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A Seminar Report On

By Ritesh Sharma Shaurya Jain Pankaj Choudhary



A Seminar Report On
In part a! "#!" !!$%nt &" r%'# r%$%nt( "&r )%*r%% &" Ba1he2or o3 n4ineerin4 )n 2e1troni1s and "e2e1ommuni1ation n4ineerin4
SU+MITTED +,Ritesh Sharma Shaurya Jain Pankaj Choudhary

Un)%r t.% *# )an/% &"
Pro3.Suni2 Choudhary


"his is to 1erti3y that the Seminar entit2ed 5AU"OMA")C ROOM #)&!" CO%"RO## R6 has 7een su7mitted 7y R t%(.$a0 S.a#r1a 2a n0 Pan3a4 C.&#).ar1 under my 4uidan1e in partia2 3u23i22ment o3 the de4ree o3 Ba1he2or o3 n4ineerin4 in 2e1troni1s and "e2e1ommuni1ation n4ineerin4 o3 S.V.K.M’s MPS"M 8 Shirpur 1ampus durin4 the a1ademi1 year +,-+.+,-/9"rimester.V)):.

(ate; P2a1e; Shirpur G# )% 9Pro3. Suni2 Choudhary : HOD0 E5TC D%part$%nt 9Pro3. Shai2endra B:

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Ritesh Sharma Shaurya Jain Pankaj Choudhary A .A/3n&6!%)*%$%nt Apart 3rom the e33orts o3 us8 the su11ess o3 any proje1t depends 2ar4e2y on the en1oura4ement and 4uide2ines o3 many others.(. Shai2endra B. <e >ou2d 2ike to sho> our 4reatest appre1iation to !. and Pro3. <e 1an’t say thank you enou4h 3or their tremendous support and he2p. <ithout their en1oura4ement and 4uidan1e this proje1t >ou2d not ha?e materia2i@ed. Suni2 Choudhary .O. "he 4uidan1e and support re1ei?ed 3rom a22 the mem7ers >ho 1ontri7uted and >ho are 1ontri7utin4 to this proje1t8 >as ?ita2 3or the su11ess o3 the proje1t. <e 3ee2 moti?ated and en1oura4ed e?ery time >e attend their meetin4. <e take this opportunity to e=press my 4ratitude to the peop2e >ho ha?e 7een instrumenta2 in the su11ess3u2 1omp2etion o3 this proje1t. <e are 4rate3u2 3or their 1onstant support and he2p.

Cir1uit (ia4ram D (es1riptionBBBBBBBBB.. Ad?anta4es D (isad?anta4esBBBBBBBBBB..+F G. #ist o3 ComponentsBBBBBBBBBBBBBB.-.-C E. !ard>are (esi4nBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB..-E F.-/ A.PAGE INDE5 T&p / Pa*% N&7 -. /./. $uture S1opeBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB+C H..+G C.Bi72io4raphyBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB. F . B2o1k (ia4ram D (es1riptionBBBBBBBBB. Con12usionBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB+H -. )ntrodu1tionBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBC +. So3t>are (esi4n D $2o>1hartBBBBBBBBBB.

-C E .TA+LE INDE5 "a72e Pa4e %o.. "a72e -. -. Components 2istBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB.


A sma22 Iuantity o3 C .-. )t 1an 1on?ert any me1hani1a2 ?i7ration into e2e1tri1a2 si4na2. )n some apartment 7ui2din4s and 12ass rooms that are not eIuipped >ith a door7e228 it may 7e hard to hear someone kno1kin4 on the 3ront door. !ere a pie@oe2e1tri1 p2ate is used as the sensor.)ntrodu1tion "his 1ir1uit 4enerates an a2arm sensin4 the ?i7ration 4enerated on kno1kin4 a sur3a1e. "he pie@oe2e1tri1 sensor p2ate is 3i=ed at the 1entre o3 the door >in4 7y usin4 a 1e22o tape. "his 1ir1uit pro?ides a means to a1ti?ate a sound inside8 >hene?er someone kno1ks on the door 3rom outside. )t uses readi2y a?ai2a72e8 2o> 1ost 1omponents >hereas a2most a22 1ommer1ia2 de?i1es so2d use a more e=pensi?e and po>er 1onsumin4 1ir1uit.

adhesi?e is app2ied at the ed4es 7et>een the p2ate and the door. <ires are e=tende 3rom pie@oe2e1tri1 to the 1ir1uit. H .

