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A Dissertation submitted to the a!u"t# o$ the Graduate S!hoo" o$ Arts and S!ien!es o$ Geor%eto&n Uni'ersit# in (artia" $u"$i""ment o$ the re)uirements $or the de%ree o$ Do!tor o$ Phi"oso(h# in Histor#


+ames N, C"ass- *,A,

Washin%ton- DC ebruar# .- /001

Co(#ri%ht /001 b# +ames N, C"ass A"" Ri%hts Reser'ed





+ames N, C"ass- *,A, Thesis Ad'isor2 Catherine E'tuho'- Ph,D, A*STRACT This stud# in'esti%ates the roots o$ nationa" messianism- an ideo"o%# &ith uni)ue im(ortan!e in nineteenth3!entur# Russian thou%ht, Su(("ementin% e4istin% "iterature on the messiani! thin5ers o$ the 6780s and 6710s- this dissertation e4amines (atrioti! dis!ourse in a 'er# ne%"e!ted (eriod2 the era o$ the Na(o"eoni! Warses(e!ia""# 670936761, The in'esti%ation e4amines (atrioti! &or5s o$ the edu!ated (ub"i!:s "iterar# so!ieties2 in!"udin% $amous &riters "i5e ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii and Ni5o"ai =aram>in- as &e"" as "ess3reno&ned !ontem(oraries "i5e A"e4ei Mer>"ia5o' and !ontem(orar# ("a#&ri%hts su!h as Ser%ei G"in5a- Mat'ei =riu5o's5ii- and ;"adis"a' O>ero', It a"so e4amines themati!a""#3re"ated sermons $rom Russian Orthodo4 !"er%#- most im(ortant"# Mos!o&:s Ar!hbisho( A'%ustin ?Au%ustine@, Treatin% these di'erse (atrioti! dis!ourses as a re$"e!tion o$ their authors: &e"tans!haaun%- this stud# (ro!eeds to e'a"uate the !"imate o$ o(inion in &hi!h the Russian messianists !on!ei'ed their ideas o$ nationa" mission, The (rin!i(a" ar%ument maintains that thou%h t#(i!a" Romanti! $eatures and de'i!es (ro'ided $orms $or


these ideas- the messiani! thin5ers !on!ei'ed their 'isions as a de$ense o$ the En"i%htenment, The stud# be%ins &ith the Coa"ition Wars to i""ustrate the emer%en!e o$ the idea o$ nationa" e"e!tion based on the !ardina" assum(tion that Russians embodied uni'ersa" 'a"ues and !ou"d restore !i'i"i>ation in !ountries ra'a%ed b# Na(o"eon, The subse)uent !ha(ters $o""o& !han%es in the &ar2 $rom nomina" (ea!e &ith ran!e to the in'asion o$ 676/A and $rom the subse)uent Euro(ean !am(ai%n to the Russian trium(h in 6761, As &ar &ith Na(o"eon (ro%ressed to&ard a trium(h- Russian (oets and !"er%# intert&ined an!ient messiani! ideas- ren!h notions about !i'i"i>ation and (ro'iden!e- and ima%es $rom their o&n histor# to !onstru!t theories o$ Russia:s messiani! rene&a" o$ Euro(e, The rise o$ Russian messianism in the Na(o"eoni! Wars thus testi$ies to the inter("a# o$ ideas bet&een Russia and Euro(e ?and ran!e in (arti!u"ar@ but de$ies a sim("e !"assi$i!ation in the standard !ate%ories o$ the histor# o$ Euro(ean thou%ht, This dissertation su%%ests that in Russia- the inte""e!tua" &or"ds o$ the En"i%htened and Romanti! eras &ere mutua""# su((orti'e- rather than im("a!ab"# o((osed,


AC=NOWLEDGMENTS I &ou"d "i5e to e4tend m# dee(est than5s to m# dissertation readers2 Catherine E'tuho'- Ri!hard Stites- and *oris Gas(aro', It &as m# (ri'i"e%e to s(end &ith them time in the !"assroom and to share m# $irst $ruits &ith them at the de$ense, A &ord o$ than5s must e4tend as &e"" to Da'id Go"d$ran5- &hose re$usa" to be !on'in!ed has (ro$ited me as mu!h as has his en!#!"o(edi! mind, M# Buno$$i!ia" !ommitteeC o$ Christine A, R#de" and Ed&ard A""an Co"e &as res(onsib"e $or $irst bondin% m# sou" to Russia- and &hate'er su!!ess I mi%ht enDo# is u"timate"# theirs, This dissertation &ou"d not ha'e been (ossib"e &ithout a host o$ (ro$essiona" "ibrar# and ar!hi'a" sta$$s, The di"i%ent em("o#ees o$ the Russian State Librar#:s mi!ro$i"m di'ision and the Russian State Histori!a" Librar# (ro'ided in'a"uab"e ser'i!e in $a!i"itatin% a!!ess to (rimar# sour!es, I a"so o&e %ratitude to the Russian Mi"itar#3 Histori!a" Ar!hi'e- the Russian State Ar!hi'e o$ Literature and Artsthe Manus!ri(t Di'ision o$ the Russian Nationa" Librar#- and the State Ar!hi'e o$ the Russian ederation, Abo'e a""- ho&e'er- I &ou"d "i5e to than5 the sta$$ o$ the Librar# o$ Con%ress:s Euro(ean Readin% Room&here I had the (ri'i"e%e o$ s(endin% man# ("easurab"e hours, I &ou"d "i5e to mention in a s(e!ia" &a# the (eo("e &ho made


this stud# $or me a (assionate )uest, M# best $riend and dia"e!ti!a" o((onent Tim M!Mi""an (osed the )uestion that interested me in messianism in the $irst ("a!e, Without his $riendshi(- m# inte""e!tua" de'e"o(ment &ou"d ha'e been si%ni$i!ant"# diminished, Without m# &i$e- Tri!ia- ho&e'er- nothin% &ou"d ha'e been a!!om("ished at a"", or her (atien!e and "o'e- her $aith in me- and her !ommitment durin% this harro&in% (ro!ess- I dedi!ate this to her,


Tab"e o$ Contents
Introduction...................................................................................................................... 1
Minor Writers and the Loyal Public .......................................................................................................3 Definitions and Method.........................................................................................................................11 Sources ................................................................................................................................................. 17 Plan of the Work................................................................................................................................... 22

Chapter 1: The Literary Societies of Moscow and Petersburg...................................... 27
Resistance to Russian Gallomania........................................................................................................ 28 Moscow and the Moderate Enlightenment............................................................................................42 Petersburg: Writers and Politics............................................................................................................ 55

Chapter 2: National Consciousness In the Patriotic Literature of the Coalition Wars. .68
National Consciousness and Enlightened Autocracy............................................................................70 War Odes and Unmatchable Ancestors.................................................................................................86 Historical Tragedy: Valorizing the Common Cause............................................................................. 98 Comedies: Ancestral Inheritance and Superior Manners.................................................................... 110

Chapter 3: Sergei Glinka and the Russian Enlightenment........................................... 120
Rousseau after Revolution ................................................................................................................. 122 Glinka and Rousseau........................................................................................................................... 125 National Progress................................................................................................................................ 143

Chapter 4: Forming a Myth of National Suffering: Apocalyptic Vision and Clerical Rhetoric in 1812...........................................................................................................157
Revolution and Napoleon in Light of Scripture.................................................................................. 158 Nationalist Prophets: the Colloquium................................................................................................. 172 Universalist Muscovites...................................................................................................................... 184

Chapter 5: Russian Political Criticism and the Search for the Shared Traditions of Europe ......................................................................................................................... 205
Introduction......................................................................................................................................... 205 The Early Romantics’ Search for Balance.......................................................................................... 206 Nationalism and Universalism in Journalism......................................................................................211 Maxim Nevzorov: The Tradition of Moral Legislation...................................................................... 221 Vladimir Izmailov: The Tradition of Enlightened Synthesis.............................................................. 231 Alexei Merzliakov: The Tradition of Political Balance...................................................................... 241

Chapter 6: Romanticism and the Image of the Messianic Tsar in Triumphal Panegyrics of 1814......................................................................................................................... 255
Romantic Structure and Its Sources.................................................................................................... 257 Nikolai Karamzin: Restoration of Civilization................................................................................... 270 Alexei Merzliakov: Religion and Eutopia...........................................................................................281 Vasilii Zhukovskii: A New Exemplar of Faith .................................................................................. 289

Chapter 7: Second Israel for a New Age: Archbishop Avgustin and Russian Messianism...................................................................................................................298
An Alternative Path to the Moderate Enlightenment.......................................................................... 299 Preaching to the People....................................................................................................................... 306 The Divine Mission............................................................................................................................. 315 Avgustin in Context............................................................................................................................ 326

Conclusion................................................................................................................... 334


I. Archives........................................................................................................................................... 342 II. Printed Primary Sources................................................................................................................. 342 III. Secondary Works.......................................................................................................................... 357


Introduction Nationa" messianism is a m#thEa %rou( o$ stories about a (arti!u"ar nation:s mission to sa'e humanit#,6 In Russia- nationa" messianism (ermeated nineteenth3!entur# thou%ht so broad"# that the (hi"oso(her Ni5o"ai *erdiae' !"aimed that messianism &as Ba"most !hara!teristi!C o$ the Russian (eo("e,/ E'en in (ost3Wor"d War II So'iet Russia- messianism resur$a!ed and has endured in !ontem(orar# (o"iti!a" ideo"o%ies and re"i%ious mo'ements,8 A!ross Euro(e- nationa" messiani! theories abounded in the nineteenth !entur# &ith the rise o$ Romanti! Nationa"ism- an inte""e!tua" mo'ement %enera""# understood as a rea!tion a%ainst the inte""e!tua" a4ioms o$ the En"i%htenment- the !u"tura" (o&er o$ ran!e- and- "ater- the (o"iti!a" domination o$ Na(o"eon throu%hout
On nationa" m#ths- see Geor%e S!hF($"in, BThe un!tions and Ta4onom# o$ M#ths-C in Myths and Nationhood- edited b# Geo$$re# Hos5in% and Geor%e S!hF($"in ?London2 Hurst and Com(an#- 6GGH@- 6G, M# attention to this sour!e &as dra&n b# Peter Dun!an:s simi"ar obser'ation, See $ootnote Error2 Re$eren!e sour!e not $ound be"o&,

Ni5o"ai *erdiae'- Russkaia ideia: Osnovnye problemy russkoi mysli XIX veka i nachala XX veka- ?Paris2 IMCA- 6G1.@- 8.,

Peter Dun!an !o'ers the entire (ost&ar (eriod u( to the 6GG0s, See his Russian Messianism: Third Rome, Holy Revolution, Communism, and !ter ?LondonJNe& Ior52 Rout"ed%e- /000@- ./3610, On the 6GH0s- see +u"ia *run3 <eDmis- BMessiani! Cons!iousness as an E4(ression o$ Nationa" In$eriorit#2 Chaadae' and Some Sami>dat Writin%s o$ the 6GH0s-C "lavic Revie# 9028 ? a"" 6GG6@2 .1.3.97, On %"asnost:3era messianism- see Da'id G, Ro&"e#K:Redeemer Em(ire:2 Russian Mi""enarianism-C The merican Historical Revie# 60129, ?De!,- 6GGG@2 697836971,


Euro(e,1 Within the stud# o$ Russian inte""e!tua" histor#- (re'ious s!ho"ars ha'e !redited the Na(o"eoni! War era ?in Russia- 6HGG3 6769@ &ith %i'in% birth to ideas o$ nationa" mission that (ro"i$erated in the 6780s and 6710s- but &ithout a!tua""# in'esti%atin% their !onstru!tion,9 Who de'e"o(ed the messiani! 'isionsL What inte""e!tua" mo'ements in$"uen!ed their rea"i>ationL Was the o"d
A"bert *oime- thou%h &ritin% (rimari"# on art- (ro'ides a su!!in!t a!!ount o$ the rise o$ Romanti! Nationa"ism as an inte""e!tua" mo'ement in his rt in the $e o! %onapartism, &'(()&'&*- ?Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o6GG0@- 81/!!, See a"so Sie%$ried Heit- BGerman Romanti!ism2 an Ideo"o%i!a" Res(onse to Na(o"eon-C Consortium on Revolutionary +urope, &,*()&'*(: -roceedin$s, &.'(- edited b# Dona"d D, Hor&ard ?Athens- GA2 the Consortium- 6G70@- 67H36GH, On the re!e(tion o$ the (hi"oso(h# o$ German Romanti! Nationa"ism in Russia- see Isaiah *er"in- BGerman Romanti!ism in Petersbur% and Mos!o&-C in his Russian Thinkers- ?Ne& Ior52 ;i5in% Press6GH7@- 68.361G,

Andr>eD Wa"i!5i- e,%, !onsidered tsar A"e4ander I:s be"ie$ in a (ersona" messiani! mission as an anti3en"i%htenment trend- !hara!teristi! o$ the (ost&ar re'i'a" in m#sti!a" Christianit# that s&e(t Centra" and Eastern Euro(e, See his History o! Russian Thou$ht !rom the +nli$htenment to Mar/ism- trans"ated b# Hi"da Andre&s3Rusie!5a- ?Stan$ord2 Stan$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GHG@- H/, Mar! Rae$$ ar%ued that the Na(o"eoni! Wars !ata"#>ed nationa" !ons!iousness amon% a (ro$essiona" and inte""e!tua" e"ite that (arado4i!a""# !"un% to En"i%htenment:s $aith in (ro%ress &hi"e be"ie'in% in Romanti! notions o$ nationa" !hara!ter and mission, BAt the Ori%ins o$ a Russian Nationa" Cons!iousness-C in his -olitical Ideas and Institutions in Imperial Russia- ?*ou"der2 West'ie&- 6GG1@- ..3.H, Ed&ard Thaden:s theoreti!a" stru!ture $or the rise o$ Romanti! Nationa"ism in Russia treated the Na(o"eoni! Wars as the time &hen Russians de'e"o(ed their o&n 'ersions o$ this inte""e!tua" mo'ement, See his BThe *e%innin%s o$ Romanti! Nationa"ism in Russia-C in Interpretin$ History: Collective +ssays on Russia0s Relations #ith +urope, ?*ou"der2 So!ia" S!ien!e Mono%ra(hs- 6GG0@- 670, Whi"e these studies ha'e (ointed to the immense si%ni$i!an!e o$ the ear"# nineteenth3!entur# $or subse)uent Russian thou%ht- none a!tua""# e4amines the rise o$ messianism itse"$, E'en Peter Dun!an:s re!ent sur'e# o$ Russian messianism a!!ords on"# a senten!e to the stru%%"e &ith Na(o"eon- &hi"e a!5no&"ed%in% &ides(read be"ie$ in a nationa" mission, Russian Messianism- 6H,


!a(ita" Mos!o& or the BEuro(eanC !a(ita" St, Petersbur% more in$"uentia" in messianism:s riseL Was the Russian m#th a t#(i!a" Euro(ean &a# o$ reDe!tin% the En"i%htenmentL To ans&er these )uestions- this dissertation e4amines the de'e"o(ment o$ messianism in the Russian anti3Na(o"eoni! dis!ourse %enerated b# "iterar# inte""e!tua"s in both the !a(ita"s- i""ustrates the intert&inin% o$ En"i%htened and Romanti! thin5in% in narrati'es about the &ar e$$ort- and ar%ues that nationa" messianism emer%ed in modern Russian thou%ht as a &a# o$ !riti)uin% Euro(ean !i'i"i>ation $rom &ithin- &ith the u"timate aim o$ $u"$i""in% the En"i%htenment rather than reDe!tin% it, Minor Writers and the Loyal Public This stud# $o!uses on the de'e"o(ment o$ messianism $rom the &ea"th o$ !u"tura" arti$a!ts that (rodu!ed nationa" identit# in ear"# nineteenth3!entur# Russia, In this sense- it e4amines the se!tors o$ Russian dis!ourse o'er the Na(o"eoni! Wars &here the (o"iti!a"territoria"- or e'en s(iritua" sa"'ation o$ Euro(e &as a 5e# issue, It em("o#s the &or5 o$ "ess $amous &riters &hose aestheti! )ua"it# &as modest but &hose out(ut o$ (atrioti! "iterature &as si%ni$i!ant, Writers o$ the Bse!ond de%reeC or Bse!ond tier-C as understood b# the Russian orma"ist !riti! Iurii T#niano'- (o(u"ate e(o!hs in "iterar#


histor# instead o$ de$inin% turnin%3(oints, T#niano' (ro(osed that minor &riters #ie"ded the most use$u" insi%hts into the d#nami!s o$ histori!a" !han%e- sin!e the# (ro'ided !oheren!e $or the e'o"ution o$ %enre,. This stud# e4amines their !ontent to sho& ho& ideas !ir!u"ated and be!ame inter&o'en into a nationa" m#th, The Bse!ond tierC !om(rised members o$ Russia:s "iterar# e"ite2 (eo("e &ho "i'ed (rimari"# in the t&o !a(ita"s- &ho (ursued "iterature as an a'o!ation or (ro$ession- and &hose se"$3identit# deri'ed in (art $rom their non3o$$i!ia" !u"tura" a!ti'ities, This %rou( in!"udes $amous (oets "i5e Ga'rii" Der>ha'in and the state historio%ra(her- Ni!ho"as =aram>in- as &e"" as a host o$ $e""o&s in "iterar# so!ieties asso!iated &ith the maDor $i%ures, It a"so in!"udes the edu!ated !"er%#men &ho (arti!i(ated in the "iterar# so!ieties- uni'ersit# "e!tures- and maDor (ub"i! e'ents &ith the "iterar# e"ite, Whi"e a"" members o$ this %rou( had more (o&er- $reedom- and so!ia" standin% than the maDorit# o$ the Russian (o(u"ation- the# !ame $rom di'erse ba!5%rounds, Man# (ossessed no ser$s and "a!5ed the o((ortunit# or desire $or t#(i!a" mi"itar# ad'an!ement amon% the nob"es, Due to its %enera" a!!e(tan!e o$ Tsar A"e4ander and some $orm o$ en"i%htened

Iu, N, T#niano'- BLiteraturn#i $a5t-C in Priboi- 6G/G@- H37.

rkhaisty i novatory- ?Lenin%rad2


monar!h#- this %rou( mi%ht a"so be !a""ed the B"o#a" (ub"i!,C H As this stud# !on!"udes &ith the end o$ the &ar- it does not !o'er the re"i%ious statesmen &ho !ame to (o&er in the (ost&ar Ho"# A""ian!e era7 and &hose ties to German Pietism a$$i"iated them &ith a di$$erent !u"tura" and inte""e!tua" &or"d $rom the mainstream "o#a" (ub"i!,G Attention to the messiani! ideas o$ the "o#a" (ub"i! &as absent $rom mu!h o$ the (re3Re'o"utionar# Russian historio%ra(h# on the rei%n o$ A"e4ander I ?r, 6706367/9@ be!ause o$ a !on!e(tion that the era:s ideas &ere transient and insi%ni$i!ant, A"e4ander P#(in(ub"ishin% in the 67.0s- sou%ht in 'ain a mo'ement o$ the ear"ier era that !ou"d ha'e eman!i(ated so!iet# $rom the state, He !on!"uded that inte""e!tua"s had not been stron% enou%h to a&a5en so!iet#- and he em(hasi>ed the ro"e o$ German nationa"ists in sha(in% (atrioti!
Whi"e I de'ised the heuristi! term B"o#a" (ub"i!C on m# o&n- Da'id *urro&s is &or5in% on e4(andin% the !on!e(t in his do!tora" dissertation at the Uni'ersit# o$ Penns#"'ania, As o$ this &ritin%- I ha'e not been ab"e to a!)uire the $ina" dissertation- but ha'e !orres(onded &ith Mr, *urro&s&hose 'ie&s seem %enera""# !om(atib"e &ith the (resent usa%e,

or a %ood introdu!tion to the ideas and (o"iti!s o$ su!h $i%ures as A"e4ander Sturd>a- Dmitrii Runi!h- and Ioannes Ca(odistrias- see !hs, .3H o$ A"e4ander Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thou$ht and -olitics in the Rei$n o! le/ander I, ?De=a"b2 North I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH@,

One notab"e e4!e(tion is the (oet ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii &ho trans"ated an enormous 'o"ume o$ German "iterature into Russian and &as (reo!!u(ied &ith (re3Romanti! German !urrents as &e"" as the re"i%ious re'i'a" in Pietist German "ands, He a((ears (rominent"# in !ha(ter .,


(ub"i!ations durin% the in'asion and Euro(ean !am(ai%n,60 A se'en3 'o"ume !entenar# !o""e!tion- entit"ed the 1atherland 2ar o! &'&3 and Russian "ociety- &ent mu!h $arther into the &or5s o$ minor &riters- dramatists- Dourna"ists- and other !u"tura" a!tors, Its authorsho&e'er- (ossessed a dee( s#m(ath# $or P#(in:s Bso!ia"C $or!es in o((osition to the monar!h and em(hasi>ed the )ui!5 disa((earan!e o$ (atrioti! !u"ture a$ter the &ar:s end,66 An arti!"e b# A"e4ei Ga"a5ho' on (atrioti! a!ti'ities in 670936766 !on!"uded that the unit# o$ (atrioti! minds &as sundered a$ter the &ar as &e"",6/ So'iet s!ho"ars &ere mu!h more e4!ited about !ertain minor &riters: a!ti'it# in the &ars a%ainst Na(o"eon be!ause the# dis!erned seeds o$ radi!a"ism in them, So'iet resear!h $o""o&ed the "ead o$ the nineteenth3!entur# "iterar# !riti! ;issarion *e"ins5ii- &ho had de$ined the e(i! batt"e o$ *orodino in 676/ as the moment &hen the Russian

A, N, P#(in- Obshchestvennoe dvi4henie pri O%n:- 6G6.@- /G9 $$,
10 11

leksandre I, ?Petro%rad2

A, =, D>hi'e"e%o' et a"- eds, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda i russkoe obshchestvo- H 'o"s, ?Mos!o&2 I, D, S#tin- 6G6636G6/@, or an e4am("e o$ the transien!e- see N, L, *rods5ii- BCTeatr ' Ote!hest'ennuiu 'oinu-C 'o", 167G36G6, See a"so the historio%ra(hi!a" ana"#sis in A, S, edoto' and O, E, Nitsie's5ii- BProb"em# '"iianiia ote!thest'ennoi 'oin# 676/ %oda na russ5uiu 5u":turu ' os'esh!hennii russ5oi i so'est5oi istorio%ra$ii,C in Russkaia kul0tura v usloviiakh ino4emnykh nashestvii i voin X)nachalo XXv , ;#(, /, ?Mos!o&2 AN SSSR- 6GG0@- 6G73/08, A, Ga"a5ho'- BRuss5aia (atrioti!hes5aia "iteratura- 67093676/ %%,C 1ilolo$icheskie 4apiski ;#(, 6- ?67.H@2 638/,


nation be!ame !ons!ious o$ itse"$,68 Nationa" se"$3a&areness in So'iet &or5s re"ated to the mo'ement o$ so!ia" %rou(s o((osed to the tsar,61 So'iet s!ho"ars (ub"ished mono%ra(hs and "iterar# !o""e!tions o$ the ree So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Russian Literature- Arts- and S!ien!es in St, Petersbur%- sin!e that %rou(:s mi4ture o$ !i'i! (athos and interest in nationa" $o"5&a#s (re!eded simi"ar interest amon% the %entr# re'o"utionaries 5no&n as the De!embrists, 69 Other arti!"es hi%h"i%hted the number o$ Russian &riters &ho entered into mi"itar# ser'i!e as (roo$ that the !ontem(orar# Binte""i%entsiaC $e"t united in s(irit &ith the (easantr#,6. A, G, Tarta5o's5ii:s &or5 on the ro"e o$
*e"ins5ii &rote about the &ar o$ 676/ in a number o$ e4tended boo5 re'ie&s, The best statement o$ his 'ie&s on the &ar !an be $ound in a re'ie& o$ Ocherki %orodinsko$o sra4henii- b# edor G"in5a2 -olnoe sobranie sochineniia- ;o", 1- ?Mos!o&2 AN SSSR- 6G98391@- H3G,

or one o$ man# e4am("es2 ;, ;, Po>nans5ii- Ocherk !ormirovaniia russkoi natsional0noi kul0tury pervaia polovina XIX veka- &hose thesis maintains that nationa" !ons!iousness de'e"o(ed in tandem &ith the "iberation mo'ement, ?Mos!o&2 BM#s":C- 6GH9@- H,

or a !o""e!tion o$ (oems- see -oety)Radishchevtsy- edited b# A, Or"o'?Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6GHG@, Their theoreti!a" &ritin%s !an be $ound in Russkie prosvetiteli 5ot Radishcheva do 6ekabristov7 - edited b# I, Ia, Sh!hi(ano'- / 'o"s,- ?Mos!o&- BM#s":C 6G..@- (rimari"# 'o"ume /, or a mono%ra(h on their "iterar# so!iet#- see ;, N, Or"o'- Russkie prosvetiteli, &,.()&'(()kh $odov- /nd (rintin%- ?Mos!o&2 GI=hL- 6G98@, Re"ations &ith the Dourna" "on o! the 1atherland are addressed in N, M, Mi5hai"o's5aiaB<hurna" MS#n Ote!hest'a: (erioda Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# i stano'"eniia de5abri>ma ?676/36767@-C 8chennye 4apiski 8dmurtsko$o peda$o$ichesko$o instituta- ;o", 68- ;#(, G ?6G9.@2 9H378, Mar! Rae$$:s B i""in% the Ga( bet&een Radish!he' and the De!embrists-C "lavic Revie#82/. ?Se(t 6G.H@2 8G93168- brin%s some o$ the !on!"usions o$ So'iet resear!h into En%"ish,
15 16

S, =hra(5o'- BRuss5aia inte""i%entsiia ' Ote!hest'ennoi 'oine 676/ %oda,C


Dor(at ?Tartu@ Uni'ersit# (ro$essors in !reatin% a (atrioti! mi"ieu in the arm# b# means o$ a mobi"e (ress a"so em(hasi>ed the !onne!tions bet&een his subDe!t and the De!embrist mo'ement,6H A, ;, Predte!hens5ii ar%ued that the rhetori! o$ Bsa"'ationC in &artime (ub"ishin% had a %reat im(a!t on the De!embrists: understandin% o$ their stru%%"e a%ainst the tsar,67 Whi"e So'iet historio%ra(h# hi%h"# 'a"ued !ertain dimensions o$ the se!ond3tier it did "itt"e to un!o'er nationa" messianism- be!ause the !reators o$ messiani! theories &ere most"# a'id su((orters o$ the tsar, The &or"d o$ the "o#a" (ub"i! a!)uired %reat interest $or Post3 So'iet historio%ra(h#:s !on!ern &ith the Russian monar!h# as a !ohesi'e $or!e $or the e"ite,6G Ne& &or5s ha'e em("o#ed sour!es $rom se!ond3tier &riters $or inte""e!tua"- (o"iti!a"- and !u"tura" ana"#ses, Ri!hard Wortman- $or instan!e- "oo5ed at the ro"e o$ (ane%#ri!s and
Istoricheskii 4hurnal /2661 ?6G18@2 H/3H., See a"so the introdu!tion to I slavili otchi4nu mech i slovo9 &'&3 $od $la4ami ochevidtsev: poe4iia i pro4a- ?Mos!o&2 So'remenni5- 6G7H@, E, L, A$anas:e' re(eats the nationa" unit# theme in his BOsm#s"enie 'oin# 676/ %oda ' so'ermennoi ei >hurnat"isti5e i "iterature-C in Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda i russkaia literatura XIX veka- edited b# ;, Iu, Troits5ii ?Mos!o&2 Nas"edie- 6GG7@- 9G, A, G, Tarta5o's5ii- :oennaia publitsistika &'&3 $oda- ?Mos!o&2 I>date":st'o2 BM#s":C 6G.H@- /60,

A, ;, Predte!hens5ii- BOtra>henie 'oina 676/361 %%, ' so>nanii so'remenni5o'-C Istoricheskie 4apiski- 86- ?Mos!o&- 6G90@- /8H3/11,

This is a"so the insi%ht o$ C#nthia H#"a Whitta5er- BThe Idea o$ Auto!ra!# amon% Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russian Historians-C Russian Revie# 992/ ?A(ri" 6GG.@2 690,


!ourt "iterature in !reatin% the ritua"s that de$ined the tsar:s se"$3 (resentation,/0 A"e4ander Martin:s inte""e!tua" and (o"iti!a" histor# o$ Russian !onser'ati'es has e4amined a &ide 'ariet# o$ de$enders o$ the o"d re%ime- in!"udin% the (o"iti!a" Dourna"ist Ser%ei G"in5a- the stud# o$ &hose ideas &as re'i'ed on"# re!ent"# b# a Russian s!ho"arLiubo': =ise"e'a,/6 ina""#- Andrei <orin:s 1eedin$ the 6ouble)Headed +a$le "oo5ed at minor &riters: &or5 as a re$"e!tor and !reator o$ state ideo"o%#,// These studies ha'e tou!hed messiani! themes- but &ithout !onsiderin% the de'e"o(ment o$ messianism as a !ohesi'e (ro!ess, Martin ar%ued $or an a$$init# o$ !onser'ati'es "i5e Ser%ei G"in5a and A"e4ander Shish5o' &ith Romanti! Nationa"ists based on their !ommon 'ie& o$ nationa" identit# amon% the (eo("e at "ar%e- not on
Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy ;o", 6- ?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG9@- !hs, H37,

As Martin:s narrati'e o'er"a(s &ith the !ourse o$ this dissertation- the interested reader shou"d !onsu"t at "east !hs, 639 o$ his Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thou$ht and -olitics in the Rei$n o! le/ander I, ?De=a"b2 North I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH@, On G"in5a see a"so Martin:s BThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet# and Russian Nationa" Identit# in Ser%ei N, G"in5a:s Russian Messen$er ?67073676/@,C "lavic Revie# 9H26 ?6GG7@2 /731GA and Liubo': Ni5o"ae'na =ise"e'a- Ideia natsional0noi samobytnosti v russkoi literature me4hdu Til04itom i Otechestvennoi voinoi 5&'(,)&'&37- ?=andidat dissertation2 Tartu NRussian LiteratureO- 6G7/@- !h, 6,

Andrei <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla: literatura i $osudarstvennaia ideolo$iia v Rossii v poslednei treti X:III)pervoi treti XIX veka - ?Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- /006@- or the Na(o"eoni! War (eriod- see !hs, 937,


their histori!a" mission,/8 His boo5 treats !onser'ati'e dis!ourse o'er the &ar o$ 676/ $rom the stand(oint o$ nationa" unit#- rather than !a""in%- and $o!uses on the )uestion o$ &hether the &ar shou"d be $ou%ht as a nationa" &ho"e or as a nation o$ united estates,/1 A"thou%h Martin e4("ains the !onser'ati'e desires to see a nationa" $orm o$ !u"tura" re%eneration- he does not !o'er the &a#s b# &hi!h !ontem(oraries (resented the &ar e$$ort as a su!!ess$u" a!t o$ Euro(ean sa"'ation and re%eneration, <orin- on the other handen!ounters messiani! moti$s in his dis!ussion o$ (ost3in'asion ideo"o%i!a" shi$ts, A$ter 676/- Tsar A"e4ander distan!ed himse"$ $rom nationa"ist !onser'ati'e 'oi!es in $a'or o$ (artisans o$ the Euro(ean !am(ai%n- &hi!h ended in Paris in 6761, <orin:s !ha(ters on ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii and Ar!himandrite i"aret !a(ture a (ortion o$ the messiani! dis!ourse $rom the trium(ha" #ear 6761, /9 These $i%uresho&e'er- &ere imbued &ith Pietist Christianit# and di'er%ed $rom the more dominant $orm o$ nationa" m#th de'e"o(ed amon% &riters &ho &ere distant $rom the tsar and (o"iti!a" (o&er, A broader &indo& into the messiani! !on!e(tions o$ the &ar
Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 6936. on !om(arison to Romanti! Nationa"ism in Euro(e and G9 on his use o$ nationa" identit# as the !riterion $or bein% a Romanti! Nationa"ist,
23 24

Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- !h, 9, <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- /973/G9 and 8/138/9,



#ears is o$$ered b# *oris Gas(aro':s -ushkin0s -oetic <an$ua$e as a 1act o! the History o! the Russian <iterary <an$ua$e- &hi!h (resented a &ide (anorama o$ messiani! themes amon% the se!ond3 tier &riters o$ the &ar #earsE&hat he !a""ed a s#stem o$ es!hato"o%i!a" moti$s,/. Whi"e Gas(aro':s main !on!ern &as to demonstrate ho& A"e4ander Push5in trans$ormed messiani! "an%ua%e into his (oeti! stru!ture- his in'esti%ation into messiani! rhetori! ins(ired the (ossibi"it# o$ stud#in% messianism in this (eriod, Definitions and Method In the nineteenth !entur#- messiani! theories (ro"i$erated throu%hout Eastern Euro(e, Rene&ed interest in $o"5"ore- (o(u"ar !ustoms- and es(e!ia""# "an%ua%e &as !om("emented b# the sear!h $or a nationa" mission2 i$ the nation itse"$ &as ori%ina" and uni)uesure"# it had a (ur(ose that &as as &e"",/H Sti""- messianism &as more than a mere out%ro&th o$ nationa" !ons!iousness, The Po"ish historian Andr>eD Wa"i!5i- (ointed out that a %eneri! be"ie$ in a nationa" !a""in% &as ubi)uitous throu%hout the ei%hteenth and
*oris Gas(aro'- -oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina kak !akt istorii russko$o literaturno$o ia4yka- ?;ienna2 Gese""s!ha$t >ur Frderun% s"a&istis!her Studien- 6GG/@- 78366H,

On Romanti! Nationa"ism in East Euro(e- see Thomas Ni((erde#BRomantis!her Nationa"ismusC in Nachdenken =ber die deustche >eschichte- ?Muni!h2 C, H, *e!5- 6G7.@ 66036/9, On messianism in East Euro(e- see Dun!an- Russian Messianism- 6


nineteenth !entur#, What distin%uished messianism- in his 'ie&- &as its )uasi3re"i%ious nature, That is- the nationa" tas5 needed to be understood as e$$e!tin% the sa"'ation o$ the human ra!e- a$ter the $ashion o$ +esus ChristEChristos bein% Gree5 $or the Hebre& mashiach- &hen!e the En%"ish messiah,/7 A!!ordin% to Wa"i!5i:s de$inition- messianism Bis a be"ie$ in a redeemer- indi'idua" or !o""e!ti'e- mediatin% bet&een the human and the di'ine in the soterio"o%i!a" Nsa"'i$i!- mo'in% to&ard sa"'ationE?9C9O (ro!ess o$ histor#,C/G Wa"i!5i:s de$inition !orres(onds &e"" to the historian o$ the idea o$ nationa"ism- Hans =ohn- &ho !onsidered messiani! inter(retations to be $undamenta""#3re"i%ious,80 Peter Dun!an:s more re!ent de$inition- desi%ned to embra!e se!u"ar ideo"o%ies ?es(e!ia""# o$ the Russian re'o"utionaries@- ne'erthe"ess a"so assumes that the nationa" !a""in% is Bre"i%ious and uni'ersa" in its si%ni$i!an!e,C86 Com(arison o$ Wa"i!5i:s de$inition &ith more re!ent &or5 on
On the ori%ins and uses o$ Bmashia!h-C see Wim *eu5en- BDid Israe" Need the MessiahLC in Messianism throu$h History- edited b# Wim *eu5en ?Mar#5no""2 Orbis- 6GG8@- 8368,

Andr>eD Wa"i!5i- -hilosophy and Romantic Nationalism: the Case o! -oland- ?Notre Dame2 Uni'ersit# o$ Notre Dame Press- 6GG1@- /103/16,

Hans =ohn- The Idea o! Nationalism: "tudy in Its Ori$ins and %ack$round- ?Ne& Ior52 Ma!mi""an- 6G11@- 18319

Peter +, S, Dun!an- Russian Messianism- 8, His broad de$inition en!om(assed man# non3re"i%ious $orms- (rom(tin% some )uestions about the e4tent to &hi!h a"" Russian thou%ht is messiani!, See I"#a Pri>e":s re'ie& o$ Russian Messianism- in "lavic Revie#- ./2/ ?Summer /008@2 876,


Russian messianism ?or mi""enarianism@ #ie"ds se'era" distin!t items that $or the (ur(oses o$ this stud# &i"" be !onsidered messiani! !om(onents2 uni'ersa" 'a"ues- a Christian (ro!ess o$ histor#- and nationa" mediation, Messiani! ideo"o%ies treat nationa" 'a"ues as ha'in% a uni'ersa" !hara!ter in the sense that the# are 'a"id and a(("i!ab"e $or a"" (eo("e ?in!"udin% !on)uered subDe!ts o$ di$$erent ethni!ities@, The be"ie$ in a Christian (ro!ess o$ histor# under%irds messianism and (ro'ides &hat Da'id Ro&"e# !a""s the Btrans!endenta" "o%i!C o$ histor#Ethat has an end &ith si%ni$i!ant meanin% &hi!h de$ines the ro"e o$ the nation, ina""#- messianism assumes that a nation or %rou( !an itse"$ trans!end the norma" (o"iti!a" order and inter!ede &ith the su(ernatura"Eo$ten throu%h su$$erin%,8/ Sin!e messianism is a be"ie$ &ith a semi3re"i%ious !hara!ter- it $a""s &ithin the traditiona" domain o$ inte""e!tua" histor#- &hi!h en!om(asses $ar more than (ro$essiona" (hi"oso(hers, Arthur Lo'eDo# re!o%ni>ed the need $or an interdis!i("inar# a((roa!h to the in'esti%ation o$ ideas, B*ut the historian o$ ideas- &hi"e he o$tenest
These !om(onents- &hi!h rou%h"# !orres(ond to as(e!ts o$ Wa"i!5i:s de$inition- ha'e a"so been !onsidered as 5e# e"ements o$ Russian inte""e!tua" Bmi""enarianismC b# Da'id G, Ro&"e#, See his KRedeemer Em(ireK2 Russian Mi""enarianism, The merican Historical Revie# 60129, ?De!,- 6GGG@2 697/36.0/- es69G6369G/, A"thou%h Ro&"e# does not s(e!i$i!a""# mention mediation- he dis!usses the !on!e(t o$ nationa" !a""in% ?Bin &hi!h a 5e# (eo("e ("a#s a s(e!ia" ro"eC@ &ithin a re"i%ious !onte4t,


&i"" see5 $or the initia" emer%en!e o$ a !on!e(tion or (resu((osition in some (hi"oso(hi! or re"i%ious s#stem or s!ienti$i! theor#- &i"" see5 $or its most si%ni$i!ant mani$estations in art- and abo'e a"" in "iterature,C88 Without attem(tin% to redu!e messianism to a Bunit3 idea-C Lo'eDo#:s too" o$ ana"#sis- this stud# !onsiders messianism a $orm o$ dis!ourse about nationa" identit# that e4hibits the !om(onents "isted abo'e, Whi"e the intermin%"in% o$ !om(onents !an be e4("ained in (art b# !han%in% (er!e(tions o$ the &ar e$$ort- the $orms o$ messiani! dis!ourse o&ed a %reat dea" to the anti3 re'o"utionar# sentiments s&ee(in% a!ross Euro(e and $indin% &e"!omin% arms in Russia, Members o$ the "o#a" (ub"i! de$ined themse"'es as the o((osite o$ Euro(ean se"$3!riti!isms and thus (arado4i!a""# $ashioned their (ride in en"i%htened Russia $rom the materia" o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment- es(e!ia""# its 1rench ad'o!ates, Instead o$ "oo5in% at (atrioti! "iterature and dis!ourse as an emanation o$ ideo"o%# that (oints to the re"ations o$ so!ia" (o&erI $o""o& Mar5 *e'ir in em(hasi>in% the $a!t that indi'idua"s !hoose to em(hasi>e (arti!u"ar ideas and !on!e(ts in &a#s that so!ia" !onte4t !annot $u""# e4("ain,81 Assumin% that the !hoi!es o$ stor#- meta(hor
Arthur O, Lo'eDo#- The >reat Chain o! %ein$: "tudy in the History o! an Idea- ?Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.1A /6st r(t, 6GG7@- 6H,

Dra&in% $rom the insi%hts o$ $o"5 (s#!ho"o%#- *e'ir maintains that (eo("e indeed inherit assum(tions and other !u"tura" ba%%a%e- but ha'e the !a(a!it# to modi$# it in un(redi!tab"e &a#s, BPeo("e a!!e(t di$$erent


and other de'i!es re$"e!ted menta" o(erations and &hat Lo'eDo# !a""ed Bun!ons!ious assum(tions-C their "iterature !an be read as a sour!e o$ the !ontem(orar# B!"imate o$ o(inion-C e4(ressed in Car" *e!5er:s &e""35no&n de$inition as Bthose instin!ti'e"# he"d (re!on!e(tions in the broad sense- that 2eltanschauun$ or &or"d (attern,C89 Ana"#sis o$ the a"ternations &ithin the !"imate o$ o(inion o$ the &ar #ears &i"" #ie"d !on!"usions about Russia:s re"ation to Euro(e in the s(here o$ inte""e!tua" histor# in this a%e o$ re'o"ution era and transition, The insi%hts o$ "iterar# !riti!ism o(en a &indo& into the !"imate o$ o(inion under stud#, The most use$u" too" &i"" be ana"#sis o$ narrati'e stru!ture, Peter Dun!an noted in his sur'e# o$ Russian messianism that the idea !an be understood as a nationa" m#th&hi!h means that messiani! dis!ourse a((ears in the $orm o$ stories,8. Thus the ode- &hi!h to !ontem(oraries &as hard"# inno'ati'e but use$u" $or (ub"i! o!!asions- (ossesses %reat si%ni$i!an!e $or the &a# that it to"d the stor# o$ the &ar, Re"i%ious
theories and sa# di$$erent thin%s a%ainst the ba!5%round o$ the same so!ia" stru!ture- and &e !an e4("ain &h# the# do so on"# b# re$errin% to the !reati'e &a# the# reason as indi'idua"s,C BMind and Method in the Histor# o$ Ideas-C History and Theory 8. ?Ma# 6GGH@2 6.H367G, The Heavenly City o! the +i$hteenth)Century -hilosophers - ?Ne& Ha'en2 Ia"e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G8/@- 9,
35 36

Dun!an- Russian Messianism, 8,


Bh#mnsC and trium(hant (ane%#ri!s !ontinued to re!ount the &ar stor# in 'erse- on"# &ith more messiani! !om(onents as time (ro!eeded, Un"i5e stru!tura"ist or (ost3stru!tura"ist !riti!ism- m# intention here is not to understand the stor#:s ro"e &ithin a (oem:s o'era"" stru!ture or to attem(t to undermine it- but to sho& ho& this stor# re$"e!ted un!ons!ious en"i%htened and Romanti! assum(tions and to dra& "in5s &ith &ider anti3re'o"utionar# Euro(ean mo'ements, Meta(hor i""uminated and sha(ed narrati'es, In the En"i%htenment- meta(hors $or BGreat RussiaC abounded- and man# a!)uired ne& meanin%s in the !"ash &ith Na(o"eon,8H Whether Russia &as understood as a Ne& Israe"- a %arden (aradise- an in!arnation o$ =ie'an Rus:- or the (eo("e ru"ed b# a ne& +esus Christ- meta(hor &as e'er#&here in (atrioti! dis!ourse, More im(ortant"#- the !hoi!e o$ meta(hor re"ated to an author:s assum(tions about the e4(e!ted out!ome o$ the &ar and thus (ro'ides a !ru!ia" 5e# into understandin% the "ar%er meanin% o$ the narrati'e, Need"ess to sa#this a((roa!h $o""o&s the &or5 o$ "iterar# !riti!s "i5e Pau" Ri!oeur &ho
or an introdu!tion to the main meta(hori! usa%es o$ en"i%htened auto!rats- see <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- !hs, 631A Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er, 1/36.9, S!hFn"e- Andreas, BGarden o$ the Em(ire2 Catherine:s A((ro(riation o$ the Crimea,C "lavic Revie# .026 ?S(rin% /006@2 63/8A Ste(hen Lessin% *aehr- The -aradise Myth in +i$hteenth)Century Russia: 8topian -atterns in +arly "ecular Russian <iterature and Culture , ?Stan$ord2 Stan$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG6@,


treat meta(hor as a (oeti! and !reati'e a!t &hi!h he"(s (eo("e orient themse"'es to&ard the &or"d b# a""o&in% them to re3des!ribe and re3re(resent it,87 Sources This stud# tra!5s the messiani! !om(onents o$ nationa" identit# throu%h mani$estations in 'arious domains o$ !u"ture, The sour!e base deri'es $rom materia"s re$"e!tin% the "o#a" (ub"i!:s rea!tion to Na(o"eon, The stud# o$ Russian histor# in the a%e o$ the Na(o"eoni! Wars &ou"d be mu!h &ider and more bounti$u" &ere it not $or the in'asion o$ 676/ itse"$, Count"ess o"d Russian manus!ri(ts burned u( in the $ire that ra'a%ed Mos!o&- in!"udin% a !o(# o$ the e(i! ta"e The <ay o! the Host o! I$or- and man# o$ the $i"es &hi!h the state historio%ra(her Ni5o"ai =aram>in &as usin% to (re(are his History o! the Russian "tate,8G Lu!5i"#- =aram>in (reser'ed a !o(# o$ the History- endo&ed &ith "on% $ootnotes that #ie"d insi%ht into man# in!inerated do!uments, The $ire de'astated Mos!o& Uni'ersit#a"thou%h someho& the uni'ersit# t#(o%ra(h# remained inta!t &hen the sta$$ returned to assess the dama%e,10 Ho&e'er- the s!ho"ar"#
Pau" Ri!oeur- <a m@taphore vive- ?Paris2 Pditions du Seui"- 6GH9@- 8G73 8GG, or another a((roa!h that dra&s o$$ Ri!oeur- see <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- /9,

N, M, =aram>in- I4brannye stat0i i pis0ma- ?Mos!o&2 So'remenni5- 6G7/@67/,
39 40

S, She'#re'- Istoriia Imperatorska$o Moskovska$o universiteta- ?Mos!o&2


so!ieties that had been a!!umu"atin% boo5s u( unti" the &ar sa& their !ontents sent u( in smo5e- as did the uni'ersit#:s Dourna"smuseum- rare (ub"i!ations- and (ro$essiona" !o""e!tions, 16 A %rou( im(ortant $or this stud#- the So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Russian Literature at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#- "e$t behind on"# a $e& membershi( rostersb#"a&s- and a%endas unti" its rene&a" in 6769,1/ The sur'i'in% ar!hi'a" sour!es that do remain $or se!ond tier &riters in the Na(o"eoni! War (eriod #ie"ded "itt"e insi%ht into (atrioti! dis!ourse, Re'ie& o$ a"" ar!hi'a" $und des!ri(tions $or &riters &ith do!uments $rom 6700 to 6769 at RGALI #ie"ded most"# (ro(ert# re!ords and manus!ri(t !o(ies o$ &e""35no&n (ie!es o$ "iteratureusua""# un!onne!ted &ith &ar, A (otentia" reason $or the (au!it# o$ (atrioti! do!uments mi%ht be that odes &ere so standard that a &riter mi%ht not &ant to in!"ude them in his herita%e, A"e4ander Push5in- reno&ned as Russia:s nationa" (oet- &rote his $irst (oems durin% the stru%%"e &ith Na(o"eon, *ut &hen his &or5s &ere $irst !o""e!ted ?durin% his "i$etime@- he 5e(t out a (ie!e on Na(o"eon that &as t#(i!a" $or the a%e but a((arent"# not o$ su$$i!ient artisti!
uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6799@- 1/0, A, Iu, Andree'- Moskovskii universitet v obshchestvennoi i kulAturnoi 4hi4ni Rossii nachala XIX veka- ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i russ5oi 5u":tur#- /000@- 60,

N, M, Mende":son- Obshchestvo liubitelei rossiiskoi slovesnosti pri Moskovskom universitete: Istoricheskaia 4apiska i materialy 4a sto let ?Mos!o&2 A, Sne%ire'a- 6G66@- iii3i',


)ua"it#,18 One o$ the ri!hest !o""e!tions on inte""e!tua" "i$e in this era is the Osta$:e's5ii Ar!hi'e ?most"# (ub"ished@- and other !o""e!tions o$ the ;ia>ems5ii $ami"#, Peter ;ia>ems5ii- a re"ati'e o$ Ni5o"ai =aram>in and $riend o$ the maDor Russian (oet A"e4ander Push5in- &as a satirist- a Do5ester- and a !#ni! &ho did not share the messiani! 'isions emanatin% $rom Mos!o& durin% the hei%ht o$ the Euro(ean !am(ai%n a%ainst Na(o"eon, Corres(onden!e $rom the Osta$:e's5ii Ar!hi'e is use$u" $or Dud%in% the rea!tions o$ his $riends- but e'en these do!uments be%in on"# in 676/,11 The BPatrioti! War o$ 676/C $und at the Russian State Mi"itar# Ar!hi'e ?RG;IA@ !ontains %o'ernment do!uments and (ro!"amationsEmost o$ &hi!h ha'e been (ub"ished e"se&here,19 Other $unds at the manus!ri(t di'ision o$ the Russian Nationa" Librar# !ontained some sour!es !onne!ted to
I, ;, Ro>ano'- BPatrioti!hes5aia "ir5a (oeto' tre5h (o5o"enii ' Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# 676/36769 %%,-C 8chenye 4apiski Moskovsko$o universiteta- ;#(, 667 ?6G1.@2 H9,

Osta!0evskii arkhiv knia4ei :ia4emskikh- 7 'o"s,- ?St, Petersbur% 2 I>d, S,D, Sheremete'a- 67GG36G68@, See es(e!ia""# the !orres(onden!e in 'o", 6676/3676G,

und 1H1 ?Patrioti! War o$ 676/@ !ontains !o(ies o$ o$$i!ia" mani$estoesa"" o$ &hi!h &ere !om(i"ed in "obranie vysochaishikh mani!estov, $ramat, uka4ov, reskriptov, prika4ov voiskam i ra4nykh i4vieshchenii, posliedovavskikh v techenie &'&3)&'&B $$- ?St, Petersbur%2 Mors5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 676.@, Another interestin% $i"e des!ribes a !o'ert o(eration to "aun!h a nationa" u(risin% in German "ands, RG;IA $, 1H1- o6- d, 61re!ent"# (ub"ished as A, Chui5e'i!h- BAna"iti!hes5ii (roe5t 'oenn#5h deist'ii ' 676/ %,C in Rossisskii arkhiv: Istoriia Otechestva v sviditel0stvakh i dokumentakh- ;#(, ;II- ?Mos!o&2 BTriteC Ni5it# Mi5hai"o'a BRossiss5ii ar5hi'-C 6GG.@,


the &ar- but &ithout !"ear authorshi(,1. An abundan!e o$ (rinted sour!es assisted m# in'esti%ation o$ the se!ond tier- in!"udin% some !"eri!a" "iterar# $i%ures, Mos!o& Ar!hbisho( A'%ustin:s &artime sermons &ere !om(i"ed and (rinted than5s to the e$$orts o$ the Mos!o& Uni'ersit# So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Russian Literature, The rei%n o$ A"e4ander I &itnessed a $"urr# o$ ne& and o$ten short3"i'ed Dourna"s that %a'e 'oi!e to se!ond3tier (oets, These in!"ude the "on%3"i'ed ?670/36780@ Herald o! +urope ?:estnik +vropy@ and man# short3"i'ed St, Petersbur% Dourna"s, The So!iet# &as a"so im(ortant in !om(i"in% and (ub"ishin% the &or5s o$ edor I'ano' and A"e4ei Mer>"ia5o'- &hose (a(ers ha'e ne'er been %athered in one ("a!e, A /3'o"ume !o""e!tion o$ 'erse dedi!ated to the Bun$or%ettab"e #ear 676/C ran 900 (a%es o$ (atrioti! (oetr#, Its editor- most "i5e"# ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii- in!"uded $amous (oets "i5e Der>ha'in and =aram>in a"on%side "ess reno&ned members o$ the uni'ersit#:s Lo'ers o$ Russian Literature and e'en s!hoo"tea!hers $rom the (ro'in!es, Pub"ished a"most immediate"# a$ter the uni'ersit# re3o(ened- the !o""e!tion testi$ied to the ho(es $or a rene&a" o$ "earnin% and (ro%ress in Mos!o&:s Btem("e o$ "earnin%,C As $ar ba!5 as 6761- it dre& !riti!ism $rom the ta"ented !riti! Ni5o"ai
See the Tito' !o""e!tion in the Russian Nationa" Librar#:s Manus!ri(t Di'ision- $, HH9- d, 6.9.- "", /- 13.


