L ϭ 22. cos φ ϭ p.2581 ϭ 2. 3.

7 so P ϭ 3622.21 (a) I L ϭ 3 I ph amp ϭ 3 ϫ 15 I L ϭ 25. as can the three secondary windings. Similarly.7 IL Iph ϭ 15 A R VL ϭ Vph 115 V L Fig. the load connected to the transformer secondary windings may be connected in either conﬁguration.5 Q A balanced delta-connected load takes a phase current of 15 A at a power factor of 0.7 Star/Delta Supplies and Loads As explained in Section 3. Iph ϭ 15 A.5 W Ans (b) P 3622. Calculate (a) the power drawn from the supply. The three primary windings may be connected either in star or delta. The method of solution of this type of problem is illustrated in the following worked example. cos φ ϭ 0.5 152 R ϭ 5. .5 ϭ ϭ 1207. f ϭ 50 Hz. 3.100 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles Worked Example 3. three-phase supply. and (b) the resistance in each phase of the load. 50 Hz.7 lagging when connected to a 115 V. 3-phase transformers are used to step the voltage down to the appropriate value.37 3. A three-phase transformer is basically three single-phase transformers interconnected.98 ϫ 0. Hence.98 A P ϭ 3 VL I L cos φ watt ϭ 3 ϫ 115 ϫ 25.3.5 W 3 3 2 R watt and Pph ϭ I ph Pph ϭ so R ϭ Pph 2 I ph ohm ϭ Ans 1207. the distribution of 3-phase supplies is normally at a much higher line voltage than that required for many users. A VL ϭ Vph ϭ 115 V. One important point to bear in mind is that the transformation ratio (voltage or turns ratio) refers to the ratio between the primary phase to the secondary phase winding.

C.45 ϭ 3 3 and V4 ϭ 183. Determine (a) the voltages V2.351 kV Ans V2 ϭ V3 N ϭ s V2 Np so V3 ϭ NsV2 6351 volt ϭ 20 Np (a) hence V3 ϭ 317. (b) the currents I1. cos φ ϭ 0. The turns ratio of the transformer is 20:1.33 A Ans I3 7. and the star-connected primary is supplied at 11 kV. and I3. supplied from the delta-connected secondary of a 3-phase transformer.Three-Phase A. Zph ϭ 25 . and (c) the power drawn from the supply.23 amp ϭ Np 20 hence I1 ϭ 0 .3 V4 amp ϭ Z ph 25 I 3 ϭ 7. 3.23 A Ans I2 ϭ N I1 ϭ s I2 Np so I1 ϭ Ns I 2 4. V3 and V4.45 V Ans V3 317.22 A V1 ϭ 11 000 V.212 A Ans .75 V1 11 000 ϭ 3 3 V2 ϭ 6.3 V Ans V4 ϭ (b) In order to calculate the currents.22 shows a balanced. I2.33 ϭ 3 3 I 2 ϭ 4. and work ‘back’ through the circuit to the primary of the transformer: I3 ϭ 183.6 Q Figure 3. star-connected load of phase impedance 25 and power factor 0.75. I1 20:1 I2 V2 V3 I3 Z ϭ 25Ω cos φ ϭ 0. we shall have to start with the load.75 V4 V1 11 kV Fig. Circuits 101 Worked Example 3. Np/Ns ϭ 20/1.