A2so i3 at a22 one >ants to kno> the num7er o3 peop2e present in room so as not to ha?e 1on4estion. )n today’s >or2d8 there is a 1ontinuous need 3or automati1 app2ian1es >ith the in1rease in standard o3 2i?in4 8 there is a sense o3 ur4en1y 3or de?e2opin4 1ir1uits that >ou2d ease the 1omp2e=ity o3 2i3e."he o7je1ti?e o3 this proje1t is to make a door kno1k a2arm to 4enerate an a2arm sensin4 the ?i7ration 4enerated on kno1kin4 a sur3a1e. . . !ere >e 1an use sensor and 1an kno> that a person is present at the door. -.

B2o1k (ia4ram Ent%r nter Sensor Si4na2 Conditionin4 E8 t =it Sensor Si4na2 Conditionin4 Po>er Supp2y A " C H S F + Re2ay (ri?er #i4ht $i4. +..Basi1 B2o1k (ia4ram -- .+.

By usin4 this sensor and its re2ated 1ir1uit dia4ram >e 1an 1ount the persons. -. $or sensin4 the person and 2i4ht >e are usin4 the 2i4ht dependent re4ister 9#(R:.1ontro22er A.F8 >hi1h pro?ides the JFV d1 re4u2ated po>er supp2y. -+ . "he main 3un1tion o3 this 72o1k is to pro?ide the reIuired amount o3 ?o2ta4e to essentia2 1ir1uits. "he main intention o3 this 72o1k is to sense the person. 27 Ent%r an) E8 t C r/# t(-: "his is one o3 the main part o3 our proje1t. "o 4et the JFV d1 po>er supp2y >e ha?e used here )C GC.272+!&/3 D a*ra$ an) t( D%(/r pt &n "he 7asi1 72o1k dia4ram o3 the 7idire1tiona2 ?isitor 1ounter >ith automati1 2i4ht 1ontro22er is sho>n in the a7o?e 3i4ure. Po>er Supp2y +. J-+V is 4i?en to re2ay dri?er. Main2y this 72o1k dia4ram 1onsists o3 the 3o22o>in4 essentia2 72o1ks. A" CHSF+ mi1ro. J-+ ?o2ta4e is 4i?en. Re2ay dri?er 1ir1uit 97 P&6%r S#pp!1-: !ere >e used J-+V and JFV d1 po>er supp2y. ntry and =it sensor 1ir1uit /.

Be1ause o3 this appropriate de?i1e is se2e1ted and it do its a22otted 3un1tion.7 89S52 M /r&/&ntr&!!%r-: )t is a 2o>.density non?o2ati2e memory te1hno2o4y and is 1ompati72e >ith the MCS. <7 R%!a1 Dr =%r C r/# t-: "his 72o1k has the potentia2 to dri?e the ?arious 1ontro22ed de?i1es.1hip $2ash a22o>s the pro4ram memory to 7e repro4rammed in.system or 7y a 1on?entiona2 non?o2ati2e memory pro4rammer. By 1om7inin4 a ?ersati2e C. -/ . )n this 72o1k main2y >e are usin4 the transistor and the re2ays."M instru1tion set and pin out.7it CPU >ith $2ash on a mono2ithi1 hip8 the Atme2 A"CHSF+ is a po>er3u2 Mi1ro1ontro22er8 >hi1h pro?ides a hi4h2y 32e=i72e and 1ost e33e1ti?e so2ution so many em7edded 1ontro2 app2i1ations. "he de?i1e is manu3a1tured usin4 Atme2’s hi4h.po>er8 hi4h per3orman1e CMOS C.. Output si4na2 3rom A"CHSF+ is 4i?en to the 7ase o3 the transistor8 >hi1h >e are 3urther ener4i@in4 the parti1u2ar re2ay. One re2ay dri?er 1ir1uit >e are usin4 to 1ontro2 the 2i4ht. "he on.F.7it mi1ro1ontro22er >ith CKB o3 $2ash Pro4ramma72e and rasa72e Read On2y Memory 9P ROM:.

. Circuit Diagram and its Description "here are t>o main parts o3 the 1ir1uits. "ransmission Cir1uits 9)n3rared # (s: +. -.3."ransmission Cir1uit -A ./.79 Tran($ (( &n C r/# t- $i4. Re1ei?er Cir1uit 9Sensors: .

