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SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.

AND
TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR,AMBALA

SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

SIX WEEKS INDUSTRIAL TRAINING
AT THE WORKS OF

M/S SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the B.TECH in
Mechanical Engineering

SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF
ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR
,AMBALA

Session 2011-2014

SUBMITTED BY:
JAGJEET SINGH

REFRENCE

3111788

VERSION

1.0

1

9.3.1.1.1.

SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND
TECHNOLOGY,ALIYASPUR,AMBALA

SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Training is an investment and hence one should be able to get
due returns in terms of better quality of workmen and engineers for
future.
I am doing my training at SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED,
derabassi. During this one month period of my training I learn many
things related to forging industry and its documentation work. This has
increased my knowledge and practicability about the vast field of
Forging industry.
I am extremely grateful to the management of SFL for giving me an
opportunity to pursue practical training in their plant. I am thankful to Mr.
SUKHWINDER SINGH (Management Representative & Er. Q.A.) who
really supported me during this month of training.
I am also thankful to all the staff and workers of the plant for their
support and help.
JAGJEET SINGH
MECHANICAL ENGG.
3111788

REFRENCE

VERSION

1.0

2

9.3.1.1.1.

AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED CONTENTS TOPIC PAGE • COMPANY PROFILE • PLANT PHOTOGRAPH 4 6 • PROCESS FLOW CHART 7 • MAIN COMPONENTS • FORGING • HEAT TREATMENT REFRENCE 8 11 19 VERSION 1.1.0 3 9.3.1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND TECHNOLOGY.1.ALIYASPUR. .

1. Situated about 16 miles from Chandigarh in an area more than 40. is fully self-contained with modern facilities for Tool Room.0 4 9. A large contingent of experienced engineers and Technicians take up the task of supplying quality products to our esteemed customers on their toes with a dedicated motto of "Quality in time". . We have excellent facilities for in-house development of Dies and Toolings. Of course.1.000 sq.ALIYASPUR. Heat Treatment. our band of extremely satisfied customers has already classified us as a 'Zero Defects' supplier. we are accredited with AD-2000 Merkblatt W 0 certification from one of the renowned international agency. metres.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED COMPANY PROFILE Samrat Forgings Limited is one of the Largest Suppliers of Quality Forgings in the country. REFRENCE VERSION 1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.3. AND TECHNOLOGY.1. Recognized as one of the prime supplier of forgings of various dimensions and profile. our factory having an installed capacity of around 8400 MT per annum. Material Testing etc.

Diesel Loco-modernization Works & Twin Disc. Diesel Locomotive Works. DGQA.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. Samrat Forgings Limited is one of the Largest Suppliers of Quality Forgings in the country. TATA Hitachi. Ashok Leyland..AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED Our most modern Unit-II has highly sophisticated specialized CNC machines. Belgium etc. Swaraj group (Punjab Tractors Limited.1. are some of our valued customers whom we are really proud to be associated with. Engines). Mazda. /84mm HE. Combines. Recognised as one of the prime supplier of forgings of various dimensions and profile. . Mahindra & Mahindra (Trator Division & Automobile Division). We can also offer to our esteemed customers fully machined components. empty bodies of Bomb 120mm/81mm/51mm HE and various such items. TELCON.1.ALIYASPUR.0 5 9. Of course.1.T. Ministry of Defence for various ammunition items like empty shell of 105 mm IFG illg.3. REFRENCE VERSION 1.M. H. Bharat Earth Movers Ltd.. we are accredited with AD-2000 certification from one of the renowned international agency. We are also registered with Director of Quality Assurance (Armaments). our band of extremely satisfied customers have already classified us as a 'Zero Defect' supplier. AND TECHNOLOGY.

.1.0 6 9.ALIYASPUR.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED PLANT PHOTOGRAPHS CUTTING SHOP TOOL ROOM REFRENCE R&D DEPARTMENT RAW MATERIAL YARD VERSION 1.1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND TECHNOLOGY.1.3.

SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.ALIYASPUR.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED COMPONENTS PROCESS FLOW CHART FOR FORGING OPERATION: REFRENCE VERSION 1.1.0 7 9. . AND TECHNOLOGY.1.1.3.

. AND TECHNOLOGY.0 8 9.1.3.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED REFRENCE VERSION 1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.1.1.ALIYASPUR.