Gre!h ?in!identa""#- a resident o$ St, Petersbur%@ (re!ise"# $or &hat ma5es it 'a"uab"e2 it re(resented the BheartC o$ !ontem(oraries rather than the best o$ !ontem(orar# Russian "iterature,1H It a"so (reser'ed the &or5 o$ "itt"e 5no&n re"i%ious &riters "i5e Ni5o"ai Sh!he%o"e' and Mat'ei A'ramo' ?an Orthodo4 (riest@, Sin!e (ost&ar !o""e!tors too5 a %reat interest in the Patrioti! War o$ 676/- the# bou%ht u( these (rinted sour!es- and attem(ted to ma5e $u"" bib"io%ra(hies o$ 676/A their !o""e!tions u"timate"# !ame to reside in the Russian State Librar# ?in mi!ro$i"m@ and the Russian State Histori!a" Librar# ?in the ori%ina"@,17 I ha'e $o!used on t#(es o$ &ritin% &here messiani! !om(onents &ere most (resent, S(e!i$i!a""#- !ha(ters /- 1- and .
Ma5sim Ne'>oro' de$ended the sin!erit# o$ the !o""e!ti'e authors in a re("# to Gre!h, BO no'oi 5ni%e2 "obranie stikhotvorenii, otnosiashchikhsia k ne4abvennomu &'&3 $odu,C Istoricheskii, statitiecheskii, i $eo$ra!icheskii 4hurnal 826J/ ?+u"#JAu% 6761@2 6..36.7,

On the !o""e!tions at the Russian State Histori!a" Librar#- see T, =, Mish!hen5o- BGro>a d'enadtsato%o %oda,,,C Mir biblio$ra!ii 6?6GGG@2 7137G, or (re3re'o"utionar# !o""e!tors attem(ts at bib"io%ra(hies- see ;atalo$ russkikh kni$ po istorii otechestvennoi voiny biblioteki Ivana ;olodeeva , Otdel :oennyi- ?Mins52 *, I, So"omono'a- 6G6/@A I, Li(randi- Opyt katalo$a vsem otdel0nym sochnieniiam ob otechestvennoi voine &'&3 $oda po &',3 $od- ?Mos!o&- 67H.@A Otechestvennaia voina v russkoi 4hurnalistike9 %iblio$raphicheskii sbornik statei, otnosiashchikhsia k &'&3 $odu - edited b# =, ;oens5ii ?St, Petersbur%2 *ere>h"i'ost:- 6G0.@, On the Russian Nationa" Librar# in St, Petersbur% ?&hi!h !ontains man# more items (ub"ished "o!a""#@- see A, L, Go":dber%- BPe!hatn#e materia"# (ub"i!hnoi bib"iote5i imeni M, E, Sa"t#5o'a3Sh!hedrina o 'oine 676/ %oda-C :oprosy istorii . ?6G./@2 /073/6/ and Liudmi"a A"e5see'na Mandr#5ina et a",- ;atalo$ rukopisnykh materialov o voine &'&3 $9 khraniashchikhsia v otdele rukopisei >osudartvennoi publichnoi biblioteki - ?Lenin%rad2 Pub"i!hnaia bib"iote5a Sa"t#5o'a3Sh!hedrina- 6G.6@,


dea" &ith (oetr# o$ 'arious 5inds2 mi"itar# odes- re"i%ious- and (ane%#ri!, Sin!e the messiani! themes $ound in odes &ere !ommon("a!e amon% the edu!ated "o#a" (ub"i! in Mos!o&- drama(ub"i! s(ee!hes- and !hur!h (ronoun!ements &ea'e themse"'es in to the dis!ussion o$ nationa" identit#- nationa" mission- and romanti! rebirth- as (ortra#ed in the (oetr#, Cha(ters 8 and 9 em("o# (o"iti!a"3 Dourna"isti! sour!es &ith re$eren!es to the Euro(ean ideas that &ere si%ni$i!ant in the Ti"sit (eriod ?670H3676/@ and a$ter the in'asion ?676/36761@, The stud# !on!"udes &ith ana"#sis o$ sermons ?most"# in 676836761@,

Plan of the Work
These !hoi!es $o""o&ed s(urts o$ (ub"ishin% &ithin the "o#a" (ub"i!, A%ainst a ba!5dro( o$ stru%%"e to thro& o$$ ren!h !u"tura" in$"uen!e- Russian (oets and dramatists $rom both !a(ita"s !om(osed a host o$ (atrioti! (oems durin% the Third and ourth Coa"ition War eras ?67093670H@, This mo'ement ended abru(t"# &ith A"e4ander:s di("omati! volte)!ace at the Treat# o$ Ti"sit in 670H- a$ter &hi!h the ren!h em(eror &as to be a!!orded a"" due res(e!t, In the #ears o$ (ea!e &ith ran!e- a "one Dourna"ist- Ser%ei G"in5a- rea"i>ed the need to mobi"i>e his !om(atriots $or &ar- to &hi!h end he de'oted his Dourna"- Russian Herald ?Ruskoi :estnik@, When &ar !ame in 676/- an


enormous (oeti! out(our $i""ed the (a%es o$ a"" "iterar# Dourna"s, Po"iti!a" !riti!ism a"so a((eared in Dourna"s durin% the Euro(ean !am(ai%n o$ 676/36761, The !entra" !athedra" in Mos!o&- reo(ened in 6768- be!ame the site o$ sermons out"inin% a messiani! 'ision, ina""#- in 6761- a number o$ (ane%#ri! &or5s !e"ebrated the a!!om("ished $a!t o$ the Bsa"'ationC o$ Euro(e2 the Russian entr# into Paris, A$ter 6761- (atrioti! "iterature o$ a"" 'arieties d&ind"ed, Romanti! !urrents (romoted e4(erimentation in "iterature- &hi"e !"er%#men returned to (rea!hin% to the (ea!etime needs o$ their (arishioners,1G A$ter a ba!5%round !ha(ter des!ribin% the inte""e!tua" and (o"iti!a" (ositions o$ the (rin!i(a" "iterar# %rou(s in the t&o !a(ita"s!ha(ter / sho&s ho& (oeti! and dramati! re(resentations !ontributed to the (er!e(tion that Russia &as the "ast en"i%htened !ountr# $ree o$ the BNa(o"eoni! #o5eC and there$ore its !u"tura" as &e"" as mi"itar# "eader, The third !ha(ter $o!uses on Ser%ei G"in5a&ho (ortra#ed Ba"" thin%s RussianC in terms o$ +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau:s (ro%nosis $or his o&n !u"ture, G"in5a disseminated the notion that Russians (ossessed the 'a"ues o$ BtrueC ?non3
A$ter the &ar- the emotiona" (it!h and hi%h "an%ua%e o$ the &ar #ears dissi(ated, One "iterar# %rou( in (arti!u"ar- Ar>amas- treated the messiani! "an%ua%e o$ the &ar #ears as materia" $or (arod#in% their "iterar# o((onents, See Gas(aro'- -oeticheskii Ia4yk -ushkina- 607360G and 6673 6/6,


re'o"utionar#@ en"i%htenment that &ere 'a"id $or a"" Euro(eans, The $ourth !ha(ter dea"s &ith the o((osition in 676/ bet&een Petersbur% !onser'ati'e nationa"ists and uni'ersa"ists Mus!o'ite &riters &hose re"i%ious (oetr# !reated the $irst $orms o$ m#ths o$ a di'ine mission to restore Euro(e, The $i$th !ha(ter re'ie&s (o"iti!a" Dourna"ism to sho& Russian inte""e!tua"s a%ain dre& on anti3 re'o"utionar# ideas in Euro(e a$ter the in'asion to de$ine the re"i%ious mission as a restoration o$ the !ommon Ben"i%htenedC tradition, ina""#- !ha(ter si4 addresses the trium(ha" (ane%#ri!s o$ 6761 ?in (oetr# and orator#@ that hera"ded 'i!tor# abroad o'er the ren!h and sho&s ho& Romanti! ideas about Euro(e:s return to ha((iness (ro'ided the stru!ture $or the ima%e o$ the tsar as a re!on!i"er o$ nations, Cha(ter H dea"s &ith the most e"aborate messianist- the Orthodo4 Ar!hbisho( o$ Mos!o& A'%ustin- &ho shared the Romanti! 'ision o$ Euro(e:s return to en"i%htened order and &ho !an (ro(er"# be !onsidered the (rede!essor o$ Russian messiani! thin5in% b# s#nthesi>in% a"" the messiani! !om(onents and the histor# o$ the Russian nation, or A'%ustin- the (eo("e rather than the tsar inter!eded &ith hea'en to restore !i'i"i>ation, Thou%h he hard"# !ou"d ha'e $oreseen it- he inau%urated a "on% tradition in Russian


thou%ht o$ assi%nin% a messiani! ro"e to the (eo("e as the a%ent o$ Euro(e:s sa"'ation, U"timate"#- the stud# o$ the rise o$ messianism in the Na(o"eoni! Wars sho&s that Romanti! Nationa"ism de'e"o(ed as a de$ense o$ the en"i%htened order, Tension &ith ren!h !u"turee4("odin% durin% !on$"i!t and "ater &ar &ith Na(o"eon- !ertain"# dro'e Russians to "oo5 $or ne& &a#s o$ distin%uishin% themse"'es and their nationa" identit#- but in this (ro!ess man# (eo("e dre& $rom (an3Euro(ean !riti!isms o$ re'o"utionar# ran!e, This inte""e!tua" resistan!e or !ounter3En"i%htenment- as it has been !a""ed- &as not a (o"ar o((osition, As ne& resear!h into other Euro(ean thin5ers has sho&n- o((onents o$ the philosophes sou%ht to re!o'er $undamenta" aims o$ the En"i%htenment that !ontem(orar# ran!e seemed to ha'e betra#ed,90 In Russia- the se!ond3tier &riters o$ the "o#a" (ub"i! mi%ht ha'e sou%ht to sound the
Arthur M, Me">er- BThe Ori%in o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment2 Rousseau and the Ne& Re"i%ion o$ Sin!erit#,C The merican -olitical "cience Revie# G02/ ?+une 6GG.@2 81138.0, Darrin M, M!Mahon:s +nemies o! the +nli$htenment: the 1rench Counter)+nli$htenment and the Makin$ o! Modernity- ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- /006@ !ontinues to 'ie& the en"i%htenment and its o((onents as a rather star5 di'ision- but his &or5 a"so de'otes attention to the &a#s that anti3 philosophes !onstru!ted ne& ideo"o%ies based on memories o$ the hei%ht o$ the A%e o$ Reason2 the era o$ Louis QI;, See (a%es 6/8369/, rom a more (hi"oso(hi!a" (oint o$ 'ie&Damon Lin5er has (ro(osed &a#s to see S!he""in%:s "ater in'esti%ations as a &a# to ans&er (rob"ems that =ant seemin%"# "e$t unreso"'ed, Damon Lin5er- B rom =ant to S!he""in%2 Counter3En"i%htenment in the Name o$ Reason-C The Revie# o! Metaphysics 912/ ?/000@2 88H38HG,


death35ne"" o$ the re'o"ution and the inte""e!tua" dominion o$ the philosophes- but their messiani! 'ision o$ Russia restorin% Euro(e &as tied to the ho(e that the (ost3Na(o"eoni! &or"d !ou"d $u"$i"" the dee(er- more $undamenta" (romises o$ the En"i%htenment in the domain o$ !u"ture and inte""e!tua" maturation, It &as be!ause the# !"un% to their $aith in en"i%htened auto!ra!# so ti%ht"# that Mus!o'ite &riters m#tho"o%i>ed the (assin% o$ the re'o"utionar# e(isode as a Romanti! rene&a" o$ the &ho"e o$ Euro(e and a ne& !entur# o$ b"ossomin% !u"ture throu%hout Russia and Euro(e,



! The Literar" Societie# o$ Mo#co% and Peter#&ur'

The rei%n o$ A"e4ander I ?r, 6706367/9@ ushered in the Go"den A%e o$ Russian (oetr#, The ran5s o$ minor &riters s&e""ed amidst anti!i(ations that A"e4ander:s a!!ession &ou"d o(en a (ath to (ro'in% the !"aims o$ the ei%hteenth3!entur#2 that Russia &as a mature Euro(ean !i'i"i>ation &ith an e)ua""# di%ni$ied nationa" "iterature,96 The !ontem(orar# i"i(( ;i%e": &as stru!5 b# the 'ast )uantit# o$ hidden (oets &ho a((eared out o$ no&here to sa"ute the em(eror &ith "ines in 'erse,9/ As the se!ond3tier e4(anded- it be!ame embroi"ed in a !ontro'ers# o'er the "iterar# "an%ua%e and st#"e that &ou"d be most a((ro(riate $or the e4(e!ted nationa" %reatness, This !ontest- !ommon"# re$erred to as the stru%%"e bet&een ar!haists and inno'ators- has ser'ed "iterar# histor# &e"" as a %uide to the distin!tions in the most im(ortant )uestions o$ st#"e and the e'o"ution o$ %enres, or inte""e!tua" histor#- ho&e'er- it obs!ures more $undamenta" $a!tors, The most te""in% (oint is that the "eaders o$ both !am(s had 'er# simi"ar !onser'ati'e (o"iti!a" 'ie&s on issues
Hans Ro%%er- National Consciousness in +i$hteenth)Century Russia ?Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.0@- /973/.0,

, ,;i%e":- Capiski- ;o", 8- ?Mos!o&2 Arte": (isate"ei =ru%- 6G/7A ;o"s, I3IIr(t, Cambrid%e2 Orienta" Resear!h Partners- 6GH1@- /.03/.6, or A"e4ander:s !oronation- at "east 80 minor (oets !ontributed 'erses $or the !e"ebration, See Ri!hard S, Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy- 'o", 6- ?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG9@- 6G7- $ootnote 66,


"i5e ser$dom and the (o&er o$ the auto!ra!#, In addition- man# (arti!i(ants in the se!ond3tier "iterar# so!ieties $e"t stron% reser'ations about the inno'ators: a((roa!h &ithout a!!e(tin% the ar!haists: so!io3(o"iti!a" o(inions or 4eno(hobi! tenden!ies, Writers !ou"d reDe!t the Euro(eani>ed st#"isti! a((roa!h o$ the inno'ators &ithout reDe!tin% the herita%e o$ Peter the Great:s Euro(eani>ation, Thou%h Mos!o& is o$ten identi$ied &ith sentimenta"ism and ne& !urrents $rom Euro(e- the main $a!tors !ondu!in% to the rise o$ messianism ha'e "ess to do &ith the inno'ators than &ith the &ide %rou( o$ (eo("e &ho sa& di$$erent &a#s to !ontest ren!h in$"uen!e o'er their !u"ture, Resistance to Russian Gallomania A$ter the stru%%"es &ith $orei%n !u"tura" in$"uen!e in Russia- the tas5 o$ de'e"o(in% "iterature seemed a !ru!ia" (art o$ nationa" identit#, Russian nob"es &ere $or!ed to ado(t $orei%n manners throu%hout the ei%hteenth3!entur#- and the &ides(read in$"uen!e o$ the ren!h "an%ua%e e'entua""# en!oura%ed Russian !u"tura" o((osition, rom the time o$ Peter the Great- other Euro(ean in$"uen!es had enDo#ed transient as!endan!# in Russian !u"ture, Peter himse"$ &as interested in the Dut!h- and that "an%ua%e at one time !ou"d ha'e been )uite (ro$itab"e $or a #oun% ran53see5er,98

Marinus A, Wes- Classics in Russia &,(()&'**: %et#een T#o %ron4e


Em(ress Anna II ?r, 6H8036H10@ s&it!hed to German tastes, Her (o"iti!a" ad'isor Ernst +ohann *iron- ho&e'er- dre& the ire o$ the nobi"it# &ho be%an to arti!u"ate resentment at the ru"e o$ $orei%ners, Thou%h German in$"uen!e (rom(ted nationa" resentment- ren!h tastes- $ashions- de!orations- and s(ee!h be!ame $ar more $irm"# entren!hed durin% the subse)uent rei%ns o$ E"i>abeth ?r, 6H1636H./@ and Catherine the Great II ?r, 6H.836HG.@, E"i>abeth "o'ed ren!h !uisine- !ham(a%ne- and $ashionsEand her tastes &ere mat!hed b# the s(read o$ ren!h re$inement amon% the aristo!ra!#. Catherine e4!eeded E"i>abeth b# intensi$#in% !onne!tions &ith the &or"d o$ ren!h ideas, She !ondu!ted !orres(onden!e &ith philosopheso$$erin% to (rint the +ncylcopedia- and o$$erin% to hire D:A"embert as the tutor to her son Pau", A"thou%h that em("o#ment o((ortunit# !o""a(sed- the em(ress did se!ure the ser'i!es o$ a S&iss Durist rPdPri! CPsar de La Har(e- &ho he"(ed im(art Re(ub"i!an s#m(athies to the $uture auto!rat A"e4ander I, Wor5s b# the ren!h philosophes &ere (rinted and distributed &ide"# in Russia be$ore the ren!h Re'o"ution, More im(ortant"#- nob"es be%an to s(ea5 ren!h re%u"ar"# in the !a(ita"s and maDor re%iona" !ities- ren!h be!ame the

Horseman- ?=F"n- Leiden- R Ne& Ior52 E, +, *ri""- 6GG/@- 6/, See a"so Iurii Lotman- BThe Poeti!s o$ E'er#da# *eha'ior-C in A"e4ander D, and A"i!ia Stone Na5himo's5#- eds,- The "emiotics o! Russian Cultural History - ?Ne& Ior52 Corne"" Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79@- .G,


"an%ua%e o$ !hoi!e $or the instru!tion o$ !hi"dren- and ren!h "i%ht no'e"s o!!u(ied #oun% readers $ar more than an#thin% Russian,91 E'en &hen Russian so"diers &ent out to $i%ht the ren!h- the# resemb"ed them in dress, In a $amous (assa%e $rom his memoirsCa'a"r# O$$i!er Denis Da'#do' re!ounted ho& he had to Dettison his o$$i!ia" uni$orm and don a 5a$tan in order to %ain the trust o$ the (easants &hen he &anted to underta5e (artisan raids a%ainst the ren!h,99 Natura""#- resistan!e emer%ed a%ainst ren!h dominan!e o$ manners and the inte""e!t, On sta%e- satires a$$orded the nob"es a !han!e to "au%h at their !ountr#men:s ine(t $orei%n mannerisms, In Ia5o' =nia>hin:s Mis!ortune !rom a Coach ?6HHG@- a master and mistress de!ide not to se"" a ser$ be!ause he 5ne& t&o &ords o$ ren!h- im("#in% that his abi"it# to ada(t $orei%n &a#s %a'e him some di%nit#, Denis on'i>in:s %ri$adier ?6H.7@ (resented a (otentia""#3adu"terous s!enario bet&een a #oun% $o( &ho s(outs a
;, O, ="iu!he's5ii- ;urs Russkoi istorii- ;o", 9( ?Mos!o&2 %osudarst'ennoe sotsia":no3e5onomi!hes5oe i>date":st'o- 6G8H@- 671367.A Ro%%er- National Consciousness- 60H3607, Gar# Mar5er- ho&e'er- su%%ests that these tra!ts most "i5e"# died a (ea!e$u" death- unso"d on boo5store she"'es- &hi"e traditiona" re"i%ious"#3themed (ub"i!ations had a mu!h &ider audien!e, See his -ublishin$, -rintin$, and the Ori$ins o! Intellectual <i!e in Russia, &,(() &'((- ?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79@- /0G,

D, ;, Da'#do'- BDne'ni5 (arti>ans5i5h deist'ii 676/ %oda-C in &'&3 $od v russkoi poe4ii I vospominaniiakh sovremennikov- ?Mos!o&2 i>date":st'o Pra'da- 6G7H@- 6G0,


hand$u" o$ ren!h "ines and a Coun!i"or:s &i$e &ho sees the "ad as a man o$ re$inement,9. One o$ the main themes in these (rodu!tions &as the inabi"it# o$ ran!o(hi"e Russians to s(ea5 ren!h !orre!t"#e'iden!ed b# the (re$a!e o$ I'an <a5haro' to a ("a# $rom 670., In the (re$a!e to 6eportation o! the 1rench ?:ysylka !rantsu4ov@- he !"aimed to ha'e &ritten the dia"o%ue in (ro(er ren!h so that (eo("e &ou"d sto( "au%hin% at the Russians: a&5&ardness in e4(ression and start thin5in% about the more ne$arious in$"uen!es emanatin% $rom the ideas,9H C"ear"#- <a5haro' 5ne& he &as &ritin% $or a (ub"i! that enDo#ed mo!5in% ren!h manners and had standard e4(e!tations $or the !hara!ters: di!tion, Catherine the Great:s s(onsorshi( o$ Dourna"ism a""o&ed (o"emi!s &ith the philosophes: ideas, Resistan!e to the ren!h En"i%htenment be$ore 6H7G &as a maDor !orres(ondent o$ the philosophes, A"" the same- she a"so s(onsored a so!iet# $or the trans"ation o$ boo5s into Russian, This a!t ins(ired the (ub"isher Ni5o"ai No'i5o' to $o""o& the em(ress:s a!tion &ith his o&n So!iet# or Printin% *oo5s, A"thou%h No'i5o':s (ub"ishin% a!ti'it# distributed
A"thou%h Ga""o(hi"e Russians are mo!5ed in %ri$adir- the ("a# sti"" introdu!ed ne& ren!h dramati! te!hni)ues to the Russian sta%e, Iu, ;, Stenni5- BDramatur%iia russ5o%o 5"assitsi>ma, =omediia,C in Iu, =, Gerasimo'- et a",- eds,- Istoriia russkoi dramatur$ii: X:III)pervaia polovina XIX veka ?Lenin%rad2 i>date":st'o BNau5a-C 6G7/@- 6/1368/,

I, S, <a5haro'- :ysylka 1rantsu4ov- ?St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'- 670H@I3II,


some philosophes0 &or5s- he set be$ore himse"$ the tas5 o$ raisin% the !ountr#:s edu!ationa" "e'e" &ithout "ettin% Ga""omania (oison it, He and his $reemason !o""ea%ues- in!"udin% some o$ the most im(ortant Mos!o& Uni'ersit# administrators and $reemasons "i5e Mi5hai" =heras5o'- I'an Tur%ene'- and Mi5hai" Mura'e'- (ub"ished Mornin$ <i$ht- a Dourna" &here the# tried to o((ose the philosophes0 ideas &ith a mi4 o$ an!ient and modern (hi"oso(hers &hose &or5s e4(ressed the essen!e o$ their $reemason be"ie$ in mora" se"$3 (er$e!tion2 So!rates- P"ato- E(i!urus- <enoA *a!on- Grotius- Pas!a"and Christian Wo"$$ on the modern side, No'i5o' a"so tried to raise (ositi'e mode"s $rom the Russian (ast, He (ub"ished do!uments on Russia:s internationa" re"ations- tra!ed %enea"o%ies- and des!ribed o"d Orthodo4 manners and !ustomsEin (art to re$ute the !"aims o$ the AbbP Cha((e d:Autero!he- &hose :oya$e en "ib@rie had deni%rated Russian so!ia" !ustoms,97 No'i5o':s (ub"ishin% !areer ended in 6HG/- &hen o'er>ea"ous Mos!o& (o"i!e arrested him $or his $reemason ties and (robab"# out o$ some (aranoia about (otentia" ties to the I""umanti and re'o"utionar# !ons(ira!ies,9G Sti""- No'i5o':s
W, Gareth, +ones- Nikolay Novikov +nli$htener o! Russia- ?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G71@- 78361/, Catherine the Great herse"$ set out to !ounter the abbP:s !"aims, See Ro%%er- National Consciousness- /.83 /.1,

Dou%"as Smith- 2orkin$ the Rou$h "tone: 1reemasonry and "ociety in +i$hteenth)Century Russia- ?De=a"b2 Northern I""inois Uni'ersit# Press6GGG@- 6H8,


(ub"ishin% (ro'ided an out"et $or !riti)ue o$ the philosophes: ideas &ithout reDe!tin% Euro(eani>ation or "earnin% &ho"esa"e, This !riti!a" s(irit e4(anded to its $u""est at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#&here No'i5o' rented a (rintin% (ress, He b# no means si%na"ed a reDe!tion o$ Euro(e or the En"i%htenment, To the !ontrar#- as a re!ent s!ho"ar has su%%ested- Mos!o& Uni'ersit# &as the embodiment o$ Bs!ho"ar"# s(a!e bet&een Russian and Euro(e,C.0 The uni'ersit# (ro'ided students &ith the $ee"in% that the# &ere a!!om("ishin% (art o$ the %reat tas5 o$ ame"ioratin% Russia:s !u"tura" "e'e" b# means o$ ne& $orei%n (ra!ti!es, Euro(ean uni'ersities: traditions de$ined student "i$e2 de"i'erin% (ub"i! s(ee!hes- (er$ormin% ("a#s- and $ormin% s!ho"ar"# %rou(s,.6 Whi"e (ro$essors did not ha'e the !or(orate autonom# o$ their !ounter(arts in Euro(e- the# sti"" ran most a$$airs throu%h the Uni'ersit# Coun!i",./ Under the trusteeshi( o$ I'an Tur%ene'- Mos!o&:s !onne!tions &ith GFttin%en Uni'ersit# &ere ti%htened, His su!!essor- Mi5hai" Mura':e'- sou%ht to brin% in the $ruits o$ German s!ho"arshi( b# in'itin% e"e'en German (ro$essors, The uni'ersit# administration a"so (ut a hi%h (remium on edu!atin%
A, Iu, Andree'- Moskovskii universitet v obshchestvennoi i kulAturnoi 4hi4ni Rossii nachala XIX veka- ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i russ5oi 5u":tur#- /000@- 73G,

;, ;, Ponomare'a- 8niversitet dlia Rossii : v4$liad na istoriiu kulAtury X:III stoletiia- ?Mos!o&2 Russ5oe s"o'o- 6GGH@- /H93/HG,
61 62

At "east unti" 6766- see Andree'- Moskovskii universitet- !h, /,


Russian #outh abroad and re!ruitin% them $or ser'i!e in the uni'ersit# stru!ture u(on their return,.8 A"thou%h German (ro$essors dominated Mos!o&:s !am(us unti" the ear"# nineteenth3!entur#- the e$$orts o$ administrators "i5e Mi5hai" Mura':e' did (a# o$$2 in the 6760s and 67/0s- Russian (ro$essors tau%ht German Idea"ism to the #oun% minds o$ the BE4traordinar# De!adeC &hen Russian thou%ht de'e"o(ed the S"a'o(hi"e and Westerni>er s!hoo"s o$ thou%ht, I$ !ontainin% ren!h in$"uen!e &as a maDor !on!ern in hi%her edu!ation- it &as e'en more so $or &riters- &ho re!o%ni>ed that the# needed somethin% (ositi'e and di%ni$ied to !ounter(ose to ren!h su!!esses, No'i5o':s an!ient do!uments mi%ht ha'e testi$ied to a (ast di%nit#- but &hat s(o5e to (resent su!!essesL This &as a tas5 that "iterature !ou"d he"( a!!om("ish, Russian &riters o$ten !om(ared ea!h other in s("endor and ta"ent to bards o$ a%es (ast, The (o"#math Mi5hai" Lomonoso' &as !om(ared to no "ess ?and no doubt more@ than ;ir%i"- Ma"herbe- Pindar- and Ci!ero,.1 Perha(s !ontem(oraries re!o%ni>ed the e4!esses o$ this 5ind o$ (raise b# "audin% the minor dramatist Ni5o"ai Ni5o"e' as the BNe& Mi"tonC be!ause both &ent b"ind, Poets es(e!ia""# sou%ht to de$ine a s(e!ia" "e'e" in so!iet#- &here the# !ou"d s(ea5 "i5e (ro(hets2 to ad'ise

Andree'- Moskovskii universitet- 87- ./3.8- 773G0, Ro%%er- National Consciousness- /9G,



=in%s and s(ea5 on beha"$ o$ the (eo("e, Peter had !om("eted a "on% (ro!ess o$ subDe!tin% the !hur!h to state (o&er- and his (ane%#rist eo$an Pro5o(o'i!h had !on'erted re"i%ious tea!hin% into se!u"ar (ro(a%andi>in%, Writers &ere su((osed to $o""o& suit- but as the !entur# (ro%ressed- the# assumed the o"d re"i%ious $un!tion o$ inter(retin% truth $rom on hi%h and sou%ht to !"aim autonom# a(art $rom !ourt,.9 Ga'rii" Der>ha'in (ro'ided the star5est e4!"amation o$ the (oet:s ri%ht to de$ine the %ood 5in% in an ode $or the birth o$ $uture Tsar A"e4ander, He en!oura%ed A"e4ander to be Ba man on the throne-C meanin% to re!o%ni>e his o&n human "imits as an en"i%htened monar!h,.. He a"so denoun!ed the (ro$"i%a!#drun5enness- s"oth- and %amb"in% o$ the !ourtE&ith su!h admonitions 5e(t sa$e b# !orres(ondin% (raise $or Em(ress Catherine as the e(itome o$ en"i%htened 'irtue- un!ontaminated b# !ontem(orar# 'i!es,.H Thou%h endo&ed &ith a stron% sense o$ se"$3&orth- the &ou"d3 be %iants "a!5ed a hi%h"#3de'e"o(ed "iterar# "an%ua%e and thus the 'er# materia" &hi!h &ou"d !ondu!e to nationa" %reatness, Prior to
Iurii M, Lotman- BO!her5i (o istorii russ5oi 5u":tur#-C in I4 istorii russkoi kul0tury9 Tom I:: XIII)nachalo XIX veka- ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i Russ5oi 5u":tur#/000@- 793G8,
65 66

Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er- 61736.9, Lin!o"n- %et#een Heaven and Hell- G13G9,



Peter the Great- O"d Chur!h S"a'oni! &as (rimari"# the &ritten "an%ua%e- &hi"e Russian &as s(o5en as 'erna!u"ar, Peter:s re$orms introdu!ed a !i'i! C#ri""i! s!ri(t and im(orted- trans"iterated- or modi$ied $orei%n &ords to !reate an administrati'e 'o!abu"ar# needed to run the ne& im(eria" a((aratus, The !i'i" ser'i!e "an%ua%e- ho&e'er- sounded )uite di$$erent $rom the o"d S"a'oni!&hi!h in time had %ro&n )uite distant $rom 'erna!u"ar RussianEin some !ases- in!om(rehensib"e e'en to the !"er%#S Throu%hout the ei%hteenth3!entur#- Russian (oets had debated the merits o$ deri'in% ne& &ords out o$ o"der ones $rom S"a'oni! te4ts- but a ne&er method &as de'e"o(ed b# the Mos!o& Sentimenta"ists in &hat be!ame 5no&n as the Ne& St#"e,.7 The "eaders o$ the Sentimenta"ists &ere Ni5o"ai =aram>in and I'an Dmitrie', Their (ub"i!ation- the Mosco# ?ournal ?Moskovskii Churnal, 6HG636HG/@- brou%ht to the Russian (ub"i! &or5s b# su!h authors as Goethe- S!hi""er- Wie"and=ot>ebue and +ames Ma!Pherson:s Ossian Tales, Sentimenta" "iterature shi$ted a&a# $rom bombasti! odes to&ard more intimate and (ersona" dimensions o$ "i$e, Its (ra!titioners (re$erred sa"ons"adies- and e'enin%s on the estate rather than o$$i!ia" ser'i!e and (ub"i! (ane%#ri!s, A midd"e3!"ass (henomenon throu%hout most o$ Euro(e- sentimenta"ism a((ea"ed to Russians &ho &ere si!5 o$ the

Ro%%er- National Consciousness- 7H36/9,


bureau!ra!# and the &or"d o$ ser'i!e,.G =aram>in:s a((roa!h to sentimenta" "iterature sha(ed the midd"e ?"iterar#@ "an%ua%e b# %i'in% ren!h &ords Russian $orms or renderin% (honeti! e)ui'a"ents o$ the ren!h, He a"so smoothed out &ord order and s#nta4 in &a#s that in!reased tenderness and de"i!a!# at the e4(ense o$ %ra'it# and seriousness,H0 ?O$ !ourse- on ne&s o$ &ar- =aram>in too re'erted to the o"d $orms- hi%h subDe!t matter- and e"e'ated tone Nsee !hs, / and .O@, In the nineteenth !entur#- tensions o'er the Ne& St#"e bro5e out &ith rene&ed $or!e and (o"iti!a" o'ertones, One $a!tor addin% to the hei%htened tension &as that ren!h in$"uen!e had not abated and in some &a#s dee(ened, The ren!h Re'o"ution had soured Catherine:s enthusiasm $or the philosophes- but it hard"# bro5e the s(e"" o$ ren!h !u"ture &ithin Russia itse"$, On hearin% ne&s o$ the (o(u"ar !a(ture o$ the *asti""e- Russians &ere dan!in% in the streets(rintin% s(ee!hes and ne&s(a(ers- and donnin% re'o"utionar# !"othes, The su!!ess o$ the Re(ub"i! and the re'o"ution:s turn to a%%ressi'e &ar natura""# turned the Russian !ourt a%ainst the
*oris Gas(aro'- -oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina kak !akt istorii russko$o literaturno$o ia4yka- ?;ienna2 Gese""s!ha$t >ur Frderun% s"a&istis!her Studien- 6GG/@- /.03/.6,

A"e4ander Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thou$ht and -olitics in the Rei$n o! le/ander I, ?De=a"b2 North I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH@- 80,


ren!h- but !ourt and !ountr#side a!!e(ted man# @mi$r@s, Russian nob"es (ossessed a s(e!ia" s#m(ath# $rom those $"eein% ran!e- $or the# e)uated the re'o"utionar# 'io"en!e &ith the Pu%a!he' u(risin% o$ 6HH836HH9, The !ourt (ro'ided an e4!e""ent o((ortunit# $or Pmi%rPs to "i'e in Russia &ithout needin% to "earn the "an%ua%e, Tea!hin% &as the most !ommon a"ternati'e- a"thou%h re$u%ees bou%ht "and in the !ountr#side and $ounded their o&n ren!h (ro'in!ia" theaters, The brie$ rei%n o$ Pau" I brou%ht ba!5 Prussian uni$orms- but his assassination and the a!!ession o$ A"e4ander )uashed the Germani! e"ements,H6 One o$ the &a#s that the Ne& St#"e !ame under atta!5 re"ated dire!t"# to !onser'ati'e $ears about nationa" de!"ine in the $a!e o$ the ren!h Re'o"ution, Admira" A"e4ander Shish5o' sa& in the Mos!o& Sentimenta"ists: Ne& St#"e a threat to the sur'i'a" o$ the Russian "an%ua%e and there$ore to Russian !i'i"i>ation, In an 6708 treatiseShish5o' insisted that the Ne& St#"e:s a((ro(riation $rom ren!h stunted the or%ani! de'e"o(ment o$ nationa" "an%ua%e and !u"ture, Ioun%sters- edu!ated b# %o'ernesses and $ashionab"e s!hoo"s- read ren!h no'e"s and ("a#&ri%hts instead o$ their o&n, Presumin% that the re'o"ution had e4hibited the baseness o$ ren!h nationa"
Emi"e Haumant- <a culture !ranDaise en Russie 5&,(()&.((7- /nd ed,?Paris2 Librairie Ha!hette et Cie- 6G68@- 67136GH- /8.,


!hara!ter- Shish5o' "i5ened its in$"uen!e in "an%ua%e- domesti! edu!ation- sa"ons- and boo5s to a (oison and a monstrous s(irit&hi!h &ou"d in$e!t Russia- &ea5en it- and !ause its do&n$a"", H/ To &ard o$$ this disaster- !ontro" o$ "an%ua%e &as a to( (riorit#, Shish5o':s theoreti!a" &or5s ar%ued that basi! b"o!5s o$ the traditiona" "an%ua%e ?amon% the !ommon (eo("e and hi%h !"eri!a" &or5s@ shou"d ser'e as the basis $or bui"din% !om("e4 ne& meanin%s in the midd"e3"an%ua%e, *# rea!hin% ba!5 $or the &ea"th o$ the an!estra" "an%ua%e- Russia !ou"d a'oid de(enden!e and remain a stron% nation- $ree o$ re'o"ution, The (ro!ess o$ deri'in% the ne& terms $rom ar!hai! sour!es earned Shish5o' and his a""ies the "abe" BAr!haist-C as o((osed to the BInno'ators-C &hose st#"isti! (re$eren!es $o""o&ed the Mos!o& Sentimenta"ists,H8 These t&o (ositions had $ar3rea!hin% im("i!ations &ithin the domains o$ !u"ture and (o"iti!s, *rie$"# (ut- the sentimenta"ists seemed to $a'or a Euro(ean orientation- $eminine in$"uen!es- and ren!h "an%ua%e mode"s- &hi"e the ar!haists $a'ored mas!u"init#Btraditiona"C Russian habits- (iet#- and "ess o$ a Euro(ean
A, S, Shish5o'- "obranie sochinenii i perevodov admirala "hishkova, Rossiiskoi imperatorskoi akademii pre4identa i ra4nykh uchenykh obshchestv chlena- ;o", / ?St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia Rossiss5aia A5ademiia- 67/1@- 139,

The !"assi! dis!ussion o$ these terms and ho& the# !an be used in re"ation to Romanti! &riters is Iu, N,T#niano'- BAr5haist# i Push5in-C in rkhaisty i Novatory- ?Lenin%rad2 Priboi- 6G/G@- /836/6,



rom the (ers(e!ti'e o$ "iterar# histor#- the inno'ators

seemed more (ro%ressi'e ?at "east in the sense o$ a!!e(tin% the e'o"ution o$ %enres@- &hi"e the ar!haists $uti"e"# resisted ne& !urrents,H9 rom a Mar4ist (ers(e!ti'e- $o""o&ers o$ Shish5o' embodied rea!tion- &hi"e the adherents o$ =aram>in &ere (ro%ressi'e $or their time b# hera"din% the &a# to&ard Romanti!ism and Rea"ism, Hen!e the stru%%"e o$ ar!haists and inno'ators &ou"d be understood as an ideo"o%i!a" &ar bet&een su((orters o$ Euro(eani>ation and $euda"3abso"utism,H. This di'ision a"so (rodu!ed the im(ression that Shish5o' and =aram>in embodied a "on%er !u"tura" due" bet&een the Northern !a(ita" o$ Russia- St, Petersbur%and the o"d !u"tura" !a(ita" Mos!o&, St, Petersbur%- !onstru!ted on"# a !entur# ear"ier- &as asso!iated &ith the Euro(eani>ed state administration- &hi"e Mos!o&- a!!ordin% to some obser'ers- retained the $ee" o$ a "ar%e e4tended $ami"# and (er(etuated an!ient traditions,HH Shish5o':s o((osition to =aram>in- noted i"i(( ;i%e":74

Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 80,

+ohn Mersereau +r,- BMIes ;ir%inia- There Was a Russian Romanti! Mo'ement-C in The rdis ntholo$y o! Russian Romanticism - edited b# Christine A, R#de" ?Ann Arbor2 Ardis- 6G7.@- 96/,

Istoriia russkoi literatury v trekh tomakh- edited b# D, D,*"a%oi ?Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 A5ademiia Nau5 SSSR- 6G.8@- 86- 96398,

Emi"e Haumant- <a culture !ranDaise en Russie 5&,(()&.((7- /nd ed, ?Paris2 Librairie Ha!hette et Cie- 6G68@- /08,


seemed as a (er("e4in% ironi! atta!5 o$ Euro(ean Russia on O"d Russia $or $orsa5in% the nati'e "an%ua%e, To ;i%e":- Petersbur% had done $ar more to !orru(t Russian "etters,H7 Whi"e Shis5o'ite3=aram>inist di'ision he"(s e4("ain the %enera" meanin% o$ the terms as (eo("e used them in (o"emi!s o$ the time- it does not ser'e &e"" as a mode" o$ re"ations amon% the !ontem(orar# "iterar# %rou(s, As *oris Gas(aro' noted- the Ne& St#"e (ro(onents !ounted 'er# $e& (artisans durin% the &ar #ears- and the inno'ators be!ame Bor%ani>edC on"# in 6769 &ith the $oundation o$ the "iterar# so!iet# Ar>amas,HG Whi"e other %rou(s in the se!ond3tier did not ne!essari"# subs!ribe to Shish5o':s theories- the# &ere not $u"" ad'o!ates o$ =aram>in either, Ioun%er so!ieties in Mos!o& and Petersbur% $eared that the sentimenta"ism2 &as not serious enou%h and dis!ounted !i'i! 'irtue in $a'or o$ (ersona" im(ressions, Insteadthe# sou%ht to de'e"o( "iterature that (reser'ed the %ra'itas ne!essar# $or the de$ense and (ride o$ $ather"and, These o((ositions o'er de'e"o(in% a nationa" "iterature &orth# o$ Euro(ean re(ute &ere a"" (art o$ the &ider stru%%"e a%ainst the dominan!e o$ ren!h !u"ture, +ust as ren!h dominan!e in so!iet# %re& stron%er ear"# in
, , ;i%e":- Capiski- ;o", 6- ?Mos!o&2 Arte": (isate"ei =ru%- 6G/7A ;o"s, I3IIr(t, Cambrid%e2 Orienta" Resear!h Partners- 6GH1@- /06,

Ar>amas &as somethin% o$ a ba&d# drin5in% !"ub, or a ba"an!ed re'ie&see *, Ho""in%s&orth- BAr>amas2 Portrait o$ a Literar# So!iet#,C "lavonic and +ast +uropean Revie# ?6G..@2 80H38/.,


A"e4ander:s rei%n- so did the "iterar# o((osition, *e$ore the $irst !"ashes &ith Na(o"eon in 6709- (arties &ere mobi"i>ed, Moscow and the Moderate Enlightenment T&o #ears be$ore Shish5o' denoun!ed the Ne& St#"e in his Treatise- =aram>inism be!ame the obDe!t o$ heated debate amon% the #oun% %eneration at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#:s Nob"e *oardin% S!hoo", There a riend"# Literar# So!iet# ?6ru4heskoe literaturnoe obshchestvo@ !on%re%ated durin% the rei%n o$ Tsar Pau" ?r, 6HG.3 6706@, Members in!"uded the (re3Romanti! ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii- the C"assi!ist $uture (ro$essor A"e4ei Mer>"ia5o'- A"e4ei ;oei5o'- the brothers A"e4ei I'ano'i!h and Andrei Tur%ene'- and Andrei =aisaro' ?&ho de$ended a do!tora" dissertation in Lei(>i% in 670H on the abo"ition o$ Russian ser$dom@, In O!tober 6700- Andrei Tur%ene' ?the o"der brother@ and Mer>"ia5o' too5 the (osition ?a%ainst <hu5o's5ii@ that =aram>in:s in$"uen!e &as more harm$u" than use$u" $or "iterature, Andrei Tur%ene' !a""ed instead $or the "iterar# e)ui'a"ent o$ the em(eror Peter the Great2 someone &ho &ou"d restore the im(ortan!e o$ !i'i" themes- hi%h "an%ua%e- and seriousness in (oeti! art, A!!ordin% to Tur%ene'- these )ua"ities needed to de'e"o( in Russian !u"ture be$ore it !ou"d a!!ommodate the (ersona" indu"%en!e o$ =aram>in:s st#"e, BHe is a"" the more dan%erous


be!ause he &rites s("endid"# in his o&n &a# NrodO, Let the Russians ha'e !ontinued to &rite &orse and not as interestin%"#- but the# &ou"d ha'e been o!!u(ied &ith most im(ortant subDe!ts- the# &ou"d ha'e &ritten more ori%ina""#- im(ortant"#- not so mu!h !on$ormed to (ett# &a#s,C70 The desire $or %ra'itas and &ei%ht "ater ins(ired edor I'ano' ?a !"ose $riend o$ ;oei5o'- Mer>"ia5o'- and ;aram4in@ to re&rite one o$ =aram>in:s stories &ith more e"e'ated "an%ua%e(o"iti!a" !ontent- and de!"amations about 'irtue,76 St#"isti! di$$eren!es did not (re'ent the t&o $rom dinin% to%ether- ho&e'er, Whate'er other &riters thou%ht o$ =aram>in:s a((roa!h to "an%ua%e- the# !ertain"# !ou"d admire his inde(endent "i$e st#"e, As an autodida!t- =aram>in had s(ent some time at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# and &or5ed &ith the $reemasons be$ore tra'e"in% to Euro(e- &ritin% do&n his im(ressions- startin% Dourna"s- and then (ursuin% a nationa" histor#, This !areer (ath- &hi"e "a!5in% a %uaranteed sa"ar#- sa'ed him $rom a "i$e o$ drud%er# in a %o'ernment bureau!ra!#, It a"so
Tuoted in Iurii M, Lotman- BA, , Mer>"ia5o' 5a5 (oet-C in I4brannye stat0I;o" /- ?Ta""inn2 A"e5sandra- 6GG/@- /8.,

BI'ano'- edor edoro'i!h-C in Russkie -isateli &'(()&.&,- ;o", / ?!it#2 (ub- #ear-@ 8713879, In the ear"# 6700s- I'ano' !om(osed a ("a# on a subDe!t o$ one o$ =aram>in:s stories2 the ta"e o$ Martha- an an!ient ma#oress o$ No'%orod- &ho resisted Mus!o'ite !on)uest, The (ro3 Re(ub"i!an s(ee!hes in Martha (re'ented it $rom rea!hin% the sta%e ?a"thou%h it &as a""o&ed to be (rinted a$ter t&o #ears@, See L, I, Gite":manB:;o":noe obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei s"o'esnosti nau5 i 5hudo>hest': i teatr-C Teatral0noe nasledstvo ?6G9.@2 8H,


meant that his se"$3identit# de(ended on more than ran5E&hi!h in Im(eria" Russia determined modes o$ address- trans(ort- and other $a!ets o$ (ri'ate "i$e,7/ He &as b# no means outside o$ the (o"iti!a" &or"d- and in $a!t- bo"d"# ad'ised Tsar A"e4ander on his administration:s short!omin%s,78 *ut =aram>in &as interested in trans$ormin% the !ountr# throu%h aestheti!s- rather than %o'ernmenta" s!hemes, In this sense- the (roDe!t o$ nationa" en"i%htenment demanded inde(endent %eniuses &ho !ou"d rea!h the (ub"i! and e"e'ate its taste, Man# o$ the "esser35no&n &riters in Mos!o& in the ear"# 6700s "a!5ed !onne!tions to the tsar and the $inan!es to %o abroad- but the# had a 5een sensiti'it# $or their 'an%uard ro"e in the aestheti!3 edu!ationa" de'e"o(ment o$ Russia, To a!!om("ish their missionthe# 'a"ued inde(enden!e $rom (o"iti!s and bureau!ra!# in order to &rite and (ub"ish,71 Some (eo("e !ame $rom obs!ure ba!5%rounds &here a norma" nob"eman:s "i$est#"e &as not mu!h &ithin rea!h,

See note Error2 Re$eren!e sour!e not $ound be"o&,

Iurii Lotman has ar%ued that =aram>in $e"t that a ru"er &as de$ined b# his (ersona" 'irtues and to"d the tsar &here his short!omin%s a$$e!ted the !ountr# ne%ati'e"#, See his ;aram4in- ?Saint3Petersbur% 2 KIs5usst'o3SP*K6GGH@- 9G.39G7,

In his "on% introdu!tor# essa# to ;aram4inEs Memoir on ncient and Modern Russia9 Translation and nalysis - tr, Ri!hard Pi(es- ?Ne& Ior52 Atheneum- 6G..@- Pi(es e4("ains &h# =aram>in enDo#ed $reedom !rom (o"iti!s- not in it, See 8/388,


edor I'ano'- $or e4am("e- &as the son o$ a (oor nob"e &ho "e$t him no inheritan!e, Thou%h he $u"$i""ed a ser'i!e ob"i%ation &ith the (resti%ious Semeno's5ii Re%iment- in!"udin% a tour o$ S&eden- he s&it!hed to !i'i" ser'i!e in the 6HG0s, Most nob"es &ou"d ha'e (re$erred the $"air- (om(- and ad'enture o$ the mi"itar# to the "i$e"ess bureau!ra!#- but I'ano' used the mo'e to a!)uire a Bsemi3$i!titiousC (ost that a""o&ed him to de'ote more time to !u"tura" matters,79 Ser%ei G"in5a made a simi"ar !hoi!e, He had studied at the e"ite In$antr# Cor(us S!hoo"- ser'ed in a Guards: re%iment- and !ou"d e4(e!t to inherit (ro(ert# in!"udin% ser$s, In 6700- ho&e'er- he de!ided that his inde(enden!e &as more 'a"uab"e than !on'entiona" so!ia" e4(e!tations, He de!"ined his $athers: inheritan!e and "i'ed as a nob"e &ithout ran5- dabb"in% in edu!ation and then in the Mos!o& "iterar# &or"d, ?G"in5a inter(reted his o&n a!t as (roo$ o$ his uns&er'in% $aith in (ro'iden!e,7.@ In the ear"# 6700s- I'ano' and G"in5a both started &ritin% $or the sta%e in Mos!o&- &here the# met a host o$ a!tors ?a"" o$ &hom had no ran5@ and A"e4ei Mer>"ia5o'then a #oun% instru!tor at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#, Mer>"ia5o':s so!ia" ba!5%round &as e'en more ("ebeian than
Lotman sa#s that in 6HGG- he too5 a (osition in Bsemi$i!titious state ser'i!e,C BI'ano'- edor edoro'i!h-C 871,

S, N, G"in5a- Capiski "er$ei Nikolaevicha >linki- ?St, Petersbur%2 Russ5aia Starina- 67G9@- 60H,


those o$ I'ano' and G"in5a, The son o$ a mer!hant $rom a sma"" to&n near a monaster#- Mer>"ia5o' &as (ro(e""ed into Mos!o& and the (ath to hi%her edu!ation be!ause o$ ta"ent, At the a%e o$ 68- he &rote an ode in the (ub"i! s!hoo"s $or a trium(h o'er S&eden ?&hi!h I'ano' had he"(ed a!!om("ish@, The &or5 attra!ted the e#e o$ I'an I'ano'i!h Panae'- a (ro'in!ia" $reemason and dire!tor o$ the (ub"i! s!hoo"s &ith !onne!tions to the !ourt, He sent in Mer>"ia5o':s (oem to Catherine the Great &ho ordered it to be (ub"ished and Mer>"ia5o' to be trans$erred to Mos!o& on the %o'ernment:s e4(ense, rom a student at the Nob"e *oardin% S!hoo"- he as!ended to Dean o$ Russian Literature at Mos!o& State Uni'ersit#- a (osition that he he"d unti" 6780, His non3nob"e ori%ins meant that a!hie'ement &as !entra" $or Mer>"ia5o'2 in the uni'ersit# stru!ture- an ordinar# (ro$essor a!)uired the im(eria" ran5 ne!essar# to !"aim hereditar# nobi"it#,7H Sti""- he a((roa!hed his "iterar# endea'orsE(ro$essortrans"ator- theorist- and &riterEas an inde(endent man &or5in% $or the %enera" %ood, or these men and their $riends- inde(enden!e meant distan!in% onese"$ $rom the bureau!ra!#- and the aristo!rati! nobi"it#- and !hoosin% to ser'e the ather"and &ith their (en, Losin% ran5 natura""# !aused (rob"ems, G"in5a had di$$i!u"t# Doinin% a mi"itia

Lotman- BMer>"ia5o' 5a5 (oet-C /8/,


in 670. be!ause he "a!5ed o$$i!ia" tit"e and "and, In a broader senseho&e'er- the inde(endent &riters ran into the "imits o$ the &e""3 de$ined nob"e &or"d, Russian nob"es (ossessed an intri!ate and 'ast s#stem o$ &a#s o$ ta"5in%- beha'in%- dressin%- and dan!in% ?!ertain o$$i!ers &ou"d %o to ba""s to ma5e a statement b# not dan!in%@,77 Mer>"ia5o' !ou"d ne'er $u""# !on$orm to this &or"d, Im(eria" $iat %ained his entran!e into the Nob"e *oardin% S!hoo", His !"ose $riendshi(s &ith the aristo!rati! Tur%ene' brothers and the #oun% <hu5o's5ii &ere !emented &ith sentimenta" atta!hment that (ut $riendshi( and emotiona" $raternit# abo'e ran5 and e4terna" so!ia" di$$eren!es,7G Mer>"ia5o' did not e'en $o""o& (ro$essoria" !on'entionsmu!h "ess nob"e ones, His $riend Ni5o"ai Tur%ene' admitted that Mer>"ia5o' s(o5e in the de(artment ?ka!edra@ the &a# he did in a !o$$eehouse ?ko!einia@,G0 A!!ordin% to Iurii Lotman- none o$ Mer>"ia5o':s $riends outside the riend"# Literar# So!iet# &ere nob"es,G6 In 6701- he &as !a""ed to St, Petersbur%- &hi!h shou"d ha'e
Iurii M, Lotman- %esedy o russkoi kul0ture: %yt i traditsii russko$o dvorianstva 5X:III)nachalo XIX veka7- ?St, Petersbur%- 6GG1@- 8..,

See $or instan!e his !orres(onden!e &ith <hu5o's5ii- (rinted in BPis:ma 5 ;, A, <hu5o's5omu-C in Russkii rkhiv ?67H6@2 681367H,

Tuoted in A, Iu, Andree'- Moskovskii universitet v obshchestvennoi i kul Aturnoi 4hi4ni Rossii nachala XIX veka- ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i russ5oi 5u":tur#/000@- 6.0,
90 91

Lotman- BMer>"ia5o' 5a5 (oet-C /11,


%i'en him the !han!e to boost his "iterar# !areer and be!ome a tutor $or the tsare'i!hes- but it !ame to nau%ht, The %u"$ se(aratin% the a!ademi! (ro$essor $rom the nob"es a"so (re'ented him $rom re!ei'in% the hand o$ the dau%hter o$ the ;e":iamino'3<erno' $ami"#&ith &hom he summered,G/ He subse)uent"# married the sister o$ a (ro$essor, Mer>"ia5o' and I'ano'- the a!ademi!ian and the inde(endent man o$ !u"ture- &ere on"# (art o$ the &ider Mos!o& (ub"i!- but shared a !ommon ba!5%round, The# (u""ed other &riters to%ether throu%h in$orma" %atherin%s that &ou"d "ead to a "iterar# so!iet# at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#, Pri'ate "iterar# %rou(s had emer%ed out o$ the (ub"i! "i$e o$ the ei%hteenth3!entur#- and the intima!# the# a$$orded he"(ed "iterature mo'e a&a# $rom the tastes o$ the Im(eria" !ourt,G8 The riend"# Literar# So!iet# had "asted bare"# a #ear- andEaside $rom sma"" %rou(s in se!ondar# edu!ationEthe on"# $amous St, Petersbur% %rou( o$ &riters be$ore 6766 ?see be"o&@, A"" the same- in the 6700s o"d $riendshi(s "i'ed on, In 670.- ;oei5o' he"d "iterar#
Andrei <orin- BMer>"ia5o'- A"e5sei edoro'i!hC in Russkie pisateli &'(() &.&,: %io$ra!icheskii slovar0- 'o", 1- edited b# A, Ni5o"ae' ?M2 So'ets5aia entsi5"o(ediia- 6GGG@- /73/G,

Iurii M, Lotman- BO!her5i (o istorii russ5oi 5u":tur#-C in I4 istorii russkoi kul0tury9 Tom I:: XIII)nachalo XIX veka- ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i Russ5oi 5u":tur#/000@- G8, On the ro"e o$ sa"ons and so!ieties in the transition $rom !ourt to (ub"i! (ress- see Antonia G"assP- The -oet in "earch o! an udience: Russian -oetry in the le/andrine -eriod- ?Ph,D, Dissertation2 Co"umbia6GH7@,


ni%hts &ith his o"d !omrades Mer>"ia5o' and <hu5o's5# that !ombined the aestheti!s o$ the &ritten &ord &ith the Do#s o$ the imbibed drin5, One o$ the re%u"ar %uests &as Mi5hai" =a!heno's5iieditor o$ one o$ =aram>in:s $ormer Dourna"s- the Herald o! +urope, With a readershi( in the thousands- Herald o! +urope &as the $irst (ro$essiona" "iterar# Dourna" to sur'i'e &ithout %o'ernment subsidies, =a!heno'5sii &as (art o$ Mer>"ia5o':s &ide !ir!"e o$ studentsadDun!ts- and (ro$essoria" a!)uaintan!es at the uni'ersit#- &here issues boun!ed ba!5 and $orth,G1 In 6766 and 676/- the "iterature and drin5in% shi$ted o'er to I'ano':s house, A ne& addition &as edor =o5osh5in- &ho "i5e I'ano' had shi$ted out o$ ser'i!e in the 6HG0s, He &as a (ri'ate sta%e (rodu!er rather than a dramatist- &hose stentorian 'oi!e &as a"&a#s (o(u"ar $or sta%ed readin%s, These meetin%s &ere e4(anded in 676836761 to in!"ude other minor &riter3 bureau!rats "i5e Ni5o"ai I":in and Iuri Do"%oru5ii- as &e"" as ;asi"ii Push5in and Peter ;ia>ems5iiEaristo!rati! t#(es &ho "ater $ormed the Binno'atorC %rou( Ar>amas, In 6766- the trustee o$ Mos!o& Uni'ersit# !reated a site &here the in$orma" %rou(s !ou"d assemb"e, The So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Russian Literature at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# ?herea$ter Uni'ersit# So!iet#@A, Iu, Andree'- Moskovskii universitet v obshchestvennoi i kulAturnoi 4hi4ni Rossii nachala XIX veka, ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i russ5oi 5u":tur#- /000@ G8,


instituted b# the uni'ersit# re!tor- sti"" ad'o!ated the idea" o$ semi3 inde(enden!e, Its $irst !hair &as the maDor ar!hite!t o$ the Mos!o& *oardin% S!hoo":s edu!ationa" (ro%ram2 Anton Pro5o(o'i!h3 Antons5ii, His o(enin% s(ee!h %rounded the so!iet#:s "on%3term ho(es on the (romise o$ so!ia" !oo(eration &ith the monar!h#, He noted that the %rou(:s $orerunners had been !"osed out o$ sus(i!ionbut that the so!iet# &ou"d ha'e a B$irm $oundationC "i5e the em(ire, BPre'ious so!ieties &ere not su((orted b# the Su(reme Po&er and &ere !"osed under most inaus(i!ious !ir!umstan!es, We !an nourish ourse"'es &ith the ("easant ho(e that our So!iet# &i"" be $irm and indestru!tib"e, It is $ounded on the ru"es o$ the Uni'ersit# Charter and is a((ro'ed b# su(reme assent,CG9 The %rou( sa& Tsar A"e4ander as an en"i%htened ru"er $or his uni'ersit# and edu!ation re$orm- and the# sent him !o(ies o$ their 2orks,G. Un"i5e the Petersbur% so!ieties- the Uni'ersit# So!iet# sta#ed &ithin its o&n domain o$ nationa" edu!ationa" im(ro'ement, It !om(i"ed a "ibrar# o$ Russian C"assi!s &ith the su((ort o$ the Mos!o& Uni'ersit# re!tor =utu>o' and "o!a" boo5se""ers, Un$ortunate"#- the in'asion o$ 676/ destro#ed e'er#thin% e4!e(t a $e& !o(ies o$ their o&n (ub"i!ations, The %rou(
N, M, Mende":son- Obshchestvo liubitelei rossiiskoi slovesnosti pri Moskovskom universitete: Istoricheskaia 4apiska i materialy 4a sto let ?Mos!o&2 A, Sne%ire'- 6G66@- 61,
95 96