Calculate (a) the phase and line currents. Each phase of the load consists of a coil of resistance 15 and inductance 36 mH.23 (a) For the alternator: V1 ϭ Vph ϭ 231 V V2 ϭ VL ϭ 3 Vph V2 ϭ 400 V I ph ϭ I L ϭ I1 For the load: V2 ϭ VL ϭ Vph ϭ 400 V X L ϭ 2 fL ohm ϭ 100 ϫ ϫ 36 ϫ 10Ϫ3 X L ϭ 11.88 A Ans (b) p.f. Vph ϭ 231 V I1 V1 231 V V2 R L 36 mH 15 Ω I2 Fig. 50 Hz alternator supplies a balanced delta-connected load. R ϭ 15 .102 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles (c) P ϭ 3 V1I1 cos φ watt ϭ 3 ϫ 11 ϫ 103 ϫ 0. L ϭ 36 mH.02 kW Ans Worked Example 3. ϭ cos φ ϭ ϭ R Z 15 18.212 ϫ 0. A f ϭ 50 Hz.75 therefore P ϭ 3.79 I ph ϭ I 2 ϭ Vph Z ph amp ϭ 400 18. and the phase voltage generated by the alternator is 231 V.29 I1 ϭ 36. and (c) the power delivered to the load.29 A Ans I L ϭ I1 ϭ 3 I 2 ϭ 3 ϫ 21.f.7 Q The star-connected stator of a three-phase.31 2 ohm ϭ 1 52 ϩ 11 .8 lagging Ans .79 p.3 12 Z ph ϭ R 2 ϩ X L Z ph ϭ 18. (b) the load power factor.79 I 2 ϭ 21. 3. ϭ 0.

C. This is illustrated in Fig. The principle of operation of this instrument is described in Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles. PϭVI cos φ watt. The total power P ϭ P1 ϩ P2 ϩ P3. P2 and P3 represent the three separate readings.4 kW Ans 3.4 kW Ans 2 R watt Alternatively.8 P ϭ 20. then it is necessary only to measure the power taken by one phase. then an artiﬁcial star point needs to be created. automatically takes into account the phase angle (or power factor) of the load. This technique can be very simply applied to a balanced. where the value of the two additional resistors is equal to the resistance of the wattmeter voltage coil. P ϭ 3 ϫ Pph ϭ 3 ϫ I 2 ϭ 3 ϫ 21.292 ϫ 15 P ϭ 20. Circuits 103 (c) P ϭ 3VL I L cos φ watt ϭ 3 ϫ 400 ϫ 36. star-connected system. and a moving voltage coil (or pressure coil) connected in parallel with the load. In the case of an unbalanced star-connected load. the instrument has a ﬁxed coil through which the load current ﬂows.8 Measurement of Three-phase Power In an a. one or other of the above procedures would have to be repeated for each phase in turn. R W1 N B Y Fig. 3.88 ϫ 0.24. The deﬂection of the pointer. Chapter 5. 3.c. The total power of the load is then obtained by multiplying this ﬁgure by three. where P1. carried by the moving coil. . where the star point and/or the neutral line are easily accessible. circuit the true power may only be measured directly by means of a wattmeter.24 In the situation where the star point is not accessible.25.Three-Phase A. Thus the wattmeter reading indicates the true power. 3. As a brief reminder. If a three-phase load is balanced. This is illustrated in Fig.

26 3.26. the power factor may be determined. this process would have to be repeated for each phase. The advantages of this method are: (a) Access to the star point is not required. Again. without any modiﬁcation to the connections. 3. as shown in Fig. 3.27. (b) The power dissipated in both balanced and unbalanced loads is obtained. one of the phases must be disconnected to allow the connection of the wattmeter current coil. This is shown in Fig. The reason is that the phase current is not the same as the line current. In practical circuits. if the load was unbalanced.104 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles R W1 R B Y R Fig. if possible. (c) For balanced loads. 3. .25 For a delta-connected load. R W1 B Y Fig. 3. the procedure is not quite so simple. Thus.9 The Two-Wattmeter Method The measurement of three-phase power using the above methods can be very awkward and time-consuming. the power is usually measured by using two wattmeters simultaneously.