0 9 9.1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.ALIYASPUR. .1.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED MAIN COMPONENTS CONNECTINGROD SPINDLES ROLLER CRANKSHAFT CROSSES STAINLESSSTEELFLANGES TIEROD REFRENCE YOKES VERSION 1.3.1. AND TECHNOLOGY.

SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.ALIYASPUR. .0 10 9.1.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED TOOL ROOM OF SFL CUTTING SHOP OF SFL REFRENCE VERSION 1.1. AND TECHNOLOGY.1.3.

0 11 9.ALIYASPUR. AND TECHNOLOGY.1. .1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.1.3.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED HEAT TREATMENT SHOP OF SFL RAW MATERIAL STOCK YARD REFRENCE VERSION 1.

as in the manufacture of automobiles.1. The design of forged parts is limited when undercuts or cored sections are required. but with slow continuous pushes. .AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED FORGING PROCESS: Forging is a metal forming process used to produce large quantities of identical parts. 20 percent in automotive and truck manufacture. All cavities must be comparatively straight and largest at the mouth. More than two thirds of forging in the United States is concentrated in four general areas: 30 percent in the aerospace industry.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.1.ALIYASPUR. tungsten (rocket nozzles).0 12 9. AND TECHNOLOGY. brass (water valves). so that the forging die may be withdrawn.3. REFRENCE VERSION 1. as in aerospace parts or military equipment. 10 percent in off-highway vehicles. and 10 percent in military equipment.1. This process is also used for coining. aluminum (aircraft structural members). or any other metal. The products of forging may be tiny or massive and can be made of steel (automobile axles). and to improve the mechanical properties of the metal being forged.

1. Forging: Forging changes the size and shape.1. The purpose. was to change the shape and/or properties of metal into useful tools.1.0 13 9. and is merely a reshaping operation that does not change the volume of the material. The operation requires no cutting or shearing. of a part. wagon tires. Hammering metal by hand can be dated back over 4000 years ago. but not the volume. Today. and chains. The force must be strong enough to make the material deform.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED The forging metal forming process has been practiced since the Bronze Age. Steel was hammered into shape and used mostly for carpentry and farming tools. nails. forging is used to create various and sundry things. as it still is today. resulting in many territories being won and lost with the use and strength of these weapons. Militaries used forged weapons to equip their armies. AND TECHNOLOGY. .ALIYASPUR. An ax made easy work of cutting down trees and metal knives were much more efficient than stone cutting tools. Hunters used metal-pointed spears and arrows to catch prey. Blacksmiths used a forge and anvil to create many useful instruments such as horseshoes.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.3. The change is made by force applied to the material so that it stretches beyond the yield point. It must REFRENCE VERSION 1.

1. Most metals are hot forged.1. The yield point is reached when the material will reform into a new shape.260oC). AND TECHNOLOGY.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED not be so strong. Flow lines in a forged part REFRENCE VERSION 1. a block of metal is deformed under impact or pressure to form the desired shape. however.1.3. in which the metal is not heated.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. The point at which the material would be destroyed is called the fracture point. . In forging.300oF (1. Cold forging. is generally limited to relatively soft metals. These temperatures cause deformation. for example.ALIYASPUR. that it destroys the material. in which the grains of the metal elongate and assume a fibrous structure of increased strength along the direction of flow.100oF and 2.150oC to 1. steel is forged at temperatures between 2.0 14 9.

as well as fewer flaws and hidden defects.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.1. and general durability depend upon the way the grain is placed.3. Forgings are somewhat stronger and more ductile along the grain structure than across it. toughness.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED Normally this results in metallurgical soundness and improved mechanical properties. Good forging practice makes it possible to control the flow pattern resulting in maximum strength of the material and the least chances of fatigue failure.ALIYASPUR. wear. . The feature of greatest importance is that along the grain structure there is a greater ability to resist shock. Material properties also depend on the heat-treating process after forging.0 15 9. Slow cooling in air may normalize work pieces.1. Strength.1. These characteristics of forging. casting) for products that will undergo high stresses.e. or they can be quenched in oil and then tempered or reheated to achieve the desired mechanical properties and to relieve any internal stresses. AND TECHNOLOGY. and impact than across the grain. make it more desirable than some other operations (i. REFRENCE VERSION 1.