Mende":son- Obshchestvo liubitelei rossiiskoi slovesnosti - G367,


re3o(ened in 6769 and &as a!!essib"e to #outh o$ the *oardin% S!hoo"- in!"udin% (rominent members o$ the romanti! A%e "i5e ;"adimir Odoe's5#- Ste(an She'#re'- and Mi5hai" Po%odin, Pro5o(o'i!h3Antons5ii:s o(enin% s(ee!h a"so re$"e!ted the im(ortan!e o$ semi3inde(endent men o$ "etters $or so!ia" and edu!ationa" de'e"o(ment, In his o(inion- the "a!5 o$ "iterar# !riti!s hindered nationa" de'e"o(ment, Russia- he !"aimed- &as en"i%htened in (art- but not as mu!h as modern !ountriesEor some an!ient ones, The tas5 o$ the members thus &as a s#nthesis o$ C"assi!a" ru"es and nationa" (arti!u"arit#2 he e4horted his audien!e to dis!o'er the artisti! ru"es a((ro(riate to Russia and its !u"tura" de'e"o(ment, BIt shou"d be o(en"# re!o%ni>ed that &e !annot (resent &or5s o$ e"o)uen!e in a"" %enres- o$ the 5ind &hi!h abound in an!ient and modern ?noveishie@ (eo("es, We do not #et ha'e (hi"oso(her3&riters&ho !ou"d $irm u( the !orre!tness and (re!ision o$ the slo$aA there are no *oi"eaus or Addisons- &ho !ou"d sho& the ru"es and $orms o$ re$ined taste to%ether,C Unti" this bod# o$ !riti!s $ormed- ho&e'er- he re!ommended "oo5in% to nature &here'er it !ou"d be $oundBes(e!ia""# amon% the An!ients-C instead o$ &ith the ren!h,GH An anti3re'o"utionar# $o""o&er o$ Mos!o& $reemasonsPro5o(o'i!h3Antons5ii he"(ed the uni'ersit# and its *oardin%3S!hoo"s

Tuoted in Mende":son- Obshchestvo liubitelei rossiiskoi slovesnosti - 69,


retain a Christian !hara!ter throu%hout the era o$ en"i%htenment, W, Gareth +ones has em("o#ed the term Bmoderate en"i%htenmentC $or No'i5o'- &hose be"ie$s sho&ed that the a%e o$ en"i%htenment &as not a Mani!hean stru%%"e bet&een a traditiona" and a se!u"ar !u"ture,G7 A Christian "i5e No'i5o' !ou"d ta5e (art in se!u"ar !u"ture &ith the Orthodo4 !"er%#:s su((ort- !ou"d !riti)ue so!iet# but not in a (o"iti!a" $ashion- and !ou"d disseminate ideas throu%hout the !ountr#side &ithout bein% sub'ersi'e, The moderate en"i%htener tried to (reser'e the best o$ nationa" tradition &hi"e ta5in% and disseminatin% the best $rom other !u"tures, In the same s(iritPro5o(o'i!h3Antons5ii tried to in!u"!ate his students &ith anti3 re'o"utionar# sentiments and Christian dut#- &hi"e su((ortin% stud# o$ other !u"tures as the 5e# to nationa" (ro%ress,GG O"d masons $rom the No'i5o' #ears sha(ed man# #oun% minds2 =aram>in- <hu5o's5iiand Mer>"ia5o' amon% others, Masoni! Dourna"s he"(ed #oun% students (ub"ish ear"# on2 Mer>"ia5o' too5 ad'anta%e o$ these o((ortunities- as did Ma5sim Ne'>oro', Ne'>oro' &as one o$ the $e& masons $rom the 6H70s to !ontinue to (ra!ti!e into the a%e o$ A"e4ander, A"thou%h his $orei%n tra'e"s had brou%ht him under
W, Gareth +ones- Nikolay Novikov +nli$htener o! Russia, ?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G71@- 6H036H6,

Andree'- Moskovskii universitet- 6.HA N Sa5u"in-, I4 istorii russka$o ideali4ma9 ;nia40 :9 19 Odoevskii, Myslitel0)pisatel0 - ;o" 6- ?Mos!o&2 M, R S, Sabashni5o'- 6G68@- 68367,


%o'ernment sus(i!ion ?and in!ar!eration@- he sin!ere"# detested the ren!h Re'o"ution and &as $reed a$ter the death o$ Catherine the Great, Mos!o& Uni'ersit# a"so dre& the o$$i!ia" Orthodo4 !"er%# into its orbit, In the ei%hteenth3!entur#- "e!tures &ere in Latin and o(en to the (ub"i!- so edu!ated !"er%# &ere amon% the sma"" number o$ $o"5 &ho !ou"d understand the (ro!eedin%s, When the uni'ersit# $irst o(ened in 6H99- administrators o'er!ame the "a!5 o$ )ua"i$ied se!u"ar students b# im(ortin% students $rom !"eri!a" s!hoo"s,600 Re"ations bet&een the masons and the Orthodo4 in the 6H70s36HG0s &ere not entire"# hosti"e, Metro(o"itan P"aton had been ordered to e4amine the $aith o$ No'i5o', P"aton:s rea!tion testi$ied to No'i5o':s Bri%ht3thin5in%-C i$ not his Orthodo4#, B*e$ore the throne o$ God, , , in the &ho"e &or"d there shou"d be su!h Christians as No'i5o',C606 Other !"er%#men he"(ed $und one o$ No'i5o':s (roDe!ts $rom the 6H70s2 he o(erated a Dourna" to $und t&o boardin%3s!hoo"s, C"er%#men attended meetin%s o$ the Uni'ersit# So!iet#- and "ater some Doined the *ib"e So!iet# mo'ement that s&e(t a!ross the
Robert L, Ni!ho"s- BOrthodo4# and Russia:s En"i%htenment- 6H./367/9-C in Robert L, Ni!ho"s and Theo$anis Geor%e Sta'rou- eds,- Russian Orthodo/y under the Old Re$ime- ?Minnea(o"is2 Uni'ersit# o$ Minnea(o"is Press- 6GH7@- .G,

Tuoted in Ma4 +,O5en$uss- The Rise and 1all o! <atin Humanism in +arly Modern Russia: -a$an uthors, 8krainians, and the Resiliency o! Muscovy , ?Leiden2 *ri""- 6GG9@- 67.3H,


em(ire- than5s to the tsar:s su((ort, Durin% the hei%ht o$ &ar &ith Na(o"eon- $amous sermons &ere (ub"ished in estab"ished "iterar# Dourna"s "i5e Herald o! +urope and "on o! the 1atherland, Herald o! +urope a"so ran an ana"#sis o$ Metro(o"itan P"aton:s rhetori! as a means o$ !om(arin% nationa" "iterar# %reatness &ith $amous (rea!hers $rom the !ourt o$ Louis QI;,60/ ? or more- see !h, H@ A$ter the Treat# o$ Ti"sit ?670H@- Metro(o"itan P"aton %re& in!reasin%"# &ea5er and handed his duties o$$ to his 'i!arAr!hbisho( A'%ustin, A'%ustin had d&e"t in the uni'ersit# s(here durin% his da#s stud#in% in the theo"o%i!a" a!ademies, He &as mu!h "i5e the se!u"ar se!ond3tier &riters, Not on"# had he dabb"ed in Mos!o& Uni'ersit#:s hi%her edu!ation- but as a member o$ a !"osed !"eri!a" estate- his a!ademi! a!hie'ement a"one !ou"d sa'e him $rom humdrum "i$e in the (ro'in!es, His interests ran%ed into Russian "iterature and e'en the manus!ri(t sour!es o$ the nationa" (ast&hi!h enDo#ed a %reat re'i'a" under Catherine the Great, A'%ustin de"i'ered a"" the maDor sermons at the Assum(tion Cathedra"
I, Lamans5ii- BRa>bor re!hi Pros'iash!henna%o P"atona mitro(o"ita Mos5o's5a%o (ra>dnesennoi (ri 5oro'anii EGO IMPERATORS=OGO ;ELICHEST;A ALE=SANDRA I,C :estnik +vropy .126. ?676/@2 /HG3/77, Note that a"so in the ei%hteenth3!entur# stru%%"e to de$ine nationa" Russian )ua"ities in o((osition to ren!h !u"tura" dominan!e- Denis oni'i>in- in a s(ee!h to the ren!h A!adem# touted !ontem(orar# Metro(o"itans as orators &hose ta"ents !om(ared &ith $amous ren!h (rea!hers, See Hans Ro%%er- National Consciousness in +i$hteenth)Century Russia - ?Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.0@- (,666,


?8spenskii sobor@- &here Mos!o& Uni'ersit# (ro$essors attended and e'en o!!u(ied re%u"ar s(a!es, A'%ustin ("a#ed a hu%e ro"e in en!oura%in% messiani! thin5in% b# rein$or!in% ideas o$ su!!ession bet&een Russia and An!ient Israe"- a &or"d'ie& that &as standard in the Mus!o'ite !ourt o$ the si4teenth3!entur# and sur'i'ed into the nineteenth- than5s to the Orthodo4 !"er%#, Aside $rom its inde(enden!e $rom the %o'ernment- Mos!o& &as the seat o$ the moderate en"i%htenment in Russia, Uni'ersit# inte""e!tua" "i$e (ermitted a b"end o$ admiration $or the en"i%htened ru"er- inte""e!tua" Christianit#- and desire to im(ro'e the !ountr# throu%h their o&n e$$orts rather than %o'ernment (o"i!#, The Mus!o'ite &riters tended to (ro!eed $rom obs!ure ba!5%round or to ha'e reDe!ted the t#(i!a" (ath o$ nob"e ser'i!e in $a'or o$ !u"tura" "i$e, Whi"e inde(endent- the# &ere broad"# su((orti'e o$ the tsar:s e$$orts to e4(and edu!ation- &hi!h the# sa& as the !ounter(art to their o&n dut# to Ben"i%htenC the nation b# raisin% its taste, Petersburg: Writers and Politics The Northern !a(ita" "a!5ed a !entra" institution "i5e the uni'ersit#- but had more de'e"o(ed "iterar# and !u"tura" !entersEin addition to a 'ast sa"on net&or5, The ree So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Russian Arts- Literature- and S!ien!es ?:ol0noe obshchestvo liubitelei


slovesnosti nauk i khudo4hestv- herea$ter B ree So!iet#C@ &as $ormed in the e4!itement o$ Tsar A"e4ander:s $irst da#s in (o&er, In terms o$ so!ia" ba!5%round- the ree So!iet# resemb"ed the !onstituents o$ the Uni'ersit# So!iet#, The %rou( initia""# !om(rised $ormer (u(i"s o$ the A!adem# o$ S!ien!es: %#mnasium in St, Petersbur%, The %#mnasium- $ounded as a (re( s!hoo" in 6H/.admitted !hi"dren o$ mer!hants- !"er%#- artists- (ett# !ourt ser'antsbureau!rats and other (eo("e &ho did not $it into the em(ire:s o$$i!ia" !"assi$i!ations and &ere 5no&n !o""e!ti'e"# as ra4nochintsy, This term- "itera""# meanin% (eo("e o$ 'arious ran5s- be!ame asso!iated &ith (o"iti!a" radi!a"ism "ater in the !entur#- but durin% the a%e o$ A"e4ander- it shou"d be understood stri!t"# in the so!io"o%i!a" sense,608 The &riter A"e4ander ;osto5o'- $or instan!e- &as born i""e%itimate- %re& u( (oor- and &as shi((ed to the %#mnasium o$ the In$antr# Cadet Cor(s- &here he $ound that dra&in%- readin%- histor#and $o"5ta"es &ere more !a(ti'atin% than a mi"itar# or other ser'i!e !areer, His $ather a""o&ed him to enter the A!adem# o$ S!ien!es in 6HG1, *# 6700- he had $inished- and in three #ears he &or5ed there

On the ree So!iet#:s !om(osition- see ;"adimir Ni5o"ae'i!h Or"o'Russkie prosvetiteli, &,.()&'(()kh $odov- /nd (rintin%- ?Mos!o&2 GI=hL6G98@- /6/3/6H, or the best dis!ussion o$ the ra>no!hints#- !onsu"t E"ise =imer"in% Wirts!ha$ter- "tructures o! "ociety: Imperial Russia0s F-eople o! :arious Ranks- De=a"b2 Northern I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG1@ - es6183611 on inte""e!tua"s: ado(tion o$ the term,


as a trans"ator and "ibrarian assistant, The ne4t #ear he &on a Dob as a trans"ator on the Commission $or the Estab"ishment o$ La&s- an e4!itin% a((ointment in A"e4ander:s ear"# re$orm (eriod,601 A"e4ander:s ear"# rei%n en!oura%ed the En"i%htenment tenden!ies o$ the ree So!iet#, Its meetin%s &ere o(en"# (o"iti!a" and e'en asso!iated &ith radi!a"ism- so mu!h so that the $amous (ortraitist- Orest =i(rens5ii- a'oided it e'en thou%h he &as $riend"# &ith some o$ its most (rominent members,609 Thou%h the %rou( had a (o"iti!a" &in% o((osed to ser$dom- it su((orted the monar!h- and in $a!t its members sent their "iterar# &or5 as &e"" as their theoreti!a" (ub"i!ations on edu!ation and en"i%htenment to A"e4ander,60. ;asi"ii Po(u%ae':s treatise ?BOn Po"iti!a" En"i%htenment Genera""#C@ $or instan!e- &on him a seat on tsar A"e4ander:s Commission $or the Estab"ishment o$ the La&s, The desire to sha(e (o"iti!s &as based on identi$i!ation &ith the &or"d:s su$$erers and un$ortunate- to &hose res!ue the# summoned a heroi!- monumenta" st#"eEone !"oser to the ar!haists than the inno'ators, Their (oeti! tastes &ere b"atant"#

Or"o'- Russkie prosvetiteli- /6H3//8,

Ia, ;, *ru5, BU*e>rasudn#i Orest, Mo"od#e %od# =i(rens5o%o,C in Orest ;iprensii9 -erepiska9 6okumenty9 "videtil0stva "ovremennikov - ?St, Petersbur%2 Is5usst'o3SD*- 6GG1@,

Thou%h the %rou( had %reat res(e!t $or A"e4ander Radish!he'- its members did not ho"d his rad!ia" o(inions, A, Or"o'- introdu!tor# arti!"e-oety)Radishchevtsy- 6036/,


dida!ti!, In ;osto5o':s o(inion- the (oet (ossessed a dut# to (raise the &orth# and !asti%ate the BmonstersC o$ histor#,60H Other members: theoreti!a" essa#s on theater a"so stressed the ro"e o$ the sta%e in e4(osin% so!ia" inDusti!e and (romotin% !han%e,607 Initia""#the# too5 their st#"isti! !ues $rom C"assi!a" Gree!e and Rome, Their short3"i'ed Dourna"s2 "croll o! the Muses ?"vitok mu4- 670/36708@ Northern Herald ?"evernyi :estnik- 6701@- ?ournal o! Russian <iterature ?Churnal rossiiskoi slovesnosti- 6709@- and Talia ?670.@ abounded &ith C"assi!a" imitations o$ Hora!e- ;ir%i"- and O'id and &ith !i'i! themes, At the same time- the# had %reat interest in Russian $o"5"ore as a (oeti! sour!e o$ (o(u"ar !hara!ter ?narodnost:@&hi!h the in'asion o$ 676/ brou%ht out,60G Members o$ the ree So!iet# a"so o'er"a((ed &ith the sa"on o$ A"e5sander O"enin- an enthusiast $or An!ient Gree!e and sentimenta" drama- &ho tried to a'oid "iterar# (o"emi!s, A re%u"ar attendee at Der>ha'in:s house in the 6HG0s- O"enin o(ened a sa"on in his home on the ontan5a !ana" and his Priiutino estate- 6/ mi"es $rom St, Petersbur%- &hi!h be!ame a re$u%e $or artists and (oets $or 89 #ears,

Or"o'- Russkie prosvetiteli- 10.31/,

Gite":man- B:;o":noe obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei s"o'esnosti nau5 i 5hudo>hest': i teatr-C 86,

See $or instan!e- -oety)Radishchevtsy- edited b# A, Or"o' ?Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6GHG@- /73/G on ;osto5o',


As &ith the ree So!iet#- O"enin did not turn a&a# &ritersdramatists- and artists o$ obs!ure ba!5%round- a"thou%h the &ea"thiest and most (resti%ious $ami"ies in St, Petersbur% 'isited as &e"",660 O"enin ho'ered abo'e the st#"isti! &ars be!ause he $a'ored in!"usion o$ a"" &ords in the e'o"'in% midd"e3"an%ua%e- and he s(onsored sentimenta" &riters as &e"" as #oun% and o"d ar!haists, Throu%h his %o'ernment (osts ?in!"udin% as Im(eria" Librarian@- he (ro'ided &or5 $or I'an =r#"o'- a satirist "ater asso!iated &ith Shish5o' and o((onent o$ Tsar A"e4ander:s "ibera"ism,666 O"enin a"so he"(ed Ni5o"ai Gnedi!h and =onstantin *atiush5o', +obs at the Im(eria" Pub"i! Librar# a$$orded them time to &rite- and $ree use o$ Priiutino (ro'ided the !onditions $or the $"o&erin% o$ "etters, One o$ O"enin:s other note&orth# (rotP%Pes &as the ("a#&ri%ht ;"adis"a' O>ero'- &hose histori!a" (rodu!tion 6mitrii 6onskoi ?670H@ $ed a hu%e demand $or (atrioti! subDe!ts durin% the ourth Coa"ition War, O>ero':s su!!ess immediate"# ins(ired a rea!tion b# Mat'ei =riu5o's5ii- a $e""o& !"assmate o$ O>ero' and (arti!i(ant in the ree So!iet#, ?See ne4t !ha(ter@
Mar# Stuart- ristocrat)<ibrarian in "ervice to the Tsar : leksei Nikolaevich Olenin and the Imperial -ublic <ibrary - ?*ou"der2 East Euro(ean Mono%ra(hs- 6G7.@ 1/31.A L, ;, Timo$ee'- : kru$u dru4ei i mu4- ?Mos!o&2 Leni>dat- 6G78@- 87,

Moser- Cambrid$e History o! Russian <iterature- 66G36/0, See Timo$ee': kru$u dru4ei i mu4- 606360/- $or a (o"iti!a" readin% o$ the $ab"es,


A"thou%h O"enin &anted his estate to be a re$u%e $rom (o"emi!s- he &as dee("# enmeshed in im(eria" (o"iti!s, O"enin &as a hi%h3ran5in% member o$ the State Coun!i"- an or%ani>ation that the (o"iti!a" re$ormer Mi5hai" S(erans5ii had !reated in the (eriod bet&een the Coa"ition Wars and the in'asion o$ 676/, In that #earO"enin inherited the (osition o$ State Se!retar# $rom S(eran5sii- a$ter A"e4ander had dismissed the "atter to soothe (ub"i! o(inion, The (osition o$ State Se!retar# o'ersa& the entire %o'ernment bureau!ra!#, E'en thou%h the Admira" Shish5o' nomina""# assumed the (osition durin% the &ar #ears- the admira" &as re)uired to tra'e" abroad &ith A"e4ander- and O"enin maintained de !acto !ontro" in Shish5o':s absen!e and &e"" unti" 67/H,66/ O"enin:s %o'ernment a!ti'ities brou%ht to%ether ree So!iet# members in a (atrioti! Dourna" that he"(ed (ro(a%andi>e $or the &ar, "on o! the 1atherland (ub"ished its $irst issue durin% O!tober 676/the 'er# time &hen Mos!o& &as burnin% under the ren!h o!!u(ation, Its editor- Ni5o"ai Gre!h- &as ori%ina""# !ommissioned to trans"ate German nationa"ist &ritin%s ?o$ Ernst Morit> Arndt@ into Russian, O"enin he"(ed Gre!h and the Su(erintendent o$ the Pub"i! S!hoo" Distri!t in St, Petersbur%- Ser%ei U'aro'- se!ure $undin% $or the Dourna"- in!"udin% a 6-000 rub"e donation $rom A"e4ander,


ristocrat)<ibrarian in "ervice to the Tsar- 61,


Contributors to the Dourna" in!"uded the $ormer Mus!o'ites ;oei5o' and A"e4ander Tur%ene'- both o$ &hom &ith Gre!h !ontri'ed BRussianC 'i%nettes that ree So!iet# !ari!aturists s(read into (o(u"ar !u"ture throu%h &ood!uts ?see Cha(ter 9@, A tota" o$ 6H ree So!iet# members !ontributed (oetr#- s5et!hes- and essa#s at "on o! the 1atherland bet&een 676/36769,668 O"enin a"so had ties &ith Ar!himandrite i"aret ?Dro>do'- "ater a $amous Metro(o"itan o$ Mos!o&@, Li5e A'%ustin- i"aret &as an outstandin% student o$ Mos!o& Metro(o"itan P"aton, The t&o ho&e'er had shar("# di$$erent a((roa!hes to e4("ainin% the &ar to the (ub"i!, i"aret do&n("a#ed the traditiona" nationa" rhetori! o$ A'%ustin ?and P"aton@ in $a'or o$ a (ure"# s(iritua" $o!us in his sermons ?Cha(ter 1@, This )ua"it# endeared him to the tsar- &ho &as stru%%"in% to understand the im(ortan!e o$ the stru%%"e &ith Na(o"eon on a (ersona" "e'e", O"enin and i"aret !ondu!ted a (ub"i! !orres(onden!e on the mora" !auses o$ the &ar a%ainst Na(o"eon that &as (ub"ished in "on o! the 1atherland and that- in the o(inion o$ Andrei <orin- e4(ressed the em(eror:s !han%e in ideo"o%i!a" (osition a&a# $rom the nationa"ism o$ Shish5o' and his u"tra3

N, M, Mi5hai"o's5aia- B<hurna" MS#n Ote!hest'a: (erioda Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# i stano'"eniia de5abri>ma ?676/36767@,C 8chennye 4apiski8dmurtsko$o peda$o$ichesko$o instituta , ;o", 68- ;#(, G ?6G9.@2 .0,


!onser'ati'e a""ies,661 O"enin had the (o&er that the ree So!iet# &anted in order to ena!t so!ia" re$orms, Shish5o' and his %rou(- the Co""o)uium o$ Lo'ers o$ the Russian Word- &anted that same (o&er but $or o((osite reasons, The ear"# re$orm (eriod o$ A"e4ander that e4!ited and (romoted the ree So!iet# members had a di$$erent e$$e!t on Shish5o', ear$u" o$ a"" the ne& (eo("e and dis!ussion o$ drasti! !han%es ?"i5e the "iberation o$ the ser$s@- Shish5o' &orried that A"e4ander mi%ht "imit his o&n (o&er and the nobi"it#:s !ontro" o'er their ser$s in the !ountr#side,669 Der>ha'in had dea"t &ith (o"i!ies a$$e!tin% this issue, Ha'in% be%un A"e4ander:s rei%n ?670/@ &ith an a((ointment as Minister o$ +usti!e- Der>ha'in "e$t the (ost in 6701, At issue &as a "a& to (ermit "and"ords to $ree their ser$s, Li5e man# !onser'ati'es ?in!"udin% =aram>in@- Der>ha'in did not be"ie'e that the ser$s &ere read# to be!ome !iti>ensA moreo'er he mistrusted A"e4ander:s %o'ernment $or the hi%h number o$ ne& $a!es,66.
Andrei <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla: literatura i $osudarstvennaia ideolo$iia v rossii v poslednei treti X:III)pervoi treti XIX veka - ?Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- /006@- /913/9H,

N, N, *u"i!h- Ocherki po istorii russkoi literatury i prosveshcheniia s nachala XIX veka- ;o", 6- ?St, Petersbur%2 M, M, Stasiu"e'i!h- 6G6/@- 6/9A A"e4ander Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thou$ht and -olitics in the Rei$n o! le/ander I - ?De=a"b2 North I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH@- !h, 6,

+esse ;, C"ard#- >9 R9 6er4havin: a -olitical %io$raphy - ?The Ha%ue2 Mouton- 6G.H@- /6.3/7,


In the Ti"sit era- Der>ha'in and Shish5o' (ut to%ether a "iterar# so!iet# to $urther "iterature on Shish5o':s mode" and to e4ert (o"iti!a" in$"uen!e, The Co""o)uium o$ Lo'ers o$ the Russian Word ?%eseda liubitelei russko$o slova@ e'en in'ited the tsar to attend and thereb# san!tion its a!ti'it#, A"e4ander demurred and 'ie&ed the Co""o)uium &ith sus(i!ion- un"i5e the inno!uous Uni'ersit# So!iet# and the ree So!iet#- both o$ &hi!h had his en!oura%ement,66H In !ontrast to the other so!ieties- &here obs!ure ba!5%round &as no im(ediment- the Co""o)uium re'e"ed in its o$$i!ia"dom, Mi"itar# uni$orms &ere &orn to its meetin%s, The %rou( &as or%ani>ed into $our re%iments- ea!h o$ &hi!h too5 turns (resentin%, Ran5 and tit"e &ere (ut on dis("a#, The Co""o)uium:s members o&ned ser$s and had a sta5e in the e4istin% so!ia" order, Their "eader Shish5o' sou%ht to de$end the !urrent so!ia" arran%ement $rom an# more re$orms, In the #ear o$ its $oundin%- Shish5o' made an obse)uious s(ee!h on "o'e $or the $ather"and that attra!ted the attention o$ the tsar- sin!e A"e4ander needed a &riter $or the u(!omin% &ar &ith ran!e, Thus durin% the &ar #ears ?676/36761@- Shish5o' mo'ed into (o&er as His Im(eria" MaDest#:s s(o5es(erson- in !har%e o$ sha(in% o$$i!ia" messa%es about the so!ia" im("i!ations o$ the &ar and &hether the (o(u"ation !ou"d
Mar5 A":tshu""er- -redtechi slaviano!il0stva v russkoi literature 5Obshchestvo G%eseda liubitelei russko$o slovaH7 - ?Ardis2 Ann Arbor- 6G71@11391,


e4(e!t re$orm in the $uture, When &ar bro5e out- Shish5o':s !o""ea%ues in the Co""o)uium &ere !au%ht u( in the same (atrioti! $er'or as other "iterar# so!ieties- but their interests &ere more set on stren%thenin% the o"d re%ime than en'isionin% a ne& order $or Euro(e,667 A"thou%h Shish5o' at times be!ame $ero!ious"# Ga""o(hobi!his %rou( ne'erthe"ess (reser'ed the insi%hts o$ ancien r@$ime ren!h !u"ture, The ru"es o$ Neo!"assi!ism seemed time"ess and authoritati'eEe'en $or the ne& nationa" "iterar# &or5s, Der>ha'in be!ame in$uriated &ith a histori!a" ("a# about the 6870 Russian batt"e a%ainst the Mon%o"s be!ause it 'io"ated C"assi!a" standards, The satirist I'an =r#"o' used Mo"iVre:s <es -recieuses ridicules as the mode" $or a ("a# mo!5in% Ga""o(hi"i! Russians- <esson to 6au$hters

Whi"e no edu!ated !"er%#man ("a#ed the same !entra" ro"e as A'%ustin and i"aret- one deser'es mention &ithin the "iterar# mi"ieu o$ the 6700s, In the 6700s- Der>ha'in be!ame !"ose $riends &ith E'%enii *o"5ho'itino'another edu!ated !"er%#man &ho o!!u(ied himse"$ &ith !hur!h histor# and !om(i"in% in$ormation about "a# &riters- &hi!h he (ub"ished throu%h Mos!o& !onne!tions, Der>ha'in and *o"5ho'itino' be!ame a!)uainted in the !ountr#side- near Der>ha'in:s estate and shared "iterar# interests, In 6768- he &as trans$erred out to =a"u%a as bisho( and thus &as absent $rom the !a(ita"s &hen the m#thma5in% o$ the &ar o$ Na(o"eon rea!hed its !u"mination, See ;, G, Puts5o- BMitro(o"it E'%enii *o"5hotino' ob Ote!hest'ennoi 'oine 676/ %oda,C in M9 I9 ;utu4ov i russkaia armiia na II etape otechestvennoi voiny &'&3 $oda: materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii, posviashchennoi 3*()letiiu so dnia ro4hdeniia M9 I9 ;utu4ova ?Ma"oiaros"a'ets2 Ma"oiaros"a'ets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6GG9@- 6103619,


?8rok dochkam- 670H@,66G or a"" o$ Shish5o':s de'otion to the (eo("ea !ontem(orar# noted- he "o'ed the masses on"# Babstra!t"#,C6/0 In his home- Shish5o':s &i$e s(o5e ren!h to their !hi"dren- and in his o&n &or5s he $o""o&ed Neo!"assi!ist di!tates about usin% hi%h st#"e and heroi! subDe!ts,6/6 As "ate as 6768- Dmitrii =h'osto'- a re"ati'e o$ Shish5o' and %o3bet&een $or Mos!o& and St, Petersbur% "iterar# %rou(s- &as trans"atin% <0art po@tiIue o$ Ni!ho"as *oi"eau3 Des(reau4- the B"e%is"atorC o$ ren!h C"assi!ism,6// A"e4ander Martin has noted that Shish5o':s desire to $use an!estra" %reatness &ith the Euro(eani>ed (resent &as an im(ossib"e idea",6/8 *# an# a!!ount- it &as a (arado4 and one that other non3inno'ators shared, The Co""o)uium in %enera" e4hibited this (arado4- as did the other maDor so!ieties o$ the se!ond tier, On"# in Mos!o&- ho&e'er- &as this
Char"es A, Moser- The Cambrid$e History o! Russian <iterature - ?Ne& Ior52 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G7G@- 66G,
119 120

S, T, A5sa5o'- "obranie "ochinenii- 'o", /- ?Mos!o&2 GI=hL- 6G99@- /H6,

*oris Gas(aro'- -oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina kak !akt istorii russko$o literaturno$o ia4yka- ?;ienna2 Gese""s!ha$t >ur Frderun% s"a&istis!her Studien- 6GG/@- 88389,

See !orres(onden!e &ith Der>ha'in to =h'osto' in his G, R, Der>ha'in"ochineniia- edited b# Ia, =, Grot- ;o", 1- ?St, Petersbur%- 67.136778@- /H6, *oi"eau:s in$"uen!e in Russia o$ !ourse is mu!h o"der, See Wi""iam Ed&ard *ro&n- History o! +i$hteenth)Century Russian <iterature ?Ann Arbor2 Ardis- 6G70@- 66/ $or *oi"eau as B"e%is"ator,C Gas(aro' notes that ar!haists "i5e Shish5o' and those o$ "ater %enerations shared more &ith re'o"utionar# ren!h Neo3C"assi!ism than the C"assi!ism o$ *oi"eau and the !ourt o$ Louis QI;, See -oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina- /H,
122 123

Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 8H.


an!estra" %reatness trans$ormed into the (otentia" $or messiani! rene&a", Se!ond3tier &riters in nineteenth3!entur# Russia &ere (reo!!u(ied &ith !reatin% a ne& !u"ture at a time &hen the re'o"utionar# and Na(o"eoni! Wars &ere destro#in% an o"d one, The desire to $ound a serious nationa" "iterature re"ated to the %ro&th o$ nationa" !ons!iousness in the ei%hteenth3!entur#Ees(e!ia""# to the (re3eminent desire to (ro'e to Euro(e in more than a mi"itar# &a# that Russia had Doined the $ami"# o$ Euro(ean nations, The emer%en!e o$ the Ne& St#"e- asso!iated &ith Euro(ean sentimenta"ism- s(ar5ed the ar!haist and inno'ator debate- but the non3inno'ators had mu!h &ider di$$eren!es than their dis(osition to&ard =aram>in or Shish5o', The residents o$ Petersbur%- &hether !onser'ati'e or "ibera"- &ere mu!h !"oser to (o"iti!a" (o&er and their "iterar# so!ieties sou%ht either to (ush or stunt A"e4ander:s re$orm intentions, The Mus!o'ites- on the other hand- &ere more a(o"iti!a" and $urthered the o"d Masoni! tradition o$ !u"tura" im(ro'ement and rene&a" be$ore (o"iti!a" !han%e, Con%re%ated near the uni'ersit#- the Mus!o'ites had ties to the !"er%# and !arried on the re"i%ious traditions o$ usin% (oetr# as a 'oi!e o$ authorit# $rom &hi!h to Dud%e &hat &as ri%ht $or so!iet#, O$ten o$ obs!ure ba!5%round- these


&riters tried to ba"an!e res(e!t $or nationa" traditions and non3 ren!h sour!es o$ ins(iration ?su!h as C"assi!a" Gree!e@ &ith the need to de'e"o( a ne& "iterar# "an%ua%e as (art o$ a &ider stru%%"e a%ainst ren!h !u"tura" in$"uen!e, In 6709- mi"itar# !"ashes Doined the !u"tura" one, The batt"e $or the $ate o$ Euro(eEand $or the mant"e o$ the En"i%htenment and !i'i"i>ationEhad be%un,


Chapter )! Nationa* Con#ciou#ne## In the Patriotic Literature o$ the Coa*ition War# The $irst $our #ears ?670636709@ o$ the ru"e o$ Tsar A"e4ander $orm a remar5ab"e re$orm (eriod &hen Russia turned in a more (ro3 Euro(ean dire!tion, The rise o$ Na(o"eon si%na"ed an end to re'o"utionar# !haos abroad- and A"e4ander &as %reeted at home &ith &i"d e4u"tation $or his (romise to ru"e in the s(irit o$ his %randmother Catherine the Great,6/1 Na(o"eon:s trans$ormation o$ ran!e into an em(ireEand Euro(e into an armed !am(Ebetra#ed su!h o(timism and "ed some nationa"ist inte""e!tua"s in ren!h3 o!!u(ied territories to reDe!t not on"# ren!h !u"ture- but the $undamenta" a4ioms o$ the En"i%htenment as &e"", *# dra&in% on an!estra" ima%es to !onstru!t a nationa" identit#- Prussian nationa"ists de$ined a German# &hose identit# &as rooted in !enturies o$ tradition and &ith a sui $eneris !hara!ter that !ontradi!ted En"i%htenment thin5ers: be"ie$ in the uni'ersa"it# o$ human nature,6/9 Anti3Na(o"eoni! Russian &riters a"so turned to their
Ni!ho"as ;, Riasano's5#- -artin$ o! 2ays: >overnment and the +ducated -ublic in Russia: &'(&)&'**- ?O4$ord2 C"arendon Press- 6GH.@- 903 96,

or a (resentation o$ the star5 !ontrast o$ En"i%htened thin5ers and German Romanti! Nationa"ists- see Isaiah *er"in- BCounter3En"i%htenment-C 6G- It shou"d be noted that the Germans: nationa"ist 'isions !ou"d ha'e a Buni'ersa"C )ua"it#- in the sense that the German nation:s re%eneration !ou"d ser'e as a (re"ude $or other (eo("es, See *oime- rt in the $e o! %onapartism- 818,


an!estra" traditions to de$ine nationa" identit#- but in a 'er# di$$erent &a#, When the !u"tura" &ar &as Doined b# a!tua" mi"itar# hosti"ities in 6709- reDe!tion o$ the ren!h &as !ombined &ith a !ontinuation o$ ei%hteenth3!entur# $orms o$ nationa" !ons!iousnessA the need to (ro'e that the nation had Doined the "ea%ue o$ !i'i"i>ed (eo("es o'er&he"med the im(u"se to brea5 $rom the &or"d that had s(a&ned re'o"ution, The $irst !"ashes &ith Na(o"eon o!!asioned re(resentations o$ nationa" identit# that (ur(orted to ha'e a!!om("ished the ei%hteenth !entur#:s as(iration to a!hie'e the mi"itar# and !u"tura" "eadershi( o$ Euro(e, This !ha(ter re'ie&s 'ersions o$ this identit# in odeshistori!a" tra%edies- and !omedies, Thou%h Russia sti"" "a!5ed the !u"tura" a!hie'ements to demonstrate its standin% as a nation o$ %enius- it did (ossess a "e%itimate monar!h &ho o(en"# identi$ied himse"$ &ith en"i%htened ru"e, Poets durin% the Coa"ition Wars "oo5ed to the %ent"e and &ise e4am("e o$ A"e4ander I as the $or!e that not on"# animated the nation in a !ommon !ause- but re(resented the e(itome o$ en"i%htenment in a &ar a%ainst the su(reme e4am("e o$ des(otism, P"a#&ri%hts $o!used "ess on the tsar than the )ua"ities and 'irtues o$ the $aith$u" (eo("e- in 'arious estates and at di'erse (oints in the nation:s histor#- &ho &ere $aith$u" to the monar!h#


e'en &hen an a!tua" tsar &as "a!5in%, Whi"e em("o#in% stories that &ere (arti!u"ar to the Russian (ast- the# (ortra#ed the Russians: 'a"ues in time"ess and uni'ersa" &a#s, The be"ie$ in uni'ersa" 'a"ues entered (atrioti! dis!ourse as Russian &riters tried to !onstru!t Russia as the "ast- $reest- and most en"i%htened !ountr#, ational !onsciousness and Enlightened "utocracy

A!!ordin% to ;, Gors5ii- &ritin% in s#m(osium o$ Pmi%rP inte""e!tua"s durin% the 6GH0s- messianism &as endemi! to Russia, Un"i5e Euro(ean $orms o$ nationa" !ons!iousness- Russian Messianism assumed that the Russian nation embodies uni'ersa" 'a"ues in their hi%hest $orm, The ori%ins o$ this be"ie$- a!!ordin% to Gors5ii- &ere not to be $ound amon% inte""e!tua"s so mu!h as the re"i%ious- so!ia"- and (o"iti!a" "i$e o$ Russia, In (arti!u"ar- he iso"ated the Medie'a" do!trine o$ Mos!o&- the Third Rome as the essen!e o$ an out"oo5 that determined Russian !i'i"i>ation a"" the &a# throu%h the So'iet (eriod and &hi!h b"o!5ed nationa" (ro%ress,6/. Whi"e s!ho"ars ha'e "on% do&n("a#ed the in$"uen!e o$ the Third Rome ideo"o%#6/H- Marsha"" Poe re!ent"# has ar%ued that outside a $e&
;, Gors5ii- BRussian Messianism and the Ne& Nationa" Cons!iousness,C in Mi!hae" Meerson3A5seno' and *oris Sha%rin- eds, The -olitical, "ocial, and Reli$ious Thou$ht o! Russian G"ami4datHJan ntholo$y - trans"ated b# Ni!ho"as Lu(inin- ?*e"mont- MA2 Nor"and Pub"ishin%- 6GHH@- 89838G8, 127 E'en in 6GH1- Emanue" Sar5is#an> denied the messianism had an#


boo5men in the si4teenth !entur#- no one 5ne& e'en 5ne& the do!trine unti" the mid3nineteenth3!entur# intelli$entsia re!o'ered it in their o&n sear!h $or sour!es o$ nationa" identit#,6/7 Poe:s !on!"usions- &hi"e !ontested- sti"" (reser'ed the im(ortan!e o$ the idea in "ater messiani! thin5in%- as does Peter Dun!an:s re!ent sur'e# o$ Russian Messianism $rom the Romanti! era to the (resent,6/G Lon% be$ore the S"a'o(hi"es redis!o'ered the ori%ina" Third Rome te4t- the do!trine:s ideas resur$a!ed durin% the En"i%htenment, Whi"e the ideo"o%# mi%ht not ha'e e4er!ised in$"uen!e throu%h dire!t readin%s o$ its !entur# e4(onent- i"o$ei o$ Ps5o'- the notion o$ translatio imperii im("i!it &ithin the do!trine (ersisted into the inte""e!tua" "i$e o$ Im(eria" Russia, Ste(hen *aehr de$ined translatio imperii to mean that Bin an# (eriod one nation &i"" be the dominant !u"tura" and (o"iti!a" $or!e in &or"d !i'i"i>ation- and that this $or!e &i"" mo'e $rom one state to another &ith the (assa%e o$ time,C680 In the
si%ni$i!ant in$"uen!e on Russian $orei%n (o"i!#, See his BRussian Im(eria"ism Re!onsidered-C in Russian Imperialism !rom Ivan the >reat to the Revolution- edited b# Taras Hun!>a5- ?Ne& *runs&i!52 Rut%ers Uni'ersit# Press- 6GH1@- 19, Marsha"" Poe- BI>obretenie 5ontse(tsii BMos5'aETretii Rim-C ?/000@2 .637.,
128 129

b Imperio /

See the introdu!tion to Peter +, S, Dun!an- Russian Messianism: Third Rome, Holy Revolution, Communism, and !ter- ?LondonJNe& Ior52 Rout"ed%e- /000@- /, 130 Ste(hen Lessin% *aehr- B rom Histor# to Nationa" M#th2 Translatio


si4teenth3!entur# do!trine- the (ro!ess o$ trans"ation !on!"uded in Russia- a!!ordin% to i"o$ei, *uo#ed b# the (er!e(tion that Russia &as the so"e Orthodo4 Christian (o&er a$ter the Ottoman Em(ire !on)uered Constantino("e in 6198- i"o$ei de!"ared that the Mus!o'ite state (ossessed a mission to (reser'e the true $aith on beha"$ o$ a"" humanit# unti" the end o$ time,
No& Win Mos!o&X - the ne& Third Rome- the Ho"# E!umeni!a" A(osto"i! Chur!h o$ #our so'erei%n state shines bri%hter than the sun in the uni'ersa" Orthodo4 Christian $aith throu%hout the &or"d, , , Pious TsarS Listen and remember that a"" Christian 5in%doms ha'e no& mer%ed into one- #our NtsardomO, T&o Romes ha'e $a""en, The third stands N$irmO, And there &i"" not be a $ourth,C686

In ei%hteenth3!entur# "iterature- *aehr ar%ued- s!ho"ar"# and "iterar# !om(arison tried to dra& "in5s bet&een the ne& Russian Em(ire and its Roman (rede!essor, The e)uation o$ the t&o !i'i"i>ations "ed &riters to e4(e!t %"or# in Russia:s $uture !om(arab"e to that in Rome:s (astA and he"(ed $ue" nationa"isti! su((ort $or re3 Christiani>in% "ands ta5en $rom the Ottoman Tur5s,68/ Seen a%ainst the ba!5%round o$ Euro(ean stereot#(es o$ Russian ba!5&ardnessthe assum(tions o$ translatio imperii re$"e!ted the main as(iration o$ ei%hteenth3!entur# nationa" !ons!iousness- endea'orin% to sho& that
Imperii in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russia,C Russian Revie# 8H26 ?+an 6GH7@2 6, Ta5en $rom *asi" Dm#tr#sh#n- Imperial Russia: a "ource %ook, &,(() &.&,- ?Ne& Ior52 Ho"t- Rinehart- and Winston- 6G.H@- /.03/.6, *ra!5ets are trans"ator:s,
131 132

*aehr- B rom Histor# to Nationa" M#th-C /368,


Russians &ere not on"# as %ood as Euro(eans- but that the# mi%ht su!!eed their tea!hers,688 Na(o"eon:s use o$ C"assi!a" ima%er#- inherited $rom ren!h re'o"utionaries- made it di$$i!u"t to base nationa" identit# on an# theor# o$ su!!ession $rom Rome, A$ter the $oundation o$ the ren!h Re(ub"i! in 6HG/- re'o"utionaries had sou%ht to a'oid imitation o$ other !ontem(orar# (o"iti!a" s#stems b# deri'in% the materia" $or their re%enerated ather"and $rom C"assi! Rome and Gree!e,681 These a((ro(riations a((eared in (o"iti!a" "an%ua%e, Na(o"eon:s o&n as!ent to (o&er in'o"'ed ho"din% the o$$i!e o$ irst Consu"- Consu"3 $or3Li$e- and Im(erator,689 Na(o"eon sou%ht not on"# to asso!iate
Hans Ro%%er- National Consciousness in +i$hteenth)Century Russia ?Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.0@- /70,

Haro"d Ta"bot Par5er- The Cult o! ntiIuity and the 1rench Revolutionaries- ?Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o Press- 6G8H@- 6/0,

Res(e!t $or Na(o"eon as a re'i'a" o$ anti)uit# rea!hed Russianses(e!ia""# #outh, In 6HG7- durin% the ru"e o$ Tsar Pau"- Russian and ren!h armies &ere "o!5ed in batt"e- but Na(o"eon &as sti"" in E%#(t, One o$ the (u(i"s at A!adem# o$ Arts in St, Petersbur%- A"e5sandr I'ano'i!h Ermo"ae'&rote to his $riend A"e5sandr ;osto5o' that the a'ai"ab"e *ritish ne&s(a(ers &ere un$air"# hosti"e to *ona(arte- &ho o'er!ame Rome b# atta!5in% it in its (resent $orm, Tuoted in -erepiska 9 ;h9 :ostokova v povremennom poriadke, ?St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia a5ademiia nau567H8@- i3ii, Li5e&ise- the ardent (atrioti! Dourna"ist Ser%ei G"in5a- re$"e!ted that in the same #ear- he thou%ht that an#one &ho &as a!)uainted &ith the heroes o$ Gree!e and Rome &ou"d ha'e be!ome a *ona(artist, Tuoted in N, I, =a>a5o'- BNa(o"eon %"a>ami e%o russ5i5h so'remenni5o',C Novaia i noveishaia istoriia 8 ?Ma#3+une 6GH0@2 8/, The o"der (oet Der>ha'in- it is true- had remar5ed that Na(o"eon:s $reedom %i'en to other (eo("es is i""usor#- on"# &ords, Whi"e this 'erse is 'er# !"e'er- it hard"# !onstituted outri%ht !riti!ism or an# o$ the other e4treme"# ne%ati'e !onnotations that a((eared &hen the irst Consu" too5 (o&er into his o&n hands, See Mi5hai"


himse"$ &ith anti)uit#- but to sur(ass it, The re(ub"i!an (hase o$ the re'o"ution %o'ernment a"so (ro'ided the ins(iration $or this ambitionsin!e its members be"ie'ed that the# !ou"d a!hie'e a !i'i"i>ation o$ 'irtue- &hi!h &ou"d not $a"",68. or Na(o"eon:s im(eria" ambitionsho&e'er- a hea"th# re(ub"i! &as not enou%h, He turned his e#es to&ard &ider hori>ons and sou%ht to uni$# a"" Euro(e, His mi"itar# !am(ai%ns e'o5ed $rom his $"atterers ima%es o$ his abi"it# to a!!om("ish tas5s ne'er be$ore dreamed, Na(o"eoni! art- &or5in% in the %enera" stream o$ ear"ier C"assi!ism- inherited its Roman ima%er#- but dis("a!ed the !entra" $i%ure o$ the =in% &ith $eatures o$ Na(o"eon himse"$2 a man &ho rose u( throu%h !han!e or $ate- a man o$ %enius- endo&ed &ith a s(e!ia" destin#,68H Cu"tura" rea!tion outside ran!e turned to nationa" anti)uities as a means o$ in'entin% and de$endin% a distin!t and inde(endent !hara!ter a%ainst the im(eria" menta"it# o$ Na(o"eoni! ran!e, In German#- this mo'ement !oin!ided &ith the rise o$ Romanti!ism&hi!h $a'ored sui $eneris !ourses o$ histori!a" de'e"o(ment and nationa" traits imbued s(e!i$i!a""# b# nature to the (eo("e- not the

Mat'ee'i!h Narins5ii- BNa(o"eon ' so'remennoi emu Rossiis5oi (ub"itsisti5e i "iterature-C Istoriia """R 6GG0 ?6@2 6/H,

Par5er- Cult o!

ntiIuity- 66G36/6,


See note Error2 Re$eren!e sour!e not $ound,


'a"ues !ommon to a"" humanit#,687 The German nationa"ists- ho&e'er&ere $a!ed &ith ren!h o!!u(ation o$ their soi"- s#!o(hanti! o$$i!ia" ne&s(a(ers- and obse)uious ro#a"t#, Their sear!h $or nationa" identit# as a means o$ !u"tura" resistan!e a%ainst Na(o"eon assumed that the o"d re%ime had disa((eared $ore'er- and that German# &ou"d on"# be!ame %reat throu%h rebirth into a ne& nationa" $orm, E(isodes o$ the $irst3!entur# A,D, triba" "eader Hermann- &ho resisted the Roman Em(ire- a$$orded insi%ht into the s(irit needed $or this re%eneration,68G Whi"e Russians !ou"d not !"aim su!h an!ient an!estors that o"d- the# had a thousand #ears o$ statehood $rom &hi!h to !hoose,610 War odes and son%s as "iterar# $orms &ere !au%ht bet&een the
Ironi!a""#- German nationa"ists &ho o((osed Na(o"eon a"so shared his interest in the !ontri'ed Ossian Tales o$ +ames Ma!Pherson- &hose moon"i%ht- mur5- and $ro>en hei%hts seemed to !orres(ond better to northern !"imates, See A"bert *oime- rt in the $e o! %onapartism, &'(() &'&*- ?Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o- 6GG0@- 993.1A on nationa" re%eneration amon% Romanti! Nationa"ists- 8673818,

Otto W, +ohnston- The Myth o! a NationJ<iterature and -olitics in -russia 8nder Napoleon- ?Co"umbia- SC2 Camden House- 6G7G@- 86311,

Whi"e (oets %enera""# !onsidered their an!estors to des!end $rom the time o$ Rus:- some others "oo5ed to the S!#thians as (roo$ o$ mu!h o"der an!estra" herita%e, In the ear"# da#s o$ the &ar o$ 676/- $or instan!eA"e5sandr =units#n (ub"ished a s(ee!h o$ a S!#thian be$ore A"e4ander the Great, The (ie!e had hu%e o'ertones sin!e it 'a"ori>ed the S!#thian tenden!# to de(art a&a# $rom the Ma!edonian 5in% so as to a'oid !on)uest, At the time- the Russian arm#:s (o"i!# o$ strate%i! retreat had raised !riti!ism o$ ie"dmarsha" =utu>o' at !ourt- and =units#n:s (ie!e he"(ed demonstrate the "o%i! o$ the a!tion as (art o$ a tradition o$ resistin% a%%ression, See his BRe!h: S5i$s5a%o (os"a A"e5sandru Ma5edons5omu,C "yn Otechestva /266 ?676/@2 67G36G1,


ru"es o$ C"assi!ism and the more di'erse $orms o$ se"$3e4(ression asso!iated &ith (re3Romanti!ism, A!!ordin% to Pierre Hart- an ode &as su((osed to ba"an!e reason and emotion- thou%h in (ra!ti!e man# &ere bombasti! and o'er(o&erin%,616 Ceremonia" odes &ere (ronoun!ed at !ourt in (ost3Petrine Russia as (art o$ a (er$orman!e to !e"ebrate (ub"i! o!!asions o$ the "i$e o$ a monar!h- the !on!"usion o$ a &ar- or the $oundin% o$ a ne& institution, The "an%ua%e and ima%er# o$ the odes- usua""# hi%h st#"i>ed and e4a"ted- dre& a""e%ori!a" materia" $rom C"assi!a" m#tho"o%# to a'oid de(i!tin% the %ruesome detai"s o$ a b"ood# batt"e$ie"d,61/ At !ourt- these odes e'ident"# !on$used the audien!e- sin!e detai"ed (ro%ram des!ri(tions &ere (ub"ished and distributed to e4("ain the e'ents,618 Des(ite the rise o$ the Ne& St#"e- o"der st#"es !ontinued to be used $or o$$i!ia" o!!asions and the# sti"" be&i"dered (eo("e in A"e4ander:s rei%n, An o"d3timer at a &e"!ome re!e(tion in Mos!o& $or (rin!e *a%ration !ou"d not understand the reason &h# the odist said that Russia:s
Pierre R, Hart- BContinuit# and Chan%e in the Russian Ode-C in Russian <iterature in the $e o! Catherine the >reat: Collection o! +ssays - edited b# Anthon# G"enn Cross ?O4$ord2 Wi""em A, Meeu&s- 6GH.@- 1., Com(are &ith the !omments o$ *oris Gas(aro'- -oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina kak !akt istorii russko$o literaturno$o ia4yka- ?;ienna2 Gese""s!ha$t >ur Frderun% s"a&istis!her Studien- 6GG/@- H1,
141 142

Hart- BContinuit# and Chan%e in the Russian Ode-C 1.391,

+ames 'on Ge"dern- BThe Ode as a Per$ormati'e Genre,C "lavic Revie# 9021 ?Winter 6GG6@2 G/H3G81,


enemies &i"" be Bat his $eetC instead o$ Dust sa#in% the# &ere beaten,611 Nineteenth3!entur# &ar (oems a"so re$"e!ted more o$ the (oet:s (ersona"it# and a $o!us on the interna" !on$"i!ts rather than Dust dis("a#in% batt"e s!enes, In other &ords- inno'ators be%an to modi$# stri!t %eneri! (ra!ti!es, =aram>in:s BSon% o$ the WarriorsC ?-esn0 voinov@- $or instan!e- $inished in Russian trium(h- but &ith the rea"i>ation that a !ommon human bond had been sundered,
YZ[\SE]^_`a bc dea_ f^[\dgchieabcggjk lea[e^mhno hd^ck ip^k qe^dn m mc[r msctap\ mce`ua2 vj [s\bg\l- [eah\k f^eat\sS ?=i""S33and &hen the enem# (erishes*eaten b# #our !oura%eWash o$$ the b"ood &ith tears $rom #our heart2 Iou ha'e stru!5 #our o&n- #our brethrenS@619

A"thou%h =aram>in:s !on!"usion &ou"d ha'e been 'er# at#(i!a" in the ei%hteenth3!entur#- the $a!t that the sentimenta"ist (oet returned to the domain o$ e4a"ted (ub"i! subDe!ts sho&ed that C"assi!a" tenden!ies (ersisted in the (atrioti! s(irit o$ the Coa"ition Wars era and that e'en inno'ators a""ied &ith ar!haists $or batt"e, As a "iterar# $orm &hi!h !ombined !ontinuities and inno'ations in the sear!h $or BseriousC issues- &ar (oetr# ser'es as an e4!e""ent
S, <hi5hare'- Capiski sovremennika, edited b# *, M, Ei5henbaum ?Mos!o& and Lenin%rad2 i>date":st'o A5ademiia Nau5 SSSR- 6G99@- 6GH,