Adjust the preset in the transmitter to 4et a /C k!@ si4na2 at the oLp. )t is a2so kno>n as a 1har4ed up to a7out +L/ V118 the 32ip. )n this 1ir1uit8 a ne4ati?e pu2se app2ied at pin + tri44ers an interna2 32ip. At the same time8 the 32ip.8 tMR-C-.AK >e 4et a /C k!@ si4na2. -F .and C-8 i. <hen 1apa1itor C. A monosta72e mu2ti?i7rator is a timin4 1ir1uit that 1han4es state on1e tri44ered8 7ut returns to its ori4ina2 state a3ter a 1ertain time de2ay.32op that turns o33 pin GKs dis1har4e transistor8 a22o>in4 C."his 1ir1uit dia4ram sho>s ho> a FFF timer )C is 1on3i4ured to 3un1tion as a 7asi1 monosta72e mu2ti?i7rator. "he )CFFF in the transmitter side is to 4enerate /E k!@ sIuare >a?e. "his 1ir1uit8 in e33e1t8 produ1es a pu2se at pin / >hose >idth t is just the produ1t o3 R.32op is tri44ered on1e a4ain8 this time makin4 the pin / output K2o>K and turnin4 on pin GKs dis1har4e transistor8 >hi1h dis1har4es C. )R "ransmission 1ir1uit is used to 4enerate the modu2ated /E k!@ )R 1har4e up throu4h R-. around -. "hen you point it o?er the sensor and its oLp >i22 4o 2o> >hen it senses the )R si4na2 o3 /C k! 4round. shotK. )t 4ot its name 3rom the 3a1t that on2y one o3 its output states is sta72e.32op 7rin4s the output 9pin /: 2e?e2 to Khi4hK.

/. is used 3or the G.. around .se1ond. is to tri44er the )CFFF >hi1h is 1on3i4ured as monosta72e mu2ti?i7rator. Port + is used 3or the Re2ay "urn On and "urn o33 Purpose. -E ..o3 the mi1ro1ontro22er.72 R%/% =%r C r/# t- $i4.e. Port .. ). )nput is 4i?en to the Port .Se4ment disp2ay purpose. And >hen 1ounter >i22 7e . And that time Re2ay >i22 4et Vo2ta4e and tri44ered so 2i4ht >i22 4et ?o2ta4e and it >i22 turn on. Reset 7utton >i22 reset the mi1ro1ontro22er.#"S FA+ 9Common Anode: is used 3or G. C#-. "he output 4oes hi4h >hen the there is an interruption and it return 7a1k to 2o> a3ter the time period determined 7y the 1apa1itor and resistor in the 1ir1uit.+Re1ei?er 1ir1uit "he )R transmitter >i22 emit modu2ated /C k!@ )R si4na2 and at the re1ei?er >e use "SOP-G/C 9)n3rared Sensor:.Se4ment disp2ay. that time Re2ay >i22 7e turned o33.

Snap o3 the entire 1ir1uit -G .. Hardware Design Har)6ar% D%( *n-: )n3rared Sensor "SOP-G/C Mi1ro1ontro22er A"CHSF+ "imer )C FFF G.4.Se4ment (isp2ay Re2ay $i4. A.

"hen so2derin4 pro1ess >as done.<79 Pr&/%)#r% F&!!&6%) W. Sti22 the desired output >as not o7tained and so trou72eshootin4 >as done. A3ter 1omp2etion o3 the so2derin4 pro1ess ) tested the 1ir1uit. E5PRESS PC+ is a 1ir1uit desi4nin4 so3t>are. A3ter 1omp2etion o3 the desi4nin4 1ir1uit ) prepared the 2ayout. !% D%( *n n*)n the 7e4innin4 ) desi4ned the 1ir1uit in E5PRESS PC+ so3t>are. )n the pro1ess o3 trou72eshootin4 ) 3ound the 1ir1uit apt2y so2dered and 1onne1ted and hen1e 1ame to 1on12usion that there >as error in pro4rammin4 se1tion >hi1h >as 2ater re1ti3ied and the desired resu2ts >ere o7tained -C . "hen ) pro4rammed the mi1ro1ontro22er usin4 >EIL so3t>are usin4 he= 3i2e.

. mA  Preset N A.  Mi1ro1ontro22er N A"CHSF+  )C N GC.GK  (is1 1apa1itor N -.-+8 F..Se4ment (isp2ay -H ..A8//p$  Reset 7utton s>it1h  Re1ti3ier diode N )%A-AC  "ransistor N BC FAG8 C# -.  G..F  Sensor N "SOP -G/C 9)n3rared Sensor:  "rans3ormer N -+.57L (t &" C&$p&n%nt( $o22o>in4 is the 2ist o3 1omponents that are ne1essary to 7ui2d the assem72y o3 the (i4ita2 Speedometer Cum Odometer.