REFRENCE VERSION 1. and rolled types.1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. press. if sufficiently reduced. Hammer forging can produce a wide variety of shapes and sizes and.ALIYASPUR. delivering intermittent blows to the section to be forged.3. can create a high degree of grain refinement at the same time. usually raised by steam or air pressure. as close dimensional tolerances cannot be obtained. applies this pressure. A hammer or ram.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED TYPES OF FORGING: Forging is divided into three main methods: hammer. (1) Hammer Forging (Flat Die): Preferred method for individual forgings. The shaping of a metal or other material.0 16 9. AND TECHNOLOGY. The hammer is dropped from its maximum height. .1. The disadvantage to this process is that finish machining is often required. by an instantaneous application of pressure to a relatively small area.1.

A cold press forging is used on a thin. and a hot press forging is done on large work such as armor plating. .SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. and closer tolerances can be obtained. locomotives and heavy machinery.3.1. differing from that of the hammer forging operation.ALIYASPUR. where much of the work is absorbed by the machine and foundation. This REFRENCE VERSION 1.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED (2) Press Forging: This process is similar to kneading. The pressure will extend deep into the material and can be completed either cold or hot.1. Press Forging is more economical than hammer forging (except when dealing with low production numbers). AND TECHNOLOGY. annealed material. A greater proportion of the work done is transmitted to the work piece.1.0 17 9. where a slow continuous pressure is applied to the area to be forged.

ALIYASPUR.1. or excess metal. is squeezed out between the dies. In closed-die forging the metal is trapped in recessed impressions. as there is no limitation in the size of the machine.1.1. which are machined into the top and bottom dies. Closed-die forging can produce parts with more complex shapes than open-die forging. the material is forced to fill the impressions. .AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED method can also be used to produce larger forgings. In open-die forging the dies are either flat or rounded. Large forgings can be formed by successive applications of force on different parts of the material. Die forging is the best method. (3) Die Forging: Open and closed die operations can be used in forging.3. and also results in a finished part that is completely filled out and is produced with the least amount of flashing. REFRENCE VERSION 1. Closer dimensional tolerances can be held with closed die forgings than with open die forgings and the operator requires less skill. Hydraulic presses and forging machines are both employed in closed die forging. as far as tolerances that can be met. Flash.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND TECHNOLOGY. The final shape and the improvement in metallurgical properties are dependent on the skill of the operator.0 18 9. As the dies press together.

.3.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED REFRENCE VERSION 1.0 19 9.1. AND TECHNOLOGY.1.ALIYASPUR.1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.

ALIYASPUR. AND TECHNOLOGY. The temperature of the metal when completely forged is called the finishing temperature.1. (1) Preheating: Preheating of materials is done to help prevent cracking or distortion of the material.0 20 9. Depending on the amount of work required to the piece. After forging. usually between 1700oF to 2000oF but can reach as high as 2400oF. normalizing or hardening. depending on the carbon content. Forging is usually performed to hot metals.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED HEAT TREATMENT: Materials can be improved before or after manufacturing by different heat treatment processes.3.1. annealing. Steel is heated to varying temperatures. the material must be cooled uniformly and protected from moisture or cold air. it may be necessary to reheat the piece one or more times. . Another way to REFRENCE VERSION 1. This is done by placing the material into dry ashes.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. lime or mica dust in order to retard the rate of cooling. This is done by placing the metal in a series of furnaces of increasing temperatures instead of throwing it directly into the furnace used to heat the metal for forging. allowing for smoother flow and easier deformation.1.

(2) Annealing: Annealing should follow forging as soon as possible whenever machining is required. at which the annealing is complete. (2) Normalizing: Normalizing is done to improve the crystalline structure of the steel.ALIYASPUR. This will soften the steel that was previously hardened and reduce internal stresses. Annealing is the heating and then cooling of metal to make the metal less brittle.0 21 9. AND TECHNOLOGY.1. Heating the forged part just beyond the critical temperature and then allowing it to air-cool REFRENCE VERSION 1. Annealing is done by heating the metal to a temperature beyond the critical temperature and holding it there for a period of time. The metal is then cooled with the furnace and not removed until the furnace is cold. or more malleable and ductile.3. thus obtaining superior properties. Slower cooling rates are required as carbon content increases in the metal.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.1. It can also be cooled to a temperature within the furnace that is known to be below the lower critical temperature.1. .AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED achieve this is to start in a cold furnace and slowly bring it to temperature.