Tuoted in2 BNi5o"ai Mi5hai"o'i!h =aram>inC in the 6ictionary o! <iterary %io$raphy, :olume &*(: +arly Modern Russian 2riters, <ate "eventeenth and +i$hteenth Centuries?herea$ter 6<% &*(@- edited b# Mar!us C, Le'itt?The Ga"e Grou( Uni'ersit# o$ Southern Ca"i$ornia,- 6GG9@- 616,


sour!e o$ insi%ht into the idea"s o$ the ear"# nineteenth !entur# and in (arti!u"ar- in the (rima!# o$ the tsar, The (o"iti!a" !on!e(t o$ en"i%htened auto!ra!#- &ides(read amon% ei%hteenth3!entur# inte""e!tua"s- a!!ommodated di'erse inter(retations o$ the "e%itima!# and use$u"ness o$ the monar!h#- but re%arded it as an a!ti'e $or!e2 the d#namo o$ nationa" (ro%ress,61. In A"e4ander:s rei%n- en"i%htened monar!hist &riters de'oted ne&$ound attention to their Doint ro"e &ith the auto!rat in the (ro%ress o$ nationa" en"i%htenment or Bedu!ationC ?prosveshchenie@, A so!ia" !onser'ati'e "i5e =aram>in and a re$orm bureau!rat tr#in% to abo"ish ser$dom- ;asi"ii Po(u%ae'both be"ie'ed that edu!ated inte""e!tua"s needed to raise the !u"tura" "e'e" o$ the nation be$ore the $u"" (o"iti!a" bene$its o$ an en"i%htened nation !ou"d be rea"i>ed,61H C#nthia Whitta5er has sho&n that man# ei%hteenth3!entur# inte""e!tua"s be"ie'ed that nationa" en"i%htenment &ou"d rea!h a !ertain a(e4- u(on the attainment o$ &hi!h the tsar
C#nthia Hu"a Whitta5er- BThe Idea o$ Auto!ra!# amon% Ei%hteenth3 Centur# Russian Historians-C Russian Revie# 992/ ?A(ri" 6GG.@2 690A a"so see Whitta5er:s BThe Re$ormin% Tsar2 the Rede$inition o$ Auto!rati! Dut# in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russia,C "lavic Revie# 9626 ?S(rin% 6GG/@2 HH3G7,

G, A, Gu5o's5ii- Russkaia literatura X:II veka: uchebnik dlia vysshikh uchebnykh 4avedenii ?Mos!o&2 Nar5om(ros- 6G8G@ 1G7 and see Po(u%ae':s essa# BO (o"iti!hes5om (ros'esh!henii 'oobsh!he-C in Russkie prosvetiteli 5ot Radishcheva do 6ekabristov7 - ;o", 6 ?Mos!o&- BM#s":C 6G..@ 86638/., or a detai"ed ana"#sis o$ ho& (ro%ressi'e (o"iti!a" thou%ht sti"" tried to &or5 &ithin the !on$ines o$ en"i%htened auto!ra!#- see Samue" C, Ramer- KThe Traditiona" and the Modern in the Writin%s o$ I'an Pnin-K "lavic Revie# 8128 ?Se(t,- 6GH9@2 98G399G,


&ou"d "imit his o&n (o&ers and !reate a !onstitutiona" monar!h#,617 The "e%a" re$orm (roDe!ts o$ A"e4ander:s rei%n si%na"ed that this ho(e mi%ht be rea"i>ed, The (ros(e!t e4!ited (eo("e "i5e Po(u%ae' but $ri%htened so!ia" !onser'ati'es- &ho did not be"ie'e that the !ountr# &as read# $or it, ormin% an o((osition to the monar!h:s re$orm ("ans- the# de$ended the abso"ute (o&er o$ the monar!h and his need to re"# on the nobi"it#,61G The edu!ated "iterar# %rou(s o$ A"e4ander:s ear"# (eriod a%reed on the idea that the auto!ra!# &as the 5e# to (ro%ress- but disa%reed about &hether the nation had under%one su$$i!ient (re(aration $or it, Wides(read su((ort $or en"i%htened monar!hism !onditioned both the initia" enthusiasm $or Na(o"eon and its ear"# demise, C"ashes &ith 'arious ren!h armies be%an in 6HG7 and 6HGG- durin% most o$ &hi!h Na(o"eon himse"$ &as !ondu!tin% !am(ai%ns in the Ottoman re%ions o$ E%#(t- Pa"estine- and S#ria, Under the "eadershi( o$ ie"dmarsha" A"e4ander Su'oro'- the Russian armies undertoo5 "e%endar# !am(ai%ns throu%h the A"(s, The $e& e4tant odes $rom these batt"es a$$irmed Russia:s status as a Euro(ean (o&er b# de$inin% the ren!h as a threat to the &ho"e o$ Euro(e, edor


Whitta5er- BIdea o$ Auto!ra!#-C 6H0, Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 1839/,



=orbe"ets5ii !a""ed the ren!h BEuro(e:s !ommon &i!5ed one,C 690 Der>ha'in !a""ed Su'oro' the shie"d $or a"" o$ Euro(e:s 5in%s,696 *oth odes e4(ressed desire $or a )ui!5 'i!tor# and the return o$ %enera" tran)ui"it# and order, In 6HGG- Na(o"eon be!ame irst Consu" o$ the ren!h Re(ub"i!- a (osition that he assumed $or "i$e in 6706, E'en some !onser'ati'e 'oi!es in the Russian (ub"i! &e"!omed his as!endan!# as a si%n that the turbu"en!e o$ the ear"ier re'o"utionar# #ears &ou"d #ie"d to a time o$ (ros(erit# and (ro%ress, A maDor out"et o$ (ro3*ona(arte (ub"ishin% in Russia &as Herald o! +urope- the $irst inde(endent Russian "iterar# Dourna" to in!"ude (o"iti!a" re'ie&s and a!)uaint readers &ith ne&s o$ di("oma!#- $orei%n $ashions- and mi"itar# !am(ai%ns, It !ontained o'er 80 (ositi'e arti!"es on the Bne& CaesarC and Bne& C"o'isC durin% the brie$ ?670/36708@ editorshi( o$ its $ounder- =aram>in,69/ Whereas German (rin!es admired Na(o"eon as a man o$ mi"itar# s5i"" and en"i%htenment- =aram>in sa& a $i%ure &ho &ou"d stam( out the re'o"ution and estab"ish stab"e ru"e, The *ona(arte !u"t did not sur'i'e into the editorshi( o$ =aram>in:s
, I, =orbe"ets5ii- Oda na pobedy v italii voisk e$o imperatorska$o velichestva -avla perva$o samoder4htsa vserossiiska$o pod predvoditel0stvom $eneral)!el0dmarshala "uvorova)Rimnikska$o &,.. $oda ?St, Petersbur%2 n,(,- 6HGG@ 6,

G, R, Der>ha'in- "tikhotvorenie- /nd ed, ?Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":6G9H@ /70,
151 152

Cross- /683/61,


su!!essor- =a!heno's5ii- &ho assumed !ontro" in 6701- &hen Russian o(inion soured a%ainst the ren!h "eader, In that #ear- Na(o"eon betra#ed !onser'ati'es a!ross Euro(eb# !ro&nin% himse"$ em(eror and o(enin% himse"$ to !har%es o$ i""e%itima!#, In addition- Na(o"eon:s $or!es !a(tured the Du5e o$ En%hien- brou%ht him to ;in!ennes- !ourt3martia"ed- and e4e!uted him, In the 6HG0s- the du5e o$ *ourbon and Or"eans des!ent had $ou%ht in emi%ration a%ainst the ren!h re'o"utionar# armies- but his death senten!e resu"ted $rom sus(i!ion that he &as in'o"'ed in a !ons(ira!# to re3estab"ish a d#nast#, The e4e!ution itse"$ insu"ted ro#a" re"ati'es- one o$ &hom &as Tsar A"e4ander Ere"ated to the Du5e throu%h his &i$e, A$ter 6701- A"e4ander "et his dis("easure &ith *ona(arte be 5no&n at !ourt, In 6709- the third !oa"ition &ar- &ith Prussia- Austria- and Russia (itted a%ainst Na(o"eon, Outside o$ the !ourt- there &as "itt"e in the &a# o$ a "iterar# or !u"tura" rea!tion in Russia, A$ter the Auster"it> de$eat- &hi!h $or!ed Prussia to a!!ede to Na(o"eon:s demands- Der>ha'in- !om(osed some !on%ratu"ator# "ines to A"e4ander, The subDe!t o$ the (oem &as A"e4ander:s %ra!ious res(onse to a &e"!ome re!e(tion a$ter his time at the $ront, 698 Ne&s $rom the $ront &as terrib"# s"o& in rea!hin% so!iet#- and rumors and
See the $ootnote to Ga'rii" Romano'i!h Der>ha'in- BG"as san5t(eterur%s5a%o obsh!hest'a-C in his "ochineniia- edited b# Ia, =, Grot'o", /- ?St, Petersbur%- 67.136778@- 9H1,


%ossi( abounded, To ma5e matters &orse- A"e4ander a$ter 6709 !reated se!ret (o"i!e institutions to monitor (ub"i! o(inion instead o$ mobi"i>in% inte""e!tua"s,691 orei%n (ro(a%anda in Russian trans"ation in!reased the %ra'it# o$ the Coa"ition Wars and !u"ti'ated the im(ression that Russia remained the on"# "a&$u" monar!h#, Man# German inte""e!tua"s (re$erred to distan!e themse"'es $rom (o"iti!sA and others- su!h as the (hi"oso(her G,W, , He%e"- sin!ere"# admired Na(o"eon as the embodiment o$ a ne& era in histor#,699 *# the end o$ 670.- ren!h troo(s &ere stationed a"" a!ross Euro(e and e'en in Prussia- "ea'in% the Russian border 'u"nerab"e, *oo5 (ub"ishers in German# had %ood reason to se"" on"# &hat Na(o"eon &anted, When the Heide"ber% (ub"isher +ohann Phi""i( Pa"m in 670. (rinted >ermany in Her 6eep basement ?6eutschland in seiner tie!en +rniedri$un$@- ren!h troo(s arrested him- brou%ht him be$ore a mi"itar# tribuna" at *raunau- and e4e!uted him in order to set an e4am("e other (ub"ishers, >ermany in Her <o# basement a((eared

in Russian trans"ation in 670. &ith a s(e!ia" (re$a!e des!ribin% the !ir!umstan!es and manner o$ the (ub"isher:s e4e!ution, The in!ident

Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 9/!!,

rederi!5 Hert>- The >erman -ublic Mind in the Nineteenth Century: "ocial History o! >erman -olitical "entiments, spirations and Ideas - edited b# ran5 E#!5- trans"ated b# Eri! North!ott ?Toto&a- N+2 Ro&man and Litt"e$ie"d- 6GH9@- 69,


&as &e""3enou%h 5no&n in so!iet# that the Mos!o& anti)uarian P"aton *e5eto' tried to ("a# a (ra!ti!a" Do5e on a dim3&itted $riend b# !"aimin% to ha'e inter!e(ted one o$ Pa"m:s "etters,69. Other bro!hures- in!"udin% at "east one trans"ated $rom ren!h69H- re'ie&ed Parisian (o"iti!s- the !hara!ter o$ ren!h so"diers- and the reasons $or the im(oten!e o$ German resistan!e, An e4!er(t o$ one a((eared in Herald o! +urope in 670H,697 The !ontent o$ the $orei%n (ro(a%anda de'oted "itt"e s(a!e to Russian di("oma!#- but a$$irmed its (osition as the "ast bastion o$ Euro(ean stabi"it#, The bro!hures !ata"o%ed ren!h atro!ities2 the ra(e o$ Prussian &omen- the the$t o$ bread $rom Austrian !hi"drenand the destru!tion o$ $ami"# ties amon% (rin!es in order to insta"" as ro#a"t# Na(o"eon:s o&n re"ati'es,69G Na(o"eon- a!!ordin% to the bro!hures- !ou"d not to"erate $reedom o$ s(ee!h or the (ress and $a!ed no domesti! o((osition be!ause his o&n notab"es &ere e%o3
Mi5hai" Dmitrie'- >lavy i4 vospominanii moei 4hi4ni- ?Mos5'a 2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- 6GG7@ 9G3.0,

Ra4smotrenie politicheskikh proi4shesvii nyneshnia$o vremeni, pisannoe Russkim -atriotom k e$o sootechestvinnikam ?St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'- 670.@,

Rassu4hdenie ob uchastii, priemlemom Rossiei v nyneshnei voine, sochinennoe dru$om politicheskoi svobody i v4aimnoi ne4avisimosti vsekh narodov v nachale &'(, $, ?Co"o%ne2 n,670H@,

Ra4smotrenie -oliticheskikh proi4shesvii- .A >ermaniia v $lubokom uni4henii svoem, /nd ed, Trans, $rom German ?St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia A5ademiia Nau5- 670H@ 600,


dri'en and d&e"t on"# on (ersona" %ain2 ran5- (ro(ert#- and $ortune, This !har%e a"so !oin!ided &ith an assau"t on the German (rin!es &ho sided &ith Na(o"eon- !"aimin% that their %reed and "ust $or "u4ur# !ho5ed out an# $ee"in% o$ nationa" (ride,6.0 In !ontrast- Tsar A"e4ander re!ei'ed (raise as a moderate and "a&$u" 5in%, One author e'en !"aimed that A"e4ander:s %o'ernment &as trans(arent ?S@ be!ause its Ministr# o$ Interior A$$airs (ub"ished a Dourna" to in$orm the (ub"i! o$ its a!tions,6.6 Russia thus &as !onsidered the on"# obsta!"e to Na(o"eon:s ere!tion o$ a Buni'ersa" em(ire-C a !riti!ism &hi!h Russians a"so de'e"o(ed a$ter the in'asion o$ 676/, 6./ The (re$a!e to the Russian edition o$ >ermany in Her 6eep basement to"d its readers to see5 sa"'ation in the North,6.8 The "oss o$ Prussian assistan!e meant that the ren!h (osed a (a"(ab"e threat to Russian borders, Na(o"eon:s dea"in%s &ith other !ountries indi!ated that i$ Russia &ere beaten- the nobi"it# &ou"d "ose its so!ia" (ri'i"e%e- es(e!ia""# o'er the ser$s, Su!h !onsiderations &ere no doubt (aramount $or !onser'ati'e "ando&nin% nob"es, Sti""Nekotorye 4amechaniia na poslednee poslanie %onaparte k okhranitel0nomu e$o "enatu, ?St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia A5ademiia Nau5- 670H@ 93.A Ra4smotrenie -oliticheskikh proi4shesvii- 13G,
160 161

Ra4smotrenie -oliticheskikh proi4shesvii- /8,

Ra4smotrenie -oliticheskikh proi4shesvii- 831A Nekotorye 4amechaniia- 8A >ermaniia v $lubokom uni4henii svoem- /03/8,
162 163

>ermaniia v $lubokom uni4henii svoem- 6.,


!"ass (osition a"one !annot e4("ain the "iterar# rea!tion, Man# o$ the !ontributors to Herald o! +urope or "ater Dourna"s &ere (oor nob"es &ithout ser$s- or the# &ere ra4nochintsy,6.1 This "atter %rou( &as !on!entrated around Mos!o& Uni'ersit#- &here ad'an!ement !ou"d be a!hie'ed throu%h s!ho"arshi(A or around the ree So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Literature- S!ho"arshi(- and the Arts in St, Petersbur%, The ree So!iet# members o$ten &ere bureau!rats $or A"e4ander &ho &ou"d ha'e had mu!h &ider "atitude to im("ement their re$orm (ro(osa"s under a Na(o"eoni! bureau!ra!#,6.9 The rea!tion a%ainst Na(o"eon !ombined the sentiments o$ so!ia" !"asses be!ause it (ro'ided a &a# to o'er!ome nationa" in$eriorit#, S!ho"ars ha'e noted that the be"ie$ in a nationa" !a""in% o$ten re$"e!ts dee(3seated an4ieties about nationa" se"$3&orth, Hans =ohn:s de$inition o$ messiani! !ons!iousness &as o$ a be"ie$ Bhe"d &ith re"i%ious $er'or b# o((ressed or un$ortunate ethni!- so!ia"- or re"i%ious %rou(s or b# men su$$erin% $rom the !ons!iousness o$ their o&n inade)ua!#,6.. Studies o$ messianism amon% So'iet dissidents su%%est the (resen!e o$ in$eriorit# as a s(rin%board $or inte""e!tua"

See "ast !ha(ter, On this %rou( see !ha(ter 6,


Tuoted in +u"ia *run3<eDmis- BMessiani! Cons!iousness as an E4(ression o$ Nationa" In$eriorit#2 Chaadae' and Some Sami>dat Writin%s o$ the 6GH0s-C "lavic Revie# 9028 ? a"" 6GG6@2 .90


messiani! 'isions,6.H In Russia:s !ase- ren!h taste retained its so"id ho"d on Russia:s aristo!ra!#- &hi"e ren!h armies &ere e4er!isin% tremendous de$eats o'er Russians on the batt"e$ie"d, Mi"itar# "oss &as es(e!ia""# (utrid in "i%ht o$ the (re'ious !entur#:s !onstant strin% o$ 'i!tories, *uo#ed b# the messa%e o$ the $orei%n (ro(a%andists and the tan%ib"e %eo(o"iti!a" threat o$ Na(o"eon to Euro(ean se!urit#- the "ando&ner %entr# and ra4nochintsy !onstru!ted their nation as the dominant !u"tura" and mi"itar# (o&er o$ the a%e, War #des and $nmatchable "ncestors A %o'ernment announ!ement $urthered the "iterar# rea!tion in Russia, The maDorit# o$ &ar odes- bro!hures- and ("a#s &ith &ar themes a((eared a$ter the 670. mani$estoes o$ Au%ust 80 and No'ember 6., These do!uments ordered the $ormation o$ a mi"itia- a no'e"t# &hi!h re$"e!ted &ar ("anners: hei%htened an4iet# o'er the need to !ounter the massi'e $or!e o$ Na(o"eon:s armies, Aside $rom the e4!e""ent dire!tion o$ Na(o"eon and his %enera"s- the ren!h armies &ere enormous, The ran5s bu"%ed both &ith $orei%n !ons!ri(ts and &ith "ar%e numbers o$ !iti>ens &ho &ere dra&n into the re'o"utionar# lev@e en masse o$ 6HG8- a nationa" mobi"i>ation &hi!h uti"i>ed e'er# !iti>en re%ard"ess o$ status to (arta5e in mi"itar# de$ense, In Russia- &here ser$dom &as sti"" entren!hed- a $u""

Ibid9- .1.3.97


nationa" mobi"i>ation o$ the (easants as B!iti>ensC &ou"d ha'e ta5en $armers $rom their $ie"ds- (ut &ea(ons in their hands and- as a tem(orar# measure- returned them to their 'i""a%es &ithout the standard /93#ear tour o$ ser'i!e, In an# e'ent- res(onse to the mi"itia !a"" turned out (oor"#- but the mani$estoes !a""in% the (eo("e to ita!!ordin% to =aram>in- did e"i!it tears,6.7 The rhetori! o$ en"i%htened auto!ra!# ("a#ed a 5e# ro"e in $ormu"atin% the !am(ai%n:s mission throu%h the mani$estoes, Catherine the Great had ("ed%ed that her rei%n &ou"d be mar5ed b# $ide"it# to the !ommon %ood throu%h a %rand "e%is"ati'e (roDe!t&hi!h ne'er &as $u""# !om("eted- but &hi!h she had intended as a means to estab"ish a $irm "e%a" $oundation $or the em(ire,6.G The Au%ust 80 670. mani$esto "i5e&ise !"aimed that the !ause o$ the B!ommon %oodC had be!ame an internationa" a$$air- and that the mi"itia &ou"d ta5e (art in "a#in% the $oundation $or (ea!e in Euro(e,6H0 An announ!ement $or readin% in !hur!hes a"so e4horted "isteners to (ra# $or the B%enera" %ood-C but it &as !ou!hed in nationa" terms2
Andrei <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla: literatura i $osudarstvennaia ideolo$iia v rossii v poslednei treti X:III)pervoi treti XIX veka - ?Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- /006@, 6.8,

Whitta5er- BRe$ormin% Tsar-C G/3G8, On the Petrine use o$ B%enera" deedC rhetori!- see N, ;, Riasano's5#- The Ima$e o! -eter the >reat in Russian History and Thou$ht ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79@ 93G,
169 170

-olnoe sobranie 4akonov rossiiskoi imperii- 'o", /G ?670.@ H06,


returnin% (ea!e to the ather"and,6H6 An aside to Western (ro'in!es in the No'ember 6. mani$esto re'ea"ed the %o'ernment:s &ariness to&ard its o&n out"#in% subDe!ts- &hose "o#a"t# needed re!on$irmation,
Our $aith$u" subDe!ts o$ the border re%ions- in our (resent !ir!umstan!es- &i"" es(e!ia""# hei%hten their e4er!ises o$ de'otion and >ea" $or %enera" %ood- and &i"" not be ro!5ed b# $ear- nor b# 'ain de"usions- and &i"" &ith $irmness tra'e" do&n that 'er# (ath- u(on &hi!h under the (rote!tion o$ "a&s and %ent"e ru"e the# unti" no& ha'e been met &ith tran)ui"it#- unbrea5ab"e inner nature ?sobst'ennost:@- and ha'e shared a (ortion o$ the %enera" &e"$are o$ the &ho"e em(ire,6H/

Common !ause rhetori! $ound an e!ho in (oeti! de$enses o$ en"i%htened monar!hism, Whi"e the tsar t#(i!a""# did not a((earindire!t re$eren!es to Russian heroism thre& the odists: (o"iti!a" 'a"ues into re"ie$, I'an Po(o' borro&ed the B%enera" deedC rhetori! in ho(in% that A"e4ander &ou"d restore a (o"iti!a" $rame&or5 to a"" the "ands ra'a%ed b# Na(o"eon- in!"udin% BLib#aC and BAsia-C an a((arent re$eren!e to s!enes o$ Na(o"eon:s ad'entures in 6HG73 6HGG,6H8 ;"adimir ;e":iamino'3<erno'- a #oun% "e%a" s!ho"ar at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# and !"ose $riend o$ Mer>"ia5o'- trans$ormed Na(o"eon into the o((osite o$ a"" the 'irtues o$ a %ood 5in%, BThere
N, =, Shi":der- Imperator le/ander -ervyi: e$o 4hi4n0 i tsarstvovanie ;o", /- ?St, Petersbur%2 A, Su'orin- 67GH367G7@ 891,
171 172

-olnoe sobranie 4akonov rossiiskoi imperii- 'o", /G ?670.@ 7..,

I'an Po(o'- Oda na sluchai vysochaisha$o +$o Imperatorska$o velichestva mani!esta, i4danna$o v$usta K( chisla L&'(BM ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- n,d,@- 7


honor and %"or# is destru!tion J !oura%eous s(irit is bitternessA J Per$id# is the hearts: !ommon dut#,C6H1 Na(o"eon- a!!ordin% to the (oem- ru"ed on"# &ith na5ed $or!e- and hen!e he ru"ed i""e%itimate"#2 &ithout "o'e o$ his subDe!ts, In !ontrast- ;e":iamino'3<erno':s (ositi'e idea" !ombined the traditiona" Petrine )ua"it# o$ a!ti'it# on beha"$ o$ the $ather"and &ith Catherinian "e%a" ambitions,
waen `^sbcg [jhn dcs\q^`Zxcgysr uaemhda ta[jdahn f^q^k zaq^g^p \mh\gc f^msZxcgE i\rhn s\xn [sa_^mhno ^`g^kS ?The 5in% shou"d be ma%nanimousor the 5in%dom:s sa5e $or%et his restA SubDe!t b# "a& to the truth Shinin% on"# in %oodness,6H9@

;e":iamino'3<erno':s ode on"# im("ied that the tsar embodied a"" the )ua"ities that Na(o"eon "a!5ed, The !oa"ition &ar odes $o!used "ess on the tsar than on the mora" )ua"ities o$ his subDe!ts and redire!ted their (ane%#ri! tone to&ard the nation, ;oei5o':s !a"" to arms in 'erse- BTo m# !om(atriots-C stressed the need $or the sons o$ the $ather"and to a!!om("ish the stabi"i>ation o$ Euro(e, The tsar mi%ht ha'e issued the summons- but ;oei5o' e4(e!ted (o(u"ar s(irit to da>>"e $orei%n !ountries,
{^mm\rgcS ga [^k qe^dadjk |a dmhec}Z fZsrp \ mpcehrpS

;, ;e":iamino'3<erno'- BOda na 'oinu-C :estnik +vropy 802/6 ?O!t 670.@2 80,
174 175

;e":iamino'3<erno'- BOda na 'oinu-C 86,


~mf^sg\p ^b\`ag\c mdchaya`\p •de^fc fe^}g^k p\eS ?To b"ood# batt"e- RussiansS Let us meet bu""ets and deathsS We &i"" $u"$i"" the &or"d:s e4(e!tationLet us %i'e Euro(e ba!5 her (ea!eS@6H.

Li5e&ise- the drama !riti! A"e5sandr A"e5sandro'i!h Pisare' !"aimed that A"e4ander had mere"# dire!ted the &arriors to the batt"e$ie"d so that the# !ou"d attain their o&n "aure"s,
€pecp \s\ f^[c`\pS •de^fa b`ch ^h gam ta•\hjE ick f^`d\_ heZ`gjk- tgapcg\hjk‚^gael f^`ƒrs `sr g^d^k msadjS ?We &i"" die or trium(hS Euro(e &aits $or de$ense $rom us E This i""ustrious- di$$i!u"t trium(h The Monar!h has raised u( $or ne& %"or#S@6HH

Attem(ts to de$ine nationa" 'a"ues dre& on an!ient "iterar# moti$s but &ith more modern nationa"isti! (riorities, Nothin% &as ne& about the !"aim that &arriors &ere %oin% to "ea'e behind $ami"#- &i$eand (ro(ert# to sa'e the "and, That sentiment in Russia tra!ed ba!5 at "east to the mi"itar# ta"e Cadonshchina- !ommemoratin% the Grand Prin!e Dmitrii Dons5oi:s batt"e a%ainst the Mon%o" "eader Mamai in 6870,6H7 Po(o'- ho&e'er- re!ast these duties in terms o$ a""e%ian!e
A"e5sandr ;oei5o'- B= moim so%ra>hdanam,C :estnik +vropy 862/ ?+an 670H@2 6/6,

A, Pisare'- BOt'et na sti5hi- so!heinenn#e na '#stu("enie 5or(usa %'ardii ' (o5hod $e'ra"ia 68- 61- 69- i 6. !his" 670H %oda,C :estnik +vropy 88260 ?Mar!h 670H@2 /H.,

Medieval Russia0s +pics, Chronicles, and Tales - edited b# Ser%e A, <en5o's5#- Re'ised ed, ?Ne& Ior52 Meridian- 6GH1@- /6/,


to the $ather"and- understood as an enormous $ami"# &ithout di'isions, An# &ounded so"dier &ou"d $ind his $ami"# in an# Russian 'i""a%e- Po(o' !"aimed, An# one &ho died on the batt"e$ie"d &ou"d be "u!5ier- $or his memor# &ou"d "i'e eterna""# amon% a"" the (eo("e, Po(o' e'en "isted an ordered set o$ 'irtues- to subordinate se"$3 interest to hi%her needs o$ the !ountr#2 honor- $aith- dut# to the tsarmembers o$ one:s tribe- e"ders- &i'es- !hi"dren- an!estors: ashesand on"# at the end- onese"$,6HG The odes re$"e!ted se"$3!ons!iousness- i$ not inse!urit#- about Russian (ro&ess and mi"itar# su(eriorit#, Man# (oems !"aimed that the ren!h &ou"d be sur(rised to see !oura%eous and (o&er$u" Russian so"diers, Po(o'- $or e4am("e- !"aimed that the Gau"s had $or%otten ho& the B%"orious S"a'i!3Russian ra!eC had su((osed"# o'er(o&ered them be$ore, BLet the Gau"s 5no& us on!e a%ain,C670 Mer>"ia5o' im(uted ren!h o'er!on$iden!e to their (reDudi!e that on"# !ertain heroes- "i5e the re!ent"#3de!eased Su'oro'- &ere &orth# o$ %reat honor, In !ontrast- Mer>"ia5o' asserted the e4isten!e o$ a nationa" s(irit- the "i5es o$ &hi!h &as be#ond ren!h ima%ination,
|^ hjmr}\ Z gam _ce^cd

I'an Po(o'- Oda na sluchai vysochaisha$o +$o Imperatorska$o velichestva mani!esta, i4danna$o Noibria &B dnia &'(B $oda ?Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- n,d,@- .3H,

Po(o'- Oda na sluchai vysochaisha$o +$o Imperatorska$o velichestva mani!esta, i4danna$o v$usta K( chisla L&'(BM- 7


••c cpZ f^`^[gjl cmhnA |^ hjmr}\ Zd\`\xn [^cdƒY`c d^t[s\mhach gaxa }cmhn, ?*ut &e sti"" ha'e thousands o$ heroes Who are simi"ar to him And #ou &i"" see thousands o$ batt"esWhere our honor shines $orth,@676

Sti""- this brash !on$iden!e &as o$ten !ou("ed &ith the (ossibi"it# that nationa" 'irtue had de!"ined and that the (resent %eneration had abro%ated its inheritan!e, =aram>in:s BSon% o$ the WarriorsC o(ened &ith a rhetori!a" )uestion o$ &hether the !urrent bat!h o$ &arriors !ou"d su$$i!ient"# (ro'ide an e4am("e $or (osterit#,67/ Po(u%ae':s BTo M# e""o&3Citi>ens-C a"so started &ith the $ear that i$ an!estra" s(irit had disa((eared- then Russia "i5e German# &ou"d $a"" to a $orei%n #o5e,678 Histori!a" (re!edents &ere the main materia" $or tr#in% to de$ine nationa" su(eriorit#, Man# instan!es anti!i(ated the most (o(u"ar histori!a" subDe!ts on sta%e2 "iberation $rom the Mon%o"s and $rom the Po"es, Po(u%ae' summed u( the s(irit o$ a %rand (rin!e- a tsar- and a nob"e into one an!estra" s(irit- needed $or the !urrent &ar,
"ochineniia 9 19 Mer4liakova- ;o", 6 ?Mos!o&2 obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei rossiis5oi s"o'esnosti- 67.H@ HG,

N, M, =aram>in- -olnoe sobranie stikhotvoreniia ?Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6G..@ /G7,
182 183

;asi"# Po(u%ae'- B= so%ra>hdanam-C in Russkie -rosvetiteli- 'o", 6- /70,


ijgj {^mm\kmq\cS ‚Zbakhcmn„e\pce^p fec`q^d dmfsapcgrkhcmn„a`ch ga`Zhjk m\s^k dea_SE y^gmq\p dea_^d hnpj eammjfas\mn „^baemq\\p {^mmj md^[^b`as\mn ~ „che f^dce_gZs ]aesa d feal, ?Russian sons- %ird #ourse"'es*e in$"amed &ith the an!estors: e4am("e The hau%ht# enem# &i"" $a"" throu%h $or!eS With Dons5oi thousands o$ the enemies &ere s!attered With Po>hars5ii the Russians &ere "iberatedAnd Peter thre& do&n Char"es NQIIO in the dust,@671

Po(o'- ho&e'er- !ited an e4("oit o$ the $ore$athers &hi!h &as more im(eria" than "iberatin%2 the Russian destru!tion o$ Po"and in the ei%hteenth3!entu# (artitions2
Y`c _^e`Z tecs Z g^_ …aexadZ ~ dmo iaepahmqZo ycebadZ za qe^dn †hu^d vd^\l ^hpmh\sS ?Where #ou sa& (roud Warsa& at #our $eet With the &ho"e Sarmatian state And a'en%ed $or the b"ood o$ Iour athersS@679

Mer>"ia5o' dre& $rom mu!h o"der traditions o$ !om(arin% Russia &ith an!ient Israe"- b# $ramin% its dut# to the an!estors in terms o$ the Hebre&s: !o'enant to $o""o& the "a& o$ God, His BOde $or Ne& Iear-C &ritten at the end o$ 6709- !on$"ated the histor# o$ the O"d Testament &ith Rus:3Russia, To des!ribe the mi"itar# tas5 be$ore him- Mer>"ia5o' re'erted to an ima%e $rom the boo5 o$ +/odus, He sa& a sa!red dut# !omin% $rom mountain hei%hts184

Po(u%ae'- B= so%ra>hdanam-C /76,

Po(o'- Oda na sluchai vysochaisha$o +$o Imperatorska$o velichestva mani!esta, i4danna$o Noibria &B dnia &'(B $oda- 1,


enshrouded in the !"oudsE(re!ise"# the !onditions under &hi!h Moses re!ei'ed the La& $or his (eo("e, The !o'enant that &ou"d insure their (rote!tion &as- simu"taneous"#- the maintenan!e o$ the an!estors: &a#s and the de"i'eran!e o$ Euro(e, Mer>"ia5o' admonished the so"diers to B%o $orth a!!ordin% to the (aths o$ truth-C b# endin% &ar$are and restorin% (ea!e to a"" Euro(ean 5in%doms,67. On"# Ga'rii" Der>ha'in $re)uent"# em("o#ed C"assi!a" re$eren!es in his odes- and e'en he dre& them ba!5 to nationa" e4am("es, In a !antata $or the batt"e o$ =rems ?a s"i%ht 'i!tor# $or the Russian rear%uard in Austria- No'ember 6709@- he !om(ared the ren!h Bhurri!anesC to the Russian *oreus- the o"d &ind o$ the North ?a t#(i!a" $i%ure in his ei%hteenth3!entur# mi"itar# odes@, His (oem BPerseus and AndromedaH !ast Euro(e as a ha("ess 'i!tim- !hained to an immense ro!5 be$ore a monster de'ours her, BShi'erin%- (a"ebare"# breathin%- ha"$3dead-C Andromeda !ries out $or a !oura%eous (o&er$u" hero to re$resh her sou" and BrestoreC (ea!e,67H <eushearin% her !r#- raises his s!e(ter- a si%n $or Perseus to des!end and destro# the dra%on in short order, At the end- Der>ha'in in$ormed the reader that the a""e%or# re$erred e4("i!it"# to the (ro(er !ourse o$


Mer>"ia5o'- "ochineniia- 7G,

Ga'rii" Romano'i!h Der>ha'in- BPersei i Andromeda-C in "ochineniiaedited b# Ia, =, Grot- 'o", / ?St, Petersbur%- 67.136778@- .68,


e'ents2 Euro(e:s sa"'ation $o""o&ed on"# a$ter the !a"" o$ the tsar,677 In an ode $or the de(arture o$ a Guards re%iment ?bet&een 68 and 6H ebruar# 670H@- Der>ha'in mi4ed in nationa" traditions, Ca""in% on the &arriors to a!!om("ish a deed &orth# o$ Peter the Great:s 'i!tor# o'er the S&edes at Po"ta'a in 6H0G- he "i5ened *er"in to a Lao!oonsoon to be stran%"ed b# ser(ents- and the so"diers themse"'es to A(o""o:s arro&s,67G As &ith -erseus- Der>ha'in !"aimed that the 'i!tories &ou"d "iberate and reDu'enate Euro(e, In the Guards odeho&e'er- he e)uated this ser'i!e on Euro(e:s beha"$ &ith Russian mi"itar# tradition,
Taq „che he^g feZmmq\k dtgcm ~ uaemhd d }ec`Z f^mhad\sA zgaq fcemh^p `as m gc[cm„eafeadgZq }h^[ \t[ad\s †h beZ•a_^ c_^ `eaq^ga?Thus Peter "i$ted u( the Prussian throne And ("a!ed the 5in%doms in their orderA He %a'e the si%n &ith a $in%er $rom the hea'ensthat his %reat3%randson shou"d de"i'er $rom the insatiab"e dra%on,@6G0

E'en as the ima%es o$ anti)uit# re!eded- the messa%e o$ Euro(ean sa"'ation throu%h Russian inter'ention remained !entra", Der>ha'in aside- most odists used C"assi!a" e4am("es on"# to


Der>ha'in- BPersei i Andromeda-C .6.,

Der>ha'in- BNa '#stu("enie 5or(usa %'ardii ' (o5hod-C in "ochineniia'o", /- ./H,
189 190



!"aim that the# had o'er!ome them, The !ontest &ith anti)uit# o!!u(ied the minds o$ German nationa"ists and Na(o"eon himse"$, German nationa"ists &ere ea%er to (ro'e that the# had "on% resisted Roman domination- $rom Hermann to (resent and had been ab"e to (reser'e a uni)ue nationa" !hara!ter,6G6 Na(o"eon- on the other handenDo#ed (ane%#ri!s that (raised his a!!om("ishments $or e4!eedin% those o$ anti)uit#, Ei%hteenth3!entur# Russian &riters had !om(ared their em(ire $a'orab"# to Rome6G/A hen!e the anti3Na(o"eoni! odists asserted su(eriorit# o'er it &ithout ne%atin% its 'a"ues, The# !ommon"# re$erred to the ren!hman as a BGau"-C that is- a barbarian o((onent o$ the em(ire, ;osto5o':s (oem B;ie& on Euro(eC ?:4$liad na evropu@ !om(ared the de!a# o$ !i'i"i>ations under Na(o"eon:s ru"e to those o$ Gree!e and Rome- &ho $e"" $rom too mu!h "u4ur# and (ro$"i%a!#,6G8 In an histori!a" 'i%nette $or Herald o! +urope- =aram>in had introdu!ed the idea that the S"a's had !on)uered BRome-C &hen an!ient S"a'i! &arriors demanded tribute $rom Constantino("e, =aram>in dre& an e4("i!it (i!ture o$ Russia out"astin% Rome,

See +ohnston on i!hte- Myth o! a Nation- /931..

Ste(hen Lessin% *aehr- B rom Histor# to Nationa" M#th2 Trans"atio Im(erii in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russia,C Russian Revie# 8H26 ?+an 6GH7@2 63 68,
192 193

;osto5o'- "tikhotvorenie- 67H367G,


vj gap `cetacxn Z_e^bahnL |^ e\psrg mheaxgjl sc_\^gj ‚^_s\ sn `ahn icdceZ taq^gjL „^sZg^•n cmhn _ce^cd pahn2 {\p fas- \l pjxuck m^qeZxcggjk

Iou dare to threaten usL *ut "e%ions o$ terrib"e Romans Can the# %i'e "a&s to the NorthL The North is the mother o$ heroes2 Rome $e""- its mus!"e destro#ed,6G1

E'en in a dire!t o((osition o$ Russia and Rome- the nationa" 'irtue !onsisted in the $a!t that its (ermanen!e &as more so"id than its (rede!essor, An anon#mous (am(h"et- entit"ed :oice o! a Noun$ Russian!ombined Russia:s su(erior nature &ith its &arriors: imitation o$ (re'ious nationa" heroes, The author dre& (ara""e"s bet&een his (eo("e and the an!ient Romans but on"# su(er$i!ia""#, BWe- "i5e to them- (ossess the sa!red dut# to de$end the $ather"and-C the author !"aimed &hen e4aminin% the t&o (eo("e:s res(onse to the ru"er:s !a"", He sa& (ara""e"s amon% the Russian mothers and their Roman !ounter(arts- $or both sent sons o$$ to &ar $or the ather"and, Un"i5e the Romans- ho&e'er- Russians did not see5 &or"d"# $ameA the# had a"&a#s been !ontent to $u"$i"" the tsar3$ather:s !a""in%, BRussians ne'er ha'e (rodu!ed their mi%ht# 'i!tories &ith the intention o$

N, M, =aram>in- -olnoe sobranie stikhotvorenie- ?Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6G..@ /GG,


da>>"in% the uni'erse- but on"# in order to $u"$i"" the sa!red dut# o$ the sons o$ the ather"and,C6G9 Their humi"it# &as a"so mat!hed b# the mu!h %rander s!a"e o$ o(erations, Sin!e the tas5 had been $u"$i""ed o'er and o'er b# %enerations o$ Russians- the# $e"t a Bsa!red dut#C to&ard the tsar &hi!h a""o&ed them to !"aim 'i!tories that &ou"d ha'e been im(ossib"e $or anti)uit#, The tsar:s abi"it# to uni$# the (eo("e %a'e them su(erhuman stren%th and unmat!hab"e !oura%e- as !ou"d be seen in the 6870 batt"e o$ Dmitrii Dons5oi&hi!h the author assumed to be a batt"e o$ three times as man# Mon%o"s as Russians,6G. The Russians &ere truer sons o$ the ather"and &ith a stron%er tradition- %uaranteed b# their auto!rat, %istorical &ragedy: 'alori(ing the !ommon !ause The turn to anti)uit# in odes thus buttressed the !"aim o$ !u"tura" su(eriorit# that had arisen out o$ ei%hteenth3!entur# nationa" !ons!iousness, The usab"e (ast $or the odists a((eared most"# as a series o$ (eo("e subDe!t to both the monar!h and the !ommon !ause&hose $ide"it# made them the shinin% e4am("e $or other (eo("es, The
>las iuna$o rossiianina k sootechestvennikam svoim po sluchaiu vysochaisha$o mani!esta o vooru4henii vremenno$o voiska, ili militsii , ?Mos!o&2 %uberns5aia ti(o%ra$iia A, Reshetni5o'a- 670.@ 8,

>las iuna$o rossiianina- 8, This &as the $irst batt"e in &hi!h the Russian $or!es s!ored a de!isi'e 'i!tor# o'er the Go"den Horde- &hi!h had ru"ed the Rus: territories sin!e the Mon%o" in'asion in the mid3thirteenth !entur#, It &as not the end o$ the Horde:s ru"e- ho&e'er- as the in'asion o$ Mos!o& b# To5htiamash t&o #ears "ater made !"ear, Ne'erthe"ess- its si%ni$i!an!e "a# in the $a!t that the Horde could be beaten,


theme o$ the !ommon %ood &as a"so abundant in the ("ots o$ histori!a" drama and !ontributed to the su!!ess o$ other&ise $or%otten &or5s, On the Russian sta%e- t&o Btra%ediesC resonated &ith audien!es as dire!t !ommentaries u(on the intense stru%%"e &ith the ren!h, The# re("a#ed s!enes o$ mobi"i>in% dis!ordant Russians into a nationa" &ho"e to sa'e the nation, ;"adis"a' O>ero':s 6mitrii 6onskoi o(ened &ith a Russian !oun!i" stru%%"in% a%ains interna" di'isions to o'erthro& Mon%o" o'er"ordshi( $rom 6870, A ("a# &ritten in res(onse to O>ero'- Mat'ei =riu5o's5ii:s -o4harskii&.,de(i!ted the nationa" "iberation mo'ement o$ 6.6/36.68- $rom the Po"es instead o$ the Mon%o"s, The &ho"e e(isode !onstituted (art o$ an interre%na" (eriod 5no&n as the "muta?Time o$ Troub"es@bet&een Riuri5id and Romano' d#nasties ?69G736.68@- at the !on!"usion o$ &hi!h a Tsar Mi5hai" Romano' &as e"e!ted to the throne, Audien!es inter(reted these t&o ("a#s throu%h the (rism o$ &ar- be!ause the re"ationshi( o$ (ast subDe!ts to (resent &as trans(arent"# a""usi'e, The (remiere o$ O>ero':s 6mitrii 6onskoi !aused (andemonium amon% the audien!e e'en be$ore the !urtain "i$ted, 6onskoi (remiered 61 +anuar# 670H- Dust be$ore the batt"e o$
A!tua""# Po>hars5oi in the ori%ina"- but I ha'e modi$ied the endin% $or sim("i!it#,


Preussi!h3E#"au- &hi!h re'i'ed (ub"i! !on$iden!e that the# !ou"d snat!h Na(o"eon:s "aure"s,6G7 A!!ordin% to the student Ste(an <hi5hare'- ne&s o$ a (atrioti! ("a# had been !ir!u"atin% $or t&o &ee5s- and the o(enin%3ni%ht audien!e &as ra(turous2
At !ertain moments the audien!e be!ame so tense- no one dared to mo'e $or $ear o$ missin% a sin%"e &ordA but &hen the $o""o&in% "ine &as heard2 BIt is no& time to (a# ba!5 the enemies-C su!h $urious a(("ause- s!reams and !"atter sudden"# eru(ted that Nthe a!torO Ia5o'"e' &as $or!ed to sto(, This noise !ontinued $or $i'e minutesbut did not die do&n $or "on%, Hard"# !ou"d Dmitrii ans&er *e"o>ers5ii- &ho a"" a"on% had been ad'o!atin% (ea!e &ith the Tatars- &ith the $o""o&in% &ords2 BAhS It:s better to die in batt"e- than to a!!e(t (ea!e &ithout honorC then sti"" %reater noise eru(ted, 6GG

The audien!e )uite !"ear"# inter(reted histori!a" drama as a !ommentar# u(on !urrent e'ents,/00 O>ero':s dedi!ation to the tsar a"so indi!ated that he intended to dra& an ana"o%# bet&een 6870 and 670H, BHa'in% de$eated arro%ant Mamai on the $ie"ds near the Don- Dmitrii "aid the $oundation $or the "iberation o$ Russia $rom the

, , ;i%e":- Capiski- ;o", 6 ?Mos!o&2 Arte": (isate"ei =ru%- 6G/7@ /H.,

Tuoted in Mar5 G, Pomar- Russian Historical 6rama o! the +arly Nineteenth Century ?Ph, D, Dissertation2 Co"umbia- 6GH7@2 7H,

Russian histori!a" ("a#&ri%hts !ou"d use asso!iations o$ (ast !hara!ters &ith the (resent to a'oid !ensorshiAndrei <orin has su%%ested that the $i%ure o$ a U5rainian traitor in ("a#s about the 6.6/ nationa" "iberation mo'ement (ointed to undue (o"iti!a" in$"uen!e o$ the Po"ish (rin!e Adam C>artors#5i- a $ormer member o$ A"e4ander:s BUno$$i!ia" CommitteeC and Minister o$ orei%n A$$airs unti" 670., In a simi"ar 'ein- (ost3Ti"sit o(eras and ("a#s de(i!ted the tsar:s a!!ord &ith ran!e in the $orm o$ a (rota%onist &ho dea"s $or a shame$u" (ea!e and needs a stron% &omanE re(resentin% the tsar:s sister E5aterina Pa'"o'naEto return him to the (ro(er !ourse $or the $ather"and, <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- 6HH on C>artor#s5i- and //H3//7 on E5aterina Pa'"o'na,


Tatar #o5e, Iour im(eria" maDest# has a&a5ened the Russians: !oura%e $or the de$ense o$ the $reedom o$ Euro(e:s (o&ers,C/06 In 6mitrii 6onskoi- (ersona" di'isions &ithin the Russian !am( $rustrate the nationa" e$$ort, The ("a# &as "oose"# based on the e'ents surroundin% the Don ri'er batt"e- &hen Prin!e Dmitrii o$ Mos!o& en!ountered resistan!e $rom other (rin!es- in!"udin% $rom the im(ortant trade !enter- No'%orod, In the ("a#- ho&e'er- Dmitrii:s "o'e interest sti$"es the mi"itar# !am(ai%n, His be"o'ed Qenia is betrothed to the Prin!e o$ T'er:, Dmitrii de"a#s batt"e &hi"e he see5s to re!"aim QeniaEto "itt"e a'ai", Qenia too !auses disru(tions amon% the Russian $or!es, When she re$uses her $ather:s &ishes ?to marr# the Prin!e o$ T'er:@- her demand $or $reedom %i'es Dmitrii:s so"diers the idea that the# a"so need not ser'e their ru"er- e'en thou%h Dmitrii is Russian, ina""#- Qenia !edes herse"$ ba!5 to the Prin!e o$ T'er: to he"( restore unit# amon% the ran5s, The Prin!e o$ T'er:Bheedin% the 'oi!e o$ Russia J *e$ore the Con)ueror o$ ero!ious Mamai-C in turn re"in)uishes his !"aim on Qenia a$ter Dmitrii (ro'es his 'a"or,/0/ A"thou%h Dmitrii:s a!tions im(eri"ed the !ommon !ause;, A, O>ero'- BDmitrii Dons5oi, Tra%ediia ' (iati deist'iia5h,C in "ocheniniia :9 9 O4erova, ;o", /, ?St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5oi teatr676.@ !o'er (a%e,

;, A, O>ero'- BDmitrii Dons5oi, Tra%ediia ' (iati deist'iia5h,C in "ocheniniia :9 9 O4erova, ;o", /, ?St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5oi teatr676.@ H7,


he emer%es as a nationa" hero, *# %rantin% both Qenia and 'i!tor# to the hero- 6onskoi:s ("ot thus modi$ied the C"assi! !on'ention in tra%ed# &hi!h (itted "o'e a%ainst dut#,/08 6onskoi a"so !ontained histori!a" a""usions that tried to de$ine the uni)ue nature o$ the Russian !am(ai%n, These re$eren!es a((eared in the &ords o$ Dmitrii:s arms3bearer- Mi5hai" *rens5ii, In the $irst a!t- *rens5ii tied the !urrent !"ash to the reDu'enation o$ the ori%ina" (re3Mon%o" !i'i"i>ation o$ Rus: $ounded b# the Riuri5id d#nast#,
~ haq d ^hdcethjk _e^[ p^o mqs^grr `ecdg^mhn„^}\o•\p ^huap p^_Z ga`cb`Z gcmhn‡h^ d^tmhag^d\hmr mheagj {^mm\mq^k }cmhn‡h^ d^tdeah\hmr cr p^_Z•cmhd^ \ msadaS † hcgn …sa`\p\eaS ~ hjS vcgn ˆe^msadaS ?And thus dra&in% m# an!ient #ears to&ard the o(en %ra'eI ma# ha'e the ho(e to brin% to the 'enerab"e $athersThe honor to ha'e rehabi"itated the Russian "andTo ha'e returned her (o&er and %"or#S O shado& o$ ;"adimir- and #ou- shado& o$ Iaros"a'S@/01

He !om(ared the a!ti'it# o$ !ontem(orar# Mos!o& (rin!es: a!tions &ith an!ient ;"adimir- !"aimin% that a"" had !ombined dis(arate tribes into one state,/09 Other a""usions to an!estors hear5ened ba!5 to the an!ient Israe"ites- a (eo("e &ith &hom Russian !hroni!"ers o$ten
Pomar- Russian Historical 6rama- 6/6, O>ero'- BDmitrii Dons5oi-C 8, O>ero'- BDmitrii Dons5oi-C 68,





dre& (ara""e"s, In (ra#er be$ore batt"e- Dmitrii as5s $or the stren%th to !rush the Ne& Go"iath,/0. In s!ene $our- a$ter ha'in% in$ormed the =han:s ambassador o$ his intentions to %o to &ar- Dmitrii identi$ies the tas5 o$ restorin% the (ast o$ the $ather"and &ith the medie'a" notion that the Russian nation- "i5e An!ient Israe"- (ossessed a s(e!ia" re"ationshi( &ith God &hi!h %ranted it (rote!tion,
ygcmn p•cgnc fec`mh^\hA ga_ea`^o- md^[^`a |a`cb`^o dceg^o- ‰^_ qecf^mh\ \ m\s‡ck `Zl ~teas\r d fZmhjgc fecd^`\s ~ [js qh^ gcq^_`a f^[^eg\q ‚aqqadco, ?No& 'en%ean!e a&aitsA &ith $reedom as its re&ardA With $aith$u" ho(e- the God o$ (o&er and mi%htWhose s(irit %uided Israe" throu%h the desert And &as on!e the (artisan o$ N+udasO Ma!!abeus,@/0H

Hen!e &hi"e 6onskoi sho&ed that "o'e and dut# !ou"d both trium(h in the ser'i!e o$ nationa" unit#- it a"so insinuated that the Russian e$$ort (ossessed a nationa" and sa!red meanin% be#ond the t#(i!a" !on$"i!ts o$ C"assi! drama, 6onskoi ener%i>ed audien!es and the (ub"i!- as <hi5hare' made !"ear- but its ambi%uities about tradition a"so %enerated rea!tion, O>ero' used Bsa"onC "an%ua%e2 smoothin% out s#nta4 and a""o&in% )uestions and ans&ers &ithin a sin%"e "ine o$ 'erse,/07 His

O>ero'- BDmitrii Dons5oi-C 96, O>ero'- BDmitrii Dons5oi-C 6/368,


On O>ero':s drama and sentimenta"ism- see Pomar- Russian Historical 6rama- 60G36/1


tone &ou"d ha'e dra&n !riti!ism $rom !onser'ati'e "iterar# $i%ures an#&a#- but Admira" Shish5o' and his $riends &ere more u(set at 6onskoi0s "a!5 o$ histori!it#, or instan!e- Der>ha'in ridi!u"ed the notion that Qenia !ou"d ha'e &a"5ed $ree"# amon% the &arrior !am(s &hen "oo5in% $or Dmitrii,/0G Shish5o' $e"t ir5ed that in !hur!h- Dons5oi &as entran!ed more b# his be"o'ed:s e#es than the re"i!s o$ his $ore$athers,/60 On a dee(er "e'e"- the ambi%uities about duties to&ard the an!estors seemed to some to tarnish the !on!e(t o$ the %enera" %ood in $a'or o$ (ri'ate interest, Der>ha'in !"aimed that i$ O>ero' had remained true to ?C"assi!a"@ art (rin!i("es- Dons5oi shou"d ha'e sim("# reDe!ted Qenia to de$end the $ather"and, Dra%%in% the "o'e stor# on $or $our a!ts im("ied that the end o$ the Mon%o" o!!u(ation &as !ontin%ent on the arbitrar# im(u"si'eness o$ a man in "o'e, Der>ha'in himse"$ tried to !om(ose histori!a" dramas to !orre!t O>ero':s mista5es- but the St, Petersbur% Re(ertoire Dire!tor $e"t re"u!tant to sta%e them,/66 A mu!h more em(hati! a$$irmation o$ the !ommon %ood $e"" to Mat'ei I'ano'i!h =riu5o's5ii, =riu5o's5ii &as a !ontem(orar# o$ O>ero', The# had both re!ei'ed their (rimar# edu!ation at the In$antr# Cadet Cor(us s!hoo"209

M, A, Gordin- :ladislav O4erov, ?St, Petersbur%2 Iss5ust'o- 6GG6@ 618 Mar5 G, A":tshu""er( B;"aids"a' A"e5sandro'i!h O>ero'-C in 6<% &*(- /.G, Gordin- :ladislav O4erov- 618369.




and the# sta#ed near Petersbur% u( to the Coa"ition Wars, Ironi!a""#both o$ their ta"ents (ea5ed &hen their histori!a" dramas &ere most (o(u"ar2 $rom the announ!ement o$ the mi"itia to the (ea!e o$ Ti"sit, Thou%h he &as a$$i"iated &ith the !onser'ati'es around Der>ha'in and Shish5o'- =riu5o's5ii a"so had ties &ith the other &in% o$ en"i%htened monar!hists at the ree So!iet# and sta#ed o!!asiona""# at A"e4is O"enin:s Priiutino %eta&a#, As a trans"ator $or Tsar A"e4ander:s Commission on the Estab"ishment o$ La&s- he be!ame $riends &ith ;asi"ii Po(u%ae'- &ho &as a"so interested in the 6.6/ theme, A"thou%h Po(u%ae':s ("a# has not sur'i'ed- ree So!iet# re!ords indi!ate that he !om(osed a drama !a""ed -o4harskii0s Campai$n- ?-okhod -o4harska$o@ bet&een 670836701,/6/ Ho&e'er (o(u"ar the subDe!t in the (re&ar #ears- =riu5o's5ii be%an &or5 on his ("a# on"# a$ter seein% O>ero', -o4harskii &as sta%ed on Ma# // 670H- the $irst maDor (rodu!tion on the "muta a$ter Mi5hai" =heras5o':s <iberated Mosco# ?Osvobo4hdennaia Moskva- (ub"ished 6HG7@ and &ith a $undamenta""# di$$erent messa%e about the nationa" !hara!ter o$ o$ 6.6/, Whereas =heras5o' 'ie&ed the nationa" "iberation mo'ement main"# as a union o$ (rin!es- =riu5o's5ii sa& it as the e$$ort o$ a
On the ("a# and =riu5o's5ii:s !haritab"e a!ti'it# in the %rou(- see L, I, Gite":man- B:;o":noe obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei s"o'esnosti nau5 i 5hudo>hest': i teatr,C Teatral0noe nasledstvo ?6G9.@2 /H3/7,


nationa" &ho"e ?a"beit &ith !"ass di'isions@,/68 The threats to the !ommon !ause sti"" !ame $rom &ithin the Russian ran5s- but $rom a di$$erent nationa"it#, In 6.66- be$ore the su!!ess$u" "iberation mo'ement- a mi"itia had $ormed and soon $ai"ed- in (art be!ause o$ di'ision amon% the hetero%eneous %rou(s- in!"udin% Cossa!5s, =riu5o's5ii used a Cossa!5 Ataman- <aruts5ii- as the (rin!i(a" 'i""ain &ho endea'ored to sti$"e Po>hars5ii b# $or!in% him to !hoose bet&een his $ami"# and his nationa" dut#, This !on$"i!t ne'er be!ame e4treme- ho&e'er- be!ause nationa" interest !om("ete"# su(("anted (ersona" desire in =riu5o's5ii:s ("a#,/61 When Prin!e Po>hars5ii dis!o'ers that his $ami"# is bein% he"d !a(ti'e to (re'ent him $rom de$endin% Mos!o&- he sim("# dismisses the o(tion o$ res!uin% them and $i%hts $or the !it# instead,/69 When he a((ears in a!t one- Po>hars5ii is sin%in% about "o'e $or the $ather"and and the need to restore its &e"$are, The Se!ond a!t o(ens &ith Po>hars5ii:s interna" state- but his thou%hts are a"" dire!ted to the !ommon %ood, He ruminates on the 'a"ue o$ his an!estors: %ra'es and on his res(e!t $or the throne, He ar%ues

<orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- 6H9,

Mar5 G, Pomar- Russian Historical 6rama o! the +arly Nineteenth Century ?Ph, D, Dissertation2 Co"umbia- 6GH7@- 6/G,

Pomar- Russian Historical 6rama o! the +arly Nineteenth Century - 6/G3 680,


&ith <aruts5ii that a !it# &ou"d be better in ashes that bent under a $orei%n #o5e- $or then it &ou"d "i'e in the b"essed memor# o$ the (eo("e, His &i$e (ossesses the same stoi! !hara!ter- as !an be seen &hen she instru!ts her son to (ut the $ather"and abo'e (ersona" interest in terms a"most identi!a" to Po>hars5ii, E'en the $i%ure o$ Mos!o&- in Po>hars5ii:s &ords- !onstituted on"# a (art o$ the nationdra&n in unit# b# ser'i!e- e'en &hen no tsar &as (resent,
{^mm\r- gc d ‚^mqdc- mec`\ mjg^d ^ga ]^h^ejl dcega _eZ`n so[^dno q gck f^sgaS |c h^h {^mm\rg\g- qh^ msadZ ta[jdach~ _^e`^c }cs^ f^` \_^ fecqs^grch~ ferp^ {Zmmq^k h^h- qh^ \t `asngckx\l mheag ifcxn f^` waemq\k mhr_- d gax eah^[^egjk mhag, ?Russia is not in Mos!o&- she:s amon% her sonsWhose $aith$u" heart is $i""ed &ith "o'e $or herS That man is not a Russian- &ho $or%ets %"or#And droo(s his (roud bro& under a #o5e*ut the sin!ere Russian is the one- &ho $rom most3distant re%ions Hastens to the Tsar:s banner- in our &arrin% !am(,@/6.