7) Consider now the phasor diagram for a resistive-inductive balanced load. p2 ϭ vYB iY watt total instantaneous power ϭ p1 ϩ p2 ϭ vRB iR ϩ vYB iY ……… [1] Now. 3. .C.27. therefore p1 ϩ p2 ϭ vRN iR ϩ vYN iY ϩ vBN iB The instantaneous sum of the powers measured by the two wattmeters is equal to the sum of instantaneous power in the three phases. any line voltage is the phasor difference between the appropriate pair of phase voltages.e.Three-Phase A. Circuits 105 R W1 IR VRB IB B VYB IY Y W2 Fig. iR ϩ iY ϭ ϪiB i. below. p1 ϭ vRB iR watt and for W2 . the phasor sum of three equal currents is zero. P ϭ P1 ϩ P2 ϭ PR ϩ PY ϩ PB watt (3. hence: vRB ϭ vRN Ϫ vBN and vYB ϭ vYN Ϫ vBN and substituting these into eqn [1] yields: p1 ϩ p2 ϭ iR (vRN Ϫ vBN ) ϩ iY (vYN Ϫ vBN ) ϭ vRN iR ϩ vYN iY Ϫ vBN (iR ϩ iY ) but. 3. Hence. 3. This phasor diagram appears as Fig. the following statements apply: Instantaneous power for W1 .28.27. 3. total power. with the two wattmeters connected as in Fig.27 Considering Fig.

f. 3.5 (i. and W2 indicates zero. 3 If the load p. W2 attempts to indicate a negative reading. P2 ϭ VL I L cos (30 Њ ϩ φ) (3. Ͼ0. φ Ͼ 60°).f. P1 ϭ VL I L cos (30Њ Ϫ φ) and that for W2. both meters will give a positive reading. Ͻ0.8) From these results. the following points should be noted: wattmeter ϩ readings Ϫ90 Ϫ30 Ϫ 30 90 150 (30° Ϯ φ) Fig. φ ϭ 60°).e. and using Fig. 2 If the load p. ϭ0.29.e.106 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles IB VBR VBN φ VRN φ φ VR (30° ϩ φ) (30° Ϫ φ) IR VRB IY VYN VYB Fig.28 The power indicated by W1. 3. the connections to the voltage coil . 3.e.9) (3.f.29 1 If the load p. φ Ͻ 60°).5 (i. In this case.5 (i. W1 indicates the total power.

7) hence.142 kW Ans P2 ϭ VL I L cos (30Њ ϩ φ ) watt ϭ 415 ϫ 24 ϫ cos (95. cos φ ϭ 0. P ϭ 7.2 hence. (3.10) Worked Example 3. Circuits 107 of W2 need to be reversed.2 kW Ans P ϪP 1 2 φ ϭ tanϪ1 3 P2 ϩ P1 5 Ϫ 3 . Comment on the results. If the power dissipation is measured using the two-wattmeter method.42.9 Q A 3-phase balanced load takes a line current of 24 A at a lagging power factor of 0. .C. P ϭ 8. φ ϭ 20. A P1 ϭ 3. P2 ϭ 5 kW P ϭ P1 ϩ P2 watt ϭ (3.8 Q The power in a 3-phase balanced load was measured.7 W Ans P ϭ P1 ϩ P2 watt ϭ 8142 ϩ (Ϫ 896. cos φ can be determined. P2 ϭϪ896. VL ϭ 415 V φ ϭ cosϪ1 0. and the resulting reading recorded as a negative value. 4 The load power factor may be determined from the two wattmeter readings from the equation: P ϪP 2 1 φ ϭ tanϪ1 3 P2 ϩ P1 hence.42.42 ϭ 65. Determine the load power and power factor. A IL ϭ 24 A.f.17Њ ) therefore.2 ϩ 5) kW therefore. the total load power will be P ϭ P1ϪP2. 50 Hz supply. using the two-wattmeter method.2 kW and 5 kW respectively. The recorded readings were 3.Three-Phase A.17Њ ) therefore. P1 ϭ 8. the connections to its voltage coil must have been reversed. Under these circumstances. determine the two wattmeter readings.2 ϭ tanϪ1 3 5 ϩ 3 . and the value of power dissipated.244 kW Ans To obtain the negative reading on W2. ϭ cos φ ϭ 0.17Њ P1 ϭ VL I L cos (30 Њ Ϫ φ ) watt ϭ 415 ϫ 24 ϫ cos (Ϫ35. power factor.82Њ and p.2 kW. when connected to a 415 V.935 Ans Worked Example 3.

