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Surface Surface waves waves in in an an elastic elastic half half spaces: spaces: Rayleigh Rayleigh waves waves -- Potentials Potentials -- Free Free surface surface boundary boundary conditions conditions -- Solutions Solutions propagating propagating along along the the surface, surface, decaying decaying with with depth depth -- Lamb’s problem Lamb’s problem Surface Surface waves waves in in media media with with depth-dependent depth-dependent properties: properties: Love Love waves waves -- Constructive Constructive interference interference in in a a low-velocity low-velocity layer layer -- Dispersion curves Dispersion curves -- Phase Phase and and Group Group velocity velocity Free Free Oscillations Oscillations -- Spherical Spherical Harmonics Harmonics -- Modes of the Modes of the Earth Earth -- Rotational Rotational Splitting Splitting

Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior

Surface Waves and Free Oscillations

**The Wave Equation: Potentials
**

Do solutions to the wave equation exist for an elastic half space, which travel along the interface? Let us start by looking at potentials: These potentials are solutions to the wave equation

u i = ∇Φ + ∇ × Ψ ∇ = (∂ x , ∂ y , ∂ z ) ui Φ Ψi

displacement scalar potential vector potential

∂ t2 Φ = α 2∇ 2 Φ ∂ t2 Ψi = β 2∇ 2 Ψi

α β

P-wave speed Shear wave speed

What particular geometry do we want to consider?

Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior

Surface Waves and Free Oscillations

Rayleigh Waves

SV waves incident on a free surface: conversion and reflection

An evanescent P-wave propagates along the free surface decaying exponentially with depth. The reflected postcrticially reflected SV wave is totally reflected and phase-shifted. These two wave types can only exist together, they both satisfy the free surface boundary condition: -> Surface waves

Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior

Surface Waves and Free Oscillations

**Surface waves: Geometry
**

We are looking for plane waves traveling along one horizontal coordinate axis, so we can - for example - set

∂ y (.) = 0

And consider only wave motion in the x,z plane. Then

u x = ∂ x Φ − ∂ z Ψy u z = ∂ z Φ + ∂ x Ψy

As we only require Ψy we set Ψy=Ψ from now on. Our trial solution is thus

y

Wavefront

x

Φ = A exp[ik (ct ± az − x)]

z

Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations

Surface waves: Disperion relation With this trial solution we obtain for example coefficients a for which travelling solutions exist a=± c2 α 2 −1 In order for a plane wave of that form to decay with depth a has to be imaginary. in other words c <α Together we obtain Φ = A exp[ik (ct ± c 2 / α 2 − 1z − x)] Ψ = B exp[ik (ct ± c 2 / β 2 − 1z − x)] So that c < β <α Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Surface waves: Boundary Conditions Analogous to the problem of finding the reflectiontransmission coefficients we now have to satisfy the boundary conditions at the free surface (stress free) σ xz = σ zz = 0 In isotropic media we have σ zz = λ (∂ x u x + ∂ z u z ) + 2μ∂ z u z σ xz = 2μ∂ xu z and where u x = ∂ x Φ − ∂ z Ψy u z = ∂ z Φ + ∂ x Ψy Φ = A exp[ik (ct ± c 2 / α 2 − 1z − x)] Ψ = B exp[ik (ct ± c 2 / β 2 − 1z − x)] Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Rayleigh waves: solutions This leads to the following relationship for c.9194 β Surface Waves and Free Oscillations Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior . the phase velocity: (2 − c 2 / β 2 ) 2 = 4(1 − c 2 / α 2 )1/ 2 (1 − c 2 / β 2 )1/ 2 For simplicity we take a fixed relationship between P and shear-wave velocity α = 3β … to obtain c 6 / β 6 − 8c 4 / β 4 + 56 / 3c 2 / β 2 − 32 / 2 = 0 … and the only root which fulfills the condition is c<β c = 0.

8475e −0.5773e −0.8475 kz + 1.3933kz ) cos k (ct − x) This development was first made by Lord Rayleigh in 1885. It demonstrates that YES there are solutions to the wave equation propagating along a free surface! Some remarkable facts can be drawn from this particular form: Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .Displacement Putting this value back into our solutions we finally obtain the displacement in the x-z plane for a plane harmonic surface wave propagating along direction x u x = C (e −0.3933kz ) sin k (ct − x) u z = C (−0.8475 kz − 0.4679e −0.

the problem of a vertical point force at the surface of a half space is called Lamb‘s problem (after Horace Lamb.Lamb’s Problem theoretical -the two components are out of phase by π − for small values of z a particle describes an ellipse and the motion is retrograde .the phase velocity is independent of k: there is no dispersion for a homogeneous half space . .below that depth the motion is again elliptical but prograde .at some depth z the motion is linear in z . 1904).Right Figure: radial and vertical motion for a source at the surface experimental Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Particle Motion (1) How does the particle motion look like? theoretical experimental Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Data Example theoretical experimental Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Data Example Question: We derived that Rayleigh waves are non-dispersive! But in the observed seismograms we clearly see a highly dispersed surface wave train? We also see dispersive wave motion on both horizontal components! Do SH-type surface waves exist? Why are the observed waves dispersive? Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

1911) ? Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .Love Waves: Geometry In an elastic half-space no SH type surface waves exist. Why? Because there is total reflection and no interaction between an evanescent P wave and a phase shifted SV wave as in the case of Rayleigh waves. What happens if we have layer over a half space (Love.