.po>er8 hi4h. "he A"CHSF+ pro?ides the 3o22o>in4 standard 3eatures.CF.system pro4ramma72e $2ash memory. tents 7ut 3ree@es the os1i22ator8 disa72in4 a22 other 1hip 3un1tions unti2 the ne=t interrupt or hard>are reset.density non?o2ati2e memory te1hno2o4y and is 1ompati72e >ith the )ndustry.per3orman1e CMOS>n mode sa?es the RAM 1on.e33e1ti?e so2ution to many em7edded 1ontro2 app2i1ations. "he de?i1e is manu3a1tured usin4 Atme2’s hi4h.?e1tor t>o. "he Po>er. "he on. )n addition8 the A"CHSF+ is desi4ned >ith stati1 2o4i1 3or operation do>n to @ero 3reIuen1y and supports t>o so3t>are se2e1ta72e po>er sa?in4 modes. "he )d2e Mode stops the CPU >hi2e a22o>in4 the RAM8 timerL1ounters8 seria2 port8 and interrupt system to 1ontinue 3un1tionin4.7it CPU >ith in.2e?e2 interrupt ar1hite1ture8 a 3u22 dup2e= seria2 port8 on. CK 7ytes o3 $2ash8 +FE 7ytes o3 RAM8 /+ )LO 2ines8 <at1hdo4 timer8 t>o data pointers8 three -E.instru1tion set and pin out.579 D%(/r pt &n &" C&$p&n%nt( 57979 M /r&/&ntr&!!%r AT89S52"he A"CHSF+ is a 2o>.7it mi1ro1ontro22er >ith CK 7ytes o3 in. 4rammar.7it timerL1ounters8 a si=. By 1om7inin4 a ?ersati2e C.system pro4ramma72e $2ash on a mono2ithi1 1hip8 the Atme2 A"CHSF+ is a po>er3u2 mi1ro1ontro22er >hi1h pro?ides a hi4h2y.1hip $2ash a22o>s the pro4ram memory to 7e repro4rammed in. 32e=i72e and 1ost. +.1hip os1i22ator8 and 12o1k 1ir1uitry.standard C.system or 7y a 1on?entiona2 non?o2ati2e memory pro.

N Series are miniaturi@ed re1ei?ers 3or in3rared remote 1ontro2 systems.8 (INFRARED SENSOR) $i4.57972 TSOP9?. "he demodu2ated output si4na2 1an dire1t2y 7e de1oded 7y a mi1ropro1essor.-)n3rared Sensor D%(/r pt &n- "he "SOP-G. is the standard )R remote 1ontro2 re1ei?er series8 supportin4 a22 major transmission 1odes. P)% diode and preamp2i3ier are assem72ed on 2ead 3rame8 the epo=y pa1ka4e is desi4ned as )R 3i2ter. +- .F. "SOP-G...

mA or dri?e ""# 1ir1uits.. ++ . $or asta72e operation as an os1i22ator8 the 3ree runnin4 3reIuen1y and duty 1y12e are a11urate2y 1ontro22ed >ith t>o e=terna2 resistors and one 1apa1itor. 555 ( TIMER IC)- $i4. Additiona2 termina2s are pro?ided 3or tri44erin4 or resettin4 i3 desired.F. "he 1ir1uit may 7e tri44ered and reset on 3a22in4 >a?e3orms8 and the output 1ir1uit 1an sour1e or sink up to +. )n the time de2ay mode o3 operation8 the time is pre1ise2y 1ontro22ed 7y one e=terna2 resistor and 1apa1itor.5797.+ "imer )C9FFF: D%(/r pt &n"he #MFFF is a hi4h2y sta72e de?i1e 3or 4eneratin4 a11urate time de2ays or os1i22ation.

F+ in1h di4it hei4ht sin42e di4it se?en.e33.. "his de?i1e uti2i@es !i.5797< LTS 5<2 (?:S%*$%nt D (p!a1) D%(/r pt &n"he #"S FA+ is a .se4ment disp2ay.F./ G Se4ment +/ . $i4. Red # ( 1hips8 >hi1h are made 3rom &aAsP on &aP su7strate8 and has a red 3a1e and red se4ment.