19 ϫ cos 85Њ P2 ϭ 260 W Ans P ϭ P1 ϩ P2 watt ϭ 2704 ϩ 260 P ϭ 2. The total power consumed is measured using the two-wattmeter method. φ ϭ 55°. This current is simply obtained by calculating the phasor sum of the line currents.108 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles Worked Example 3.964 kW Ans 3.19 ϫ cos Ϫ25Њ P1 ϭ 2. 3.15 ϭ 7 .19 A P1 ϭ VL I L c os (30Њ Ϫ φ ) watt ϭ 415 ϫ 7. then the three line (and phase) currents will be unequal. If the load is unbalanced. This is because the phasor sum of three equal currents.1 5 A 100 I L ϭ 3 I ph ϭ 3 ϫ 4 .30 I ph ϭ Vph Z ph amp ϭ 415 ϭ 4 . This is illustrated by the following example. mutually displaced by 120°. Determine the readings on the two meters and hence calculate the power consumed. . and is connected to a 415 V three-phase supply. by resolving the phasors into horizontal and vertical components.10 Neutral Current in an Unbalanced Three-phase Load We have seen that the neutral current for a balanced load is zero.704 kW Ans P2 ϭ VL I L cos (30Њ ϩ φ ) watt ϭ 415 ϫ 7. A Zph ϭ 100 . VL ϭ 415 V ϭ Vph W1 VL 415 V IL Zph 100 Ω VL 415 V IL W2 Fig. In this case. is zero. the neutral has to carry the resulting out-of-balance current. and applying Pythagoras’ theorem.10 Q A delta-connected load has a phase impedance of 100 at a phase angle of 55°. The technique is basically the same as that used previously. The only additional fact to bear in mind is that both horizontal and vertical components can have negative values.

IB 60 ° 60 ° IR H.32 . RB ϭ 40 The circuit diagram is shown in Fig. and are connected in the red. 3. I B ϭ RR RY RB 240 25 I R ϭ 9. star-connected load is supplied from a 3-phase. 3.11 Q An unbalanced. 3.31. and its phase angle relative to the red phase current. The three phase loads are purely resistive. A VL ϭ 415 V. IN Fig. 30 and 40 . RR ϭ 25 .Three-Phase A. Circuits 109 Worked Example 3. 3. RY ϭ 30 . 415 V source. φ IY V.C. yellow and blue phases respectively.C.32.31 Vph ϭ VL 415 ϭ 240 V volt ϭ 3 3 Vph Vph Vph amp IR ϭ amp. R IR Vph VL IN IY Y B IB 30 Ω 25 Ω 40 Ω Fig.C. IY ϭ amp.6 A ϭ ϭ 240 30 IY ϭ 8 A ϭ 240 40 IB ϭ 6 A The corresponding phasor diagrams are shown in Fig. Determine the value of the neutral current. These loads are 25 .

62 hence.C. These advantages.732 ϭ tanϪ1 H. ϭ I B sin 60Њ Ϫ IY sin 60Њ ϭ (6 ϫ 0. 5) ϭ ( 6 ϫ 0 . whereas that produced by a single-phase motor is pulsating. motors.C. ϭ I R Ϫ IY cos 60Њ Ϫ I B cos 60Њ ϭ 9 . together with others not yet described.6 A Vertical components. I N ϭ V. A single phase alternator utilises only two thirds of the stator slots. four-wire system provides alternative voltages for industrial and domestic users. 6 A three-phase supply produces a rotating magnetic ﬁeld. ϭϪ1. 7 Three-phase motors are inherently self-starting. four-wire system provides considerable savings in cable costs. 8 The torque produced by a three-phase motor is smooth. have been outlined. φ ϭϪ33. H.C. and their signiﬁcance will be appreciated when you have completed Chapter 5. for the distribution of an equivalent amount of power. are listed below.124 A Ans V.2 ϩ H. . 2 A three-phase alternator has a better distribution factor.c.866 ) Ϫ (8 ϫ 0.C.C. 2 .732 A The neutral current. 5) so. H. V. machines.110 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles Horizontal components. 4 A three-phase. 1 The whole of the stator of a three-phase machine is utilised. The advantages may be split into two distinct groups: those concerned with the generation and distribution of power.c.C.C. 3 A three-phase. 5 For a given machine frame size. whereas a single-phase supply produces only a pulsating ﬁeld.7322 ϩ 2. The last four of the advantages listed refer to the second group.6 hence. whereas single-phase motors are not. I N ϭ 3. compared with single-phase systems. 6 Ϫ ( 8 ϫ 0 .67Њ relative to I R Ans φ ϭ tanϪ1 3. which deals with a. some of the advantages of three-phase systems. ϭ 2.866 ) so V. Ϫ1. the power output from a three-phase machine is greater than that from a single-phase machine.2 amp ϭ Ϫ1. and those concerning a.11 Advantages of Three-phase Systems In previous sections.C.