=riu5o's5ii:s ("a#- "i5e the other 'ersions o$ 6.6/ amon% the more !onser'ati'e St, Petersbur% &riters- in!"uded a s!ene &ith no histori!a" (re!edent and o$ immense si%ni$i!an!e in "i%ht o$ the aestheti!s o$ Na(o"eoni! ran!e, C"assi!a" art $or Na(o"eon (reser'ed the !entra"it# on!e reser'ed $or a ro#a" $i%ure- but a""o&ed ima%es o$ a hero &ho rose $rom "o& birth or throu%h merit to o!!u(# the

Mat'ei =riu5o's5oi- -o4harskoi9 Tra$ediia v trekh deistviiakh, ?St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5ii teatr- 670H@ H,


(osition,/6H In a !om("ete re'ersa" o$ the Na(o"eoni! (re$eren!e=riu5o's5ii:s ("a# !on!"uded &hen the hero- &ho is o$$ered a throne ?"i5e Na(o"eon@- de!"ines it out o$ dut# to the nationa" interest, Andrei <orin has ar%ued that no !ontem(orar# sour!es e'er su%%ested that Po>hars5ii had been a&arded the throne, The situation- in <orin:s ana"#sis- &as "i5e"# in'ented b# Der>ha'in- deri'ed either $rom $o"5son%s or $rom the mode" o$ the *#>antine %enera" *e"isarius,/67 Whate'er the ori%ins o$ the !ontri'ed s!ene- it %a'e a !on!rete d#nasti! $orm to the odists: insisten!e on "e%itimate- "a&$u" ru"e, In -o4harskii- a"" a!tion (ro%ressed strai%ht to&ard "iberation throu%h untainted (ositi'e heroism,/6G As a resu"t- the end !arries out (er$e!t"# &hat Po>hars5ii san% o$ in the o(enin% s!enes2 BIt:s time to return to us our sto"en ?pokhishchenno@ %ood,C A$ter Po>hars5ii at the end re$uses to a!!e(t the throne and thereb# be!ome a thie$ ?khishchnik@- he !hara!teri>ed the Time o$ Troub"es as a minor detour sent b# God to a!!om("ish the do&n$a"" o$ an un"a&$u"
A"bert *oime- rt in the $e o! %onapartism, &'(()&'&*, ?Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o- 6GG0@ 44', As a re&ard $or -o4harskii, the tsar (ro'ided =riu5o's5ii &ith an# $a'or he &anted- so he !hose to $inish his stud# in Paris- &hen!e he "e$t in 670736760, Assumin% that the desire to s(end time there had (redated -o4harskoi and that he &as in tou!h &ith Euro(ean dramati! and artisti! !urrents- =riu5o's5ii &ou"d ha'e been a!)uainted &ith this trend,
217 218

<orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- 671367., See Pomar- Russian Histori!a" Drama- (, 6/G!!,



o((onent, In other &ords- =riu5o's5ii:s messa%e !on$irmed that a nationa" hero- ho&e'er %reat- !ou"d not earn the throne,
{Zq^o daxco q\}s\djl m^qeZx\s, †g f^fZmqach tsjl p_g^dcgg^ d^tdjxcg\c ‡h^[j Zbamgcc m^`csahn \l fa`cg\c2 ]aq `jp- m s\ua tcps\ \t}ctgch \l m^dch~ he^ga l\•g\q d feal fcec` waecp fa`ch, ?*# #our hand He NGodO destro#ed the hau%ht#, He a""o&ed the momentar# e"e'ation o$ the &i!5edTo ma5e their do&n$a"" a"" the more horri$i!2 Their !oun!i" &i"" 'anish "i5e smo5e $rom the earth:s sur$a!eAnd the thie$:s throne &i"" $a"" in the dust be$ore the tsar,@ //0

Po>hars5ii:s reDe!tion asserted his o&n su(eriorit# as the hi%hest embodiment o$ ser'i!e to the !ommon %ood, Wor5in% &ith standard de'i!es and themes that had been borro&ed $rom Euro(e in the En"i%htenment- =riu5o's5ii $ound a &a# to !ombine heroism and se"$3 sa!ri$i!e in a $i%ure &ho !ou"d not be re("i!ated in an# other !ountr# and the essen!e o$ &hose a!tion &as to de$end the "a&$u" tsar, Contem(oraries: inter(retations o$ Po>hars5ii re$"e!ted a ne&$ound !ons!iousness o$ nationa" su(eriorit#, As Ga'rii" Der>ha'in e4("ained to the reader be$ore his mu!h "ess su!!ess$u" o(era -o4harskii ?670.@- the nationa" heroes e4em("i$ied the Ban!estor:s &a#sC b# (ortra#in% ma%ni$i!ent"# the best )ua"ities o$ a"" human bein%s, BWhen Minin- out o$ in$"amed >ea" $or his $ather"and- $or its de"i'eran!e $rom $orei%ners- brou%ht a"" his (ro(ert# in sa!ri$i!e- &ith the e4am("e o$ his trium(h to the 'er# same (eo("e b# ha'in%

=riu5o's5oi- -o4harskoi- 8.,


ad'ised it to !hoose Po>hars5ii as its "eaderEthen ho& !ou"d it be (resented other&ise than as the ardent- $irm s(irit o$ a man- &orth# in a"" times o$ res(e!t and astonishment,C//6 Li5e&ise- he (raised (rin!e Po>hars5ii $or bein% stron%er than the !ustoms o$ his o&n time and as5ed2 &as Po>hars5ii not a Ba hero o$ the hi%hest de%ree- a most 'irtuous man- %reat- o$ the 5ind that histor# rare"# (resentsULC/// The Mos!o& dramatist Ser%ei G"in5a "ater mused in his Dourna"- the Russian Herald, BIn &hat Euro(ean !ountr# did the heroes- sa'iors o$ the ather"and- ha'in% reDe!ted &reaths and (or(h#r#- entrust them to the "a&$u" heir o$ their ru"ersLC//8 !omedies: "ncestral )nheritance and Su*erior Manners

A(art $rom the serious tra%edies &ith ha((# endin%s- the !"ashes &ith Na(o"eon rene&ed the ei%hteenth3!entur# dramati! tradition o$ mo!5in% Ga""o(hi"i! $e""o&3!ountr#men, The !omi! atta!5 !ontinued in the ("a#s o$ the reno&ned $ab"e3&riter I'an =r#"o'&hose (rodu!tions &ere sta%ed b# A"e4ander Sha5ho's5oi- a $riend"# dramatist o$ simi"ar taste, =r#"o':s $irst satire- -ie ?-iro$@- &as &ritten in 6HGG36706 and a((eared on sta%e in 670/, He $o""o&ed it u( in

Der>ha'in- "ochineniia- 'o", I;- 68/, Der>ha'in- "ochineniia- 'o", I;- 686, BM#s"i (ro sebia-C Ruskoi :estnik 628 ?Mar 6707@2 /99,




670. &ith the 'er# (o(u"ar 1ashion "hop ?Modnaia lavka@- and a $ina" hit <esson !or 6au$hters ?8rok dochkam- 670H@- &hi!h di$$ered

$rom its Mo"iVrean (re!edent b# atta!5in% ren!h do"ts instead o$ a di$$erent "iterar# s!hoo", The sta%e mana%er Sha5ho's5oi a"so too5 to the sta%e in 6701, His ("a# -er!idy ?;ovarnyi@ (ortra#ed ren!h in$"uen!e &ithin the $ami"# as in!itin% treasonous sentiments,//1 *oth o$ these artists in "ater #ears Doined Shish5o':s Co""o)uium, The Coa"ition Wars and the $"urr# o$ interest in (ast heroes a""o&ed !omedi! ("a#&ri%hts to brin% Russian !hara!ters into re"ie$, *oth I'an <a5haro' and edor I'ano' &rote minor ("a#s that (ortra#ed (ositi'e Russians de$eatin% ren!h &i"es- e'en thou%h their di$$erent !"ass (ers(e!ti'es !o"ored the nature o$ the !ommon !ause, <a5haro'- an ar!haist (artisan o$ Shish5o'- Senator- and &ea"th# "ando&ner "ater !haired one o$ the di'isions o$ the Co""o)uium, His 6eportation o! the 1rench ?:ysylka !rantsu4ov@ a""uded to a /7 No'ember 670. order that de(orted a"" the ren!h &ho &ou"d not a!!e(t subDe!t status, rom that (oint- ren!hmen needed s(e!ia" entr# (ass(orts- thou%h tea!hers &ere a""o&ed e4!e(tions,//9 I'ano'- son o$ a (oor so"dier &ith no substantia"


A":tshu""er- -redtechi slaviano!il0stva- 68H3619,

A, Ga"a5ho'- BRuss5aia (atrioti!hes5aia "iteratura- 67093676/ %%,C 1ilolo$icheskie 4apiski ;#(, 6 ?67.H@2 6/,


inheritan!e- &or5ed in the !i'i" ser'i!e so that he !ou"d be!ome a re%u"ar theater3%oer and ma5e a!)uaintan!e &ith the best Mos!o& a!tors, Thou%h <a5haro' and I'ano' &ere (art o$ the same e"ite "iterar# &or"d- the# both !onsidered imitation o$ $orei%n &a#s (rimari"# a (rob"em amon% the nobi"it#, In <a5haro':s 6eportation- a ma"e'o"ent residentia" tutor Monsieur Poisoner attem(ts to (er'ert a #oun% Russian son &ith a !urri!u"um that in!"uded !orres(ondents o$ Catherine the Great2 ;o"taire- D:A"embert- He"'etius- and Diderot, <a5haro' subt"# asso!iated the ren!h admirer o$ the philosophes &ith the de'i" and- (resumab"#- demoni! +a!obin !ons(ira!ies, At the start o$ the ("a#- Poisoner ridi!u"es Russians $or bein% as barbari! as the# are i%norant and ruminates on his tas5 $or the $ather"and as a &i!5ed sa!red dut#2
Ha'in% been destined $rom #outh to ser'e at the a"tars o$ the %od o$ the &or"d N'i>, SatanE+,C,O- I !annot &ie"d a s&ordA but &ith edu!atin% o$ the "ast !entur#:s most su(er"ati'e (hi"oso(hers in se!ondar# s!hoo"sE&ith this &ea(on ?dis("a#s his (en@ I &i"" stri5e #our NSatan:sO enemies,//.

E'en thou%h his thou%hts o$ten $o!us on the !on$"i!t bet&een Russia and ran!e- Poisoner:s a!tions a"most a"" attend to the a!)uisition o$ &ea"th, Cons!ious o$ his o&n en'# $or Russian &ea"th and (ros(erit#- Poisoner ("ans to se"" to a ren!h boo5se""er the stor#
A!t I- S!ene 6, I, S, <a5haro'- :ysylka 1rantsu4ov ?St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'- 670H@- 6,


o$ his de!e(tions in Russia, A$ter the %ood "ando&ner Dob"estin $or!es Poisoner to remo'e the Bso(histsC $rom the !urri!u"um- the tutor re'erts to baser moti'es, Poisoner te""s his (u(i" that his inner nature ?samobytnost0@ is indi'idua" $reedom and that to be honorab"e- he shou"d $o""o& his o&n desires e'en at the e4(ense o$ his $ather:s &ishes, On the one hand- this strata%em im("ied se4ua" de'ian!#A Poisoner en!oura%ed the son to ta5e ad'anta%e o$ his %o'erness:s enti!in% dau%hter, On the other hand- Poisoner $ashions the son:s dut# to&ard himse"$ in terms o$ &astin% his $ather:s &ea"th, The ren!h tea!her tri!5s him into bu#in% .00-000 rub"es &orth o$ Dun52 (aintin%s $rom Kthe a"most Ita"ian s!hoo"-C $a5e $"o&ers- and "adies: shoes inter alia,//H *# $o""o&in% Poisoner:s (res!ri(tions $or $reedom- the son be!omes obsessed &ith a!!umu"ation be#ond his means- sin!e he !annot (a# $or the rubbish, Whi"e the son remained he"("ess and be$udd"ed throu%hout the ("a#- <a5haro' mana%es to idea"i>e the rura" !ountr#side b# means o$ other (ositi'e !hara!ters, The %o'ernment ("a#s a !entra" (art in endin% Poisoner:s ("ans2 a "o!a" bureau!rat arrests Poisoner:s !o""aborators $or not ha'in% (aid duties on their su((osed"# e4(ensi'e rubbish, The %ood "ando&ner &ho th&arted Poisoner:s edu!ationa" !urri!u"um de!ides at the end o$ his ("a# to (ut his

A!t II- S!ene ., I, S, <a5haro'- :ysylka 1rantsu4ov, 81389,


mone# into Russian edu!ation, Then- in a t#(i!a" unmas5in% de'i!e//7- the %o'erness:s dau%hter in the end &as re'ea"ed to be a Russian %ir" ?surname Goodmora"s@- &hose $ami"# &as &e""35no&n to Dob"estin, His !on!"udin% a(ostro(he (resumes that Russian 'a"ues are (reser'ed in time"ess !u"ture- im(er'ious to !orru(tin% re'o"utionar# in$"uen!es,
I &i"" (ut it to m# !ons!ien!e to e4amine2 &hat 5ind o$ (eo("e are the man# &ho !ome $rom the ren!h mo"dEPhi"oso(hers &ithout &isdomA mora"ists &ithout mora"sA (o"iti!ians &ithout 5no&"ed%e o$ the ather"and, A"" their im(ressionsEa"" these s!ribb"ersE don:t the# a"" aim on"# at turnin% Russian #outh a&a# $rom the sim("i!it# o$ the ather"and:s mores and im(ressin% on them that (eri"ous (hi"oso(h# &hi!h in$e!ts b# insubordination to a"" that is ho"#"eadin% to&ard "o'e o$ the mores- beha'ior E and e'en to a((ro'a" o$ ren!h seditionsL//G

I'ano' o$$ered a simi"ar so!ia" !riti)ue $rom the (ers(e!ti'e o$ one o$ the non3nob"e !"asses in tsarist Russia- the meshchane- or to&ns(eo("e, This %rou( be"on%ed to the &ide se%ment o$ Russian so!iet# 5no&n as the podatnye liudi- or (eo("e &ho !ou"d be ta4ed-

The unmas5in% o$ nobi"it# &as a !ommon theatri!a" de'i!e- ada(ted $rom Rousseau:s Ne# Heloise amon% man# other &or5s, When ada(ted $or sta%e- e'en =aram>in:s sentimenta" stor# %ednaia <i4a ?-oor <i4a7 &as !om("ete"# redesi%ned to ma5e the !hara!ter o$ hi%h des!ent, -oor <i4a to"d the stor# o$ a (easant %ir" &ho &as "o'ed and then betra#ed be an o$$i!er and &ho $ina""# !ommitted sui!ide, In dramati! inter(retations o$ Ni5o"ai I":in and ;"adimir edero'- ho&e'er- she did not meet a $ata" endand the dis!o'er# o$ her mista5en birth (re'ented the audien!e $rom s#m(athi>in% &ith the "o&er !"asses, Simon =ar"ins5#- Russian 6rama !rom Its %e$innin$s to the $e o! -ushkin9 ?*er5e"e#2 Uni'ersit# o$ Ca"i$ornia Press- 6G79@ 67G36G0,
228 229

I, S, <a5haro'- :ysylka 1rantsu4ov- A!t I;- S!ene ., G/,


!ons!ri(ted- and subDe!ted to !or(ora" (unishment,/80 Enro""ment into the arm# burdened $ami"ies %reat"#- $or a re!ruit &ou"d ser'e a /93 #ear term and rare"# &ou"d return home- e'en i$ he sur'i'ed, An%uish o'er "o'e and mi"itar# dut# amon% the "o&er !"asses $i""ed edor I'ano':s The "tarichkov 1amily ?6707@, &hi!h the author !"aimed to ha'e based on a true in!ident $rom the rei%n o$ A"e4ander I, In I'ano':s ("a#- dishonest and %reed# Russian aristo!rats e4a!erbate the !on$"i!t o$ "o'e and dut#, The Stari!h5o' $ami"# is in se'ere debt- and no one &ithin the $ami"# !an (ro'ide in!ome, The $ather is dead- the un!"e *e>strashn#i ? ear"ess@ !annot &or5 be!ause o$ &ar inDuries- and the son "e$t a"most /9 #ears a%o to a!)uire mone# $or the $ami"#- but his &hereabouts are un5no&n, The dau%hter Pasha is the be"o'ed o$ the ("a#:s (rota%onist- A"e4ei- &ho uses his s!u"(tin% ta"ent to de$ra# (art o$ the $ami"#:s debt, Un$ortunate"#- his ta"ent !annot mat!h the %reed# !reditor:s in!reasin% demands, A"e4ei reso"'es to si%n u( $or a mi"itar# tour and to bu# Pasha:s $reedom $rom debtor (rison at the (ri!e o$ their !om(anionshi(, +ust a$ter A"e4ei si%ns u(- ho&e'er- the Stari!h5o'a mother dis!o'ers that her son I'an &as 5i""ed in a most heroi!
Gar# Mar5er- BThe A%e o$ En"i%htenment- 6H1036706-C in Russia: a History- edited b# Gre%or# ree>e ?O4$ord2 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH@66G,


manner2 sa'in% a Russian standard $rom $a""in% into the hands o$ the enem#, When the tsar heard that I'an:s d#in% &ish &as to return to the standard to the $ather"and- he $e"t so mo'ed that he sent the mother an in!ome o$ 800 rub"es a #ear- more than enou%h to so"'e the $inan!ia" (rob"ems, With the e!onomi! !on$"i!t remo'ed- A"e4ei no "on%er "ets ser'i!e obstru!t "o'e- and a"" ends &e""Eand &ith a Dibe at %reed# Russian e"itesE Be$$eminate nob"es- thirst# ta43 $armers- and &hinin% h#(o!rites,C/86 As an artist- A"e4ei:s !hara!ter re(resented a t#(e o$ Russian &ho !ou"d e4!e" at $orei%n mannersEbut (re$erred to 5ee( his o&n, In A"e4ei:s #outh- he had the (atrona%e o$ a %enerous "ando&ner &ho had s(onsored A"e4ei:s &or5 at the A!adem# o$ Arts and had ("anned $or A"e4ei to Dourne# abroad on a Euro(ean tour, A$ter an une4(e!ted demise- %reed# re"ati'es di'ide the (atron:s &ea"th and send A"e4ei in sear!h o$ a ne& s(onsor, A"e4ei sho&s his $a!i"it# in Euro(ean !u"ture in "an%ua%e &hen at the house o$ a (otentia" ne& (atronE a &ea"th# "ando&ner &ho surrounds himse"$ &ith $orei%n artists, When A"e4ei (resents himse"$ to this !om(an#- the &ou"d3be (atron *o%atin "oo5s at the un5em(t artist- ridi!u"es him- and de!"ines the (atrona%e o$$er on the %rounds that he (re$ers the su(erior ta"ents o$ $orei%ners, A"e4ei then (ro'es that his ta"ents are not in$eriorA he

I'ano', "emeistvo "tarichkovykh, 9G3.0,


sho!5s the dinner3(art# b# s(ea5in% ren!h- thou%h !a""in% it a 'i"e ton%ue, A ren!h s!u"(tor (resent "ater as5s A"e4ei to !om("ete a "ate (roDe!t $or him, A"e4ei a%rees re"u!tant"# so that he !an earn mone# to (a# o$$ some o$ the Stari!h5o' debt, Thou%h A"e4ei $ee"s ashamed o$ the &or5- the o$$er itse"$ sho&s that A"e4ei !an a!!om("ish $eats in hi%h !u"tureEand (resumab"# &ithin a better time$rame than the ren!h s!u"(tor, Whi"e (re$errin% his nati'e ton%ue and (eo("e- he is !om(etent enou%h $or a Euro(ean tour$orei%n !on'ersation- and im(ro'in% u(on Euro(eans: artisti! de$i!ien!ies, u"" o$ standard dramati! de'i!es and Ga""o(hobia- these t&o !omedies !ontributed to the im(ression that Russians had su!!eeded their Euro(ean tea!hers, Histori!a" drama !on!entrated on mi"itar# as(e!ts o$ !u"tura" dominan!e- but the !omedies brou%ht out )uestions o$ edu!ation and !u"ture, Dob"estin:s $ina" a(ostro(he!"aimin% that the ren!h &ere (hi"oso(hers &ithout &isdom- im("ied that the Russians themse"'es &ere (hi"oso(hers #ith &isdomEor at "east !ou"d re!o%ni>e the di$$eren!e, In I'ano':s &or5- a "o&er3!"ass $i%ure des(ised b# his o&n imitati'e !ountr#men is &orth# o$ Euro(ean artisti! standards and !an !on'erse in a $orei%n "an%ua%eE that he detests,


Na(o"eon:s o!!u(ation o$ Euro(e %enerated a "iterar# res(onse $rom the inde(endent "iterar# !enters in the t&o Russian !a(ita"s&hose members shared a $aith in !u"tura" (ro%ress under an en"i%htened tsar- ho&e'er &ar# the# mi%ht ha'e been about his re$orm ("ans, Odists and dramatists $rom the Coa"ition Wars enshrined an!estra" traditions in their re(resentation o$ nationa" identit#- but tried to attribute to them the hi%hest 'a"ue o$ ei%hteenth3!entur# tsars2 !on!ern $or the !ommon %ood, Des(ite the o!!asiona" 4eno(hobia- the !u"tura" o((osition to Na(o"eon in Russia stru%%"ed to sho& that their !ountr#men and tradition embodied them better than their o((onents did, The !ombination o$ the En"i%htenment:s uni'ersa"ism ?the 'a"ues@ and Romanti! (arti!u"arism ?the dress@ sho&ed that the Russians had bettered the !i'i"i>ation $rom &hen!e the# had been borro&in% $or the "ast !entur#, Thus- thou%h the Russian rea!tion shared the anti3 re'o"utionar# sentiments $rom e"se&here in Euro(e- it "oo5ed to the a%e o$ En"i%htenment $or the 5inds o$ nationa" 'a"ues &hi!h made it simu"taneous"# s(e!ia" and $irst amon% e)ua"s as the dominant mi"itar# and !u"tura" (o&er, Literar# (ride did not e4a!t"# he"( Russia on the $ie"d o$ &ar- ho&e'er- and the (ea!e &ith ran!e in the Ti"sit A%reement o$ 670H hushed mu!h o$ the anti3 ren!h o((osition, It did


not si"en!e Ser%ei G"in5a,


Chapter +! Ser'ei G*in,a and the Ru##ian En*i'hten-ent A$ter ma5in% o$$i!ia" (ea!e &ith Na(o"eon at Ti"sit in 670H- the tsar returned to domesti! re$orm issues- &hi"e hi%h so!iet# seethed in si"en!e o'er the seemin% !a(itu"ation to the Corsi!an and the dis!om$orts o$ the Continenta" S#stem that Russia had Doined,/8/ Whi"e ear"# !ondemnations o$ Na(o"eon as a t#rant no& merited %o'ernment inter'ention and !ensorshi(- Dourna"ism !ontinued the sear!h into nationa" identit#- e'en as a means to !riti!i>e the ren!h in$"uen!e on so!iet# and the ren!h em(eror himse"$, The man &ho set himse"$ this tas5 &as Ser%ei G"in5a ?6HH.3671H@- a (atrioti! dramatist- Dourna"ist- and (oet &hose b"ind "o'e $or nationa" $i%ures a((eared both !harmin% and ridi!u"ous to !ontem(oraries, ;ie&in% Ti"sit as a ta!ti!a" di'er%en!e $rom a %rand and de!isi'e sho&do&nG"in5a sou%ht to rein'i%orate (atriotism b# a!)uaintin% Russians &ith e'er#thin% nationa" in his Dourna" Russian Herald ?Ruskoi :estnik@, Re!ent studies ha'e re!o'ered im(ortant dimensions o$ G"in5a:s so!ia" thou%ht and sho&n that his o((osition to the ren!h &as not mere !u"tura" 4eno(hobia- but a rea!tion to the philosophes and en"i%htened so!iet#,/88
Ni5o"ai Dubro'in- BRuss5aia >hi>h: ' na!ha"e QIQ 'e5aC Russkaia "tarina ?Se(t 6G00@ 1H7,
232 233

L, N, =ise"e'a- Ideia natsional0noi samobytnosti v russkoi literature


Ironi!a""#- G"in5a:s nationa"ism in the Ti"sit era he"(ed s(read the be"ie$ that Russians (ossessed uni'ersa" 'a"ues, His 'ie&s on nationa" (e!u"iarities &ere &ho""# !onsonant &ith the ren!h Counter3En"i%htenment:s ho(es $or a ren!h !u"ture hea"ed $rom the dama%e o$ the philosophes, G"in5a- &ho 5ne& +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau:s &or5s intimate"# and !ounted him as a (artisan in his sear!h $or Btrue en"i%htenment,C o""o&in% re!ent ana"#ses that treat Rousseau "ess as an o((onent to en"i%htenment than its !onstru!ti'e !riti!- this !ha(ter "oo5s at the !ontent o$ Russian Herald be$ore the rene&ed hosti"ities and e4("ains ho& G"in5a based his !onstru!tion o$ Russian identit# on Rousseau:s (ostu"ates, G"in5a trans$ormed the 'a"ues o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment into the eterna" (ro(erties o$ the Russian (eo("e- thereb# (er(etuatin% the be"ie$ that Russians (ossessed the remed# $or re'o"ution:s i""s, G"in5a a"so !ontributed to the rise o$ messianism, In "oo5in% to Russian histor# as the basis $or his (e!u"iar"#3de$ined Ben"i%htenment-C G"in5a !on!ei'ed o$ a ho"isti! (ro!ess under%irdin% Russian histor#- $rom its (re3Christian era to its im(eria" he%emon#
me4hdu Til04itom i Otechestvennoi voinoi 5&'(,)&'&37 , ?=andidat dissertation2 Tartu NRussian LiteratureO- 6G7/@- 6731GA A"e4ander MartinBThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet# and Russian Nationa" Identit# in Ser%ei N, G"in5a:s Russian Messen$er ?67073676/@,C "lavic Revie# 9H26 ?6GG7@2 /73 1GA Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thou$ht and -olitics in the Rei$n o! le/ander I - ?De=a"b2 North I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH@- !hs, 8 and 9,


o'er Eastern Euro(e in the Ti"sit era, This (ro!ess &as in (art de$ined b# the assum(tion that re"i%ion ("a#ed a !riti!a" ro"e in mobi"i>in% #outh to ser'e the ather"and and unitin% Christianit# &ith the de'e"o(ment o$ (atrioti! and en"i%htened sentiments, *# (u""in% to%ether and s#stemati>in% the s!attered re$eren!es to 'arious an!estors- G"in5a (ro'ided a unit# to the Russian (astE&hat mi%ht be !a""ed a histori!a" (athEthat Dusti$ied the (resent:s im(eria" ambitions as (art o$ unbro5en (ro!ess o$ en"i%htenment $rom the outset, G"in5a thus (ro'ided a "in5 bet&een those &ho sa& Russian 'a"ues as !a(ab"e o$ restorin% Euro(e and "ater thin5ers &ho de$ined Russia:s histori!a" (ath as nothin% other than a )uest (redestined b# God to&ard Euro(e:s sa"'ation, Rousseau after Re+olution The ren!h Counter3En"i%htenment:s s(iritua" $ounder and "ater (artisans &ere moti'ated b# a (ro$ound sense o$ disen!hantment &ith the inte""e!tua" &or"d o$ ei%hteenth3!entur# Euro(e, +ean3 +a!)ues Rousseau has "on% been 5no&n as an En"i%htenment !riti! $or his 1irst 6iscourse in 6H90, His (ositi'e ideas about the remedies $or en"i%htened so!iet# ha'e be!ome im(ortant $or the stud# o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment, A!!ordin% to Arthur Me">er- Rousseau (er!ei'ed (re!ise"# the same (rob"ems in the estab"ished !hur!h as


in the philosophes- both o$ &hi!h seemed to ha'e de(arted $rom the main %oa" o$ the En"i%htenment and had "ed humanit# into a state o$ a"ienation, Where the !hur!h &as too ri%id and do%mati!- the philosophes had su!!umbed to materia"ism and be!ome sus!e(tib"e to the same 5ind o$ ambitious tem(tations,/81 Conser'ati'e ren!h (o"iti!a" Dourna"ists and !"er%#men a$ter Rousseau $oresa& that the ideas o$ the philosophes &ou"d ha'e disastrous !onse)uen!es $or their !ountr#, The# reDe!ted !ontem(orar# inte""e!tua" trends as seemin%"#3hosti"e to the $oundations o$ $ami"#- !hur!h- and tradition, Some be!ame so disi""usioned that the# $ound !om$ort in a(o!a"(#ti! re"i%ion- &hi!h &as enDo#in% an u(s&in% in the "ate ei%hteenth3 !entur# durin% the e'ents o$ the ren!h Re'o"ution,/89 The #ear 6H7G !on$irmed the anti3philosophes0 $ears about the B(oisonC o$ the En"i%htenment- thou%h man# $"ed the "and o$ (o"iti!a" u(hea'a" to other (arts o$ Euro(e,/8. ren!h Counter3En"i%htenment thin5ers &ere not &ho""# ne%ati'e- ho&e'er, Rousseau- &ho had $au"ted Christianit# and the
Arthur M, Me">er- BThe Ori%in o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment2 Rousseau and the Ne& Re"i%ion o$ Sin!erit#-C The merican -olitical "cience Revie#G02/ ?+une 6GG.@2 81138.0,
234 235

See ne4t !ha(ter,

Darrin M, M!Mahon- +nemies o! the +nli$htenment: the 1rench Counter) +nli$htenment and the Makin$ o! Modernity - ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- /006@- !hs, /38,


philosophes e'en3handed"#- (ro(osed a &a# to Bre3en!hantC the &or"d and (reser'e e"ements o$ Christianit# that seemed most in a!!ord &ith nature,/8H To dis!o'er the natura"- he turned to a $i!ti'e (ast- ima%inin% the idea" state o$ natureEo$ human5ind be$ore the introdu!tion o$ (ri'ate (ro(ert# that had !reated modern a"ienation, He s5et!hed his $indin%s in the short se!tion- BPro$ession o$ aith o$ a Sa'o#ard ;i!arC o$ his no'e" +mile, Rousseau:s ne& re"i%ious be"ie$de(i!ted b# the Sa'o#ard ;i!ar- treated !ons!ien!e and inner !on'i!tion as the %uides to true be"ie$, Assumin% that nature &ou"d not (ermit adheren!e to a ma4im !ontrar# to itse"$- he (ro$essed B$aithC in the a$ter"i$e- adoration o$ God- and "a&s o$ nature as ine"u!tab"e rea"ities, Moreo'er- he thou%ht that su!h be"ie$s &ere ne!essar# to restrain the ma"e'o"ent in$"uen!e o$ the (assions- &hi!h &ou"d run ram(ant under the tute"a%e o$ the !hur!h or the ambitions o$ the philosophes,/87 The sear!h $or re3en!hantment e4(anded a$ter the ren!h Re'o"ution sett"ed do&n, Na(o"eon:s (o"iti!a" ad'ent in 6HGG a""o&ed $or (artia" re!on!i"iation o$ en"i%htened so!iet# &ith the enemies o$ the philosophes, Ne& ("ans emer%ed to restore so!iet# $rom the re'o"ution:s s!ars, or this tas5- the !ounter3re'o"utionaries had to

Me">er- BOri%in o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment-C 811, Me">er- BOri%in o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment-C 8113896,



e4(and their !ontrarian dis!ourse to de$end ne& idea"s as the basis $or nationa" re%eneration o$ the o"d order, Un"i5e Rousseau:s $i!ti'e (ast- the# 'a"ori>ed the a(e4 o$ monar!hi!a" (o&er in ran!e as a time &hen the (i""ars o$ so!iet#E!hur!h- tradition- and (atriar!ha" $ami"#E&ere not disru(ted b# the (assions, Atta!5in% the philosophes as $a"se (ro(hets- distributors o$ (oison- and he""ish $or!es- the# $used $aith in nationa" traditions &ith the truth o$ re"i%ion, BNThe Truth o$ Christianit#O- &rote the nnales de la Reli$ion-

be!omes more sensib"e throu%h the disastrous rei%n o$ this immora" philosophie that &as (ut in its ("a!e, Thus does the dar5ness o$ a tem(estuous ni%ht render a"" the more (re!ious the ra#s o$ the star that en"i%htens us durin% the da#,C/8G Glinka and Rousseau Whi"e G"in5a "i'ed !"oser in time to re'o"utionar# ren!h Counter3En"i%htenment dis!ourse- he shared mu!h &ith Rousseau and other thin5ers &ho a((re!iated the ren!h theorist:s a((roa!h to re3en!hantment b# other means than throu%h reason, The BPro$ession o$ aith o$ a Sa'o#ard ;i!ar-C had enDo#ed (o(u"arit# in Russia, Ga'rii" Der>ha'in- $or one- read it a'id"#,/10 In 6701- &hen

Tuoted in M!Mahon- +nemies o! the +nli$htenment- 6/73688,

Thomas Pau" *arran- Russia Reads Rousseau, &,B3)&'3*- ?E'anston2 North&estern Uni'ersit# Press- /00/@- 69736.0,


G"in5a set o$$ $or a tea!hin% Dob in U5raine- he had immersed himse"$ on"# in e(i!sEHomer- ;ir%i"- Tasso- and GessnerEand then !ontem("ated hi%her )uestions in tran)ui"it# under the stars, Pas!a" &as one o$ the thin5ers &ho dominated his re$"e!tions about edu!ation, In 670.- he trans"ated Ed&ard Ioun%:s Ni$ht Thou$hts3O&the sentiments o$ &hi!h he !onsidered hea"th# $or so!iet#- and $or &hi!h the em(eror a&arded him a si%net rin%, The trans"ation e4hibited an e(i%ra(h $or ea!h ni%ht- !ombinin% into an arra# o$ the authors that &ere near to G"in5a:s heart, In addition to P"ato and S!hi""er- G"in5a in!"uded &riters &ho &ere !onsidered the hei%ht o$ !u"ture b# the !ounter3re'o"utionaries2 Cornei""e and *ossuet, The B%od"essC ;o"taire &as in!"uded &ith (re!aution2 o((osite him G"in5a inserted a ma4im in de$ense o$ the e4isten!e o$ God, Other authors !ertain"# had mu!h in !ommon &ith the ren!h Counter3 En"i%htenment:s 'a"ori>ed (ast2 Ma"herbe- Pas!a"- and Rousseau, Into this assortment o$ moderns- he inserted ;"adimir Monoma5h- the 66th36/th !entur# ru"er o$ =ie' &hose $amous testament to his son &as amon% the treasures o$ Russian manus!ri(ts,/1/ So be$ore he
The $u"" tit"e is The Complaint, or, Ni$ht Thou$hts on <i!e, 6eath, and Immortality, G"in5a (ub"ished it as Noun$0s Ni$hts2 Iun$ovy nochi, v stikhakh- ?Mos!o&2 *e5eto'- 670.@,

+ohann Herder &ou"d seem to be a "o%i!a" !hoi!e $or this !o""e!tion as &e""- but G"in5a be!ame a!)uainted &ith Herder on"# a$ter he had &ritten his o&n histor# o$ Russia- (ub"ished in 676., G"in5a had to (ass his histor# o$$ as a dida!ti! &or5 to snea5 it b# the !ensor- be!ause the B%enreC &as


embar5ed on a Dourna"isti! !areer- G"in5a:s a!)uaintan!e &ith anti3 rationa" authors &as &e""3$ounded- as &as his habit o$ !om(arin% Russian an!ients to Euro(ean an!ients and moderns based on the (er!ei'ed &isdom o$ their ideas rather than the !om("e4it# o$ their ar%uments, The Coa"ition Wars !ata"#>ed his !on!ern $or nati'e (atriotism, G"in5a:s attem(ts at histori!a" drama $rom the Third Coa"ition War (eriod e4hibited mora" 'o!abu"ar# about the ruinous $or!es o$ (assion that &as standard $or both C"assi!ism and Counter3 En"i%htenment thou%ht a$ter Rousseau, In 670.- his ("a# "umbeka &as 5no&n and re!ei'ed &e""3enou%h that it earned him an in'itation to the home o$ Mi5hai" =heras5o'- the o"d Mos!o& $reemason &hose e(i! about the $a"" o$ =a>an:- the Rossiiad ?a$ter ;o"taire:s Henriade@had ser'ed as the basis $or the &or5, G"in5a dedi!ated it to =heras5o'- &ith the stated (ur(osed o$ sho&in% ho& the (assions brou%ht a 5in%dom to its demise,/18 Tueen Sumbe5a- Dea"ous o$ Osman- a Tauride Tatar (rin!e &ho "o'es her !hamber ser'antre$uses to $o""o& the &arnin%s o$ the (ro(het Seit and e4(e" Osman, As a resu"t- the 5in%dom $a""s to the Russians- Osman dies in batt"ereser'ed $or the historio%ra(her =aram>in- &hose %rand Istoriia >osudarstva Rossissko$o be%an (ub"i!ation t&o #ears "ater, G"in5aCapiski- 808380., Ser%ei G"in5a- BSumbe5a-C in "tikhotvornaia tra$ediia- edited b# ;, A, *o!h5are'- /nd ed, ?Mos!o& and Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6G.1@- /68,


his be"o'ed !ommits sui!ide- and Sumbe5a meets them in eternit#, In addition to Sumbe5a:s im(assioned re$usa" to $o""o& the %ods- the (assionate side o$ human5ind &hi(s u( so!ia" disorder, The Tueen:s stabi"it# is threatened b# a &ou"d3be usur(er- Sar%un- &ho ra""ies the (o(u"a!e to su((ort him b# e4a"tin% the 'irtue o$ arbitrariness and !"aimin% that the 'oi!e o$ (eo("e is the 'oi!e o$ God,/11 Sar%un (ro!eeds throu%h tri!5er# to ta5e (o&er- but on"# !ontributes to %reater ruin at the end, G"in5a:s drama a"so re$"e!ted his dee(3rooted desire to rede$ine Ben"i%htenmentC in a &a# that diminished philosophe in$"uen!e, Mo""# Wes"in% has (ro(osed that Russian !u"ture in res(onse to Na(o"eon sim("# re'ersed the Euro(ean stereot#(e that Russians &ere unen"i%htened- i$ not barbari!, G"in5a- a!!ordin% to Wes"in%- dre& o$$ the o"d traditions o$ Chur!h S"a'oni! to a!hie'e this re'ersa", -rosveshchenie in the an!ient "an%ua%e denoted s(iritua" re'e"ation2 the B"i%htC o$ &isdom $rom hea'en,/19 Whi"e G"in5a:s $ami"iarit# &ith an!ient manus!ri(ts indi!ates that he &as a&are o$ the o"der meanin%s- it shou"d be noted that his use o$ Ben"i%htenedC $o""o&s Rousseau:s em(hasis on sin!erit# and inner assuran!e more

G"in5a- BSumbe5a-C ///3//8,

Wes"in% !"aims that the entire rea!tion a%ainst the ren!h &as based on a batt"e $or the meanin% o$ Ben"i%htened-C &hi!h had been used a%ainst the Russians sin!e ;o"taire, Mo""# Wes"in%- Napoleon in Russian Cultural Mytholo$y- ?Ne& Ior52 Peter Lan%- /006@- .37,


than "oo5in% $or re'ea"ed truth, or instan!e- in the ("a# Mikhail -rince o! Cherni$ov- &hi!h &as in manus!ri(t b# 670.- the de$inition o$ en"i%htenment is (ut in re"ie$ &hen a (a%an (riests tries to tem(t the Russian hero into &orshi((in% at a $orei%n a"tar, Mi5hai" res(onds b# sa#in% that rea" en"i%htenment is both $rom God and $rom the 5no&"ed%e o$ one:s heart,
vj ^[c•ac•n pgc tcpg^c fe^mdc•cgncA Š ‰^_- a ‰^_ dmcs\s d mec`\ gap Zdcecgnc‡h^ }Zdmhd\c q ^huZ- dscqZ•cc `chck|a`cb`g^o q gcpZ fe\d^`\h gam mhctckA ~ qeahqZ [jh\o ga h^ ^fec`cscggj‡h^[j so[\hn vd^eua- so[\hn `chck •_^~ d [s\bgcp [eaha techn \ `eZ_a md^c_^, ?Iou (romise to me earth"# en"i%htenmentA *ut God- God ("a!es assuran!e in our heartsThat $ee"in% $or the $ather- dra&in% in the !hi"drenLeads us to it b# the trusted (athA That &e here are (i"%rims and inhabitants $or a momentAnd in our short "i'es are determined in this2 To "o'e the Creator- to "o'e His !hi"drenAnd in our nearb# brother see our $riend,@/1.

The Bheart-C one o$ G"in5a:s most !ommon ima%es- thus is the sour!e o$ true &isdom and 5no&"ed%e- a !"aim made b# the Sa'o#ard ;i!ar:s (ro$ession about the ori%in o$ ethi!s, BI do not dra& these ru"es $rom the (rin!i("es o$ a hi%h (hi"oso(h#- but $ind them &ritten b# nature &ith ine$$a!eab"e !hara!ters in the de(th o$ m# heart,C/1H
BMi5hai"- 5nia>: Cherni%o's5iiC in "ochineniia "er$eia >linki ?Mos5'a2 ti(o%ra$iia S, Se"i'ans5a%o- 676H@- 8.,

+ean3+a!)ues Rousseau- +mile or on +ducation- edited and trans"ated b# A""an *"oom ?Ne& Ior52 *asi! *oo5s- 6GHG@- /793/7.,


The tro(e o$ "a& bein% &ritten on human hearts &as 'er# o"d, It &as used- $or instan!e- b# =hersa5o' to des!ribe the !iti>ens in a (er$e!t Russian state that su!!eeded Rome,/17 As a (oet- G"in5a:s used (hrases about hearts in a"most e'er# !on!ei'ab"e $ashion, Tsar A"e4ander:s !eremonia" ritua"s in!"uded en!omiums to $riendshi( and "o'eA !"aims &ere o$ten made that he had !on)uered Russia:s hearts, G"in5a- enra(tured b# his ima%ination o$ Russia:s nationa" unit#!a""ed Russia the "and &here God- the "a&- or di'ine "a& is &ritten on hearts,/1G In one o$ his histori!a" 'i%nettes- the !"er%#man A'raam Pa"its#n !onso"es a des(ondent Po>hars5ii b# !on'in!in% him that God is sti"" in the hearts o$ Russians and that e'en &ithout the tsar Russia sti"" e4ists as a nationa" entit#,/90 Thou%h man# o$ his $undamenta" ideas had ta5en sha(e b# 670.- the &ar had a trans$ormati'e e$$e!t on G"in5a, The (ur(ose o$ Russian Herald emer%ed $rom i""usions and disi""usions o$ his re'ie& o$ the mi"itar# situation, In 670.- G"in5a stumb"ed u(on ("ans b# Ni5o"ai Ni5o"ae'i!h No'osi":tse' ?an ad'isor 'er# !"ose to tsar
Ste(hen Lessin% *aehr- B rom Histor# to Nationa" M#th2 Trans"atio Im(erii in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russia,C Russian Revie# 8H26 ?+an 6GH7@2 .,

See- as one o$ man# e4am("es- "obranie stikhotvorenii otnosiashchikhsia k ne4abvennomu &'&3 $odu- ;o", /- ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia@/8,

BRa>%o'or A'raama Pa"its#na s 5nia>em Po>hars5a%o ' Iarso"a'"e2 Mo "iub'i 5 ote!hest'u-:C Ruskoi :estnik Nherea$ter R:O626 ?+an 6707@2 8G,


A"e4ander &ith most"# di("omati! duties in 67093670.@ to tr# to ra""# the !ountr#side b# de!"arin% Na(o"eon e)ui'a"ent to Abbadon- the "eader o$ Satan:s armies in the boo5 o$ Revelation, G"in5a o((osed the idea and b"amed the !entra" %o'ernment- &hi!h had not (ro(er"# instru!ted re%iona" subordinates in a time"# $ashion, A"soNo'osi":tse':s rhetori!a" strate%# o$$ended him as an a$$ront to nationa" sensibi"ities, He a%reed that the !"er%# &ou"d ma5e the best (ro(a%andists- but thou%ht the A(o!a"#(ti! tone &as ridi!u"ous, BWi"" this rea""# ins(ire the (eo("eL Iou &i"" s!o$$ at Euro(e- hasten Russia:s shame- and nothin% sensib"e &i"" !ome out o$ this,C/96 When he Doined the mi"itia in 670.- G"in5a &as surrounded b# (easants"earned (o(u"ar s(ee!h- and sa& his $e""o& !ountr#men:s $ears, A s(irit o$ re(entan!e sei>ed him- $or as a $ree s(irit &ithout $ami"# or an# traditiona" ties- he had been insensiti'e to the (eo("e around him, He summed u( his %ro&in% res(e!t $or the &ho"e o$ the nation b# (ara(hrasin% the Russian !hroni!"er Nestor, BThe &oods and the 'i""a%es are the base o$ the stru!ture or our ather"andA the distri!ts and (ro'in!ia" !ities are the &a""sA and the !a(ita" is the roo$in%,C /9/ Sti""- his e4(erien!es in 670. &ere not entire"# Romanti! or ("easant,

S, N, G"in5a- Capiski "er$ei Nikolaevicha >linki- ?St, Petersbur%2 Russ5aia Starina- 67G9@- 6G.36GH,
251 252

G"in5a- Capiski- /6.3/6H,


G"in5a &itnessed (easant !on$usion u( !"ose, In T'er: (easants &ere tr#in% to re!ruit ea!h other or e'en !ut o$$ their o&n hands in order to a'oid ser'i!e, G"in5a tried to insure one !ro&d that the $orei%n3 soundin% &ord militia meant on"# a arm# o$ the "and ?4emskoe@that &as de$endin% their o&n homes- $ami"ies- and %ra'es,/98 Thus at a time &hen the !u"tura" (ra!ti!es o$ the nobi"it# seemed to threaten so!ia" stabi"it#- G"in5a $ound an ans&er $rom his e4(erien!e amon% the (eo("e, Whi"e his tra'e"s sho&ed him the nationa" %ood and bad- the# !on'in!ed him to $use his ideas about 'irtuous "i'in% &ith a (ast idea" and (resent !ir!umstan!es, In addition to Euro(ean "iterature- G"in5a &as an a'id reader o$ the an!ient manus!ri(ts- &hi!h (rin!e A, I, Musin3Push5in had !o""e!ted and (ub"ished at Catherine the Great:s !ommand, A!!ordin% to the So!iet# $or Russian Histor# and Anti)uities in 6766 ?be$ore most o$ them burned@- ne& (ub"ished 'ersions o$ the Ni5on- No'%orodTsar:s- An!ient- and Resurre!tion !o(# o$ the Russian Chroni!"e- and the %ook o! 6e$rees amon% others a((eared $rom 6H.H36HG9,/91 Mer%in% the stories o$ the (ast &ith the anti3en"i%htenment themes o$ the da#- he !onstru!ted not Dust an idea" Russian (ast- but one


G"in5a- Capiski- /01,

A'ai"ab"e in Medieval Russia0s +pics, Chronicles and Tales- edited b# Ser%e A, <en5o's5#- 6.H36G0,


&here the manus!ri(t stories be!ame !on'erted into ans&ers $or Euro(ean "i$e, BIn 6707- on e'er# street- at e'er# interse!tion- a ne& &or"d &as (resented to me- one deri'ed $rom m# ima%ination o$ the (ast, In a &ord- Mos!o& a((eared to me in its ori%ina" 'isa%e- that isas sa!red- "i'in% !hroni!"e o$ the Russian "and,C/99 G"in5a entered into Dourna"ism &ith the e4(ress (ur(ose o$ (resentin% a (anorama o$ Russian !u"ture to an# (atriot, He &anted to rea!h be#ond Mos!o&:s a!ademi!s and the nobi"it#- but ho(ed that (arents &ou"d read ins(irin% stories to their !hi"dren as &e"",/9. Su!h a tas5 &as di$$i!u"t e'en under the re"ati'e"# "i%ht !ensorshi( o$ A"e4ander:s ear"# rei%n be!ause o$ $inan!ia" di$$i!u"ties, +ourna"ism &as a ris5# enter(rise be!ause Russian &riters and !riti!s &ho desired to (ub"ish o$ten (ro!eeded &ithout a tar%et audien!e ?mu!h "ess a mar5etin% strate%#@,/9H Conse)uent"#- e'en hea'i"#3endo&ed Dourna"s died )ui!5 deaths, The "aint)-etersbur$ Herald- edited b# the !"assi!s tea!her I, I, Mart#no'- re!ei'ed a sum o$ 8-000 rub"es $rom the em(eror at its o(enin%- but !ou"d not sur'i'e the initia"


G"in5a- Capiski- /6G3//0,

Liubo': Ni5o"ae'na =ise"e'a- Ideia natsional0noi samobytnosti v russkoi literature me4hdu Til04itom i Otechestvennoi voinoi 5&'(,)&'&37 , ?=andidat dissertation2 Tartu NRussian LiteratureO- 6G7/@- 8938H,

Gar# Mar5er- -ublishin$, -rintin$, and the Ori$ins o! Intellectual <i!e in Russia, &,(()&'((- ?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79@ 600 !!,


"a#out o$ $unds,/97 Man# "iterar# Dourna"s "asted on"# a $e& issues and then disa((eared,/9G G"in5a earned no mone# $rom ser'i!e and be%%ed his $riend P"aton *e5eto' to $und the Dourna" unti" he !ou"d estab"ish a reader base, No doubt s5e(ti!a" about G"in5a:s !han!es $or su!!ess- *e5eto' ad'ised G"in5a to se"$3$inan!e and earn his o&n in!ome- but $ina""# a%reed to su((ort t&o issues, G"in5a:s met su!!ess instant"#- and *e5eto' re!ei'ed his mone# ba!5 ri%ht a&a#, The $irst issues &ere so thri""in% to students that one- Mi5hai" Po%odin- remembered e'en in 671/ the heart$e"t ra(ture that Russian Herald in!ited,/.0 The readershi( in!"uded most"# Great Russians and Orthodo4 Mus!o'ites ?"i'in% near Mos!o&@- o$ten nob"es &ith mid3"e'e" ser'i!eA "ess $o""o&in% in Petersbur% and the !"er%#but &ith de$inite attention b# Mer>"ia5o' at the uni'ersit# ?a"so his !ensor@- =a!heno's5ii at Herald o! +urope- and I'an Dmitrie'=aram>in:s (artisan in s(readin% sentimenta"ism,/.6

Char"es Ruud- 1i$htin$ 2ords: Imperial Censorship and the Russian -ress, &'(O)&.(B- ?Toronto2 Uni'ersit# o$ Toronto Press- 6G7/@- /G,

See E, E, Ro>h5o'a- BPeriodi!hes5ie i>daniia mos5o's5o%o uni'ersiteta na!ha"a QIQ ',C :estnik Moskovsko$o universiteta- Series 72 Histor#, 6 ?6G7.@2 90397,
259 260

G"in5a- Capiski- //03//H,

In A"e4ander Martin:s estimation- G"in5a &as tr#in% to !reate a (ub"i! s(here $or "iterate Russians o$ di'erse !"asses, See his BThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet# and Russian Nationa" Identit# in Ser%ei N, G"in5a:s Russian Messen$er ?67073676/@,C "lavic Revie# 9H26 ?6GG7@2 1H,