L(. )3 adeIuate heat sinkin4 is pro?ided8 they 1an de2i?er o?er -A output 1urrent.++.A Vo2ta4e Re4u2ator D%(/r pt &n"he KAGCOOLKAGCOOA series o3 three.F.termina2 positi?e re4u2ator are a?ai2a72e in the "O. A2thou4h desi4ned primari2y as 3i=ed ?o2ta4e re4u2ators8 these de?i1es 1an 7e used >ith e=terna2 1omponents to o7tain adjusta72e ?o2ta4es and 1urrents.57975 LM?8@5 (V&!ta*% R%*#!at&r) $i4.PAK pa1ka4e and >ith se?era2 3i=ed output ?o2ta4es8 makin4 them use3u2 in a >ide ran4e o3 app2i1ations. +A . a1h type emp2oys interna2 1urrent 2imitin48 therma2 shut do>n and sa3e operatin4 area prote1tion8 makin4 it essentia22y indestru1ti72e.

"he re2ay reIuires -+ ?o2ts at a 1urrent o3 around -. "he re2ay is used to operate the e=terna2 so2enoid 3ormin4 part o3 a 2o1kin4 de?i1e or 3or operatin4 any other e2e1tri1a2 de?i1es. <hen the re2ay operates and re2eases. So the dri?er transistor is added. CIRCUIT $i4.o3 the mi1ro1ontro22er throu4h a dri?er transistor.F. %orma22y the re2ay remains o33.. (iode (+ is the standard diode on a me1hani1a2 re2ay to pre?ent 7a1k dama4in4 P/ >hen the re2ay re2eases.5797A RELA.F Re2ay A sin42e po2e da772e thro> 9SP(": re2ay is 1onne1ted to port RB. As soon as pin o3 the mi1ro1ontro22er 4oes hi4h8 the re2ay operates.ma8 >hi1h 1annot pro?ide 7y the mi1ro1ontro22er. M$ 3rom +F . # ( #+ indi1ates re2ay on.

art- $i4.E.$2o>1hart +E . Software Design and Flowchart F!&6/..6.

And i3 it is interrupted then the mi1ro1ontro22er >i22 de1rement the 1ount.• )3 the sensor .is interrupted 3irst then the mi1ro1ontro22er >i22 2ook 3or the sensor +. • )3 the sensor + is interrupted 3irst then the mi1ro1ontro22er >i22 2ook 3or the sensor -. And 2i4ht >i22 7e turn o33. And i3 it is interrupted then the mi1ro1ontro22er >i22 in1rement the 1ount and s>it1h on the re2ay8 i3 it is 3irst time interrupted. • <hen the 2ast person 2ea?es the room then 1ounter 4oes to . +G . and that time the re2ay >i22 turn o33.

$M si4na2s propa4ate as 2ine. +C .t. <e22 de3ined ser?i1e areas 3or 4i?en transmitter po>er. )t is used on2y >hen one sin42e person 1uts the rays o3 the sensor hen1e it 1annot 7e used >hen t>o person 1ross simu2taneous2y. Mu1h more Band>idth 9as mu1h as +.propa4ation phenomenon8 1an tra?e2 3arther distan1es. to manmade inter3eren1e. <a?es at hi4her 3reIuen1ies 1an 1arry more data than the >a?es at 2o> 3reIuen1y. #esser distortion. times as mu1h:. $reIuen1y modu2ated >a?e is 2ess sus1epti72e to inter3eren1es 3rom 7ui2din4s8 tra33i1 et1 >hi1h pro?ides impro?ed si4na2 to noise ratio 9a7out +FdB: >. +. A. E. A. AM si4na2s8 on the other hand8 are at 2o> 3reIuen1ies >hi1h are re32e1ted 7a1k 7y ionosphere and thus8 usin4 sky. F. More 1omp2i1ated re1ei?er and transmitter. Sin1e attenuation is dire1t2y proportiona2 to 3reIuen1y8 so $M su33ers more attenuation than AM si4na2.si4ht phenomenon8 so i3 there is a 2ar4e hi22 7et>een transmitter and re1ei?er8 the re1ei?er >i22 not re1ei?e any si4na2. #ess radiated po>er. +. Ad?anta4es and (isad?anta4es A)=anta*%( -. $M >a?es penetrate ionosphere and are not re3ra1ted 7a1k.r. /.G. G. D (a)=anta*%( -. F. Sma22er 4eo4raphi1a2 inter3eren1e 7et>een nei4h7orin4 stations. Can 7e imp2emented in sin42e door. #o> 1ost and easy to use. /.o3.>a?e.