φ ϭ tanϪ1 3 P2 ϩ P1 . VL ϭ Vph. IL ϭ Iph.C. VL ϭ 3Vph In delta. Circuits 111 Summary of Equations Phase and line quantities: In star. P(delta) ϭ 3 ϫ P (star) Power measurement: For two wattmeter method: P ϭ P1 ϩ P2 watt P ϪP 2 1 Load phase angle. IL ϭ 3 I ph Power dissipation: P ϭ 3VL I L cos φ watt 2 R P ϭ 3 ϫ Pph ϭ 3 ϫ Vph I ph cos φ ϭ 3 ϫ I p h ph watt and for the same load.Three-Phase A.

having a power factor of 0. If the load specified in Question 1 above is now connected in delta. 415 V. and (b) calculate the p. and (b) the power consumed.015 H. (c) the current in the transformer secondary windings. The power consumed is measured using the two-wattmeter method. consists of a coil of resistance 4 and reactance 5 . 55 A in the yellow phase.9. and take a line current of 4. and (c) the power consumed. Sketch a circuit diagram showing the wattmeter connections. The star-connected secondary of a three-phase transformer supplies a delta-connected motor.d. each phase of which has an inductive reactance of 40 and resistance of 25 . calculate (a) the current in the transformer secondary windings. Calculate (a) the power. (b) the power factor of the motor. the power in a three-phase system was measured. Calculate (a) the total power consumed. when the stator windings are connected in star configuration. which takes a power of 80 kW. delta-connected load consists of the stator windings of an a. across each phase of the load. at a lagging power factor of 0. calculate (a) the p. The power taken by a three-phase motor was measured using the two-wattmeter method.c.5 and inductance 0.6 kW and Ϫ2. Determine the resistance and inductance of each coil. star-connected load. Determine (a) the resistance and inductance of each coil.4 kW respectively. A balanced three-phase. Three inductors. Calculate (a) the line current. and (b) the load phase angle and power factor. Calculate the line current.02 H. This load is connected to a 400 V. Determine (a) the value of the neutral current. determine the values for phase and line currents. The meter readings were 120 W and 60 W respectively. Three identical coils. 13 10 If the transformer phase voltage is 600 V. (b) the load phase current. three-phase supply. A star-connected load. Each phase of the load consists of a coil. supplying a balanced load. three-phase supply. Using the two-wattmeter method. motor. connected in star. The currents are 40 A in the red phase. Determine (a) the power consumption and. 50 Hz. connected to measure the power in a three-phase system. and 62 A in the blue phase. and calculate the reading indicated by each meter. Each branch of a three-phase.112 Further Electrical and Electronic Prinicples Fundamental Electrical and Electronic Principles Assignment Questions 1 A three-phase load is connected in star to a 400 V. 50 Hz supply. Two wattmeters. and (b) the total power dissipated.35. star-connected load. 50 Hz supply. are connected in delta to a 400 V. calculate (a) the stator phase current. and (b) the power factor.8 A at a lagging power factor of 0. between any pair of lines. each of resistance 12 and inductance 0. If the line voltage is 600 V.8 kW at a power factor of 0. The readings were 850 W and 260 W respectively. 2 3 11 4 12 5 6 7 14 8 15 9 .8 lagging in each phase.2 H and resistance 40 . from a 415 V. State the significance of the negative reading recorded. 50 Hz supply. delta-connected transformer. 50 Hz supply. (b) the line current drawn from the supply. A star-connected alternator stator generates 300 V in each of its stator windings.85. 50 Hz supply is connected to an unbalanced. Repeat the calculations for Question 4. If this machine is connected to a 415 V. (a) Sketch the waveform and phasor diagrams for the phase voltages.d. and (c) the total power dissipated. 50 Hz. Three coils are connected in delta to a 415 V. is fed from the secondary of a three-phase. take a total power of 1. and (d) the power and power factor. (b) the power factor. A three-phase. indicate 10. having inductance 0. and (b) the current in the motor windings. Each winding has a resistance of 3.