Thou%h G"in5a:s mora" 'o!abu"ar# o$ the (assions and en"i%htenment had been $ormed be$ore (ub"i!ation o$ Russian Herald- he e4(anded the theoreti!a" basis o$ his ideas in the Dourna", His s#m(athies $or Rousseau remained a dominant inte""e!tua" $or!e, The Sa'o#ard ;i!ar:s (ro$ession tried to sho& the natura" %oodness o$ man5ind &hi"e de$endin% the be"ie$ in God that %a'e human bein%s their di%nit#, Sin!e his be"ie$ &as $ounded on sin!erit#- he dismissed attem(ts to arri'e at his (osition throu%h (hi"oso(h# or meta(h#si!s, Whate'er e4isted be#ond the sensib"e &or"d- the ;i!ar !"aimed- &as be#ond human !om(rehension, Proo$ o$ re"ations amon% bodies mi%ht e4ist- but no one 5ne& the essen!e o$ the re"ations, BWe be"ie'e &e (ossess inte""i%en!e $or (ier!in% these m#steries- but a"" &e ha'e is ima%ination,C/./ In a"most identi!a" $ashion- G"in5a tried in Russian Herald to de$ine Russian en"i%htenment b# e"iminatin% the (ossibi"it# o$ trans!endin% the rea"m o$ essentia" truths &ithout !ontradi!tin% the e4isten!e o$ a deit#, In an arti!"e on en"i%htenment- he !"aimed that he !ou"d not (ier!e these m#steries &ith the inte""e!t, BWe !an 5no& the materia" &or"d- !an em("o# e'er#thin% $ound in it $or our o&n use- !an "o'e the !reator and re'ere himA but &e !annot understand


+mile- /.7@


&hat is >od- soul- material,C/.8 In $a!t- tea!hin% materia"ist ideas stru!5 him as more ma"i%nant than (o"iti!a" !rime or unseatin% "a&$u" (o"iti!a" authorit#, He !ontrasted Russian B$a"se (retenders-C i""e%itimate (o"iti!ians tr#in% to !"aim the Russian throne- &ith materia"ists and deni%rated the "atter $or !ausin% a"ienation b# di'idin% hea'en $rom earth and assurin% humans that the# (ossessed the di%nit# o$ !att"e,/.1 A"so "i5e Rousseau- G"in5a !onsidered !ontem(orar# ran!e a $ata" 'i!tim o$ the philosophes:ideas, In 670G- &hen o$$i!ia" res(e!t to&ard ran!e &as demanded b# the !ensors- G"in5a mana%ed to (ub"ish The Mirror o! the Ne# -aris ?Cerkalo nova$o -ari4ha@- &hi!h (ur(orted to sho& the de!a# o$ its mora"s be$ore the re'o"ution and e4("ain Paris:s $a"" $rom the !enter o$ !i'i"i>ation to a (it o$ monsters,/.9 Thou%h hosti"e !o'era%e o$ Na(o"eon !ost him his Dob in the Mos!o& theater- G"in5a !ontinued to !riti!i>e ran!e throu%h indire!t a""usions in dis!ursi'e boo5 re'ie&s, In one about Peter the Great- $or instan!e- he read the author:s des!ri(tion o$ (re3Petrine Russia in sho!5- as thou%h the author had Dumb"ed u( his o&n
Ser%ei G"in5a- BO (ros'esh!henii rus5i5h do 'remeni Petra (er'a%o,C Ruskoi :estnik 82H ?+u"# 6707@2 /6,

Ser%ei G"in5a- B<ame!haniia na odno mesto i> 5ni%i2 Sra'nenie s'oist' i de" =onstantina ;e"i5a%o s s'oist'ami i de"ami Petra ;e"i5a%o,C R: 682/ ? eb6766@2 667,
264 265

Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 78371,


(resent3da# re'o"utionar# !ir!umstan!es &ith Russia, BWith &hat horror is one:s %a>e turned on this mess o$ (o&er- (o'ert#&i!5edness- 'irtues- an4ieties- di'ersions- and tormentA in a &ord- on e'er#thin% that is !a""ed Paris,C/.. On the other hand- the 'er# (ur(ose o$ G"in5a:s Dourna" testi$ied to a !om(arab"e "a!5 o$ 'irtue in Russia, ?Russian Herald hard"# &ou"d ha'e needed to a!)uaint (eo("e &ith Russian histor# i$ the# &ere not immersed in the &a#s and habits o$ their (otentia" mi"itar# enem#,@ G"in5a re!o%ni>ed short!omin%s amon% the nob"es $rom un3natura" "i'in%2 the "a!5 o$ breast3$eedin%- $or one,/.H E'en more ominous &as the de!adent "i$est#"e o$ the #oun%, One "etter to the editor- ostensib"# $rom a (ro'in!ia" "ando&ner- de!"ared that #outh $e"" under the thra"" o$ the (assions and the ren!h, BHa'in% 5i""ed the da# in the theater- in the mas)uerade- J and then sti"" to the ba"" in trium(hant attire J NThe Ga""o3RussianO hurries &ithout memor#- trans$orms ni%ht into da#,,,C/.7 and $inishes o$$ &ith "o'ers: intri%ues, The hei%ht o$ ren!h in$"uen!e a((eared in the =u>nets5ii *rid%e sho((in% distri!t- &hi!h seemed to !onstitute a (art o$ Russia had be!ome uninte""i%ib"e to


R:- 682/ ? eb 6766@ 660 Martin- BThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet#-C 87,


I, N,,,', B= i>date"iu Rus5a%o ;estni5a ot ste(na%o >hite"ia,C R: 628 ?Mar 6707@2 8183819,


the rest o$ it,/.G G"in5a:s !on!e(t o$ en"i%htenment (ara""e"ed Rousseau on sin!erit#- but $o""o&ed the more !ontem(orar# Counter3 En"i%htenment in $usin% the nationa" (ast &ith BtrueC en"i%htenment instead o$ a((ea"in% to ar%uments deri'ed $rom a state o$ nature, In "oo5in% at the $oundation o$ Rus:- the state !entered in =ie' that (redated the $ormation o$ Russia/H0- G"in5a (raised e'er# ad'an!e in edu!ation as (roo$ o$ de'e"o(ment in harmon# &ith (rimordia" natura" %oodness, A!!e(tin% !hroni!"e des!ri(tions o$ the S"a's as (ea!e$u"- humb"e- $i"ia" (eo("e- G"in5a sa& the so!ia" $oundations $or Russia:s mora" edu!ation in its o&n (re3Christian a%e, The tea!hin% o$ the %os(e"s a$ter Christiani>ation ?G77 A,D,@ im(ro'ed so!iet#%i'in% it a $irm basis &ithout radi!a" trans$ormations, It (ro(e""ed Russians to hi%h "e'e"s o$ !u"ture "on% be$ore Euro(e- in G"in5a:s o(inion- be!ause the# &ere natura""# endo&ed &ith )ua"ities that $a!i"itated its tea!hin%2 tran)ui"it#- humi"it#- and res(e!t $or re"ati'es,

G"in5a:s assum(tions about (re3;aran%ian mora" 'irtue !arried
A"e4ander Martin- BThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet# and Russian Nationa" Identit# in Ser%ei N, G"in5a:s Russian Messen$er ?67073676/@-C "lavic Revie# 9H26 ?6GG7@2 8H38G,

G"in5a dre& no distin!tion bet&een the "ands o$ modern U5raineEthe !a(ita" o$ Rus: &as =ie'Eand the nineteenth3!entur# territor# o$ Russia,
270 271

G"in5a- BO 'os(itanii Rus5i5h- do 'remeni Petra 'e"i5a%o-C R:- /H73/G0,


him into dis(utes &ith Herald o! +urope- a "o!us o$ a!ademi! re(orts in the Ti"sit era,/H/ G"in5a too5 umbra%e at the su%%estion that the ra#s o$ en"i%htenment &ere rea!hin% Russia on"# re!ent"#, That isG"in5a sus(e!ted that Herald o! +urope:s interest in these issues mas5ed !ontem(t $or the (re3Petrine era, Assumin% that the other Dourna" a%reed to his mora" de$inition o$ en"i%htenment- he !on!"uded that the stereot#(e arose $rom i%noran!e o$ (rimar# sour!esEthe same !har%e that one o$ the anon#mous Herald o! +urope &riters $rom the Coa"ition Wars had used a%ainst the ren!h, Readin% the Nestorian !hroni!"es- G"in5a !"aimed- one &ou"d ha'e to en!ounter the &ho"esome sim("i!it# and %od"iness that !ou"d not be termed Bbarbari!,C A!!ordin% to the Ca""in% o$ ;aran%ians stor# in the Chroni!"e- the &i"d S"a's !a""ed Norsemen to !ome ru"e o'er them, Who but an order"# (eo("e- G"in5a reasoned- &ou"d ha'e reco$ni4ed that the# needed this orderL The !hroni!"e seemed $u"" o$ (roo$s o$ the Russian (eo("e:s Ben"i%htenedC &a#s- he !"aimed- Dust "i5e its
In it- the !"eri! E'%enii *o"5ho'itino' &rote on an!ient No'%orod- the subDe!t o$ !ontro'ers# in man# ("a#s and stories, uture (ro$essor Petr =a"aido'i!h in'esti%ated the an!ient be"ie$ in the s5#3God Perun, Ni5o"ai *rusi"o'- a member o$ the ree So!iet# in St, Petersbur%- des!ribed an!ient Russian !u"ture and "ater be!ame embroi"ed in dis(ute on an!ient S"a'i! (o"iti!a" $oundations &ith Christian S!h"F>er- the son o$ the $amous GFttin%en (ro$essor- Au%ust, Mat'ei =a!heno's5ii- one o$ the members o$ the ne&"# re3o(ened So!iet# o$ Histor# and Anti)uities- mean&hi"e sur'e#ed an!ient manus!ri(ts as sour!es $or Russian histor#, See M, Po"udens5ii- 8ka4atel0 k :estniku +vropy, &'(3)&'K(- ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 67.6@- /.3609,


Ben"i%htenedC author,/H8 Another $undamenta" assum(tion about the $oundationa" time !on!erned the (resen!e o$ (atriar!ha" e)ua"it#, G"in5a:s thou%hts about the id#""i! (re3histor# o$ Rus: &ere in$"uen!ed b# the most radi!a" thin5er o$ the ei%hteenth !entur#- A"e4ander Radish!he'&hose anti3ser$dom treatise ?ourney !rom "t9 -etersbur$ to Mosco# ?6HG0@ earned him in!ar!eration, This boo5 &as one o$ the three &hi!h G"in5a (ossessed &hen he !ame to Mos!o& in the ear"# nineteenth !entur#, Radish!he'- &e"" read in philosophe "iterature!onsidered ser$dom an o$$ense to natura" "a& and an im(ortation&ith no substantia" roots in Russian histor#,/H1 Thou%h G"in5a &as a staun!h (atriot- monar!hist- and idea"i>er o$ rura" "ando&ners- he sti"" be"ie'ed Radish!he':s !"aim that an!ient Rus: &as $ree o$ the a%ri!u"tura" s#stem that ens"a'ed so man# sons and dau%hters o$ the $ather"and and ho(ed that the re%eneration o$ nationa" s(irit &ou"d re!on!i"e the enmit# bet&een "ando&ner and ser$,/H9 G"in5a did not %o o'er to an anti3ser$dom e4treme- ho&e'erbe!ause o$ his edu!ationa" u(brin%in%, The irst Cadet Cor(us
Ser%ei G"in5a- B<ame!hanie na ne5otor#ia m#s"i ra>smatri'ate"ia 5ni%i2 o (er'ob#tnoi Rossii i eia >hite"ia5h- i na ne5otor#ia s"o'a So!hinite"ia sei 5ni%i,C R: G28 ?Mar 6760@2 G036/6,
273 274

=ise"e'a- Ideia natsional0noi samobytnosti, /.380, Martin- Re!ormers, Romantics, Reactionaries- 688361/,



s!hoo"- &here G"in5a studied $rom 6H7/36HG9- &as run b# t&o admirers o$ Rousseau ?es(e!ia""# +mile@2 I'an *ets5oi and riedri!h Anha"t, The "atter stressed the de'e"o(ment o$ the &ho"e (ersona"it# o'er boo5 "earnin%, He &anted a"" students to $ee" "i5e e)ua"s be$ore him- so that the# &ou"d treat ea!h other &ith !ommon di%nit# and dis!uss (o"iti!a" to(i!s in a to"erant en'ironment, /H. A"e4ander Martin and Liubo': =ise"e'a ha'e ar%ued that Anha"t:s authorit# !reated an idea" $ee"in% o$ e)ua"it# that remained hierar!hi!a", The &ise dire!tor (roDe!ted su!h a $ee"in% o$ !om$ort and "o'e that he made his students $ee" "i5e e)ua"s be$ore him- Dust as !hi"dren be$ore a $ather, G"in5a thou%ht that 'arious 5inds o$ so!ia" e)ua"s had their ana"o%i!a" B$ather2C !hi"dren to a $ather- (easants to a "and"ord- the ather"and to a =in%- humanit# to God,/HH Whi"e &omen did not o!!u(# a !ommandin% hei%ht in G"in5a:s (atriar!ha" s#stem- he !redited them &ith $undamenta" im(ro'ements in Russian en"i%htenment $rom S"a'i! (re3histor#,
Anha"t a"so en!oura%ed the stud# o$ !"assi!s- a to(i! &hi!h the nobi"it# %enera""# had shunned, In addition to the stud# o$ S(arta and Li'#- Anha"t en!oura%ed stud# o$ re(ub"i!an 'a"ues in modern ren!h tra%ed#, When the ren!h Re'o"ution bro5e out- his s!hoo" e'en set a(art a s(e!ia" readin% room $or $o""o&in% the e'ents in ran!e, G"in5a $ound a !o(# o$ the Marseillaise &hi!h he trans"ated into Russian,

A"e4ander Martin- BThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet# and Russian Nationa" Identit# in Ser%ei N, G"in5a:s Russian Messen$er ?67073676/@,C "lavic Revie# 9H26 ?6GG7@2 80386A L, N, =ise"e'a- Ideia natsional0noi samobytnosti v russkoi literature me4hdu Til04itom i Otechestvennoi voinoi 5&'(,)&'&37 ?=andidat dissertation NRussian LiteratureO2 Tartu- 6G7/@2 8G31G,


Rousseau- es(e!ia""# in +mile- di$$erentiated &omen:s edu!ation $rom men:s and then subordinated the $ormer to the needs o$ the "atter, Women &ere to be edu!ated to $u"$i"" the desires o$ men- a (rin!i("e &hi!h Rousseau !onsidered an emanation o$ the state o$ nature&hen &omen be!ame !on$ined to domesti!it#,/H7 In G"in5a:s ("a#s and (oems- &omen !arr# out $ami"ia" $un!tions- but &ith dire!t 5no&"ed%e that their en!oura%ement is ne!essar# $or the !ommon %ood o$ the $ather"and- not their (arti!u"ar s(ouse, *# "oo5in% ba!5 at the S"a'i! an!estors- and in (arti!u"ar O"%a- the Christian %randmother o$ the $ounder o$ the Rus: State- a (oem in Russian Herald b# I'an La>he!hni5o' tried to sho& that nati'e &omen had a"&a#s (ossessed an instin!ti'e de$ense o$ the !ommon %ood, A!!ordin% to the (oem- O"%a herse"$ %irded her %randson S'iatos"a' $or &ar- ("a!in% her "i$e in his hands, Hen!e her !on!rete mi"itar# a!tions mattered "ess than her dis(osition to&ard the mora" nature o$ her son, G"in5a de(i!ted an a"most identi!a" s!ene in his ("a# Minin&hi!h &as $irst sta%ed in 670G, In it- the mother is more rest"ess o'er sendin% her sons o$$ to $i%ht- and Minin has to !orre!t her b# a((ea"in% to $ema"e an!estors &ho understood the im(ortan!e o$ batt"e,/HG In his (oems- &omen a"so he"d the nation to%ether b#
Susan Mo""er O5in- BRousseau:s Natura" Woman-C The ?ournal o! -olitics 162/ ?Ma# 6GHG@2 8G.3106, 279 BMininC in "ochineniia "er$eia >linki- ?Mos5'a2 ; ti(o%ra$ii


!reatin% and transmittin% memor#, Sin!e the# &ere res(onsib"e $or brin%in% u( the sons- the# sha(ed the s(iritua" de'e"o(ment o$ the nation and %a'e it !oheren!e a!ross time,
‹\d mZfeZ_ md^ck mZfeZ_^kA ice`ucp pahce\ b\d mjg2 ‹\d d^ dcq md^ck tamsZ_^k{^mm Œ _ce^k- {^mm Œ isadrg\gU {^mm\rgq\S _sam dc•achS yakhc dmcp fe\pce mhaeagpA ‚jmsn \ }Zdmhd\c ddcerch ‡a` md^\l {^mm\r dap,

?The husband "i'es throu%h his s(ouse2 Throu%h the heart o$ the mother "i'es the son2 Li'es $ore'er throu%h his %reat deed the Russ3hero- the Russ3S"a',,, Russian &omenS the 'oi!e announ!es Grant the e4am("e to a"" "andsA Russia entrusts the thou%ht and $ee"in% o$ its sons to #ou@/70

G"in5a:s notion that a husband "i'es Bthrou%hC the s(ouse di$$ered %reat"# $rom Rousseau:s (er!e(tion that the s(ouse $un!tioned as a ser'ant, At a Russian Orthodo4 $unera"- (eo("e sin% (ra#ers $or the de!eased to "i'e on in the &or"d throu%h eternal memory ?not Dust re(ose in the a$ter"i$e@, Hen!e the ro"e o$ (er(etuatin% memor# &as an inte%ra" (art o$ the !onser'ation o$ a"" nationa" 'a"ues, ational Progress G"in5a:s arti!"es on edu!ation in Russia !onne!ted the mora"
S,Se"i'ans5a%o- 676H@- 90,

BPesn: s"a'iano3rossiano5 s#nam ote!hest'a-C R: 626 ?+an 6707@2 7637/,


and inte""e!tua" dimensions o$ en"i%htenment b# sho&!asin% ser'itors to the throne, G"in5a be!ame the butt o$ 'i!ious Do5es $or the !om(arisons that he dre& bet&een an!ient Russian do!uments and "andmar5s o$ Euro(ean inte""e!tua" "i$e, A, , ;oei5o':s Mad House ?6st rendition- 67613676H@- a satire o$ the Go"den A%e(ortra#ed G"in5a (ro!"aimin% that Ra!ine:s %enius &as deri'ed $rom the era o$ I'an the Terrib"e,/76 This ridi!u"ous !om(arison re$"e!ted G"in5a:s idios#n!rati! habit o$ $indin% the essentia" messa%e o$ Euro(ean inte""e!tua"s in Russian manus!ri(ts, Thou%h G"in5a &as moti'ated b# an !ontri'ed idea" o$ (re3Petrine Russia- he dis("a#ed this idea" as thou%h it &ere one ho"isti! (ro!ess- mu!h "i5e &hat the

;oei5o' introdu!es G"in5a &ith an an!ient do!ument- the ;ormchaia kni$a- in his hand and his e#es raised u(&ard2

O Ra!ineS When!e is #our %"or#L I ha'e $i%ured out #ou out- m# "itt"e $riendE rom the Russian "to$lav Na si4teenth3!entur# !hur!h !oun!i"O Iou sto"e thalie NIn Russian2 >o!oliiaO

The beaut# o$ e4(ression In ndromache is an imitation

O$ BThe *ur#in% o$ the Cat,C Na (easant !artoon about Peter the GreatO,

A, , ;oei5o'- BDom sumasshedshi5h-C in -oety &,.()&'&(kh $odov- edited b# Iu, M, Lotman ?Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6GH6@- HG9,


anti3philosophes ad'o!ated, He re!o%ni>ed 'io"en!e- !haos- and anar!h# in Russian histor#- but attributed them to the abro%ation o$ !ons!ien!e and o$ res(e!t $or the $athers: traditions, Pretenders to the throne- $or e4am("e- b"atant"# disre%arded traditions o$ inheritan!e and the dominion o$ a $ather3ru"er, The rei%ns o$ 'arious 5in%s &ere !haoti! and tumu"tuous- but on"# as a resu"t o$ the unru"# subDe!ts: domination b# the (assions,/7/ He a"so (er(etuated the !o'enanta" rhetori! o$ the o"d manus!ri(ts- &hi!h im("ied that God (unished the Russian (eo("e the same as the Israe"ites2 $or de'iatin% $rom estab"ished traditions, In B*at#i:s In'asion o$ Russia-C he !hara!teri>ed the Mon%o"s as a di'ine rea!tion to the $ai"ure o$ the Russian (eo("e to maintain tradition,/78 Past (atriots o$$ered a"ternati'es- &hose e4am("es he"(ed e4tend (ros(erit# and stabi"it#, An ear"# e4am("e o$ someone &ho Doined mora" and boo5 "earnin% in ser'i!e o$ the ather"and &as ;"adimir Monoma5h ?the so"e Russian author &hose &or5 G"in5a use in his e(i%ra(hs Ni$ht Thou$hts@, E'a"uatin% the te4t on"# in terms o$ its mora" !on!"usions- G"in5a !"aimed that there &as 'er# "itt"e

R: 682/ ? eb 6766@- 66736/0,

R: 627 ?Au%ust 6707@- 6.9, This same in!ident and ta"5 o$ nationa" (unishment %enerated a(("ause at a sta%ed readin% o$ Mikhail, -rince o! Cherni$ov at the home o$ Ga'ri" Der>ha'in in 670., See his ? Capiski- /0H3 /07@ and !ha(ter 1 $or the &ider im("i!ations o$ the !ontention about nationa" (unishment,


di$$eren!e bet&een Monoma5h and the ei%hteenth3!entur# En"i%htenment Durist Cesare *e!!ariaEe4!e(t that Monoma5h anti!i(ated his ideas b# !enturies,/71 Monoma5h:s mora" (rima!#- in G"in5a:s e4a"ted estimation- rested on the $a!t that he trans$ormed *ib"i!a" tea!hin%s into the $oundation o$ (o"iti!a" "i$eA he understood mora" edu!ation to be "o'e $or nei%hbor- $ather"and- and God,/79 Subse)uent %o'ernment o$$i!ia"s !ontinued this "ine o$ &isdom, One o$ G"in5a:s $a'orite e4am("es &as the se'enteenth3!entur# *o#ar Artamon Mat'ee'- &hom G"in5a !onsidered he e)ui'a"ent o$ +ohn Lo!5e or Condi""a! ?and So!rates and Mar!us Aure"ius $or that matter@- e4!e(t that he &rote more !"ear"# than the# did,/7. Others in!"uded2 A'raam Pa"its#n- $rom the nationa" mo'ement in 6.6/A and edor Mi5hai"o'i!h Rtish!he' ?6./936.H8@- a !ontem(orar# o$ Mat'ee'- &ho $ound his &a# into A"e4ei Mi5hai"o'i!h:s !ourt and estab"ished a s!hoo" o$ "an%ua%es- rhetori!- and (hi"oso(h#, ?This s!hoo" e'entua""# be!ame the S"a'i!3Gree53Latin A!adem#@, Petrine o$$i!ia"s a((eared as &e""- in!"udin% =iri"" Ra>umo's5ii- (resident o$
It &as o$ten !"aimed that Cesare *onesana- the mar)uis o$ *e!!aria:s On Crimes and -unishment had a %reat in$"uen!e on Catherine the Great:s (o"iti!a" thou%ht, G"in5a:s !"aim im("ies that Catherine did not need to see5 Euro(ean !ounse" to a!hie'e her %reatness,

BO 'os(itanii Russ5i5h- do 'remen Petra (er'a%o-C R: 8 ?Mar!h- 6707@ /G1,

Ser%ei G"in5a- BO 'os(itanii Rus5i5h- %o 'remeni Petra 'e"i5a%o-C R: 628 ?Mar 6707@2 /7.3/G7,


the Im(eria" A!adem# o$ S!ien!es in 6H1. and "ater Hetman o$ U5raine in 6H90, Ni5ita <oto' met &ith G"in5a:s a((ro'a" $or his a""e%ed"# uni)ue abi"it# be$ore Rousseau to borro& $rom nature, *# %rou(in% (atrioti! o$$i!ia"s $rom both sides o$ the Petrine di'ideG"in5a "imited the sense that the ear"ier era had !ome to an end or &as in$erior, G"in5a sou%ht throu%h his "o(sided !om(arisons to (ro'e !u"tura" su(eriorit# &ithout re$eren!e to the herita%e o$ the !"assi!a" &or"d, Thou%h an a'id reader o$ the !"assi!s- he dis(ara%ed the need $or them in a "and o$ en"i%htened hearts,
|c gZbgj }Zb`jl mheag fe\pcej]ah^g^d d\`\p pj md^\l…cscgnrp †hc}cmhda \ …cejice`ua dmc_`a f^q^egj \l, We don:t need e4am("es o$ other !ountriesWe see our o&n Catosthe Ca""s to Dut# $or ather"and and aithHearts a"&a#s obe# them,/7H

The Roman Re(ub"i! &as !ited $a'orab"# in the Dourna"- but on"# in a !omment that it had de!"ined &hen its !iti>ens imitated other !i'i"i>ations,/77 Other C"assi!a" re$eren!es &arned a%ainst imitation, or instan!e- G"in5a !om(ared Gau"s under Romans &ith Russians under Mon%o"s, The Mon%o" "eader !ou"d ne'er sha5e the Russian out
BSti5hi na s"u!hai (o"u!heniia e%o siate":st'om %ra$om I'anom ;asi":e'i!hem Gudo'i!hem $e":dmarsha":s5a%o dostoinst'a,C R: 82H ?+u"# 6707@2 78,
287 288

R: 62/ ?Mar!h 6707@- (( /973/9G,


o$ them, Gau"s- on the other hand- &ere sus!e(tib"e to Roman in$"uen!e- edu!ation- and "a&s, U"timate"#- the Gau"s $e"" (re# to ruin under $orei%n !u"tura" de!a#- in this !ase- the de!aden!e asso!iated &ith %"adiators,/7G The same issue !riti!i>ed the an!ients: abi"it# to (reser'e monuments and anima"s- !"aimin% that Russia:s museum te!hni)ues &ere su(erior,/G0 G"in5a &as so !on'in!ed that the de'e"o(ment o$ Russian statehood &as mat!hed b# inte""e!tua" $orte that he !on!ei'ed &a#s to dis("a# it $or a"" humanit#, One (ro(osa" in'o"'ed a hu%e ather"and boo5 re(ositor# that &ou"d !o""e!t a"" o$ Russia:s &isdom to dis("a# a (ro%ressi'e and or%ani! de'e"o(ment o$ thou%ht, G"in5a &anted to !o""e!t e'er# boo5 that "in5ed !ommon inte""e!tua" a!ti'it# on beha"$ o$ ad'an!in% so!ia" &e"$are, The# &ou"d be %rou(ed b# !entur# and &ou"d ha'e the $o""o&in% e$$e!t on the #oun%2
,,, &e !ross o'er $rom !entur# to !entur#- in ea!h o$ &hi!h is $ound the !on!e(ts that (eo("es and (o&ers (reser'ed and that are Dust as indis(ensab"e $or (eo("e in the demands o$ dai"# "i$e, At the end- the !urious and obser'in% 'isitor- ha'in% rea!hed the nineteenth3 !entur#- !an dra& !on!"usions about the su!!essi'e a!hie'ements o$ %enera""# %ood !on!e(ts- or about their %radua" de!"ine,/G6

Another !on!e(tion &ou"d ha'e trans$ormed Mos!o& itse"$ into a "i'in% museum- &ith ori%ina" arti$a!ts- &ea(ons- do!uments- and

R: 626 ?Mar!h 6707@- 1H31G R: 626 ?Mar!h 6707@- 607360G, M#s": o 5ni%o5hrani"ish!he ote!hest'ennom- R: /21 ?A(r 6707@2 9639.,




monuments $rom a"" !orners o$ the em(ire, Aside $rom the stri!t"# dida!ti! (ur(oses aimed at Russian #outh- the !it# &ou"d tea!h the Euro(eans o$ their o&n B#outhC and (ro'e that the Mon%o" in'asion had not disru(ted the (ath o$ Russian histor#,/G/ The memor# o$ Peter the Great &as o$ten a stumb"in% b"o!5 to the (er!e(tion o$ !ontinuit# bet&een the eras o$ Russian histor#, Indeed- the Euro(ean o(inions that (rodu!ed Dourna"isti! de$enses o$ the (ast had rested on ;o"taire:s (remise2 that Peter &as %reat- but the !ountr# itse"$ "an%uished in dar5ness, Aside $rom "audin% %o'ernment o$$i!ia"s on both sides o$ the 6H00 di'ide- G"in5a:s $i!tion and (oetr# tried to %"oss o'er the e$$e!ts o$ Peter the Great, Res(ondin% to !"aims that he &as hosti"e to Peter- G"in5a &rote in his memoirs that he !onsidered himse"$ one o$ the $e& de$endin% Peter:s a!tua" ambitions,
Peter I "on%ed to see Russia made Russia- and Russians be Russians, He &anted to mer%e us &ith Euro(e not throu%h &himsi!a" $ashionsnot &ith the in$e!tion o$ "u4ur#- but E &ith trades and arts- and &ith that bene'o"ent en"i%htenment- &hi!h (reser'es both the $ather"and and humanit#, I$ Peter I &ere to arise $rom his %ra'e and see the (ett# &hir"in% o$ our %rand &or"d- he &ou"d not re!o%ni>e us,/G8

In Russian Herald0s $irst issue- G"in5a endorsed Peter as a "in5 in the !hain o$ %reat men Russia:s e"ementar# needs2 se!urit#- stron%


G"in5a- R: /21 ?A(r 6707@2 607360G, G"in5a- Capiski- /1G,



(atriar!ha" 'a"ues- and re'eren!e $or re"i%ion,/G1 An histori!a" (oem dre& !onne!tions bet&een Peter and Minin- the mer!hant hero o$ 6.6/, Set in Minin:s home Ni>hnii No'%orod- the (oem o(ens &ith Peter (a#in% his res(e!ts at Minin:s %ra'e $or ha'in% sa'ed the nationa" $aith,
… hc [c`mhdcggjc `g\- q^_`a |c[cm …samh\hcsn ice`ua id^\l mjg^d hcefcgncp \mqZxas] mfamcgno {^mm\rg †g ‚\g\ga f^msas, …^tbc_mr dce^o mck Yeab`ag\g [ctdcmhgjk…^ \pr …cej- _sam eat`asmr f^dmcpcmhgjk2 {at`eagg^ waemhd\c mfams^mn m^ot^p `ZxA {c}ap hd^\p c•c dcs\q\k dgcpso pZb, ?In those miserab"e da#s- &hen the Ru"er o$ the hea'ens Tested &ith (atien!e the hearts o$ His sons or the sa"'ation o$ Russians- he sent Minin, This un5no&n !iti>en &as a$ire &ith $aith In the name o$ $aith- his 'oi!e ran% out e'er#&here2 The union o$ sou"s has sa'ed the torn u( 5in%domA I sti"" hear the %reat man in #our &ords,@/G9

G"in5a !on!"uded &ith the !"aim that Peter !arried on Minin:s stri'in% to&ard immorta"it# b# attem(tin% to subdue S&eden, Sin!e G"in5a !onsidered Ben"i%htenmentC a matter o$ mora"it# vis)P)vis God:s (ur(oses- Peter &as !ontinuin% on the Russian (ath, G"in5a a((ro'ed o$ Peter:s en"i%htened ser'itors and o$ Catherine the Great- but his (raise $or (ost3Petrine nationa" a!hie'ements $o!used $ar more on mi"itar# endea'ors, As a modern

Ser%ei G"in5a- BPetr ;e"i5ii-C 626 ?+an 6707@2 663//,

Ser%ei G"in5a- BPetr (er'# ' Ni>hnem No'%rade- u %roba Minina,C R: 6927 ?Au% 6766@2 83G,


e4am("e o$ a Russian &ho imitated his an!estors- G"in5a !ited ie"dmarsha" Su'oro' and a'erred that ser'i!e to a %reat !ause out&ei%hed s!ho"ar"# treaties,/G. Indeed- he in)uired rhetori!a""#&hat %ood ha'e a!ademi! BEn"i%htenmentC t#(es "i5e *enDamin ran5"in and Isaa! Ne&ton done $or humanit#Edo the# (ro'ide ha((iness to an#oneL G"in5a de"iberate"# reDe!ted the 'a"ue o$ ei%hteenth3!entur# "earnin%- seein% in it on"# materia"ism, As he &rote in his memoirs- BNChar"esO Du C"os said that in the ei%hteenth3 !entur# there &as mu!h stud#- but no u(brin%in% ?vospitanie@, *ut I a%ree &ith +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau that there &as neither stud#- nor u(brin%in%,C/GH Instead- G"in5a hi%h"i%hted the %reatness o$ s(irit that he sa& in mi"itar# 'entures, In the stor# BThou%hts about M#se"$C ?6707@- a stor# mode"ed on edor Rosto(!hin:s Thou$hts loud on

the "taircase o! Honor- the rest"ess (rota%onist &orried about !ontem(orar# #outh:s "a!5 o$ res(e!t $or nationa" heroes, G"in5a (resented the missin% tradition not as a (re3Petrine idea"- but a su!!essi'e de'e"o(ment o$ %reat mi"itar# 'i!tories that e4tended u( ti"" the (resent,
Who has not heard o$ stron% Russians- mi%ht# bo%at#rsL Who does not 5no& O"e%- S'iatos"a'- ;"adimir Monoma5h- A"e4ander Ne's5#Dmitrii Dons5oi- I'an the Terrib"e- the humb"er o$ 5in%domsA Peter in

Ser%ei G"in5a- BO 'os(itanii Rus5i5h- %o 'remeni Petra 'e"i5a%o-C R: 628 ?Mar 6707@2 /7.3/G7,
296 297

G"in5a- Capiski- 6G6,


name and deed the irstL Who has not heard o$ Rumiantse' *e#ond3 the3Don- o$ Su'oro' o$ R#mni!5L/G7

In his (atrioti! (oems- G"in5a e4tended the (atrioti! "in5 bet&een Minin and Peter to A"e4ander, In one- the ne& tsar &ith "aure"s o$ 'i!tor# $or the %ra'e o$ Peter the Great- re!ei'es a b"essin% $rom hea'en and returns to (er(etuate the BtraditionC o$ destro#in% enemies,/GG A!!ordin% to G"in5a- A"e4ander (ro'ed his &orth b# !on)uerin% in"and, A$ter Ti"sit- Russia had be!ome the East Euro(ean he%emon- as Ni!ho"as Riasano's5# (uts it800- and it &a%ed &ar &ith S&eden o'er innish territories, The (ea!e o$ rederi5shamn ?670G@ brou%ht in"and &ithin the Russian em(ire as a %rand du!h#, Contem(oraries in St, Petersbur%- ho&e'er- re!a""ed so "itt"e ne&s about the e'ent that (eo("e on the street did not understand &h# 'i!tor# !annons &ere boomin% in the midd"e o$ the da#, Ne'erthe"ess- $or G"in5a and his readers- an# mi"itar# 'i!tor# !on$irmed their !"aims about the enduran!e o$ the o"d 'a"ues, One (oem submitted to Russian Herald !ommemorated *ar!"a# de To""#:s ro"e in the e4(edition a%ainst the

Ser%ei G"in5a- BM#s"i (ro sebia-C R: 628 ?Mar 6707@2 /963/9/,

Ser%ei G"in5a- BSti5hi- (o s"u!haiu 'o>dannoi !hesti Im(eratorom A"e5sandrom Per'#m (amiati Petra Per'a%o,C R: 7260 ?O!t 670G@2 68H3687,

N, ;, Riasano's5#- History o! Russia- 9th ed, ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG8@2 807,


S&edes &ith the !"aim that his su!!ess in batt"in% the Northern !o"d !ame $rom the s(irit o$ Su'oro' &ho had endured the S&iss A"(s, G"in5a had a mu!h &ider3ran%in% inter(retations o$ the anne4ation o$ in"and, or him- this a!t reunited the 'er# $irst a!t o$ Russian statehood ?the Ca""in% o$ the ;aran%ians@ &ith the (resent- sin!e he (resumed that Riuri5- the (rin!i(a" ;aran%ian- &as innish, urthermore- the Russian hero A"e4ander Ne's5# had $ou%ht near in"and- and Peter the Great had stru%%"ed &ith the S&edes- &ho !eded in"and, In this sense- A"e4ander !ontinued the (ath that his an!estors had "aid out and has "aid an unbrea5ab"e $oundation $or !enturies,
† {oe\qS ‚^bch [jhn hj d dc}g^mh\ mq^e[cs‡h^ ^hc}cmq^k hd^k qeak m {^mm\ck eat`cscg if^q^kmrS i gap\ ^gS ^g f^` ^`g^k ycebad^k2 ‡h^ |cdmq\k Šscqmag`e mhrbas d^cgg^k msad^kA ‡h^ ^h gam\s\r „•v{†‚ …^tdea•cg^ v^ Š••]iŠ|y{†‚ `gcmn ga dcq Zhdceb`cg^, ?O Riuri5S !an it be that in eternit# #ou $ee" %rie'edThat #our $ather:s "and is di'ided $rom Russia *e at (ea!eS It is &ith usS,,, it is under one Po&er2 That &hi!h A"e4ander Ne's5# %uarded &ith martia" %"or#That &hi!h &as returned $rom 'io"en!e b# Peter No& and $ore'er is su((orted b# A"e4ander,@806

G"in5a thus !ast nationa" (ro%ress (rimari"# in mi"itar# terms &ith a"" the ne&- minor !"ashes as (re(aration $or somethin% e'en %reater, Aside $rom the S&edes- Russia %ot entan%"ed in &ar &ith its
G"in5a- BSti5hi (o (o s"u!haiu 'o>dannoi !hesti Im(eratorom A"e5sandrom Per'#m (amiati Petra Per'a%o-C 687,


southern nei%hbors o'er its anne4ation o$ the Cau!asian state o$ Geor%ia in 6708, The Russo3Persian War ?670136768@ ended &ith the Treat# o$ Gu"istan and re!o%nition o$ Da%hestan, More im(ortant"#the Russo3Tur5ish War ?670.3676/@ &as &a%ed &ith Mi5hai" =utu>o' in !ommand- endin% Dust be$ore the Na(o"eoni! in'asion in 676/, The (oetr# in Russian Herald asso!iated &ith these &ars !onstant"# (ortra#ed their !on)uests as ne& ste(s a"on% the B(ath Bo$ Russia:s histor#, In one- the bond is bet&een Catherine and her %randson&ho e4tended the em(ress:s tradition b# brin%in% ne& 'i!tories ?and !onse)uent"# territories@ to the sum o$ Russia:s mi%ht, In anotherthe batt"e bet&een Russians and Tur5s a((eared as a star5 !ontrast o$ %ood and e'i", The Tur5s &ere !a""ed Ban e'i"- miserab"e (eo("e-C B&i"d adherents o$ the $a"se (ro(hetC &ho Bb"ind"# be"ie'e in the (o&er o$ $ateC and- in %ood C"assi!a" $orm- e'entua""# &ere !ast into the under&or"d,80/ On the e'e o$ 676/- &hen G"in5a too5 an o$$i!ia" ro"e in mobi"i>in% his !ountr#men- he had been tr#in% to !on'in!e them that a"" their histor# had "itera""# "ed u( to the (resent, His stru%%"e to &rest his !ountr#men a&a# $rom ren!h philosophe in$"uen!eho&e'er- rested on his absor(tion o$ other ren!h ideas, Thou%h G"in5a &as a $ier# nationa"ist- his de("o#ment o$ nationa" identit#

GE',- BPesn: Geroiu na (obed# >a Dunaem-C R: 6/260 ?O!t 6760@2 608,


!ontinued to re$"e!t the assum(tions that Russians (ossessed en"i%htened 'a"ues that &ere 'a"id $or Euro(eans- but &hi!h the# themse"'es had "ost, Ž Ž Ž

Russian Herald &as the main or%an o$ "iterar# resistan!e to Na(o"eon in the brie$ Ti"sit Era ?670H36766@, Ostensib"# as(irin% to a!)uaint Russians &ith their nationa" !hara!ter- Ser%ei G"in5a (ossessed a &or"d'ie& determined in "ar%e (art b# the re"i%ious &ritin%s o$ +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau and !onsonant &ith the (rin!i(a" !on!erns o$ ren!h anti3philosophes, He dis!erned a (ro!ess o$ en"i%htenment in Russian histor# that not on"# rein$or!ed ear"ier notions o$ !ontinuit# &ith (ast eras- but treated them as a ho"isti! (ro%ress, Whi"e his Dourna" did not see5 to bui"d brid%es &ith Euro(eits Counter3En"i%htenment !onstru!tion o$ an!estra" 'irtues "aid the %round $or (o"iti!a" Dourna"ism in the Euro(ean !am(ai%n- &hen other authors sou%ht to $ind a mora" basis that Russia and (re3 re'o"utionar# Euro(e shared, More im(ortant"#- his em(hasis on the (er(etuit# o$ Russian en"i%htenment (ro'ided the B"o%i!C that e4("ained its su((osed !u"tura" and mi"itar# su(eriorit#, Whi"e his "o%i! mi%ht ha'e a((ea"ed to nob"es rest"ess"# anti!i(atin% the


!on!"usion o$ ("easantries &ith the Corsi!an throne3stea"er- the in'asion o$ 676/ destro#ed Mos!o&- the B"i'in% museumC o$ (ast %reatness, rom that (oint- ne& "o%i!s &ere demanded- and a more re"i%ious $oundation to the !ourse o$ Russian histor# &as "aid,


Chapter .! /or-in' a M"th o$ Nationa* Su$$erin'! Apoca*"ptic 0i#ion and C*erica* Rhetoric in 1 )
The be"ie$ in the uni'ersa"it# o$ Russian 'a"ues (ersisted in re"i%ious (oetr# that m#tho"o%i>ed the 676/ in'asion o$ Mos!o& as an e'ent ana"o%ous to *ib"i!a" stories about An!ient Israe", Man# o$ these (oems: authors m#tho"o%i>ed the Russian de$eats as a sa!ri$i!e $or a di'ine (ur(ose, The# im("ied that the o!!u(ation and burnin% o$ Mos!o& in Se(tember 676/ &as an e'i"- ne!essar# $or Euro(e:s $uture "iberation $rom Na(o"eon, These (oems b"ended the be"ie$ in uni'ersa"it# o$ Russian 'a"ues &ith other messiani! !om(onents2 themes o$ inter!ession and a sa"'i$i! (ro!ess o$ histor#, As the obDe!t o$ sa"'ation &as Euro(e- one mi%ht e4(e!t that the# &ere a (rodu!t o$ the northern and more Euro(ean !a(ita" St, Petersbur%, On the !ontrar#- the (ro3Euro(ean 'ie&s ori%inated $rom &riters in Mos!o&- &hi"e a nationa"isti! and 4eno(hobi! tone dominated !om(arab"e re"i%ious (oetr# o$ St, Petersbur% &riters, This !ha(ter ana"#>es the re"i%ious (oetr# o$ members in t&o maDor "iterar# !enters2 St, Petersbur% and Mos!o&, Sin!e su!h (oetr# $e"" outside the !anons o$ ren!h neo3!"assi!a" standards- it a""o&ed a $reer ran%e o$ e4(ressionA authors !ou"d smu%%"e in so!ia" !riti!ism


a"on% &ith bombast about nationa" %reatness, Re"i%ious (oetr# $ormed on"# a sma"" (art o$ the enormous out(our o$ "iterar# (rodu!tions durin% 676/, One So'iet estimate (ut the number o$ (rinted (atrioti! (oems $rom 676/36769 at o'er .00- but the 'ast maDorit# o$ these &ere odes or &or5s dedi!ated to mi"itar# heroes, 808 Re"i%ious (oems- on the other hand- &ere dedi!ated to inter(retin% the &ar a%ainst Na(o"eon throu%h the (rism o$ S!ri(ture, The# !an ser'e as a sour!e o$ insi%ht into the inte""e!tua" !"imate o$ the o(inion o$ the Na(o"eoni! era be!ause man# Romanti! thin5ers a!ross Euro(e &ere a"so in$"uen!ed b# mi""enarian !"aims that the re'o"utionar# era &itnessed the rea"i>ation o$ es!hato"o%i!a" (ro(he!ies, Whi"e the Mus!o'ites shared 'isions o$ 676/ as a s!ri(tura" $u"$i""ment that &ou"d resu"t in a ne& order- their bib"i!a" ba!5%round and nationa" (ride dro'e them to (oint to&ard a restoration o$ Russian 'a"ues rather than the &ider mi""enarian e4(e!tations, Revolution and Napoleon in <i$ht o! "cripture The m#tho"o%i>ation o$ Mos!o&:s su$$erin% too5 ("a!e amidst a mu!h &ider Euro(ean re"i%ious rea!tion to the ren!h Re'o"ution, In and outside ran!e- the re'o"ution:s obser'ers had been )ui!5 to
I slavili otchi4nu mech i slovo9 &'&3 $od $la4ami ochevidtsev: poe4iia i pro4a- ?Mos!o&2 So'remenni5- 6G7H@- .


asso!iate it &ith the rea"i>ation o$ *ib"i!a" (ro(he!ies, The Dourna"ists!"eri!s- and (ro(a%andists in the anti3philosophe mo'ement in ran!e had $oreseen an imminent so!ia"- (o"iti!a"- and !u"tura" !ata!"#sm e'er sin!e the En"i%htenment, Predi!tin% the do&n$a"" o$ 5in%s- $ami"ies- and !hur!hes as a !onse)uen!e o$ the ideas !ontained in the &ritin%s o$ ;o"taire- Diderot- and D:A"embert- the# ima%ined be$ore 6H7G that the es!hato"o%i!a" !on$rontation (romised in the %ook o! Revelation &as at hand, The re'o"utionar# terror !on$irmed their sus(i!ions o$ the En"i%htenment and seemed to (oint to the need $or the re'i'a" o$ re"i%ion and tradition, 801 Mi""enarianism a"so had a si%ni$i!ant im(a!t on the bur%eonin% Romanti! Mo'ement, The Romanti!s- thou%h- &ere distrau%ht &ith the notion that the ren!h Re'o"ution had $ai"ed to rea"i>e mi""enarian (romises, In En%"and and in German states on the East side o$ the Rhine- re"i%ious mi""enarians a((eared (rea!hin% to the midd"e !"asses in the 6HG0s, The# &ere into4i!ated &ith e4!itement that the 'io"en!e and !arna%e &ou"d %i'e &a# to an e(o!h o$ truth- Dusti!e and harmon#Eana"o%ous to Revelation:s (romise o$ a mi""ennium3 "on% rei%n o$ +esus Christ,809 Un"i5e the ren!h anti3philosophes- &ho
Darrin M, M!Mahon- +nemies o! the +nli$htenment: the 1rench Counter) +nli$htenment and the Makin$ o! Modernity - ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- /006@- !hs, /38,
304 305

See the introdu!tions to Romanticism and Millenarianism- edited b# Tim u"$ord ?Ne& Ior52 Pa"%ra'e- /00/@ and Pa"e#- pocalypse and Millennium,


!onsidered the terror (roo$ o$ their !"aims- the Romanti!s 'ie&ed the terror as a betra#a" o$ their ho(es, The# hen!e turned their ta"ent at art- (hi"oso(h#- and other !reati'e endea'ors to a!!om("ish a !han%e in human nature e)ui'a"ent to a mi""ennia" !han%e,80. Another mo'ement "i'ed in e4(e!tation o$ the mi""ennium durin% the re'o"utionar# a%e, The A&a5enin% &as a re"i%ious mo'ement &ith roots in German Pietism that enDo#ed %reat a((ea" in Russia durin% A"e4ander:s rei%n and es(e!ia""# a$ter 676/, In that #ear- A"e4ander su((orted the $oundation o$ an e'an%e"i!a" *ib"e So!iet#, reemasons "i5e A"e4ander Lab>in &ere a""o&ed to (ub"ish o(en"# the m#sti!a" tra!ts o$ maDor A&a5enin% $i%ures- in!"udin% the m#sti! Heinri!h +un%3Sti""in% ?&hom Tsar A"e4ander met@ and =ar" E!5arthausen- ?author o$ Cloud Over the "anctuary- &hi!h A"e4ander read@,80H Thou%h the A&a5enin% had Protestant roots- it re)uired no !on$essiona" dis!i("ine and thus attra!ted edu!ated members o$ the u((er3!"asses &ithout burdens o$ !ommitment, Un"i5e the Romanti!sOn re"i%ious ba!5%round o$ German and En%"ish Romanti!s- see a"so M, H, Abrams- Natural "upernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic <iterature ?London2 W, W, Norton- 6GH6@- 66, As Abrams (uts it2 BRomanti! thin5in% and ima%ination remained A(o!a"#(ti! thin5in% and ima%ination- thou%h &ith 'aried !han%es in e4("i!it !ontent,C Natural "upernaturalism- .13.9,

Andrei <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla: literatura i $osudarstvennaia ideolo$iia v rossii v poslednei treti X:III)pervoi treti XIX veka - ?Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- /006@- 8093866,


A&a5eners sa& the ren!h Re'o"ution as (roo$ that the disastrousnot Do#ous- as(e!ts o$ the mi""ennium &ere !omin%, *ut the# did not 5no& &hen, As A"e4ander Martin has noted- the !onser'ati'e o$$i!ia"s in the Russian %o'ernment &ho &ere (art o$ the A&a5enin% "i'ed in e4(e!tation o$ an imminent a(o!a"#(se,807 A"thou%h their 'isions &ere a"so %rounded in the *ib"e- Russian re"i%ious (oets &ere mu!h "ess in!"ined to see a mi""ennia" transition at hand, The O"d Testament- &hi!h had been an sour!e o$ "iterar# inno'ation and e4(erimentation- (ro'ided the maDor basis $or !om(rehendin% the e'ents o$ 676/, Whi"e the Orthodo4 Chur!h in 676/ had not #et de!ided to (ub"ish a !om("ete *ib"e in !ontem(orar# Russian rather than S"a'oni!- se!u"ar &riters &ere &e"" a!)uainted &ith the *ib"e:s !ontents, Ei%hteenth3!entur# (oets de'e"o(ed their o&n st#"es throu%h *ib"i!a" imitations- es(e!ia""# (sa"ms, No ren!h C"assi!a" ru"es addressed sa!red "iterature- so Russians !ou"d (ara(hrase and trans"ate (sa"ms &ithout !onsu"tin% *oi"eau,80G Hen!e the (sa"ms ser'ed as a B"aborator# o$ 'erse e4(eriments,C Dia"o%ues and !om(etitions ensued in "iterar# Dourna"s- and the number o$ 'ersi$ied
A"e4ander Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thou$ht and -olitics in the Rei$n o! le/ander I, ?De=a"b2 North I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH@- 691369H,

A"e4ander Le'its5#- The "acred Ode in +i$hteenth)Century Russian <iterary Culture- ?Ph,D Dissertation2 Uni'ersit# o$ Mi!hi%an- 6GHH@- 6H,


te4ts ?(ub"ished and manus!ri(t@ tota"ed o'er 6-000 b# the end o$ the !entur#,860 Psa"m3&ritin% !ou"d e'en be seen as dan%erous, The o((ortunit# $or the assertion o$ indi'idua"it# in the st#"e o$ (ara(hrasin% (re'ented the Orthodo4 Chur!h $rom a((ro'in% an# se!u"ar author:s ada(tations ?un"i5e in Protestant !ountries@,866 In a (o"iti!a" in!ident- Em(ress Catherine ("a!ed Ga'rii" Der>ha'in under sus(i!ion $or his imitation o$ Psa"m G6- &hi!h the +a!obins had used $or its messa%e o$ so!ia" e)ua"it#,86/ O"d Testament subDe!ts &ere !ommon dis!ussion items in the ne& "iterar# so!ieties o$ A"e4ander:s ear"# rei%n, Der>ha'in and Shish5o' &ere both dra&n b# the s#mbo"ism o$ the %ook o! Revelation and b# the ima%es $rom the Hebre& histories and (ro(hets as mi"itar# tension &ith ran!e e4("oded into bra>en hosti"it#, Dis!ussions o$ O"d Testament themes in orator# and (oetr# a((eared on the Co""o)uium:s a%endas in 6766- a"on%side dis!ourses on modern Euro(ean authors,868 In the Uni'ersit# So!iet# in Mos!o&a simi"ar mi4ture o$ res(e!t $or Euro(ean moderns and an!ients as
Le'its5#- "acred Ode- 1, The most $amous B"aborator#C &as a 6H18 debate on 'ersi$i!ation that $eatured three indi'idua" renditions o$ Psa"m 618,
310 311

Le'its5#- "acred Ode- 61H, $e o! Catherine II- ?Ne& Ha'en2

Isabe""a De Madaria%a- Russian in the Ia"e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G76@- 910,
312 313

A":tshu""er- -redtechi- 8H8,


&e"" as the An!ient Hebre&s (re'ai"ed, The %rou(:s se!retar#- edor =o5osh5in- sa& nothin% at#(i!a" about trans"atin% ;o"taire and Ra!ine a"on% &ith the (ro(het Haba55u5, Shish5o'- Der>ha'in- and Dmitrii =h'osto' &anted to !reate a "iterature that &as !onne!ted or%ani!a""# &ith the nationa" (ast,861 Der>ha'in !onsu"ted an!ient sour!es and assured his audien!es that he had $a!t3!he!5ed a"" the s!enes in his histori!a" dramas, The Uni'ersit# So!iet# &as a$$i"iated &ith the uni'ersit#:s So!iet# $or Russian Histor# and Anti)uit#,869 The *ib"e and the Russian (ast &ere im(ortant sour!es $or 676/ be!ause an!ient !hroni!"es and &ar ta"es inter&o'e di'ine a!tion and histori!a" e'ents b# treatin% *ib"i!a" stories as (re$i%urations o$ Russian histor#, Pre$i%ura" inter(retation- as de$ined b# Eri!h Auerba!h- "oo5s at t&o $i%ures in histor# &ith the assum(tion that the $ormer a!ts as a $orerunner or (re!edent $or the "atter, Sin!e it re)uires histori!a" (ersona%es- $i%urati'e thin5in% &or5s &ith !on!rete e'ents and entities rather than (ure abstra!tions o$ a""e%or#2 'irtue or $ather"and- $or e4am("e,86. The

A":tshu""er- -redtechi- 17,

This %rou( &as ori%ina""# $ormed under the "eadershi( o$ Ni5o"ai =aram>in and aristo!rati! (hi"anthro(ists in 670.- but it soon $e"" a(art, Go"enish!he'3=utu>o' re'i'ed it &ith a hea'ier a!ademi! !onstituen!#- and the so!iet# &or5ed to (o(u"ari>e and (ub"ish an!ient Russian manus!ri(ts, ?Un$ortunate"#- a"most a"" o$ their &or5 disa((eared in the %reat $ire o$ 676/,@ Andree'- Mosvovskii universitet- 6./36.8,
315 316

Eri!h Auerba!h- "cenes !rom the 6rama o! +uropean <iterature - ?Ne&


inter(reter must i""uminate the truth that binds them,
Thus the $i%ures are not on"# tentati'e- the# are a"so the tentati'e $orm o$ somethin% eterna" and time"essA the# (oint not on"# the !on!rete $uture- but a"so to somethin% that a"&a#s has been and a"&a#s &i"" beA the# (oint to somethin% &hi!h is in need o$ inter(retation- &hi!h &i"" indeed be $u"$i""ed in the !on!rete $uturebut &hi!h is at a"" times (resent- $u"$i""ed in God:s (ro'iden!e- &hi!h 5no&s no di$$eren!e o$ time, This eterna" thin% is a"read# $i%ured in them- and thus the# are both tentati'e $ra%mentar# rea"it# and 'ei"ed eterna" rea"it#,86H