Love Waves: Trapping Repeated reflection in a layer over a half space. reflected and transmitted SH waves. Interference between incident. then there is a critical angle beyon which SH reverberations will be totally trapped. Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations . When the layer velocity is smaller than the halfspace velocity.

. This time we obtain a frequency-dependent solution a dispersion relation tan( Hω 1 / β − 1 / c ) = 2 1 2 μ2 1/ c −1/ β 2 2 2 μ1 1 / β12 − 1 / c 2 . 3. Free surface condition Continuity of stress on the boundary Continuity of displacement on the boundary Similary we obtain a condition for which solutions exist. β < c < β2 Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations . indicating that there are only solutions if .. 2.. The conditions to be fulfilled are: 1..Love Waves: Trapping The formal derivation is very similar to the derivation of the Rayleigh waves.

now. Is it possible. Intersection of dashed and solid lines yield discrete modes. to explain the observed dispersive behaviour? Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .Love Waves: Solutions Graphical solution of the previous equation.

Love Waves: modes Some modes for Love waves Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Waves around the globe Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Data Example Surface waves travelling around the globe Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Liquid layer over a half space Similar derivation for Rayleigh type motion leads to dispersive behavior Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Amplitude Anomalies What are the effects on the amplitude of surface waves? Away from source or antipode geometrical spreading is approx. prop. to (sinΔ)1/2 Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Group-velocities Interference of two waves at two positions (1) Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Velocity Interference of two waves at two positions (2) Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

dashed – phase velocities Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .Dispersion The typical dispersive behavior of surface waves solid – group velocities.

Wave Packets Seismograms of a Love wave train filtered with different central periods. Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations . Each narrowband trace has the appearance of a wave packet arriving at different times.

Wave Packets Group and phase velocity measurements peak-and-trough method Phase velocities from array measurement Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Dispersion Stronger gradients cause greater dispersion Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Dispersion Fundamental Mode Rayleigh dispersion curve for a layer over a half space. Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Observed Group Velocities (T< 80s) Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Love wave dispersion Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Love wave dispersion Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Love wave dispersion Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Modal Summation Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Spikes correspond to Rayleigh waves.Data 20-hour long recording of a gravimeter recordind the strong earthquake near Mexico City in 1985 (tides removed).Free oscillations . Spectra of the seismogram given above. Spikes at discrete frequencies correspond to eigenfrequencies of the Earth Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Eigenmodes of a string Geometry of a string undern tension with fixed end points. Motions of the string excited by any source comprise a weighted sum of the eigenfunctions (which?). Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

pure radial modes involve no nodal patterns on the surface . called spheroidal) and modes with pure shear motion (like shear waves. .Eigenmodes of a sphere Eigenmodes of a homogeneous sphere.toroidal modes involve purely horizontal twisting . Note that there are modes with only volumetric changes (like P waves.overtones have nodal surfaces at depth . called toroidal). Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .toroidal overtones have nodal surfaces at constant radii.

Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .Eigenmodes of a sphere Compressional (solid) and shear (dashed) energy density for fundamental spheroidal modes and some overtones. sensitive to core structure.

Bessel and Legendre Solutions to the wave equation on spherical coordinates: Bessel functions (left) and Legendre polynomials (right). Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

sectoral and tesseral harmonics. There are zonal.Spherical Harmonics Examples of spherical surface harmonics. Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

The Earth’s Eigenfrequencies Spheroidal mode eigenfrequencies Toroidal mode eigenfrequencies Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Effects of Earth’s Rotation non-polar latitude polar latitude Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

Effects of Earth’s Rotation: seismograms observed synthetic synthetic no splitting Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

The spatial shift of the phase perturbs the observed multiplet amplitude Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .Lateral heterogeneity Illustration of the distortion of standing-waves due to heterogeneity.

Examples Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .

26-12-04 Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations .Sumatra M9.

particularly particularly if if there there is is a a low-velocity low-velocity surface surface layer. space. Free Free oscillations oscillations are are standing standing waves waves which which form form after after big big earthquakes earthquakes inside inside the the Earth. waves. Earth. Seismology and the Earth’s Deep Interior Surface Waves and Free Oscillations . propagate along the surface. depth. SH-type SH-type surface surface waves waves do do not not exist exist in in a a half half space. media.Surface Waves: Summary Rayleigh Rayleigh waves waves are are solutions solutions to to the the elastic elastic wave wave equation equation given given a a half half space space and and a a free free surface. so-called so-called Love Love waves waves exist exist which which are are dispersive. However However in in layered layered media. surface. The The particle particle motion motion is is elliptical elliptical and and consists of motion in the plane through source and receiver. layer. Their Their amplitude amplitude decays decays exponentially exponentially with with depth. Their amplitude also also decays decays exponentially exponentially with with depth. propagate along the surface. Spheroidal Spheroidal and and toroidal toroidal eigenmodes correspond are analogous concepts eigenmodes correspond are analogous concepts to to P P and and shear shear waves. depth. consists of motion in the plane through source and receiver. Their amplitude dispersive.

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