16 Write an assignment report. three-phase supply 3 ϫ 1 k rheostats 2 ϫ wattmeters 1 ϫ DMM . 11 Switch on the supply. Apparatus: Low voltage. adjust each rheostat to exactly the same value (1 k ). determine the relationship between line and phase quantities for both star and delta connections.e. and connect the three ammeters in the three phases of the load. Apparatus: Low voltage. Record your values in Table 3. This will involve opening each phase and inserting each ammeter. 7 Measure and record the values of the three line currents and the neutral current. and disconnect the circuit. calculate the neutral current. in delta configuration. 3 Measure the three line voltages and the corresponding phase voltages. and compare this result with the measured value. 15 From your readings in Table 2. 9 Carefully reset the three rheostats to their original settings. to the three-phase supply. in star configuration. ENSURE that you do not exceed the current ratings of the rheostats. in Table 2. using both single and twowattmeter methods. 2 Connect the rheostats. 5 Check that the neutral current is zero. 10 Connect the rheostats. and record these in Table 1. Assignment 2 To measure the power in three-phase systems. 14 From your tabulated readings. three-phase supply 3 ϫ 1 k rheostats 3 ϫ ammeters 3 ϫ voltmeters (preferably DMM) Method: 1 Using a digital meter. 50 Hz. 50 Hz. i. as in paragraph 1 of the Method. 4 Measure the three line currents. 12 Switch off the supply.Fundamental ElectricalThree-Phase and Electronic A. State whether the line and phase relationships measured conform to those expected (allowing for experimental error). 6 Carefully unbalance the load by altering the resistance value of one or two of the rheostats. to the three-phase supply. Include all circuit and phasor diagrams.C. 8 Switch off the three-phase supply. Principles Circuits 113 113 Suggested Practical Assignments Assignment 1 To determine the relationship between line and phase quantities in three-phase systems. Record values in Table 3. and calculations. 13 Switch on and record the values of the three phase currents. and measure the line voltages and line currents. and record your results in Table 1. an ammeter in series with each rheostat. with an ammeter in each line.

Add the three readings to give the total power. 4 Add the three wattmeter readings to give the total power dissipation. and check that this is three times the phase power. 8 Record the two wattmeter readings. 7 Switch off the power supply and reconnect the circuit as in Fig. 3. . 3.34 6 Record the two wattmeter readings. and check that their sum equals the total power obtained from paragraph 10 above. 10 Record this reading.33 3 Transfer one of the wattmeters to the blue phase. and measure that power. and check whether their sum is equal to the total power recorded from paragraph 4 above.34. 2 Connect the circuit shown in Fig. 3.114 Further Electrical and Electronic Principles Method: 1 As for Assignment 1. 12 Record the two wattmeter readings. Check to see whether this is three times the individual phase power. 3. and measure the power in the red and yellow phases. W1 R B Y W2 Fig. 3. 11 Switch off the supply and connect the circuit of Fig. 5 Switch off the power supply.33.35. and reconnect as in Fig.36. 9 Switch off the supply. 3. R W1 N Y B W2 Fig. and transfer one of the wattmeters to the third phase. carefully adjust the three rheostats to the same value (1 k ).

Three-Phase A. . 3. You may either devise your own system. Circuits 115 R W1 W2 Y B Fig.35 W1 R B Y W2 Fig. 3. together with a suitable switching arrangement.36 Assignment 3 Show how the two-wattmeter method of power measurement can be accomplished by means of a single wattmeter. or discover an existing system through library research.C.

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