Pre$i%uration o$ the nation thus !ou"d (ro'ide a &a# to (oint to&ard a hi%her- eterna" truth to be re'ea"ed b# a !hosen (eo("e, Literar# traditions and (o"iti!a" ritua"s had (reser'ed the (ra!ti!e o$ re"i%ious (re$i%urations into the a%e o$ A"e4ander, In an!ient Russian manus!ri(ts- (re$i%uration &as a !ommon &a# o$ e4("ainin% the !ourse o$ e'ents that a""o&ed the !hroni!"e to $use se!u"ar and sa!red time,867 In the Mus!o'ite era- O"d Testament (re$i%urations be!ame &ides(read at !ourt- &here the (o"iti!a" "i$e &as (ortra#ed as that o$ a su!!essor state to the An!ient Israe"ites,86G In the ei%hteenth3!entur#- &hen Gree5 %ods and %oddesses in$i"trated im(eria" !u"ture- the !"er%# (reser'ed the "an%ua%e o$

Ior52 Meridian- 6G9G@- 90391,

Auerba!h- "cenes- 9G,

G, edoto'- The Russian Reli$ious Mind- ;o", 6- ?Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G1.@- 8763871,

Danie" *,Ro&"and- BMos!o&Ethe Third Rome or the Ne& Israe"LC Russian Revie# 99 ?O!t 6GG.@2 9G63.61,


Russia as a Se!ond Israe" in (ub"i! !e"ebrations &ith the em(ress or em(eror, In the Ti"sit #ears ?670H3676/@- a number o$ ("a#s on Hebre& themes a((eared on sta%e2 su!h as Der>ha'in:s Herod and Miriam- A"e4ander Sha5ho's5oi:s 6eborah- and Petr =orsa5o':s Maccabees, Whi"e these (rodu!tions did not (ro(ose e4("i!it (re$i%urations- their !hara!ters: a!tions a""uded to the rea" !ondu!t o$ (o"iti!a" a!tors- in!"udin% Tsar A"e4ander,8/0 Hen!e- the# he"(ed !ement the !onne!tion bet&een the an!ient Hebre&s and modern Russians, A nation &hose (rotot#(e &as Israe" !ou"d be subDe!t to the su$$erin%s that the +e&s had endured to maintain their uni)ue re"ationshi( &ith +eho'ah, In the O"d Testament- the God o$ the Israe"ites estab"ished a !o'enant &ith them to re!o%ni>e him as their e4!"usi'e deit#, or 'io"ations- God &ou"d send (ro(hets to &arn the

(eo("e to re(ent, ai"ure to do so !ou"d earn (unishment throu%h mi"itar# de$eat or e'en &ho"esa"e e4i"e, Li5e&ise- in the &ar stories o$ an!ient Russian manus!ri(ts des!ribin% the thirteenth3!entur# in'asion o$ the Mon%o"s- the !hroni!"er !"aimed that !a"amit# o!!urred B$or our sinsC ?po $rekhom nashim@,8/6 Contem(orar#
Wi""iam Ed&ard *ro&n- History o! Russian <iterature o! the Romantic -eriod- 1 'o"s, ?Ann Arbor2 Ardis- 6G7.@- 9/398,

E'en here- ho&e'er- the aim o$ (unishment !ou"d be e)ui'o!a", In the $irst No'%orod 'ersion o$ the Tale o! the %attle on the ;alka River ?-ovest0 o bitve na reke ;alke@- $or instan!e- the stor# be%ins and ends &ith reminders


histori!a" drama- "i5e that o$ the a'id manus!ri(t reader Ser%ei G"in5a- re'i'ed these themes, His Michael, -rince o! Cherni$ov ?6707@ &as read (ub"i!"# durin% the hei%ht o$ (atrioti! !reati'it# at the end o$ 670. in Der>ha'in:s home, A!!ordin% to G"in5a- the audien!e res(onded most to an aside that im("ied Russia:s de'ian!e $rom its tradition &arranted its $a"" to the Mon%o" !on)ueror *at#i, BWe are not humb"edA &e $or%ot God, J We so"d hea'en $or earth:s hea'# dust, J And &ith an a&esome arm# *at#i s&e(t u(on us,C8// Themes o$ di'ine (unishment and Russia3as3Israe" s(read &ide"# at this time in the (ub"i! dis!ourse o$ the Orthodo4 Chur!h, In the Coa"ition Wars- the announ!ement $or the mi"itia had dra&n (ara""e"s bet&een the so"diers o$ the (ast and (resent- !a""in% e'er# son o$ the $ather"and to a!t "i5e an an!ient Hebre& &arrior, It a"so in!"uded a )uasi3A(o!a"#(ti! des!ri(tion o$ Na(o"eon- re(resented as the "eader o$ a !ons(ira!# to resurre!t the Great Sanhedrin that

that e'er#thin% ha((ened $or their sins, The a!tua" (unishment in the stor#ho&e'er- $a""s on o"der Russian enemies- the Po"o'ts# o$ the ste((e, These %od"ess sons o$ Ishmae"- a!!ordin% to the narrator- deser'ed the (unishment o$ the Mon%o"s- &ho hen!e a((eared as a too" o$ di'ine Dusti!e, In another 'ersion o$ the same stor#- the b"ame "a# s)uare"# on the shou"ders o$ the Russian (rin!es- &ho $ai"ed to a"i%n themse"'es &ith the Prin!e Su>da" This &as $rom the H#(atian !hroni!"e, +ohn enne"" and Anthon# Sto5es- +arly Russian <iterature- ?London2 aber and aber- 6GH1@7H, S, N, G"in5a- Capiski "er$ei Nikolaevicha >linki- ?St, Petersbur%2 Russ5aia Starina- 67G9@- /0H3/07,


su((osed"# ordered Christ:s !ru!i$i4ion, 8/8 Whi"e se!u"ar &riters i%nored most o$ the !"eri!a" messa%e- the# borro&ed some o$ its rhetori!, or instan!e- the# be%an to re$er to nationa" ser'i!e as a Bsa!ri$i!eC on the Ba"tarC o$ the ather"and,8/1 The enormous"#3 (o(u"ar ("a# 6mitrii 6onskoi a"so had o(en"# re$erred to the God o$ the Hebre&s as the (artisan o$ an!ient Russia,8/9 In 676/- the !hur!h issued (ub"i! (ro!"amations that !onne!ted the mission o$ the BIsrae"itesC &ith the e4e!ution o$ di'ine an%er, An o$$i!ia" (ro!"amation $rom the S#nod be$ore the in'asion (resented the im(endin% &ar as (unishment u(on humanit# $or the ren!h Re'o"ution,
rom the time that the ren!h (eo("e- b"inded &ith the da#dream o$ $reedom- o'erturned the "e%itimate ru"er8/. and Christian a"tars- the 'en%e$u" hand o$ the Lord in 'isib"e $orm has $irst burdened them- and "ater throu%h and to%ether &ith them- on a"" the (eo("es &hi!h $o""o&ed its di%ression,8/H

N, =, Shi":der- Imperator le/ander -ervyi: e$o 4hi4n0 i tsarstvovanie - 'o", /- ?St, Petersbur%2 A, Su'orin- 67GH367G7@- 89H3897, or the re"ation o$ this !"aim to Na(o"eon:s (o"iti!s- see L, ;, Me":ni5o'a- Russkaia pravoslavnaia tserkovA v otechestvennoi voine &'&3 $oda- ?Mos5'a 2 Mos5o's5ii Sretens5ii monast#r•- /00/@- 1139/,
323 324

<orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- 6H9, See !ha(ter /- (a%e 4,


A!!ordin% to Da":- the term edinoder4havie is rou%h"# e)ui'a"ent to Bauto!ra!#C ?samoder4havie@ or Bmono!ra!#C ?odnovlastie@- denotin% that (o&er is uni$ied in a sin%"e ru"er, Da": notes- ho&e'er- that edinoder4havie !an a"so mean a (o&er that is "imited- as o((osed to the un"imited ru"e o$ auto!ra!#,

BOt s'et"eisha%o Pra'ite":st'uiush!ha%o Sinoda 'o>>'anie-C I"> 82/ ?Au%ust 676/@2 690,


The (ronoun!ement added an e4hortation that a"most identi$ied the Russian herita%e &ith the Hebre&s, BRemember the da#s o$ an!ient Israe" and the #ears o$ our an!estors- &ho &ith darin% thre& themse"'es into dan%er in the name o$ God- and de(arted then!e &ith %"or#,C8/7 The ima%e o$ Russia as the Se!ond Israe" ("a#ed a mu!h more !entra" ro"e in the e'ents o$ Mos!o& than in St, Petersbur%,8/G The Northern !a(ita":s most %i$ted homi"ist ?and "ater a $amous Metro(o"itan in Mos!o&@- Ar!himandrite i"aret- (rea!hed at the A"e4ander Ne's5# La'ra and &as a $a'orite o$ se!u"ar &riters "i5e A"e4ander Tur%ene'- and A"e4ei O"enin, The tsar admired i"aret:s (rea!hin% so mu!h that he !ame to hear his homi"ies at the (ri'ate estate o$ his s(iritua" !on$idant- A"e4ander Go"its#n, One o$ the most $amous sermons de"i'ered there ?$or Christmas Da#- 6766@ e4em("i$ied the rhetori! that i"aret used throu%hout the Na(o"eoni! Wars, The sermon set in o((osition the ru"in% (o&er o$ Israe" in !o""aboration &ith Rome ?=in% Herod@ 'ersus +esus and his $o""o&ers328

BOt s'et"eisha%o Pra'ite":st'uiush!ha%o Sinoda 'o>>'anie-C 696,

Whi"e i"aret &as the !"osest (re"ate to (o&er$u" %o'ernmenta" $i%ures and inte""e!tua"s- Ar!hbisho( Am'rosii &rote the o$$i!ia" !hur!h messa%e distributed throu%hout the St, Petersbur% dio!ese, In it- he re(eated the Orthodo4 Chur!h•s 670. e4hortations to a!t "i5e O"d Testament &arriors, On Am'rosii- see Me"•ni5o'a- Russkaia pravoslavnaia tserkovA- .63.8,


asso!iated &ith the !it# o$ *eth"ehem, In this sense- Herod re(resented O"d +erusa"em- &hi"e the Ne& +erusa"em demanded a (ersona" !on'ersion E o$ %oin% throu%h B*eth"ehemC &ith +esus, BTo !ome to this *eth"ehem- or e'en better- to ta5e (art in this *eth"ehem to%ether is the dut# o$ e'er# Christian sou"- so that "ater it mi%ht enter into and itse"$ be trans$ormed into the Ne# ?erusalem, the tabernacle o! >od9C880 Wor5in% $rom O"d Testament S!ri(turesi"aret !ou"d hard"# a'oid Israe"ite themes- but he shi$ted the tas5 and dut# o$ Christian "i'in% $rom (arti!i(ation in the o"d Israe" to its ne& $u"$i""ment- understood as a s(iritua"Enot a territoria"Estate, In Mos!o&- on the other hand- a $undraisin% (a%eant o$ +u"# 676/ $eatured Israe"ite a""usions intert&ined &ith themes o$ resurre!tion and the !on)uest o$ death, Amidst %reat (o(u"ar anti!i(ation- Tsar A"e4ander tra'e"ed to raise mone# and s(irits in Mos!o& a$ter the announ!ement o$ imminent mi"itar# !on$"i!t on the em(ire:s borders, When he rea!hed the Po5"onnaia Hi"" ?the (resent "o!ation o$ the ;i!tor# Par5 in Mos!o&@- the (riest Gri%orii Ga'ri"o' met him in the midd"e o$ the ni%ht, A$ter the tsar 5issed his !rossGa'ri"o' be""o&ed a "ine $rom the Easter ser'i!e in the Orthodo4

i"aret- BS"o'o na ro>hdest'o =hristo'o-C in "ochineniia 1ilareta Mitropolita Moskovska$o i ;olomenska$o- 'o" 6- ?Mos!o&2 A, I, Mamonto'-67H8@- 671,


"itur%#, BMa# God be resurre!ted and s!atter his enemies,C886 The ne4t mornin%- the tsar attended the Assum(tion Cathedra" !hur!h, Thou%h he had not announ!ed the 'isit- (eo("e $"ooded the =rem"in to tr# to tou!h him and 5iss his $eet, Ar!hbisho( A'%ustin met him at the entran!e to the !athedra" and (ronoun!ed a dis!ourse on (ea!e &ith the Ottoman Porte, His address em("o#ed a host o$ an!ient Israe"ite mi"itar# meta(hors, A"e4ander &as a Da'id a%ainst Go"iatha Gideon a%ainst the Midianites- and Moses $a!in% the Ama"!hites, Modi$#in% the son% $or the Israe"ite Da'id that (ro'ed his su(eriorit# o'er his (rede!essors- A'%ustin re'ersed it to a!!entuate the ad'anta%e o$ A"e4ander:s mora" su(eriorit#, The son% ori%ina""# read2 BSau" has s"ain thousands- J and Da'id tens o$ thousands,C A'%ustin to"d A"e4ander that he !ou"d s"a# thousands in batt"e- but &ou"d &in tens o$ thousands &ith his %oodness, A'%ustin a"so had arran%ed $or the ser'i!e to $o""o& the theme o$ resurre!tion- and he im(osed in the midd"e o$ the (ra#er3ser'i!e Ga'ri"o':s )uotation2 BMa# God be resurre!ted and s!atter his enemies,C88/ The sta#in%3(o&er o$ this "ine &as re'ea"ed in the da#s a$ter the o!!u(ation:s end, The ne&s(a(er a$$i"iated &ith uni'ersit# "i$e-

;,- BPrie>d Im(eratora A"e5sandra I ' Mos5'u-C Russkaia "tarina 696 ?6G6/@2 HH3H7,
331 332

;,- BPrie>d Im(eratora A"e5sandra I ' Mos5'u-C 7/,


Mosco# Ne#s- s(ran% ba!5 to "i$e on No'ember /8- 676/, It had (ub"ished ri%ht u( to a $e& da#s be$ore the ren!h in'asion &ith su!h a !a"m tone that one &ou"d not ha'e 5no&n a !a"amit# &as at hand,888 *# No'ember- it (ro!"aimed &ith e)ua" !on$iden!e that the &ar &as a mere hiatus- and that the rebui"din% o$ Mos!o& &ou"d be%in a(a!e, It re(eated A'%ustin:s messa%e $rom be$ore the &ar, BMa# the a"mi%ht# b"ess our ri%hteous !ause- and ma# &e !a"" out &ith the (ro(het2 May >od be resurrected and his enemies scattered9C881 The "an%ua%e a"so a((eared in an im(eria" mani$esto $rom No'ember 8, It mentioned "itt"e about the meanin% o$ the in'asion- on"# that the ren!h &ere the obDe!t o$ ri%hteous an%er, BThat is ho& God (unishes those &ho ra'a%e his ho"# thin%sSC889 rau%ht &ith outra%e a%ainst the ren!h- se!u"ar &riters in 676/ !on!ei'ed di'erse o(inions on the meanin% o$ di'ine (unishment- the re"ationshi( o$ (resent Russia &ith the Israe"ite (astand &hether a (romise o$ a re%enerate Euro(e ?uni'ersa" 'ariant@ or Russia ?nationa" 'ariant@ "a# at the end o$ the road o$ su$$erin%, These nationa" and uni'ersa" 'ariants di'ided bet&een the
Ste(an Petro'i!h She'#re'- Istoriia Imperatorska$o Moskovska$o universiteta- ?Mos!o&- 6799@- 16/3168,

Tuoted in She'#re'- Istoriia Imperatorska$o Moskovska$o universiteta, 16H316G,
334 335

Shish5o'- Capiski, mneniia i perepiska-, 'o", 6, 111,


Petersbur% Co""o)uium and Mos!o& Uni'ersit# So!iet# res(e!ti'e"#, MaDor Co""o)uium $i%ures "i5e Shish5o'- Der>ha'in- and =a(nist turned to a &ide 'ariet# o$ sour!es $or ins(iration- and no (arti!u"ar $orm o$ s(iritua" (re$i%uration dominated their thin5in%, The Uni'ersit# So!iet# members and other minor &riters- on the other hand- $o""o&ed the Se!ond Israe" rhetori! !"ose"# or e4(anded u(on its uni'ersa"isti! as(e!ts, Hen!e- &hi"e ;asi"ii =a(nist re$erred to no *ib"i!a" te4ts and Der>ha'in to a host o$ them- the Mus!o'ites &or5ed (rimari"# o$$ a""usions to 'erses $rom the Hebre& (ro(hets ?=o5osh5in- Sh!he%o"e'- A'raamo'@- the histories $rom Isaiah:s timeand the Psa"ms ?Shatro'@, Nationalist -rophets: the ColloIuium The Co""o)uium &as $ounded b# Der>ha'in and Shish5o'- men &hose st#"isti! s#m(athies "a# &ith tr#in% to de'e"o( Russian "iterature $rom ar!hai! sour!es, o""o&in% the (hi"o"o%i!a" theories o$ Shish5o'- &ho maintained that !om("e4 meanin%s in "an%ua%e shou"d be deri'ed $rom the sim("er nati'e &ords o$ the (ast- the# be!ame 5no&n as Bar!haistsC &ho &ou"d rather !ombine ar!hai! $orms o$ &ords to !reate more !om("e4 ne& &ords rather than borro& or trans"iterate ren!h &ords &ith a s(e!i$i! but $orei%n


meanin%,88. This "iterar# in!"ination had (o"iti!a" o'ertones, The resistan!e to de'isin% "an%ua%e on ren!h mode"s mat!hed Shish5o':s and his !onser'ati'e $riends: hosti"it# to the (o"iti!s o$ the Ti"sit Era ?670H3676/@- &hen Tsar A"e4ander entrusted to Mi5hai" S(eran5sii %o'ernmenta" re$orms mode"ed a$ter Na(o"eon:s administration, The Co""o)uium itse"$ attra!ted hi%h3ran5in% %o'ernment and mi"itar# o$$i!ia"s- but A"e4ander re$used to a((ro'e or attend it,88H In 676/- ho&e'er- Shish5o' obtained (o&er in A"e4ander:s administration as the !om(oser o$ o$$i!ia" mani$estoes that &ere desi%ned to mobi"i>e the (o(u"a!e $or &ar, Shish5o' &as &e""3a!)uainted &ith S!ri(tures and in $a!t- he shared &ith A"e4ander a "ist o$ e4!er(ts $rom the O"d Testament ?in!"udin% a"" maDor (ro(hets@ that he be"ie'ed to be !omin% to $ruition,887 or his (ub"i! (ro!"amations- ho&e'er- he es!he&ed dire!t S!ri(tura" re$eren!es in $a'or o$ an abstra!t rhetori!a" strate%# that used B(ro'iden!eC as a &a# to hei%hten the !ontrast bet&een the

Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- /.3/G,

Mar5 A":tshu""er- -redtechi slaviano!il0stva v russkoi literature 5Obshchestvo G%eseda liubitelei russko$o slovaH7 - ?Ardis2 Ann Arbor- 6G71@9/,

Shish5o':s arran%ement o$ te4ts $o""o&ed !on'entions o$ ei%hteenth3 !entur# odes, His subheadin%s &ere2 Entran!e o$ the Proud Enem#+erusa"em:s Destru!tion- Pra#er o$ the Tsar- ;oi!e $rom Hea'en- the Tsar Summons the Peo("e- the a"" o$ C#(ress- and Pro(he!#, See his Capiski, mneniia i perepiska dmirala 9 "9 "hishkova - 'o", 6- ?*er"in2 *, *ehr- 67H0@/9/3/9H,


Russians and the ren!h, A No'ember 8 mani$esto- $or e4am("e(ortra#ed a tab"eau o$ disaster &ith %ris"# detai"s about the ren!h d#in% in retreat $rom Russia- o'erburdened b# sto"en 'a"uab"es, BThat is ho& God:s ri%hteous an%er (unishes those &ho ra'a%e his ho"# thin%s,C88G He a"so a""otted di'ine (unishment to subDe!ts in the Western (ro'in!es &ho &ere enti!ed b# Na(o"eon:s tem(orar# %o'ernmenta" administrations,810 Shish5o':s treatment o$ the masses in the mani$estoes re$"e!ted his ar!haist "iterar# and (o"iti!a" s#m(athies, A"thou%h he ardent"# o((osed so!ia" or "e%a" e)ua"it# $or the ser$s- he ne'erthe"ess (ur(orted to res(e!t them be!ause the# (reser'ed (rimordia"- un!orru(ted "an%ua%e,816 Conse)uent"#- the mani$estoes (ortra#ed the (eo("e as $aith$u" and uns&er'in% in their dut# to the $ather"and, In a readin% $or !hur!hes- BNe&s $rom Mos!o&-C in O!tober 676/- Shish5o' &ent $urther and (ro!"aimed that the &ar had demonstrated de$initi'e"# the !ontrast bet&een the Russian and ren!h nations, A$ter re'ie&in% ren!h so"diers: misbeha'ior in Mos!o&- the readin% !on!"uded that t&o a'enues remained o(en2 !ontinue &ith ren!h in$"uen!e- %od"essness- de!a#- and destru!tionA

Shish5o'- Capiski, mneniia i perepiska- 1113119, Shish5o'- Capiski, mneniia i perepiska- 197319G Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 88,




or return to the &a#s o$ an!estors- Orthodo4#- and so!ia" hierar!h#,
or "on% &e ha'e b"undered about- honorin% the (eo("e N ren!hO as &orth# o$ our %ood&i""- !om(anionshi( and e'en imitation, We admired and (ressed to our breast a ser(ent- &hi!h- tearin% out o$ its o&n &omb- s(i""s its (oison to&ard us and in return $or our %ratitude and "o'e- &ounds &ith its most e'i" stin%, 81/

Shish5o' !"ear"# "a!5ed a 'ision o$ re%eneration $or Euro(e as a &ho"e, In his te4t $or (u"(its a!ross the em(ire- the di'ine im(ort o$ the &ar !onsisted on"# in restorin% nationa" !hara!ter, The Co""o)uium:s ar!haist (ro%ram (ro'ed attra!ti'e to ;asi"ii =a(nist, Thou%h a !onser'ati'e b# out"oo5- =a(nist:s ear"ier "iterar# endea'ors under Catherine the Great had a"so estab"ished him as a !riti! o$ the %o'ernmenta" administration,818 His most $amous ("a# Chicanery ?6HG6@ atta!5ed !orru(tion in the bureau!ra!#A its (er$orman!e &as ha"ted a$ter $our sho&in%s unti" 6709, rom the be%innin% o$ A"e4ander:s rei%n to the Ti"sit Era- man# !onser'ati'es had %ro&n !riti!a" o$ the #oun% tsar:s administration and (ro3 Euro(ean orientation- and =a(nist &as amon% them,811 The ne& 6.6/

Shish5o'- Capiski, mneniia i perepiska- 11/,

He a"so tried to e4("oit Shish5o':s a((ointment as President o$ the Russian A!adem#, In Au%ust 6768- he to"d Shish5o' that he &ou"d re3enter the B!hur!h o$ "iteratureC and submitted himse"$ $or editorshi( o$ its a!ademi! Dourna", See !orres(onden!e in "obranie sochinenii v dvukh tomakh- ;o", / ?Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 AN SSSR- 6G.0@- 170,

These !onser'ati'es did tried to $orm a (o"iti!a" o((osition a%ainst re$orm- not a%ainst the auto!ra!#, See the dis!ussion o$ A"e4ander:s $irst de!ade in Ibid,- !hs, /38,


sta%e3(rodu!tions o$ the Coa"ition Wars had !on'in!ed =a(nist that the time had !ome to o'erthro& the de(enden!e on $orei%n !u"ture ?i,e,- ren!h@, He sa& in Shish5o' and the Co""o)uium the best means to do so, In ebruar# 676/- he %reeted a s(ee!h o$ Shish5o' at the Co""o)uium as the theoreti!a" $oundation $or an ar!haist (ro%ram o$ nationa" rene&a", BThis (ortrait &i"" $or!e e'er# Russian to $ee" the 'a"ue o$ his 'er# o&n di%nit# and &i"" ser'e as an antidote to the disease o$ b"ind imitation o$ $orei%n inno'ations- sedu!in% $ri'o"ous minds,C819 =a(nist:s :ision o! a Russian Mournin$ over Mosco# &as &ritten in dire!t res(onse to the !onse)uen!es o$ the 676/ in'asion and (ronoun!ed harsh Dud%ment on his !ountr#men:s Bb"ind imitation,C The (oem te""s the stor# in the 'oi!e o$ =a(nist himse"$ as he stru%%"es to understand the meanin% o$ the ren!h in'asion, U(on ne&s o$ the ren!h ad'an!e- =a(nist !urses (ro'iden!e and dri$ts into a 'ision- &hi!h $orms the "on%est (art o$ the (oem, He sees a $i%ure $rom the "muta- Patriar!h Germo%en- &ho rebu5es =a(nist and !riti!i>es Russian so!iet# o$ the 6700s in a "on%
=a(nist- "obranie sochinenii- 'o", /- 1.7, ami"ia" ties rein$or!ed simi"arities in out"oo5, =a(nist and Der>ha'in &ere re"ated throu%h the D:ia5o' $ami"#, =a(nist had married A"e5sandra and arran%ed $or the !o'ert &eddin% o$ the midd"e sister- Maria- to Ni5o"ai A"e5sandro'i!h L•'o'- &hose "iterar# !ir!"e boasted both =a(nist and Der>ha'in, In 6HG1 the "atter too5 the #oun%est sister Dar•ia- and =a(nist and Der>ha'in maintained !"ose !orres(onden!e a"" the &a# throu%h the Na(o"eoni! &ars,


haran%ue, :ision ends &ith =a(nist:s re3a&a5enin% and rea"i>ation o$ the need to rebui"d Russia a!!ordin% to Germo%en:s ad'i!e, The s(ee!h o$ Germo%en introdu!ed the idea that the in'asion ser'ed as (unishment $or the short!omin%s o$ the Russian u((er !"asses sin!e the time o$ Peter the Great, The Euro(ean3oriented tsar "ed the !orru(tion o$ the nation throu%h his (ro%ram o$ in!reasin% !u"tura" !onta!t and "a#in% the $oundations $or a !entur# o$ !"oser re"ations,
{^mm\kmq\ fe^mdch\hn Zpj bcsar hcpgj„cecmcsrs ^g q dap gaZq\ }Zbctcpgj|^ mscf^ }h\dx\c fZh\ [cmmpcehgjl `cs„ectecd eat[^e}\d^mhn [sa_^\mqZmgjl f}cs‘\e^q\c deaha g^d\tgap ^hd^e\s\ ~ }Zb`^k e^mq^xno dmc uaemhd^ ^head\s\, ?Desirin% to en"i%hten Russians• dar5 mindsHe trans("anted to #ou s!ien!es o$ $orei%n "ands*ut b"ind"# admirin% the (ath to immorta" deedsHe des(ised the $astidiousness o$ the di"i%ent bee-81. S&un% o(en the &ide %ates to inno'ations And the &ho"e 5in%dom &as (oisoned &ith $orei%n "u4ur#,@ 81H

A!!ordin% to Germo%en- =a(nist:s !ontem(oraries had su!!umbed to 'i!es o$ %reed and narro& se"$3interest be!ause o$ the (ro!ess,
Trudoliubivaia pchela &as the name o$ a Dourna"- &hi!h o$ten e4(ressed the o(inion o$ Catherine the Great in Dourna"isti! dis(utes &ith the $reemason Ni5o"ai No'i5o', The ima%e ori%ina""# &as ado(ted b# Hora!e to des!ribe his o&n re"ationshi( to&ard Pindar, Chara!teri>in% Pindar as a hi%h3$"#in% s&an- Hora!e de$ined himse"$ as a hard3&or5in% bee that admires moderation and e!onom# o'er Pindar:s (assion- darin%- and e4tra'a%an!e, Gi"bert Hi%het- The Classical Tradition: >reek and Roman In!luences in 2estern <iterature- ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79@//.,
346 347

=a(nist- B;idenie,C 6G1,


Priests- $or e4am("e- bore the %ui"t o$ (anderin% to (o&er$u" "o!a" (ersona%es instead o$ e4(osin% their sins, Germo%en sin%"ed out re"i%ious to"eran!e as the basis $or &ides(read interest in non3 Orthodo4 Christian denominations and the de!"ine o$ res(e!t $or ritua"s and (ra!ti!es o$ ear"ier !hur!h "i$e, BIn imitation o$ other $aithsA J Pra#ers- ho"ida#- $ast E no& a"" o$ these are !himeras- J And startin% $rom the outside- the seed o$ $aith &as u(rooted,C817 Sin!e the a"tars o$ the "ord &ere no "on%er used $or their (ro(er (ur(oseGermo%en !"aimed- God ordered them burnt as a (uri$i!ation, +ud%es $ormed the other %ui"t# (art# o$ Germo%en:s a!!usation, The destru!tion o$ their (a"a!es- a!!ordin% to Germo%en- shou"d e'o5e no (it#- $or those domains &ere the $ruit o$ bribes, He !"aimed that the ears o$ the (o&er$u" &ere stu$$ed &ith %o"d- &hi"e their e#es &ere $i4ated on si"'er and thus the# i%nored the di'ine demands to sho& s#m(ath# and su((ort to the (oor,81G He !on!"uded the (oem &ith his o&n !hara!ter a&a5enin%- re'i'ed and read# to rebui"d Russia, A $ina" e4hortation (ro(osed means $or the nation to $ind redem(tion2 the nob"es shou"d di'ide their &ea"th &ith the (oor and rebui"d the !hur!hes, Thou%h =a(nist !riti!i>ed !ontem(orar# e"ite nob"es- his

=a(nist- B;idenie,C 6G8, =a(nist- B;idenie,C 6G836G1,



admonitions !orres(onded to the nationa"isti! tone o$ Shish5o', *oth (ossessed a dee(3seated $aith in the (eo("e- as o((osed to the !osmo(o"itan u((er3!"asses, The t&o disa%reed on the )uestion o$ &hom God had (unished- but both sa& di'ine inter'ention "eadin% to a re%enerate nation- de'oid o$ $orei%n in$"uen!e, Thou%h he admired =a(nist:s &or5 $rom a (oeti! (oint o$ 'ie&Der>ha'in dedi!ated a radi!a""# di$$erent messa%e to the re"i%ious meanin% o$ the &ar, His <yrico)+pic Hymn &as a %eneri! anoma"#but made a 'er# !on'entiona" !"aim2 that Russia had (ro'ed itse"$ mi"itari"# su(erior to e'er#one e"se and rea"i>ed a host o$ *ib"i!a" (ro(he!ies a"on% the &a#, u"" o$ !ontem(orar# 'ersions o$ s!enes $rom S!ri(ture- Hymn used *ib"i!a" re$eren!es as (re!edents $or !ontem(orar# &ar s!enes instead o$ "oo5in% $or hi%her meanin% to unite a"" e'ents, Revelation (ro'ided ima%es $or the outbrea5 and the reso"ution o$ the 676/ in'asion, Der>ha'in announ!ed his stor# as the stru%%"e bet&een the $or!es o$ he"" and the BS"a'i! =in%,C In standard odi! $orm- the Hymn o(ened &ith the rise o$ !arna%e and destru!tion- &ith Na(o"eon and A"e4ander in the re"ationshi( o$ the armies o$ %ood and e'i" $rom the $ina" ?or es!hato"o%i!a"@ batt"e that ends histor#,890 Na(o"eon assumed the ro"e o$ Abbadon- the "eader o$
On the re"ation o$ o"der odes and the A(o!a"#(ti! 'arieties o$ 676/- see Gas(aro'- -oeticheskii ia4yk -ushkina- G0,


Satan•s armies- &hom Der>ha'in a"so !a""ed the •Prin!e o$ Dar5ness-C a Cro!odi"e- and a ser(ent ?in re$eren!e to a (ro(he!# $rom the boo5 o$ >enesis- &here E'e is to"d that her des!endant &i"" destro# e'i" b# !rushin% a sna5e@, A%ainst him stands the $i%ure o$ a Lamb2 +esus Christ in Revelation and an ima%e that !onDured u( the )ua"ities o$ mee5ness- &hi!h Tsar A"e4ander (roDe!ted in (ub"i!,896 or a"" the e'ents bet&een be%innin% and end- ho&e'erDer>ha'in used di'erse O"d Testament re$eren!es to i""ustrate (arti!u"ar batt"es, He $itted the e(isodes o$ ren!h in'asion into stories o$ the e4odus $rom E%#(t- the destru!tion o$ Sodom and Gommorah- and the *ab#"onian !a(ti'it#, The in'adin% horde o$ ren!hmen resemb"ed E%#(tian !harioteers- !hasin% God:s (eo("e throu%h the (arted Red Sea- on"# to be s&a""o&ed u(, Ne4tNa(o"eon a((eared under the %uise o$ the *ab#"onian 5in% Nebu!hadne>>ar- &hom God trans$ormed into an anima" so that he mi%ht !ome to $aith, In a $amous s!ene $rom the boo5 o$ 6anielNebu!hadne>>ar had seen &ritin% on a &a"" &arnin% him o$ his $ate, Der>ha'in (resented the destru!tion o$ Na(o"eon•s arm# as a !om(arab"e messa%e2 Bthat the (o&er o$ 5in%s &i"" soon (ass- J &ho do not obser'e the truth, J The A"mi%ht# ru"es =in%doms,C Der>ha'in
Ri!hard Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy- 'o", 6- ?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG9@ 6G9,


treated as one the batt"es o$ *orodino- Ma"oiaros"a'ets- and =rasnoethe $irst o$ &hi!h &as a mora" 'i!tor#- but a"so "ed to the $a"" o$ Mos!o&, He des!ribed the de!ision to abandon Mos!o& in the (assi'e 'oi!e2 BIt is de!ided to $"ee-C $o""o&ed b# hea'en3)ua5in% batt"es, At the end o$ Na(o"eon•s $"i%ht- e'er#thin% burns "i5e Sodom and Gomorrah- and "i5e the "a5e o$ burnin% $ire in Revelation, 89/ The re$eren!es to Israe"ite (re!edents had "ess to do &ith the Russians than &ith e'o5in% disaster s!enes to de(i!t Na(o"eon•s ("i%ht, Der>ha'in•s notes on the te4t indi!ate that he understood *ib"i!a" re$eren!es as meta(hors $or 'arious abstra!t )ua"ities rather than as a sin%"e (re$i%urin% e'ent, Not sur(risin%"#- a"" o$ these 'irtues &ere ti"ted in $a'or o$ ma5in% Russia seem mora""# su(erior to ran!e, He he"d some ima%es to s#mbo"i>e C"assi!a" 'irtues, or instan!e- at the (oint &hen the Bdra%on- or a demon resemb"in% a ser(ent-C emer%ed $rom the earth- Der>ha'in noted the S!ri(tura" basis ?Rev 6/2G@- but e4("ained it as an abstra!t (ro(ert#2 the ser(ent re(resented insidiousness,898 In !ommentar# on the stru%%"e bet&een the Lamb and the Sna5e- he re$erred tan%entia""# to Tsar A"e4ander- but on"# insomu!h as he embodied the (ersona" )ua"it#
These s#mbo"s &ere o$ten borro&ed and e'en mis!onstrued, On Der>ha'in:s ima%er# and Messiani! "an%ua%e in %enera"- see Gas(aro'-oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina- 7.- G0360H,
352 353

Der>ha'in- BGimn "iro3e(i!hes5iia-C /8,


bein% s#mbo"i>ed, BHere under the as(e!t o$ the "amb Christian mee5ness is bein% re(resented and re"ates to the $a!t that the ru"in% em(eror as!ended to the throne under the si%n o$ the "amb,C891 Der>ha'in:s "in5 o$ *ab#"on and Paris im("ied that the "atter !a(ita" (ossessed the same mora" ruin and de!a# as the $ormer, Der>ha'in "in5ed this !ondition ba!5 to 6/01- &hen members o$ the ourth Crusade sa!5ed Constantino("e and dan!ed &ith har"ots in the Orthodo4 !hur!h o$ Ha%ia So(hia,899 He a"so re$erred to the numero"o%i!a" si%ni$i!an!e o$ Na(o"eon:s in'asion- a"thou%h he !ou"d not !"aim !ertaint# about the numbers: si%ni$i!an!e, In the ei%hth stan>a o$ Hymn- Na(o"eon is $"eein% Russia and rea"i>es that he has used u( his a""otted time o$ 1/ months $or as!ension- &ith on"# 9 "e$t $or (ro$anation ?oskveren0e@, Der>ha'in !ou"d on"# o$$er tentati'e (ro(osa"s $or the meanin% o$ these numbers2 1/ months B(erha(sC re$erred to his (o"iti!a" "i$e unti" 676/- or (erha(s to his su!!esses in the S(anish WarA the 9 !ou"d be su((osed to be the time $rom the entr# into Russia to e4(u"sion, O'erburdened b# s!attered a""usionsDer>ha'in !on!"uded that God mere"# &anted to (ro'e Russia su(erior to Euro(e and hea(ed s!orn on other (o&ers at the end, BGod 'isited us E God &as %"oried- J He set us hi%her than a"" earth"#

Der>ha'in- BGimn "iro3e(i!hes5iia-C /8, Der>ha'in- BGimn "iro3e(i!hes5iia-C /.,



=in%doms,89. Euro(e !a""ed $orth Der>ha'in•s indi%nation $or ha'in% abandoned Russia in its hour o$ need,
wae\ •de^fj \ gae^`jS ]aq [Zegj dj mhecp\s\mn d^`j‡h^[ f^_s^h\hn qeak {^mma dcmnU yeZtnr pj [js\ dap dmc_`aza dam meabas\mn \g^_`a |^ dj- ta[jd \ qsrhdj mdrhj„^sts\ _ejmhn hakg^ gax\ frh\, ?Euro(e•s 5in%s and (eo("esS Li5e $urious &aters #ou rushed $orth To s&a""o& the Russian•s &ho"e "andU We &ere a"&a#s #our $riendsWe•d sometimes batt"e $or #ou too *ut #ou- &ho $or%ot the ho"# 'o&s Cre(t se!ret"# to %na& at our hee"s,@89H

Der>ha'in more o(en"# em("o#ed s!ri(ture than his !omrades at Co""o)uium- but his &or5 a"so im("ied that the su(reme (ur(ose o$ the &ar &as to e$$e!t Russia:s iso"ation $rom Euro(e, Due to the abundan!e o$ s!ri(tura" re$eren!es- Der>ha'in !ou"d not iso"ate a sin%"e (ro(he!# at hand and thus !on!"uded that 676/ &as a demonstration o$ Russia:s mi"itar# and mora" su(eriorit# 'is3’3'is Euro(e, Whi"e Shish5o' made the harshest !riti!ism o$ !ontem(oraries and =a(nist tra!ed the roots o$ $orei%n de!a# ba!5 to Peter the Great- Der>ha'in "oosed his ire on the traditions o$ ran!e itse"$ and im("ied that Na(o"eoni! a%%ression &as re"ated to a tenden!# in Western Euro(e- $rom the Crusades to the (resent,

Der>ha'in- BGimn "iro3e(i!hes5iia-C 67, Der>ha'in- BGimn "iro3e(i!hes5iia-C 68,



Thou%h the Co""o)uium members &ere no stran%ers to the O"d Testament- the# a"" ado(ted other de'i!es to e4("ain the &ar2 Shish5o':s abstra!t (ro'iden!e- =a(nist:s Germo%en- and Der>ha'in:s di'erse $i%ures, Hen!e- the re(resentati'es o$ the BEuro(ean !a(ita"C &ere see5in% to di'ide their nation $rom Euro(e, In the o"der !a(ita"re"i%ious (oets aimed instead to "a# the %rounds $or a re!on!i"iation bet&een the t&o, 8niversalist Muscovites Priest Mat'ei A'ramo' ?Mat'ei <namens5ii897@ i""ustrated the uni'ersa" tone and messiani! themes that distin%uished the Mus!o'ites $rom the Petersbur% !onser'ati'es in a uni)ue (oeti! !om(osition o$ 676/2 Mosco# %emoanin$ Her Mis!ortunes, %rou$ht on Her in &'&3 by the Hand o! the Cruel and -er!idious +nemy, and To$ether Com!ortin$ Her "u!!erin$ "ons, A"thou%h <namens5ii (rea!hed at a Mos!o& !hur!h89G and thus had a (osition (re$erab"e to that o$ most rura" !"er%#- he &as not a mon5- mu!h "ess (art o$ the edu!ated e"ite that ran the Orthodo4 !hur!h- su!h as A'%ustin and

See Semen A$anas:e'i!h ;en%ero'- Russkiia kni$i, s bio$ra!icheskimi dannymi ob avtorakh I perevodchikah 5&,(')&'.K@- ' o", 6- ?St, Petersbur%2 I>d, G, ;, Iudina- 67GH367GG@- 81,
358 359

The !hur!h o$ So(hia on Liubian5a,


i"aret,8.0 He &rote in 'erse imitation o$ the O"d Testament- a !ommon (ra!ti!e amon% the edu!ated "iterar# &or"d and earned enou%h interest &ith his &or5 to &arrant Mosco# %emoanin$ her Mis!ortunes: se!ond (rintin% and in!"usion into a 6761 !o""e!tion o$ &ar (oems $rom 676/, Mosco# %emoanin$ Her Mis!ortunes a""o&s the !hara!ter o$ Mos!o& itse"$ to te"" a stor# o$ its $a"" $rom %reatness and return to s("endor, A'ramo':s use o$ e(i%ra(hs $rom the boo5 o$ <amentations su%%ests that he sou%ht to de'e"o( the (ara""e"s bet&een the ren!h o!!u(ation o$ Mos!o& and the *ab#"onian !a(ture and e4i"e o$ the An!ient Israe"ites, A'ramo' de(arted $rom <amentations in terms o$ si>eEhis !om(osition $i""ed a"most 89 (rinted (a%esEbut a"so in terms o$ o(timism $or rene&a", Whereas <amentations ends on a des(ondent note o$ &h# God had $or%otten the (eo("e- Mosco# %emoanin$ Her Mis!ortunes en'isions a return and rene&a" a5in to the (ro(he!ies o$ Deutero3Isaiah- &here the (ro(het $orete""s that Israe" &i"" brin% sa"'ation to a"" (eo("e, A'ramo' a"so &rote in the 'oi!e o$ the !it#- instead o$ the (ro(het,8.6 This te!hni)ue a""o&ed BMos!o&C to assess the reasons $or her abandonment- the mora" $au"ts o$ her Bsons-C the short ram(a%e o$ Na(o"eon- and the

See !h, H on A'%ustin:s edu!ation, <am- 92/0,



!on!"udin% sa"'ation, Mos!o&:s &ai"in% about the "ost o$ the (ast a""o&ed A'ramo' to !riti!i>e some o$ the $au"ts (er!ei'ed in Russian so!iet#- in mu!h the same &a# as =a(nist used Germo%en in his :ision, A'ramo'ho&e'er- ado(ted a mu!h "ess 4eno(hobi! tone, In an o(enin% e"e%ia! "ament- Mos!o& re!ounted ho& she (ro'ided a $orum $or the !on%re%ation and edu!ation o$ $orei%ners2 Germans- Po"es- Be'en the Gau"-C Orthodo4 and non3Orthodo4 a"i5e, When admonishin% Russian so!iet# $or its sins- A'ramo' dre& attention to the Russian e"ite•s sus!e(tibi"it# to uni'ersa" human 'i!es instead o$ $orei%n interests and st#"es, Commer!ia" o((ortunities and mone#3ma5in%- $or e4am("e- $ostered s(iritua" se"$3!enteredness,
?v^_`a so[^dn q ^huap \ `abc q }a`ap gcbg^mhn †mg^djdas\mr ga dj_^`al ^`gjlŠ gc ga fead\sal [^bcmhdcggjl- mdrhjl v^_`a m^qe^d\•a p^\ pgc mhas\ dec`gj,@ Then "o'e $or the $athers and e'en tenderness to&ard sons Was $ounded on (ro$it a"one And not on the di'ine and sa!red ru"es Then m# treasures be!ame harm$u" to me,C8./

Mos!o& !"aimed that the rise o$ (ro$it3see5in% and indi'idua"ism

Mat'ei A'ramo'- BMos5'a- o("a5i'aiiush!haia bedst'iia s'oinanesenn#ia ei ' 676/ %odu ru5oiu >hesto5a%o i >"o!hesti'a%o 'ra%a- i 'meste uteshaiush!haia stra>hdush!hi5h s#no' s'oii5h-C in "obranie stikhotvorenii otnosiashchikhsia k ne4abvennomu &'&3 $odu - 'o", /?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761@- H7,


s(i""ed o'er into !u"tura" and e'en se4ua" habits,8.8 A'ramo':s !riti)ue o$ the (rima!# o$ mone#- se4ua" "ibert#- dis!ord amon% $ami"ies- and other 'i!es ne'er "isted ran!e as the sour!e o$ the (rob"ems, To be sure- he re$erred to the ubi)uitous e%oism as Bne& thou%hts-C B$reethin5in%C and a si%n o$ de!a#- but he maintained that the nationa" sins !ame $rom an interna" s(iritua" de$i!it- rather than a !on$usion o$ !u"tures or the misdire!tion o$ Peter the Great,8.1 +ust as A'ramo' 'ie&ed the do&n$a"" o$ Mos!o& and her su$$erin% as the !onse)uen!e o$ %enera" human $au"ts- he (ortra#ed the restitution o$ the !it# and o$ Russia as an a!t that !ou"d not be a!!om("ished b# nationa" $or!es a"oneEor e'en the tsar, In e"e%ia! &ai"in% tones- he de!"ared that the s("endor o$ the En"i%htenment ima%e o$ a ha((# Russian state &as %one $ore'er, The ei%hteenth3 !entur# (ane%#ri! "iterature had o$ten !om(ared the Russian B(aradiseC to a $"ourishin% %arden- &ith "a&s- Dusti!e- (ea!e- and other 'irtues in abundan!e,8.9 Sin!e tsars &ere understood to rene& the "i$e o$ the %arden- the m#th a!!ommodated tradition and !ontinuit# b# a""o&in% $or (eriodi! rene&a" under ne& ru"ers, In A'ramo':s &or5- ho&e'er- the &or5 o$ the #ears had (assed

A'ramo'- BMos5'a-C H., A'ramo'- BMos5'a-C HG370, See !h, .- se!tion 6,




?‡h^ ucsjl heZ` dcq^d \ }h^ \tr•gjk dqZm ‚^_s\ ^[eat^dahn- m^c`\g\hn- m^mhad\hni^[eahn- m^^eZ`\hn- dg^dn tadcmh\- \mfead\hn2 …mc dp\_ eatmhe^cg^- dmc d fean fecdea•cg^~sn as}ga_^ dea_a eZq^k f^l\•cg^,@ That &hi!h the "abor o$ &ho"e !enturies and re$ined taste Cou"d $orm- unite- !om(oseGather- bui"d- a%ain underta5e- !orre!t2 A"" is instant"# s!attered- trans$ormed into dustOr sto"en b# the hand o$ the !ra'in% enem#, 8..

A'ramo':s (ro(osed (ath to mora" restoration a"so !ontro'erted an a!!e(ted dimension o$ the ei%hteenth3!entur# (ane%#ri! "iterature, 8.H T#(i!a""#- !ourt (oets had (raised the ne&"#3!ro&ned em(eror $or re3 ena!tin% God•s (rimordia" !reation e/ nihilo, A'ramo':s (oem de(ri'ed the tsar o$ this restorati'e (o&er, RussiaEIsrae" $e"" $rom God throu%h the sins o$ the &ho"e !u"tureA !onse)uent"#- on"# God !ou"d restore the &ho"e ba!5 to its ori%ina" state o$ $e"i!it#, At the 'er# end o$ the (oem- Mos!o& )uestions &hether it &ou"d be Dust to be restored to a"" $ormer %"or#, E'en as !ra$tsmen and artists stream ba!5 in to rebui"d her- she $inds so"a!e in the thou%ht that God- not men- &ou"d rebui"d her,
vd^e\h \ [Ze\ †g \ h\x\gZ „e\e^`j2 „e\cpsoh ^h |c_^ \ qatgn \ }cmhn gae^`j, †g ^hdeah\h s\ucEfa`ch udchZ•\k _ea`A …^tte\hE\ eatudchch fZmhjgr d dceh^_ea`,

A'ramo'- BMos5'a-C .G, See Cha(ter /- Se!tion . on the Paradise M#th,



?He !reates the storms and the tran)ui"it# o$ Nature2 Peo("es re!ei'e $rom him both e4e!ution and honor, He turns his $a!e a&a# E a $"ourishin% !it# $a""sA He turns to&ard it- and the &i"derness re3b"ossoms as a %arden,@ 8.7

A'ramo':s inter(retation o$ the (ro(heti! $uture entai"ed Israe":s o!!u(ation o$ the !enter o$ the &or"d, The "ast o$ the e(i%ra(hs- <am 92/6- di$$ered $rom the others in ho"din% out ho(e that God &ou"d on!e a%ain b"ess the nation- des(ite the e4i"e, BRestore us to #ourse"$- O Lord- that &e ma# be restored2 rene& our da#s as o$ o"d,C In the $ina" stan>as o$ Mosco# %emoanin$ Her Mis!ortunes- A'ramo' out"ine a 'ision o$ Mos!o& restored "i5e a ne& <ion, This &ou"d not ta5e the $orm o$ &a""in% the !it# o$$ $rom $orei%ners- but o$ radiatin% as the !enter o$ &or"d !i'i"i>ation that s(reads out onto others,
v^_`a [sa_ f^hcqZh q^ pgc ^hdmo`Z ecq\~ \tpcercpj _^`ap\ [Z`Zh dcq\… q^h^ejc ga dcel r msadj h^k dt^xsaY`c Z`\dscg\cp dmcscggjr [jsa, v^_`a- ih^s\uck [jd tcpgjr msadj he^gaˆ [Z`Z ^[eat^p \ _^egr_^ i\^ga, ?Then ri'ers o$ %oodness &i"" $"o& to me $rom e'er#&hereAnd the a%es &i"" be measured in #earsIn &hi!h I &i"" ha'e as!ended to the hei%ht o$ %"or#With the uni'erse &as in ama>ement, Then- as the Ca(ita" &as earth"# %"or# o$ the throne

A'ramo'- BMos5'a-C G9, Garden ima%er# in Catherine the Great:s timeand es(e!ia""# durin% the anne4in% o$ Crimea- si%ni$ied the Garden o$ Edenthe state o$ re%enerated earth, See *aehr- -aradise Myth- .937GA Andreas S!hFn"e- BGarden o$ the Em(ire2 Catherine:s A((ro(riation o$ the Crimea,C "lavic Revie# .026 ?S(rin% /006@2 63/8A <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- GH3 6//A


I sha"" be the ima%e o$ !e"estia" <ion,@8.G

A'ramo':s (ie!e !ontained the (rin!i(a" e"ements that distin%uished the Mus!o'ites $rom the Petersbur% !onser'ati'es and that he"(ed !onstru!t a messiani! understandin% o$ the e'ents o$ 676/, Thou%h !"ear"# anta%onisti! to the in'aders- A'ramo' em(hasi>ed a di'ine (ur(ose that &as u"timate"# internationa" in s!o(e and e'en !e"ebrated !osmo(o"itan e"ements o$ Mos!o&:s (ast, A'ramo' a"so de(i!ted the su$$erin% o$ 676/ as a boon to humanit#A Russia:s e4am("e ostensib"# demonstrated the need to (ut $aith in God rather than in 5in%s, Hen!e- A'ramo':s &or5 im("ied that Mos!o&:s su$$erin% e4(iated the sins o$ others, *# intert&inin% this su$$erin% &ith the &ar e'ents- he !reated a m#th o$ sa!ri$i!e- one o$ the t#(i!a" $eatures o$ Russian nationa" messianism- mentioned in Peter Dun!an:s sur'e# o$ the !on!e(t in the 6Gth and /0th !enturies, ?Dun!an 638@ or other Mus!o'ite &riters- es(e!ia""# around Mos!o& uni'ersit#- the theme o$ sa!ri$i!ia" su$$erin% $or the &or"d dominated re"i%ious (oetr# in the immediate a$termath o$ 676/, Ni5o"ai Shatro' ado(ted simi"ar notions in his imitations o$ O"d Testament (oetr#, Shatro' &as the Mos!o& (oet most a!!ustomed to identi$# his !ountr# &ith An!ient Israe"- and he had estab"ished a re(utation $or (sa"m3trans"ation e'en be$ore A"e4ander:s rei%n, BHe

A'ramo'- BMos5'a-C G7,


too5 on"# the theme- on"# the idea o$ Da'id and made out o$ it an ode- in "ar%e (art a $u"$i""ment o$ the hi%h ideas and ma%ni$i!ent (i!tures-C a!!ordin% to Mi5hai" Dmitrie',8H0 Re!ords $rom the Uni'ersit# So!iet# indi!ate that his (sa"m renditions &ere dis!ussed in the brie$ (eriod be$ore the &ar ?67663676/@, As a %ood $riend to the dramatist Ni5o"ai Ni5o"e'- he had a &ide ran%e o$ a!)uaintan!e amon% Mos!o&:s se!ond3tier &riters, A"thou%h Shatro' $o""o&ed Shish5o':s (re$eren!e $or an ar!hai! st#"e in "an%ua%e- his &or5 did not re$"e!t the 4eno(hobi! rea!tions $rom the Northern !a(ita", The *ib"i!a" stor# that dominated Shatro':s thin5in% $rom 676/3 6761 &as $rom the O"d Testament as &e""2 the Senna!herib in'asion o$ +erusa"em durin% the rei%n o$ =in% He>e5iah ?re!ounted in Is 8H@, In the stor#- the in'adin% Senna!herib arm# a((roa!hes +erusa"em&here its mi"itar# !ommander sto(s and taunts the inhabitants in the Hebre& ton%ue, He>e5iah in'o5es the &isdom o$ the (ro(het Isaiah&ho $oresees that the =in% o$ Ass#ria &i"" be e4e!uted in a coup d0@tat and that God &i"" annihi"ate the in'adin% arm#,8H6 The destru!tion o$ thousands o$ so"diers at ni%ht thus testi$ies to the ma%ni$i!en!e o$ God rather than =in% He>e5iah,

Mi5hai" Dmitrie'- >lavy i4 vospominanii moei 4hi4ni- ?Mos5'a 2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- 6GG7@- 117,
370 371

Is 8H2 /83/G,


*e$ore the &ar- Shatro' modi$ied this s!ene to de(i!t a %"orious out!ome o'er Na(o"eon, Shatro' embe""ished the a!!ount o$ the arm#:s a((roa!h to in!or(orate !hur!h3(i""a%in% and a"tar3ra'ishin%t&o 5inds o$ dese!rations &hi!h Russian subDe!ts $"eein% $rom the Western (ro'in!es had (ub"i!i>ed,8H/ The arm#:s !ommander a"so threatens +erusa"em not Dust &ith destru!tion but &ith a t#(i!a" Na(o"eoni! ambition2 &or"d&ide dominion,
U \ pjms\hn d _gcdc re^p …cs\q\l m\s ^`g\p Z`ae^p †fs^h dmcscgg^k \mhec[\hn•eZmas\p vd^k ^[ctmsad\hn|a qagpc qapgr gc ^mhad\hn~ d gcp dmc waemhda f^[c`\hnS ?Uand he thin5s in $uried an%er With one stri5e o$ his (o&er$u" $or!es To 'an)uish the bu"&ar5 o$ the uni'erse Iour +erusa"em to dese!rate To "ea'e no stone on anotherAnd in it to !on)uer a"" =in%domsS@ 8H8

Shatro' a"so a"tered the reasons $or 'i!tor# so that the arm# re!ei'es more !redit than it does in the ori%ina" stor#, He (ortra#ed the $ina" 'i!tors as the Bre%iments o$ <ion- C &ho &ere entire"# ina!ti'e in the *ib"i!a" a!!ount,8H1

BMos5'a ' 676/ %odu-C 8HG!!,

Ni5o"ai Shatro', BMo"it'a i>rai":s5a%o naroda 'o 'remia nashest'iia Senna5hirimo'a 'oinst'a na Ierusa"im,C in "obranie&'&3- 'o", 6- 9G3./,

Ni5o"ai Shatro', BMo"it'a i>rai":s5a%o naroda 'o 'remia nashest'iia Senna5hirimo'a 'oinst'a na Ierusa"im,C in "obranie&'&3- 'o", 6- 9G3./, urthermore- Isaiah !"aimed to He>e5iah that a$ter the in'asion &as re(e""ed- $orei%n domination &ou"d ensue at the end o$ his rei%n, Not sur(risin%"#- Shatro' omitted that (ro(he!#, Is 8H2 639,


A$ter the dis"o!ations o$ 676/- ho&e'er- he ado(ted themes mu!h more in "ine &ith the *ib"i!a" a!!ount o$ di'ine su(rema!# o'er human a$$airs, Another (ost&ar (ie!e on the Senna!herib theme e4(ressed the !om("ete abandonment o$ nationa" (ride in the $a!e o$ di'ine (o&erEe'en in the in'o!ation- &here the (oet deni%rated his !reati'e %enius as &e"" as the ro"e o$ the nationa" $or!es, The ne& 'ersion hi%h"i%hted an e"ement o$ the Senna!herib stor# absent in the $irst 'ersion2 &hen Senna!herib taunts the (eo("e o$ +erusa"em in Hebre& $rom their !it# %ates, Shatro' used this e(isode as a meta(hor $or Na(o"eon:s a((roa!h- a$ter &hi!h the Russian (eo("e re(ented o$ their ties &ith B*ab#"onC and thus se!ured God:s $a'or,8H9 In this ne&er 'ersion- *ab#"on a%ain is destro#ed so"e"# b# di'ine intention- but the stor# ends a%ain &ith the "iberation o$ a"" other !ountries, He brou%ht out the same (oint in (oeti! des!ri(tion o$ Mos!o& in ruins- BThe Mos!o& ire in 676/C ?6768 or 6761@, This &or5 e4(anded the im(ort o$ the &ar $rom nationa" (rote!tion to &or"d "iberation, In BMos!o& ireC the martia" ima%er# o$ the re%iments o$ <ion 'anished in $a'or o$ Russian stra%%"ers2 he"("ess- 'u"nerab"eand &ithout de$ense- BLi5e shado&s $rom the St#4:s ban5s,C Shatro'
Ni5o"ai Mi5hai"o'i!h Shatro'- BPesn: (obednaia i>rai"s5a%o naroda na (ora>henie senna5herimo'a 'oinst'a,C "tikhotvoreniia- 'o", /- ?Mos!o&6786@ GG3661,


re!ounted no mi"itar# e'ents that !ou"d redress the situation, Instead- he (ersoni$ied Mos!o& as an autonomous a!tor that under&ent the !rue"ties o$ the ren!h to (ut an end to them on!e and $or a"", Shatro':s narrator de!"ared that Russia had been destined as the substitute $or Euro(e,
vd^k fscg- hd^k fcfcs \ mhea`agnr •mhn hakga [^bcmq\l mZ`^dA |c }cs^dc}cmq^k ts^k d^sc |a [eagg^p qe^d^s\hg^p f^sc ‰jsa `^sbga hj ZmhZf\hn2 |^ [^_- qatgr |af^sc^ga“^hcs •de^fZ ^h `eaq^ga vd^\p f^bae^p \mqZf\hn, ?Iour !a(ti'it#- #our ashes and su$$erin% Is a se!ret o$ di'ine Dud%ments Not b# &i!5ed human &i"" On the abusi'e $ie"d o$ b"ood3"ettin% Shou"d #ou ha'e #ie"ded *ut God- (unishin% Na(o"eon Wanted to redeem Euro(e rom the Dra%on,@8H.