AND TECHNOLOGY. if any. to its hardening temperature . normal fine-grained structure. and structural distortion will be removed. The internal stresses.3. .1.1. will be relieved.1. The metal is kept at this temperature only until uniform heat distribution and completion of the thermal transformation.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. (4) Hardening: Hardening of steels can also be done after forging. This rapidly cools the metal and the metal retains its new qualities. Once the metal has been uniformly heated to temperature. This allows the grain-size to be refined and. if no protection from oxidation is provided. overheated steels will have a more favorable. it is removed from the furnace and placed directly into a quenching tank. Oxidation can be avoided by surrounding the metal with some material that will use up the oxygen that is present in the furnace.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED completes normalizing. if not held at that temperature too long. will result in a newly formed crystalline structure.much higher than annealing temperatures.ALIYASPUR. Prolonged exposure at these elevated temperatures will result in increased grain growth and surface decarbonization. REFRENCE VERSION 1. The workpiece is heated slowly.0 22 9. to obtain the finest grain-sizes. hardened steels will be softened.

0 23 9. Tool Room 3. Final Inspection 10. Cutting 5.ALIYASPUR.1. AND TECHNOLOGY. Magna-flux Crack Detection 9.1. Packaging & Dispatch REFRENCE VERSION 1. Inward Inspection of Raw Material 4. .SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. Hot Forging 6. Shot Blasting and Grinding 8. Heat Treatment 7.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED MAIN PROCESSES AT SFL 1.1. New Product Development Engineering Cell 2.3.

Forging operator heat up the die with die warmer. 5.1. Forging die is setup on selected hammer as per work instructions for die setup. AND TECHNOLOGY. Supervisor draws the die appropriate to the product planned for forging in the production plan 3. 8. Supervisor ensure that air pressure build up to 7 Kg/cm2 as indicated in the pressure gauge. 2.1. 7.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED FORGE SHOP In forge shop they have to follow following procedure: 1.0 24 9. . Material for forging is pushed into the furnace with the help of pusher . 4.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. 6.ALIYASPUR. Appropriate hammer is selected based on production planning. Supervisor receives the monthly and weekly production planning from GM (Works).1. Maintain temperature between 1150-1250ºC as indicated by the digital temp indicator. it is kept in the furnace for 60 min and then checked the metal temperature which should be within the range of 1150-1250ºC REFRENCE VERSION 1.3.

12. As and when prod of lot comes to an end. Forging operator moves the hot material with the help of tong and places on the hammer and simultaneously releases the hammer to forge the material into desired product. Supervisor arranges first piece inspection of the forged product. The product is subjected to visual inspection by the supervisor or his inspector and record maintained. Forged product is removed from DIE with the help of tong and moved onto trimming press for flash removal.ALIYASPUR.0 25 9.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED 9.1. Supervisor checks for any special requirement specified by the customer.3.1. Forging operator removes the flash in the trimming press.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. 10.1. REFRENCE VERSION 1. 14. 13. . 11. AND TECHNOLOGY. layout inspection on the last piece is carried out.

REFRENCE VERSION 1.ALIYASPUR. AND TECHNOLOGY. Proceed with the heat treatment as follows: For hardening & tempering cycle: a) Ensure that requisite process parameter are achieved before starting the heat treatment process b) Place no. c) Operator will push the tray manually to match the total cycle time.1.3.0 26 9.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. . of product in the tray as per HTM process cycle chart. Supervisor carries out the following checks before starting the heat treatment of the products: a) Furnace temperature b) Quenching oil temperature c) Tempering furnace temperature d) SCADA system 3.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED HEAT TREATMENT In heat treatment department they have to follow following procedure: 1.1. Supervisor refers to the heat treatment production plan for selecting one of the following processing: a) Hardening & Tempering b) Normalizing c) Iso-Annealing 2.1.

furnace and maintain a cycle time.1. The entire product which have undergone Hardening. 4. iso-annealing are subjected to hardening tests.3.1. Normalizing. Supervisor HTM checks microstructure of one piece by cutting a product slice on microscope.1. AND TECHNOLOGY.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED For Quenching Operation: a) Select the appropriate quenching process as given against the type of product. Tempering. raise the tray from quenching tank after 5 min and hold it for 5 min for quench media to drain off. REFRENCE VERSION 1.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG.ALIYASPUR. b) Move the product from furnace in least possible time quench delay to prevent. b) After tempering material is handed over for hardness testing.0 27 9. For Tempering Operation: a) Move the tray holding the quenched holding the quenched product into the temp. .

com REFRENCE VERSION 1.AMBALA SAMRAT FORGINGS LIMITED Bibliography 1. www.0 28 9.wikipedia.SHIVALIK INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND TECHNOLOGY. www.com 3.com (Forging) 2.google.1.1.1.ALIYASPUR. .3.samratforgings. www.