. Sometimes it so happens that >e don’t 4et a 12ue so as to the 1ir1uit is >orkin4 or not 7e1ause e=terna22y >e 1an ne?er predi1t >hether the 1urrent is passin4 or not and so 7y puttin4 the 2ed >e 1an ensure that the 1ir1uit is >orkin4. Care shou2d 7e taken >hi2e so2derin4 su1h that the 1ir1uit shou2d not 4et short 1ir1uited 7y 1onne1tin4 t>o >ron4 1omponents.Our proje1t 1onsists o3 M)CROCO%"RO## R >hi1h he2ps in to de1ide the po>er. By 1onne1tin4 more transistors >e 1an in1rease the po>er o3 the amp2i3ier and 1an make it more sensiti?e to mat1h the 3reIuen1y ran4es. "he 3uture s1ope o3 our proje1t in12udes.<e 1an ha?e a hi4her rated 7attery 7e1ause the 7attery >e use is o3 -+? >hi1h 1o?ers a ran4e o3 A. )t p2ays a ?ita2 ro2e so as >e 4et an idea as to >hat ne> and major 1han4es >e 1an 7rin4 in the proje1t. "he purpose o3 the >as to remo?e the un>anted 1opper . the 1opper tra1es >ere 3ina22y 3ound on2y on those p2a1es >here the permanent marker >as app2ied.<e 1an insta22 an 2ed in the proje1t so as to ensure that the 1ir1uit is >orkin4. . "he 3uture s1ope o3 the proje1t means de?e2opments >e 1an make on this e=istin4 proje1t. +H . But i3 >e 1onne1t a hi4her rated 7attery >e 1an in1rease the ran4e more 7ut >e shou2d 7e 1are3u2 that e=1ess o3 po>er shou2d not 7e supp2ied e2se the transistors may 7urn.By modi3yin4 this 1ir1uit and usin4 t>o re2ays >e 1an a1hie?e a task o3 openin4 and 12osin4 the door.. %o> a3ter sket1hin4 and et1hin48 the 7i44est task o3 the proje1t >as so2derin4. .87F#t#r% S/&p% "he 3uture s1ope o3 the proje1t is an important aspe1t in makin4 o3 any proje1t.m. . . <ith the sket1hin4 3ina22y done8 >e had to p2a1e the PCB in a 3erri1 1h2oride so2ution.A?oidin4 2osses 7y makin4 the PCB 2ayout more sma22er so that the amount o3 1opper in the PCB 1an 7e sa?ed and hen1e 2ess path 3or the 1urrent to tra?e2 and so ensurin4 proper >orkin4 o3 the 1ir1uit.

Se1urity is o3 no importan1e i3 ) >ant to 1ontro2 my VCR or "V set. A2so i3 at a22 one >ants to kno> the num7er o3 peop2e present in room so as not to ha?e 1on4estion. )t is hard2y possi72e to 2ist e?ery manu3a1turer here. "his 1ir1uit pro?es to 7e he2p3u2. ) a2so rea2i@e that my sma22 2ist o3 manu3a1turers is 3ar 3rom 7ein4 1omp2ete. "he o7je1ti?e o3 this proje1t is to make a 1ontro22er 7ased mode2 to 1ount num7er o3 persons ?isitin4 parti1u2ar room and a11ordin42y 2i4ht up the room. !ere >e 1an use sensor and 1an kno> present num7er o3 persons. )n today’s >or2d8 there is a 1ontinuous need 3or automati1 app2ian1es >ith the in1rease in standard o3 2i?in48 there is a sense o3 ur4en1y 3or de?e2opin4 1ir1uits that >ou2d ease the 1omp2e=ity o3 2i3e. /. But >hen it 1omes to openin4 doors or 1ars it 2itera22y 7e1omes a KkeyK 3eatureQ May7e ) >i22 1o?er this issue 2ater8 7ut not 3or no>.Con12usion "his 1on12udes the theory o3 operation 3or )R remote 1ontro2 systems intended 3or use in 1onsumer e2e1troni1s. ) rea2i@e that other >ays e=ist to imp2ement )R 1ontro28 7ut ) >i22 2imit myse23 to the des1ription a7o?e."he ne=t >eek >as entire2y 3o1used on the preparations 3or so2derin4 . H. One o3 the issues not 1o?ered here is se1urity. .

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