Shatro':s $riend Ni5o"e' a%reed in seein% Mos!o&:s destru!tion as a sa!ri$i!e- but "oo5ed $or the broader (ro!ess o$ mora" (uri$i!ation in both O"d and Ne& Testaments in the *ib"e, Ni5o"e' had enDo#ed reno&n as a &riter in the a%e o$ Catherine the Great more than in A"e4ander:s rei%n- and his unmerited 'anit# made an im(ression on !ontem(oraries,8HH An honorar# member o$ the
Ni5o"ai Mi5hai"o'i!h Shatro'- BPo>har Mos5'# ' 676/ %odu ,C "tikhotvoreniia- 'o", /- ?Mos!o&- 6786@ 7H,
376 377

S,T, A5sa5o'- Ra4nyia sochineniia ?Mos!o&2 L, Ste(ano'a- 6797@- 6636G,


Uni'ersit# So!iet#- he &as !a""ed the Russian Mi"ton- sin!e both Ni5o"e' and the En%"ish &riter %re& b"ind, Shatro':s su((ort &as in'a"uab"e $or Ni5o"e' &ith this disabi"it#, Ni5o"e':s im(airment e'en ("a#s a ro"e in his BH#mn o$ the Son%sin%er-C &ritten in 676/ in Tambo' &hi"e &aitin% $or ne&s o$ the (ossibi"it# o$ sa$e (assa%e to Mos!o&, He des!ribes himse"$ as thou%h !ast arbitrari"# to $ate &ithout an# abi"it# to (er!ei'e the meanin% o$ e'ents, He subse)uent"# !"aims that God trans$ormed his &a"5in% !rut!h into a s!e(ter and a""o&ed him to (er!ei'e the %rand s!heme o$ a &or"d&ide (uri$i!ation be#ond the arbitrar# sur$a!e o$ e'ents,8H7 Ni5o"e':s resemb"ed the stories o$ Shatro' and A'ramo'- but &as uni)ue in that it identi$ied the !urrent tra'ai"s &ith t&o *ib"i!a" stories o$ (uri$i!ation, In the boo5 o$ >enesis- di'ine an%er em("o#ed a destru!ti'e de"u%e to !"eanse the &or"d o$ &i!5edness, A$ter the estab"ishment o$ a !o'enant that (re!"udes use su!h 'io"ent meansthe Ne& Testament de(i!ts the deit#:s in!arnation ?in the $orm o$ a human son@ to su$$er as a (ro4# $or the &or"d:s &i!5edness, Ni5o"e' used both t#(es o$ sa!ri$i!e as the basis $or the m#tho"o%i>ation o$ 676/, The (oem:s de(i!tion o$ hea'en"# de"iberation indi!ates that the modern &i!5edness o$ re'o"ution !a""ed $orth a ne& de"u%e,
…^ttecd „ec`dc}gjk- …ctga}asngjk

Ni5o"e'- BGimn (esno(e'tsa-C in "obranie&'&3- 'o", /- 60.,


|cf^mh\b\pjk mZ`^p |a `^s- ^h mheag gc[cmgjl `asngjk •\xn }cs^dc}cmq\p _ecl^pvj f^s^b\s d vd^cp m^dchc †}\mh\hn `jxZ•cc d mdchc |c f^ taq^gZ vd^cpZi^hermahn gae^mhq\ m fs^h\ mheamhgjya d^s\ _^e`j \ gc•amhgj …mfrhn fe\`Zh q \mh\ggZ ZpZ, ?The e'er"astin% un!reated With un$athomab"e Dud%ment- "oo5ed a$ar Distant $rom hea'en:s nations With human sinIou NGodO (ro(osed in #our !oun!i" To (uri$# a"" thin%s in the &or"d that breathe Whi!h &ere not a!!ordin% to #our "a& To sha5e o$$ the e4!res!en!e o$ the im(assioned $"esh That (roud and unha((# &i""s Return to (ure minds,@8HG

The in'asion and o!!u(ation o$ Mos!o&- ho&e'er- too5 o'er the e4(iator# $un!tion &ithout an# hint that the ren!h in'asion !onstituted retribution $or Russian in$ide"it#, He (ortra#ed Mos!o& as a &i""in% sa!ri$i!e- ea%er to ser'e, BGod orderedEand &ithout (rotest J Mos!o& &as %i'en u( to sa!ri$i!e,C ie"dmarsha" =utu>o' o!!u(ied the $un!tion o$ in!arnate son- a!!ordin% to Ni5o"e'- sent do&n $rom hea'en, The resu"t o$ su$$erin% and redem(tion &as that Mos!o& itse"$ had be!ome "i5e the !entra" (oint in a +e&ish tem("e2 a san!tuar#- &here ho"# obDe!ts are stored, As BH#mnC de!"ared- this san!tuar# (reser'ed ho"iness $or a"" (eo("es and &ou"d ser'e so that


Ni5o"e'- BGimn (esno(e'tsa-C 60G,


Bthe $ormer $aith Nma#O be resurre!ted in her NEuro(eO,C870 Other minor &riters $rom the Uni'ersit# So!iet# dre& (ara""e"s &ith An!ient Israe", edor =o5osh5in- the so!iet# se!retar#!om(ared Na(o"eon to the &i!5ed man o$ the boo5 Habakkuk, In the (oem:s narrati'e- the &ar ends abru(t"# b# means o$ a di'ine Dud%ment- a$ter &hi!h Na(o"eon su$$ered the a$$"i!tions that he had !aused, BThe e'i" tormentor himse"$ su$$ers e'i",C876 Whi"e the (oem is undated- it "i5e"# re$erred to the )ui!5 re'ersa" o$ !ir!umstan!es in 676/, edor I'ano'- a ("a#&ri%ht &ith both Neo3C"assi!a" and sentimenta" s#m(athies- dre& an at#(i!a" re"ation bet&een Mos!o& and *ab#"on, I'ano' sa& the re"ation o$ the t&o !ities in their e)ua" (o&er- the disru(tion o$ &hi!h re'ea"ed to the human mind irresistib"e di'ine !ontro" o'er nationa" destin#,
„^`^[g^ _\[s\ …ad\s^gj]^_`a fec`dc}gjc taq^gj „^_\[csn \tecqs\, |\ pZ`ejl d^sl^dagnr|\ m\sngjl m^mhrtagnr †h e^qa gc mfams\, ?Li5e the destru!tion o$ *ab#"onWhen the (resa%ed "a&s Uttered its demise Neither the sor!er# o$ the &ise Or the !ontestation o$ the stron%


Ni5o"e'- BGimn (esno(e'tsa-C 668,

, , =o5osh5in- BNa be%st'o Na(o"eona s ostat5om 'ois5a e%o-C "obranie&'&3- 'o", 6- 61.,


Sa'ed it $rom doom,@87/

I'ano' reiterated internationa" sentiments at the end &ith a !a"" $or the "iberation o$ Euro(ean !ountries- (art o$ the re'e"ation o$ di'ine (ro'iden!e, The Uni'ersit# So!iet# (oets shared man# thin%s in !ommon &ith the Petersbur% !onser'ati'es- but their nationa"ism &as mu!h "ess !hau'inisti!, Li5e the !onser'ati'es- the# treated the (eo("e as $aith$u"- e'en to the (oint o$ submittin% to su$$erin% as (art o$ the &ar e$$ort, The# &ere more insistent- ho&e'er- on the $a!t that sa!ri$i!e &as ne!essar# $or the trium(h o$ the &ar and that their a!tions aided the sa"'ation o$ other (eo("e, Thus- e'en thou%h the Uni'ersit# So!iet# (oets "a!5ed A'ramo':s (unishment moti$s- the# a"" (reser'ed the sense that the in'asion &ou"d "ead to sa"'ation o$ a uni'ersa" ?or at "east Euro(ean@ !hara!ter, These uni'ersa" ho(es a""o& !om(arison &ith the re"i%ious mi""enarianism that s&e(t Russia at this time, The Mus!o'ites used "an%ua%e a"most identi!a" to that o$ A&a5enin% $i%ures- but the t&o 'isions made di$$erent (resum(tions about Russian tradition and 'a"ues, The !on!e(t o$ a "i%ht $rom the East- $or instan!e- &as !ommon to A&a5eners and to Ni5o"ai Sh!he%o"e'- a Mos!o&

I'ano'- BNa ra>rushenie Mos5'#-C in "obranie&'&3, 'o", 6- 66.366H,


Uni'ersit# Pro$essor, 878 Thou%h not a member o$ the Uni'ersit# So!iet#- he a"most !ertain"# 5ne& A'%ustin:s homi"ies- sin!e he !om(osed Hebre& 'erse imitations $or e'ents at the =rem"in:s Assum(tion Cathedra", Sh!he%o"e' &rote a series o$ these $or ho"ida#s in67682 Ne& Iear:s- Easter- and the re3o(enin% o$ the Assum(tion Cathedra" in Au%ust o$ 6768, The "ast (ie!e- BCom$ortin% Son% to the Citi>ens o$ Mos!o&-C based on !ha(ter .0 o$ Isaiahde(i!ted <ion at the !enter o$ the &or"d- ha'in% su$$ered throu%h e4i"e in order to !arr# out its mission, BCom$ortin% Son%:sC de(i!tion o$ <ion:s %"or# im("ied that Russia- the ne& !hosen nation- &ou"d attain a simi"ar &or"d su(rema!# in its e'entua" trium(h o'er Na(o"eon, Sh!he%o"e' trans"ated the (ro(heti! (romises into modern im(eria" $orms,
*orn in 6HH6 in T'er: to a $ather &ho tau%ht at the T'er: S(iritua" a!adem#- Sh!he%o"e' entered the %#mnasium at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# in 6H76- and a de!ade "ater ?6HG6@ matri!u"ated into the uni'ersit# in Medi!a" a!u"t#- soon &innin% si"'er meda"s $or his s!ho"arshiAn enthusiast $or de'e"o(in% remedies- Sh!he%o"e' in 6708 attained the de%ree o$ Do!tor o$ Medi!ine &ith a dissertation BOn the Use and Li$e o$ ;e%etab"es-C a$ter &hi!h he be!ame an adDun!t (ro$essor and ser'ed the uni'ersit# b# o'erseein% s!hoo" !onstru!tion in the (ro'in!es, Sh!he%o"e' &as a rare e4!e(tion on the uni'ersit# $a!u"t# be!ause he had been trained &ho""# in the Russian edu!ationa" s#stem, He &as one o$ the $e& (ro$essors &ho did not ha'e the !han!e to stud# abroad at a German uni'ersit#, In s(ite o$ his re)uisite (ro$i!ien!# in Latin $or to(i!s o$ hea"in%- Sh!he%o"e' authored se'era" (atrioti! &or5s a$ter 6700- in!"udin% a !oronation ode to A"e4andera number o$ son%s and (oems $or &ar e'ents- and se'era" re$"e!tions on the $u"$i""ment o$ the (ro(het Isaiah in (resent !ir!umstan!es, See his entr# in %io$ra!icheskii slovar0 pro!essorov i prepodavatelei imperatorska$o moskovska$o universiteta, 4a istekaiushchee stoletie, so dnia uchre4hdeniia ianvaria &3)$o &,** $oda - 'o", /- ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6799@,


Whereas the restored !it# o$ <ion %athers in its dias(ora $rom a!ross the %"obe- the ne& <ion o$ Mos!o& sees the !on%re%ations o$ minorit# (o(u"ations2 U5rainians- Cossa!5s- and =a"m#5s,871 The %enera" tone to&ard other 5in%doms is &e"!omin%, Mos!o&:s %ates s&in% o(en and remain that &a# $or a"" time- so that a"" (eo("es and 5in%s ma# !ome 'isit, God $ore%oes 'en%ean!e a%ainst <ion:s mi"itar# o((onents and ("ed%es "o'e to a"" (eo("e,879 The !ro&nin%3 (ie!e o$ trium(h- $or the Russians- &i"" be the abi"it# to "i'e in a!!ordin% &ith the o"d &a#s &ithout memor# o$ the !on$"i!t,
Y^mf^`n [^ uap hc[c fec[Z`ch mdch^p dc}gjp‡h^[ `gck gc f^pg\sa m ej`agncp mq^e^hc}gjp~ b\hcs\ hd^\- q^sn fead`Z m^leagrh |amsc`\r tcps\ md^ck gc fecpcgrh |amsc`gjk fec`q^d ma` ea`\d^ m^[so`arycsa Y^mf^`g\l eZq d^ msadZ Z}ecb`ar, ? or the Lord Himse"$ &i"" be the eterna" "i%ht to #ouThat #ou mi%ht not remember the da#s o$ transient sobbin% And #our inhabitants- so mu!h as the# (reser'e the truth The inheritan!e o$ their "ands &i"" not !han%e2 +o#ous"# tendin% the inherited %arden o$ the an!estors Maintainin% the %"or# o$ the &or5 o$ the Lord:s hands,@ 87.

The ne& <ion &ou"d a"so ha'e a ro"e in ins(irin% the rest o$ the
N, G, Sh!he%o"e'- 8teshitel0naia pesn0 so$ra4hdanam Moskvy, sochinennaia v den0 te4oimenstva e$o imperatorska$o velichestva leksandra I, samoder4htsa :serossiiska$o, po sovershenii osviashchenniia v onyi obnovliaema$o moskovska$o bol0sha$o uspenska$o sobora, oskverenna$o i o$rablenna$o nepriiatelem- ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768@- 8,
384 385

Ibid,- 9, Ibid9- H,



&or"d, In the bib"i!a" (ro(he!#- Israe":s nationa" mission to brin% &or"d&ide sa"'ation is s#mbo"i>ed b# the !it# o$ <ion at the to( o$ a mountain- u(on &hi!h "i%ht $rom hea'en des!ends, Its radian!e de"i'ers "i%ht to the (eo("e under thi!5 !"ouds o$ dar5ness, In the rhetori! o$ (atrioti! dis!ourse $rom 676/36769- "i%ht and dar5 &ere t#(i!a""# asso!iated &ith Russia and Na(o"eon ?or the re'o"ution@,87H Lin5s o$ dar5ness- !"ouds- or storms &ith the ren!h Re'o"ution &ere !ommon throu%hout Euro(e as &e"",877 Thus &hen BCom$ortin% Son%C o(ens &ith a "uminous Mos!o& (roDe!tin% out to the "ands that &ere in dar5ness- it s#mbo"i>es the trium(h o$ Mos!o&:s su$$erin% o'er the Na(o"eon but a"so that the "i%ht $rom the East &i"" brin% the truth to other nations, In the )uotation abo'e- Mos!o&:s inhabitants demonstrate the !hara!ter o$ a (eo("e destined to "i'e in ha((iness o$ the Beterna" "i%htC b# adherin% to their inheritan!e, ThusSh!he%o"e' thou%ht Russian tradition &as the basis $or the radiant $uture $or a"" (eo("es, A&a5eners a"so sa& Russia as a "i%ht $rom the East- but understood its nationa" mission in a more e!umeni!a" &a# than Sh!he%o"e' did, +un%3Sti""in%- $or instan!e- be"ie'ed that Russia &as
*oris Gas(aro'- -oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina kak !akt istorii russko$o literaturno$o ia4yka- ?;ienna2 Gese""s!ha$t >ur Frderun% s"a&istis!her Studien- 6GG/@- G/3G8,

Mart#n Thom(son- BIdeas o$ Euro(e durin% the ren!h Re'o"ution and the Na(o"eoni! Wars,C ?ournal o! the History o! Ideas 9926 ?+an 6GG1@2 99,


destined to be!ome the "and &here the !hur!h o$ Phi"ade"(hia $rom Revelation &ou"d be estab"ished, He re%arded the Russian 676/ &ar e$$ort an a!t o$ s(iritua" re%eneration, In the u(risin% amon% Russia:s di'erse !"asses- +un%3Sti""in% be"ie'ed to ha'e seen the nation united in a s(irit o$ Christian unit# and re"i%ious Ba&a5enin%-C &hi!h su((osed"# rein'i%orated the (eo("e:s traditiona" ties to Orthodo4 Christianit#, or +un%3Sti""in%- the ne& s(iritua""#3'ibrant Russia needed to brin% its "i%ht $rom the East to non3Christian nationa"ities, Under the (atrona%e o$ the *ib"e So!iet# ?and hen!e the tsar@- Russia &as to s(read the Christian %os(e" to the Tatars and others, ?80381@ *aroness +u"ie de =r”dener- a s(iritua" !on$idant to the tsar &ho %uided him throu%h m#sti!a" "iterature- de'e"o(ed simi"ar e!umeni!a" ambitions $or A"e4ander, She &as a more (eri(hera" !hara!ter than +un%3Sti""in%- &hom she met in the &inter o$ 670H3 6707, +un%3Sti""in% $ound =r”dener ?nati'e o$ Li'onia@ as a re(resentati'e o$ Bthe East-C &hen!e he e4(e!ted sa"'ation, =r”dener dre& the interest o$ Tsar A"e4ander in 6769- &hen Na(o"eon:s $"i%ht $rom E"ba and 600 Da#s e(isode (ro'ed true one o$ her (ro(he!ies durin% the Con%ress o$ ;ienna,87G A$ter meetin% &ith =r”dener in +une 6769- A"e4ander had the m#sti! (ro(hetess a!!om(an# him to Paris unti" the si%nin% o$ the Ho"# A""ian!e- a

Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 69.,


!om(a!t amon% im(eria" ru"ers &ith stron% e!umeni!a" o'ertones, Li5e +un%3Sti""in%- =r”dener be"ie'ed that A"e4ander &ou"d assume an internationa" ro"e in the s(iritua" a&a5enin% o$ Christians &or"d&ide in a ne& mi""ennium,8G0 Her (ro(he!ies- ho&e'er- e'entua""# be!ame %"oom# and A"e4ander dismissed her,8G6 Thou%h A&a5eners sa& the East as the sour!e o$ s(iritua" sa"'ation- si%ni$i!ant as(e!ts distin%uish them $rom the Mus!o'ites, The 'isions emanatin% $rom Mos!o& shared the o(timism that Russia (ossessed the 'a"ues needed $or the sa"'ation o$ a"" humanit#- but dre& !om(arisons &ith An!ient Israe":s %"ori$i!ation rather than &ith the (eriod $o""o&in% Arma%eddon, Thus the# &ere "ess in!"ined to see the $uture as a time o$ radi!a" s(iritua" !han%e than as a return- in the &ords o$ +eremiah- Bto the &a#s o$ o"d,C Whereas the A&a5eners be"ie'ed that the !omin% mi""ennium needed to Ba&a5enC dormant s(iritua" "i$e in an entire"# ne& (hase o$ histor#- the uni'ersa"ist Mus!o'ites (ointed to a $uture &here the 'a"ues o$ o"d &ou"d be restored to their $u""est e4tent, A&a5eners- Romanti!s- and uni'ersa"ist Mus!o'ites a"" inter(reted the si%ns o$ the times to indi!ate that a (ro(heti! $uture &as !omin%- but the Mus!o'ites: non3 mi""enarian 'isions a"one "in5ed an!ient 'irtues- (resent e'ents- and

<orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla- 8003806- 8/H, Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 699,



the (ro(he!ies $or the $uture,




or the Mus!o'ites and the Co""o)uium members- 676/ &as a #ear mar5ed b# di'ine inter'ention and the rea"i>ation o$ *ib"i!a" (ro(he!ies, The &riters o$ St, Petersbur% and Mos!o& !ou"d not ha'e been more di'ided on the re"i%ious messa%e deri'ed $rom S!ri(tureho&e'er, The Co""o)uium members &ere s!arred b# mistrust- $earand !ontem(t $or Euro(e- a(art $rom &hi!h Russia shou"d stand in bo"d iso"ation, The Mos!o& &riters- on the other hand- em(hasi>ed the uni'ersa" im("i!ations o$ their !it#:s su$$erin% and u"timate"# a$$irmed the unit# o$ !i'i"i>ation bet&een Russia and Euro(e, Whether Israe" &as understood to (re$i%ure Russia or (ossess an ana"o%ous mission to it- the Orthodo4 !"er%#:s ima%e o$ Russia as a Se!ond Israe" sha(ed the m#tho"o%i>ation o$ the in'asion and "ed to the $irst asso!iations o$ nationa" inter!ession and a sa"'i$i! (ro!ess o$ histor# &ith the stru%%"e a%ainst Na(o"eon, The (redominant"# non3 mi""enarian mode o$ inter(retin% s!ri(ture distin%uished the Mus!o'ites $rom the !ontem(orar# A&a5enin%- Romanti!- and anti3 philosophe mo'ements,


Chapter 2! Ru##ian Po*itica* Critici#- and the Search $or the Shared Tradition# o$ Europe

)ntroduction A$ter the %rue"in% in'asion o$ 676/- Russia:s mi"itar# $ortunes re'ersed, Ha'in% dri'en the Grand ArmPe out o$ the em(ire b# the end o$ that #ear- Tsar A"e4ander de!ided to (ursue Na(o"eon a!ross Euro(e a"" the &a# ba!5 to ran!eEa %oa" &hi!h &as a!hie'ed in ear"# 6761, In the midst o$ &ides(read nationa"ism and re'u"sion a%ainst the ren!h durin% the Euro(ean Cam(ai%n- Mos!o& Dourna"ists and (am(h"eteers 5e(t a"i'e the messiani! as(e!ts o$ the members o$ the uni'ersa"ist re"i%ious (oets, With the start o$ the dri'e to&ard Paris- the# sa& the !han!e to restore ran!e to its o"d &a#sEa ho(e bui"t in (art on (o(u"ar anti3re'o"utionar# and anti3 Na(o"eoni! ren!h !urrents- asso!iated &ith "ibera"ism and ear"# Romanti!ism, Li5e G"in5a- Russia:s (o"iti!a" essa#ists read Euro(ean se"$3!riti)ues and de!ided that Russia a"one embodied the 'a"ues that &ere missin% abroad, Whereas G"in5a de'oted his &or5 to mobi"i>in% the nation $or &ar- ho&e'er- the essa#ists o$ 676/36761 &anted to dis!o'er as(e!ts o$ traditions that Russia and Euro(e


shared, In de$inin% their nationa" !a""in%- the# shared maDor themati! e"ements o$ the ear"# ren!h Romanti!s- &ho sou%ht to restore a ba"an!e o$ (o&er amon% Euro(e:s nations &hi"e a"so a!hie'in% a !om(romise bet&een traditiona" re"i%ion and re'o"utionar# atheism, *# 'irtue o$ their be"ie$ that re'o"ution had not stained Russia- the Russian (o"iti!a" essa#ists de$ined the nationa" &ar e$$ort a%ainst Na(o"eon as a !rusade to restore simu"taneous"# e)uit# amon% nations- re"i%ious $aith- and the (ro%ress o$ "earnin%, The# thus !ontributed to the e4(e!tation that the nation:s Euro(ean !am(ai%ns &ou"d sa'e re'o"utionar# Euro(e on!e and $or a"" and restore in it the (re3re'o"utionar# remnants o$ en"i%htened !i'i"i>ation, &he Early Romantics, Search for -alance Euro(ean inte""e!tua"s: sear!h $or internationa" ba"an!e be%an as a rea!tion to the ren!h Re'o"ution, Edmund *ur5e:s Re!lections on the Revolution in 1rance ?6HG0@ had initiated a host o$ attem(ts amon% En%"ish- ren!h- and German thin5ers to set an idea" o$ Euro(e in o((osition to the re'o"ution:s nationa"ism, In Re!lections*ur5e minimi>ed the e$$e!t o$ re"i%ious di$$eren!es amon% the 'arious (eo("es o$ Euro(e:s "and to ar%ue $or a dee(er unit#, BThe nations o$ Euro(e ha'e had the 'er# same Christian re"i%iona%reein% in the $undamenta" (oints- 'ar#in% a "itt"e in the !eremonies


and in the subordinate do!trines-C *ur5e &rote, Re'o"utionar# b"unders aside- *ur5e thou%ht- the traditions stret!hin% $rom Euro(e:s !ommon $euda" ori%ins to the (resent &ere stron% enou%h to !onsider the territor# Bone %reat state,C8G/ German and En%"ish Romanti!s res(onded &ith their o&n ideas o$ Euro(e- but these 'ersions &ere a"" inte""e!tua" !onstru!ts- &ithout a (ra!ti!a" 'ision $or (o"iti!a" unit# and stabi"it#,8G8 The ad'ent o$ Na(o"eon (rom(ted ne& (o"emi!s b# ear"# ren!h Romanti!s in $a'or o$ ba"an!ed internationa" re"ations amon% Euro(e:s (eo("es, Without (rimari"# intendin% to !onstru!t an idea" o$ Euro(e- the# !ertain"# &anted to arti!u"ate (rin!i("es that !ou"d miti%ate the o'er&he"min% %eo(o"iti!a" (o&er that Na(o"eon had a!)uired as em(eror, Na(o"eon himse"$ (ossessed a !on!e(t o$ a united Euro(eEunder ren!h he%emon# &ith other territories $or!ed to ado(t "a&s o$ the ren!h- house their armies- and re("i!ate %o'ernmenta" administrations on their mode",8G1 Some o$ the ear"# ren!h Romanti!s had su((orted re'o"ution and the En"i%htenment at ear"# (eriods in time- but the# s!orned Na(o"eon:s im(eria"
Tuoted in Mart#n Thom(son- BIdeas o$ Euro(e durin% the ren!h Re'o"ution and the Na(o"eoni! Wars,C ?ournal o! the History o! Ideas 9926 ?+an 6GG1@2 10316,
392 393

Thom(son- BIdeas o$ Euro(e-C 17397, Thom(son- BIdeas o$ Euro(e-C 8G,



(o"i!ies, *ian!amaria ontana has sho&n ho& thin5ers "i5e *enDamin Constant and Germaine de Sta•" be"ie'ed that Na(o"eon had betra#ed the En"i%htenment and sou%ht to out"ine (ro(er %uides $or a Euro(e &here indi'idua" nations !ou"d $ee" inte%rated and #et (reser'e their o&n traditions and "o!a" e4(erien!es,8G9 The ear"# ren!h Romanti!s a"so sou%ht to a!hie'e ba"an!e &ith re%ard to the ro"e o$ re"i%ion in !u"ture, On this to(i!- the ren!h Re'o"ution as a &ho"e a((eared as the sour!e o$ e4!ess, Thou%h the ear"# ren!h Romanti!s %re& u( in the a%e o$ the En"i%htenmentthe# !ame to (er!ei'e re'o"utionar# attitudes to&ard re"i%ion as destru!ti'e and harm$u" to so!iet#, Without su((ortin% orthodo4 Christianit#- the# de$ended re"i%ion itse"$ as a ne!essar# e"ement $or a &e""3$un!tionin% !i'i"i>ation, ran–ois RenP de Chateaubriand- $or instan!e- !on!"uded his +ssay on Revolutions ?6HGH@ &ith the rea"i>ation that some $or!e in the (ost3re'o"utionar# &or"d must re("a!e Christianit#,8G. At the time- he !ou"d not o$$er an a"ternati'ebut in 670/- he (ub"ished the >enius o! Christianity- in &hi!h he de$ended the re"i%ion $or its aestheti! mar'e"s, Chateaubriand
*ian!amaria ontana- BThe Na(o"eoni! Em(ire and the Euro(e o$ Nations,C in The Idea o! +urope !rom ntiIuity to the +uropean 8nion, edited b# Anthon# Pa%den ?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- /00/@6/9,

D, G, Char"ton- The 1rench Romantics- ;o", 6- ?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G71@- 87,


himse"$ admitted that his &or5 &as not serious a(o"o%eti!s- be!ause his audien!e needed to be s&a#ed b# the !harms o$ ima%ination and interests o$ the heart- rather than the inte""e!t,8GH *ut b# ar%uin% that the *ib"e &as better than Homer and Christian tra%ed# su(erior to the An!ients- Chateaubriand sho&ed that the de'e"o(ment o$ Euro(ean histor# to&ard modern- en"i%htened so!iet# e4hibited an interde(enden!e o$ re"i%ion and "earnin%,8G7 He hi%h"i%hted the (eriod bet&een the Roman Em(ire and the Renaissan!e $or the ro"e o$ Christians in (reser'in% the !u"ture o$ C"assi!a" Anti)uit#, The sear!h $or re"i%ious rene&a" "ed to a broadenin% o$ out"oo5sin!e the Romanti!s es!he&ed the di$$eren!es im(osed b# do%ma!on$ession- and tradition, The ear"# ren!h Romanti!s understood that the re'o"ution had arisen in res(onse to (ast abuses and had &i(ed a&a# the o"d order, One !ou"d not %o ba!5 to an ante3 re'o"utionar# situation- so a ne& K(rin!i("eK or sour!e $or re"i%ious re'i'a" needed to be $ound, Catho"i!ism and Protestant denominations seemed too tied to the o"d re%ime and thus the
ran–ois RenP de Chateaubriand- The >enius o! ChristianityQ or, The "pirit and %eauty o! the Christian Reli$ion - trans"ated b# Char"es White?*a"timore2 +, Mur(h# R Co,- 6771@- 1731G,

+, S, *ur#:s $amous stud#- the Idea o! -ro$ress ?Ne& Ior52 Ma!Mi""an6G8/@ !"aimed that Chateaubriand &as an o((onent o$ (ro%ress- but that !"aim han%s on a!!e(tin% *ur#:s understandin% o$ B(ro%ressC &ith re%ard to modern (ride in the a!hie'ements o$ s!ien!e and so $orth, See /.1Chateaubriand o(en"# !"aimed that modern art ?o$ Louis QI;:s era@ &as su(erior to the An!ients, See >enius- //H,


Romanti!s "oo5ed e"se&here $or !"ues to the si%ni$i!an!e o$ re"i%ion in human "i$e, Sur'e#in% human "i$e $rom (o"#theisti! !i'i"i>ations to the (resent- Constant identi$ied a re"i%ious (rin!i("e that &as !entra" to human e4isten!e- but &hi!h a"so &as marred and distorted b# sa!erdota" or%ani>ation- do%ma- and into"eran!e,8GG E'en Chateaubriand- &ho de$ended the Roman Catho"i! Chur!h and !a""ed $or the ;ati!an to "ead Euro(e•s !u"tura" rene&a"- em("o#ed a broad understandin% o$ Christianit# in >enius, In his de$ense o$ Christianit# and the arts- Chateaubriand e4a"ted the author o$ the Christian e(i! -aradise <ost- +ohn Mi"ton- e'en thou%h Mi"ton &as a radi!a" Puritan and hosti"e to the estab"ished An%"i!an !hur!h- to sa# nothin% o$ Rome,100 Whi"e Russians mi%ht not ha'e a((re!iated Chateaubriand:s e"aborate des!ri(tions o$ the aestheti! 'a"ue o$ Roman Catho"i! orders- the# !ertain"# !ou"d $ind !ommon %round in seein% a %enera" Christian B$aithC as the basis $or !i'i"i>ed tradition,106 Their !ountr#

Char"ton- 1rench Romantics- 10316, Char"ton- 1rench Romantics- 87,


The initia" re!e(tion o$ >enius too5 ("a!e in Herald o! +urope and &as dero%ator#, Editor Ni5o"ai =aram>in strun% to%ether a series o$ )uotations and s(urned Chateaubriand:s st#"e- but &ithout !ounterin% or e'en "a#in% out his ar%uments, =aram>in:s arti!"e indi!ates that he e4(e!ted the readers to 5no& Chateaubriand $or the stor# tala- &hi!h a((ears in (art o$ >enius, See BNo'oe so!hinenie Shato3*riana-C :estnik +vropy 8 ?+une 670/@2 /1/,


had re!ei'ed Orthodo4 Christianit# $rom Constantino("e- but inte""e!tua"s did not de$ine Christian identit# throu%h the Eastern !hur!h, The C"assi!a" tradition !ame to Rome in the ei%hteenth !entur#- a"on% &ith the in$"u4 o$ the German En"i%htenment and re"i%ious Pietism, reemason ties in the ei%hteenth3!entur# (ro'ided a!!ess to Protestant de'otiona" "iterature- at a time &hen the Orthodo4 !"er%# had not (rodu!ed their o&n 'ersions, 10/ Moreo'erNa(o"eon:s 676/ in'asion o$ Russia "ent !reden!e to the notion that Russia &as a 'i!tim o$ ren!h a%%ression and thus !ou"d Dust"# see5 redress b# tr#in% to attain %eo(o"iti!a" e)ui"ibrium &ith other Euro(ean nations, Russian (o"iti!a" essa#ists thus had %ood reason to share the ear"# ren!h Romanti!s: desires $or re"i%ious and internationa" !om(romise, Un"i5e the ren!h thin5ers- ho&e'er- the# (ro(osed their o&n nation as the sour!e $or redressin% Euro(e:s re'o"utionar# (rob"ems,

ationalism and $ni+ersalism in .ournalism The uni'ersa"ist tone o$ the Mos!o& re"i%ious (oets and
On the (rob"em o$ de'otiona" "iterature %enera""#- see a%%ionatoRa$$ae""a, B rom a So!iet# o$ the En"i%htened to the En"i%htenment o$ So!iet#2 the Russian *ib"e So!iet# and Rosi!ru!ianism in the A%e o$ A"e4ander I,C "lavic and +ast +uropean Revie# HG28 ?+u"# /006@2 19G317H, See Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- 611 on the (rob"em o$ Orthodo4 identit# amon% inte""e!tua"s,


(o"iti!a" essa#ists (a"ed in !om(arison to the o'er&he"min% nationa"ist (ub"ishin% sur%e a$ter 676/, In %enera"- the (atrioti! bro!hures o$ 676/36761 di'ided into t&o t#(es2 anti3Na(o"eoni! and (ro3Russian, The $ormer &ere o$ten trans"ated $rom anti3philosophes or German nationa"ists- brin%in% ne&s o$ !ourt %ossi(- !ons(ira!# theories- and i%nob"e a!tions abroad,108 A (o(u"ar Russian sub%enre o$ the anti3Na(o"eoni! tirade &as the dream bro!hure- &hi!h usua""# in'o"'ed the ren!h ru"er su$$erin% a ni%htmare on the e'e o$ in'asion2 tormented b# a Russian i!on or a s#mbo"i! tour throu%h his 'arious !rimes,101 The (ro3Russian bro!hures usua""# $o!used e4!"usi'e"# on indi'idua" a!ts o$ heroism durin% the in'asion, 109 Other
rom the !omments in ;ratkii ob4or kni4hnoi tor$ovli i i4datelEskoi deiatelEnosti >la4unovykh 4a sto let, &,'3)&''3 ?S,3Peterbur% 2 TiG"a>uno'a- 6778@- it seems that (ri'ate (ub"ishers !onsidered (ro(a%anda &or5s %ood se""ers, Sti""- man# o$ the anti3Na(o"eoni! tra!ts o$ 6768 and be#ond &ere (rodu!ed on the initiati'e o$ Ser%ei U'aro'- "ater the minister o$ edu!ation- &ho aimed to brin% ne&s(a(ers in "ine &ith (ub"i! o(inion, See ;, G, Sirot5in- BRuss5aia (ressa (er'oi !het'erti QIQ 'e5a na inostranna5h ia>#5a5h 5a5 istori!hes5ii isto!hni5,C Istoriia """R 1?6GH.@2 7737G,

On Na(o"eoni! dreams- see =ar" riedri!h *or5- Napoleonov pervyi son v Moskve, ?St, Petersbur%2 ti(o%ra$iia G, ;oenna%o Gubernatora- 676/@A "on %onapartaQ :idennoi im v -ari4he v samuiu tu noch0, ko$da on raspolo4hen byl otpravit0sia v armiiu, dlia vstupleniia so onoiu v Rossiiskoe predely, v4iatoi is dostovernykh svedenii, ?Mos!o&2 %uberniia ti(o%ra$iia A, Reshetni5o'a- 6768@A A"e5sandr Sobo"e'- "on ;orsikantsa, ?St, Petersbur%2 'oennoe ministerst'o- 6761@, A"so see Su5hotin- ?(seud, P,ES, =h, T, N, E@ "on pred v4iatiem ruskim ;eni$sber$a i nekotoryia stihki , ?St, Petersbur%2 Ios, Ioanneso'- 6768@,

See $or instan!e- Petr <hdano'- -amiatnik !rantsu4am ili -rikliucheniia Moskovska$o 4hitelia 9 9 Ch 9 9 9, ?Ti(o%ra$iia I, *ai5o'a- 6768@A edor I'ano'i!h =orbe"ets5ii- ;ratkoe povestvovanie o vtor4henii !rantsu4ov v


boo5"ets be%an to aim at de(i!tin% Bnorma"C RussiansEnot Dust non3 nob"es- but sa"t3o$3the3earth $o"5s &ho remembered the B&a#s o$ the an!estorsC and o!!asiona""# tau%ht them to the ren!h, One o$ the $e& that sho&ed the Russians in Paris mo!5ed the ("a!e as unmana%eab"e and de(ri'ed o$ Russian hos(ita"it# to boot,10. Man# e4!er(ts $rom (o(u"ar (am(h"ets adorned the (a%es o$ the t&o e4!"usi'e"#3(atrioti! Dourna"s- "on o! the 1atherland and Russian Herald, These Dourna"s a"so (rodu!ed man# o$ their o&n anti3 ren!h !riti)ues- most"# o$ a nationa"ist 'ariet#, G"in5a- sti"" editor o$ Russian Herald- $e"" 'i!tim to his o&n se"$3!on$iden!e, He &as so !ertain that the ans&ers to !ontem(orar# (rob"ems !ou"d be $ound in a more intensi'e (ro!"amation o$ nationa" traditions that he $ai"ed to de'e"o( an# (ro(osa"s be#ond more Russianness and "ess ren!hness,10H So'iet s!ho"ars ha'e !ontrasted "on o! the 1atherland in the &ar #ears &ith G"in5a:s or%an as (ro%ressi'e and rea!tionar# res(e!ti'e"#- but both Dourna"s maintained a sti$$"#3nationa"isti! tone throu%hout the &ar #ears, E'en G"in5a re!o%ni>ed that "on o! the
Moskvu i o prebyvanii ikh v onoi- ?St, Petersbur%2 De(artament 'neshnei tor%o'"i- 6768@A Petr I, Sha"i5o'- Istoricheskie i4vestie o pred99 v Moskve !rantsu4y v &'&3 $odu- ?Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia S, Se"i'ano's5o%o- 6768@, M, Memors5ii- Russkie slaviatsia i tor4hestvuiut v -ari4he9 " kratkim opisaniem sei stolitsy, i Otchaianie Napoleona %onaparte, %yvsha$o obladatelia se$o 4namenitna$o $oroda, ?Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia N, S, ;se'o"o>hs5a%o- 6761@,
406 407

=, ;, Si'5o'- B;oina i tsen>ura-C in O:RO- 'o", 1- 6//,


1atherland attra!ted the (ub"i! in &a#s that he !ou"d not,107 or a"" intents and (ur(oses- "on o! the 1atherland be%an as the Russian3"an%ua%e bran!h o$ the %o'ernment:s (ro(a%anda net&or5 o$ (eriodi!a"s, Most o$ these &ere aimed at !ounterin% the in$"uen!e o$ Na(o"eoni! ne&s(a(ers in the Western (ro'in!es and German "ands- but the %o'ernment hired Dor(at ?Tartu@ (ro$essors to en$"ame the (atrioti! s(irit o$ the mi"itar# !or(s as &e"",10G "on o! the 1atherland- ho&e'er- turned to the edu!ated (ub"i!- and &ith immediate su!!ess2 its (rint runs rea!hed 6-700 ?!om(ared to 6-/00 $or Herald o! +urope@,160 Its editor- Ni5o"ai Gre!h- &as hired b# Ser%ei U'aro'- the trustee o$ the St, Petersbur% Edu!ationa" Distri!t and a !entra" $i%ure in mana%in% %o'ernment3s(onsored $orei%n3"an%ua%e (eriodi!a"s, Gre!h:s ori%ina" (ur(ose &as to trans"ate Ernst Arndt:s German nationa"ist tra!t- the :oice o! Truth- &hi!h a((eared in the $irst issue,
408 166

A"e4ei O"enin- host o$ the $amous St, Petersbur% sa"on

S, N, G"in5a- Capiski "er$ei Nikolaevicha >linki- ?St, Petersbur%2 Russ5aia Starina- 67G9@- 80/, Sirot5in- BRuss5aia (ressa (er'oi !het'erti QIQ 'e5a-C HH3GHA A, G, Tarta5o's5ii- :oennaia publitsistika &'&3 $oda- ?Mos!o&2 I>date":st'o2 BM#s":C 6G.H@,

Thomas Louis =oe(ni!5- The ?ournalistic Careers o! 19 :9 %ul$arin and N9 I9 >rech: -ublicism and -olitics in Tsarist Russia - ?Ph,D Dissertation2 Ohio State Uni'ersit#- 6GH.@- 16,

The $u"" stor# !an be $ound in N, I, Gre!h- Capiski o moei 4hi4ni, Ed, E, G, =a(ustina, ?Mos!o&- 6GG0@ 6HG367H, On U'aro'- see Sirot5in- BRuss5aia (ressa (er'oi !het'erti QIQ 'e5a-C 77,


and Priiutino estate- a"so he"(ed se!ure su((ort $or "on o! the 1atherland:s $oundin%, As mentioned in !ha(ter 6- O"enin &as a (o&er$u" bureau!rat and a !riti!a" "in5 bet&een the more !onser'ati'e !om(an# o$ Shish5o':s Co""o)uium and the more "ibera" ree So!iet#, Man# o$ the &riters &ho "oo5ed u( to O"enin ?or &anted a Dob $rom him@ (ub"ished e4tensi'e"# in the ne& (atrioti! Dourna", In tota"- 6H members o$ the ree So!iet# &rote (oetr#- Dourna" arti!"esor essa#s $or "on o! the 1atherland durin% the &ar #ears,16/ The ree So!iet# members shared the nationa"ist !on!erns o$ the !onser'ati'e Co""o)uium %rou(- but the# &ere more interested in (o(u"ar heroism than re"i%ious 'isions, "on o! the 1atherland di$$ered $rom other "iterar# Dourna"s in that the &ar &as its raison d0Rtre, The Bmis!e""an#C se!tion- &hi!h in Herald o! +urope dis!ussed the "atest ne&s about Chateaubriand or !onstitutiona" (roDe!ts- &as $i""ed &ith e4am("es o$ (easants trum(in% ren!h so"diers &ith &it- $ero!it#- and !oura%e, ab"es o$ the $amous I'an =r#"o' !on'e#ed "essons about the &ar e$$ort, E'en in !ontra'ention o$ the C"assi!a" ru"e that a $ab"e shou"d not be identi$ied &ith a (arti!u"ar $i%ure- =r#"o' used $i%ures that )uite !"ear"# re(resented ie"dmarsha" =utu>o'- a man o$

N, M, Mi5hai"o's5aia- B<hurna" MS#n Ote!hest'a: (erioda Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# i stano'"eniia de5abri>ma ?676/36767@-C 8chennye 4apiski8dmurtsko$o peda$o$ichesko$o instituta - ;o", 68- ;#(, G ?6G9.@2 ..3 .7


e4traordinar# (o(u"arit#- but a"so in need o$ ad'o!ates, Tsar A"e4ander made e'ident his dis("easure &ith the $ie"dmarsha":s de!ision to abandon Mos!o& to the ren!h- and =r#"o' ?a"on% &ith other "on o! the 1atherland &riters@ used $ab"es to 'indi!ate =utu>o':s $oresi%ht, "on o! the 1atherland be%an (ub"ishin% some $orei%n nationa"isti! tra!ts in 676/ $rom German#- En%"and- and S(ain- but o'er time Gre!h s&it!hed to !ontributions $rom his audien!e, A so"i!itation $or e4am("es o$ nationa" heroism met a hu%e res(onse,168 The ties o$ "on o! the 1atherland &ith O"enin and the ree So!iet# (ro'ided a !onduit $or more than Dust Dourna"ism, ree So!iet# members I'an I'ano'i!h Terebene'- I'an I'ano'- and A"e4ei ;enetsiano' desi%ned man# o$ the most $amous i""ustrations $rom the Na(o"eoni! Wars- usua""# &ith subDe!ts $rom the in'asion, The i""ustrators o$ten &or5ed o$$ subDe!ts $rom "on o! the 1atherland:s Bmi4tureC se!tion- mu!h o$ &hi!h &as the (rodu!t o$ ima%ination, Mi5hai" Dmitrie' re!a""ed that &riters (ur(ose"# in'ented BRussianC ane!dotes to !reate !ari!atures o$ the ren!h and in!rease nationa"isti! sentiment a%ainst them, A"e4ander Tur%ene'- A"e4ei ;oei5o'- Gre!h- and others met a$ter the enem# in retreat and be%an
L, ;, ;oini!h- B<hurna" MS#n ote!hest'a: ' (eriod 676/3676. %%,-C in :oprosy Russkoi literatury- edited b# N, ;, Ni5o"e' ?L:'o'2 ;#sh!ha sh5o"a6G7/@- H83H9,


to in'ent these stories $or distribution in Smo"ens5 and Mos!o&, The stories in!"uded $amous ane!dotes and ima%es that be!ame the basis $or the i""ustrators and their (o(u"ar &ood!uts ?lubki@2 ho& a Russian S!ae'o"a !ut o$$ his o&n arm rather than bear the mar5 o$ ser'i!e in Na(o"eon:s arm#A ho& an e"der rounded u( hun%r# ren!hmenA ho& one Cossa!5 ta5in% out an arti""er# (ost &ith a &hi(A ho& hun%r# ren!hmen re)uestin% $ood $"ed on hearin% ne&s o$ a %oat?ko4a@- mista5en"# understood as a more $earsome Cossa!5 &arrior ?ko4ak@,161 Whi"e it did (ub"ish nationa"ist &or5s $rom a!ross Euro(e- "on o! the 1atherland did not see5 to en%a%e in !ontem(orar# issues surroundin% the inte""e!tua" and !u"tura" rene&a" o$ Euro(e, Its most $amous &riter o$ publitsistika &as A"e4ander =units#n- a tea!her at the Tsars5oe Se"o L#!eum, =units#n &rote an essa# !a""in% the nation to arms- B;oi!e o$ a Russian-C that ser'ed as a !om(anion (ie!e to Arndt:s B;oi!e o$ Truth,C In this and a "ater BE(ist"e to the Russians-C ?$rom O!tober /7- 676/@ =units#n de$ined the &ar in terms o$ nationa" $reedom a%ainst the ti%er Na(o"eon &ith a horde o$ inse!ts $or an arm#,169 A $e& other authors ado(ted a (hi"oso(hi!

A, I":in3Tomi!h, B=to (riduma" russ5uiu stse'o"uLC Rodina (7 June 1992):


A, =units#n- BPos"anie 5 Russ5im-C in Russkie prosvetiteli 5ot Radishcheva do 6ekabristov7- edited b# I, Ia,Sh!hi(ano'- ;o", / ?Mos!o&- BM#s":C 6G..@6.G36H/,


tone2 one b"amed the re'o"ution on the i""uminati and assai"ed the Russians $or not ha'in% $oreseen the threat,16. Another o$$ered a BP"atoni!C !riti)ue o$ the +a!obins- &hose (o"iti!a" a!ti'it# resemb"ed the ima%e o$ the boat &ithout a !a(tain $rom P"ato:s Republic, The author di'ided ren!h !u"ture bet&een %ood en"i%htenersE Pne"on*ossuet- Cornei""e- Ra!ineEand $a"se philosophes ?Rousseau;o"taire- Montes)uieu- Diderot@- but made no e$$ort to sho& ho& Russian nationa" !hara!ter embodied the (rin!i("es o$ the $ormer,16H Thou%h Mos!o& had burned do&n and most o$ its (o(u"ation &as tem(orari"# dis("a!ed- its (o"iti!a" Dourna"s $rom the uni'ersit# e4hibited a "ess nationa"isti! messa%e, Prior to 676/- Mos!o& Uni'ersit# (ro'ided a de%ree o$ inde(enden!e $rom the tsar:s $orei%n (o"i!# (riorities and his (ro(a%anda net&or5, In 670. the uni'ersit# !oun!i" had bou%ht a t#(o%ra(h#- and a!ademi! !onstituen!ies thus obtained the ri%ht to de!ide &hat &as (rinted, In addition- the uni'ersit# (ro$essors themse"'es &ere the !ensors ?a"thou%h the trustee !ou"d inter$ere@, Man# o$ the German (ro$essors &ere ea%er to "aun!h a (rintin% assau"t on Na(o"eon- sin!e the# &ere enra%ed o'er the 670. ta5in% o$ +ena- the !it# o$ a maDor German uni'ersit#,
R, R,- BRa>m#sh"eniia rus5a%o (atriota o b#str#5h us(e5ha5h ra>rushite":noi sistem# rantsu>s5o%o (ra'ite":st'a-C "yn Otechestva 1260 ?6768@2 619369G,
416 417

Ia- BM#s"i i (ra'i"a-C "yn Otechestva, /2H ?676/@2 H63HH,


*ut anti3Na(o"eoni! ener%# bare"# mounted be$ore di("omati! re'ersa"s )ue""ed su!h !riti!ism, A$ter the Ti"sit (ea!e in 670H- the uni'ersit# !ensors &ere instru!ted to sho& Na(o"eon a"" due res(e!t,167 Tension arose a #ear "ater &hen Ser%ei G"in5a (ub"ished an anti3Na(o"eoni! (ie!e that !ou"d ha'e been seen as an indire!t indi!tment o$ the tsar:s (o"i!ies, Therea$ter (o"iti!s &as su((osed to be restri!ted to o$$i!ia" (ub"i!ations, Herald o! +urope in 6707 &as under ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii:s editoria" !ontro"- and he stressed "iterature o'er (o"iti!s, In 676/- one o$ Ser%ei U'aro':s interests in "on o! the 1atherland &as that he (er!ei'ed too mu!h o$ a "a!5 o$ (o"iti!a" ne&s under the 6707 (o"i!#,16G A$ter the in'asion- natura""#- the restri!tions on anti3 ren!h (ub"ishin% &ere "i$ted or i%nored, With Mi5hai" =a!heno's5ii and ;"adimir I>mai"o' ba!5 at the he"m o$ Herald o! +urope- the (o"iti!a" se!tion o$ the Dourna" &as rene&ed, Moreo'er- a s"e& o$ anti3Na(o"eoni! bro!hures (oured out $rom both !a(ita"s, *e$ore the Con%ress o$ ;ienna- Russia had no o$$i!ia" (o"i!# e4!e(t to de$eat Na(o"eon, So $rom 676/ to 6761 publitsistika !ou"d 'enture into the rea"m o$ (o"iti!a" !riti!ism &ith ho(es and 'isions $or Euro(e:s re!onstitution &ithout $ear o$ ne%atin% an o$$i!ia" (o"i!#,

A, Iu, Andree'- Moskovskii universitet v obshchestvennoi i kulAturnoi 4hi4ni Rossii nachala XIX veka, ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i russ5oi 5u":tur#- /000@- 688,
418 419

Gre!h- Capiski- 670367H,


The main Dourna"s &ith (o"iti!a" !riti!ism- Herald o! +urope and the Historical, "tatistical, and >eo$raphic ?ournal ?Istoricheskii, "tatisticheskii, i >eo$ra!icheskii 4hurnal- herea$ter I">@ &ere both distributed &ith Mosco# Ne#s- the o$$i!ia" ne&s(a(er that (ub"ished uni'ersit# announ!ements a"on% &ith %o'ernmenta" do!uments, i""i( ;i%e": !asua""# dismissed I"> as irre"e'ant- but it had a re"ati'e"# &ide readershi(, Li5e Herald o! +urope, it rea!hed subs!ribers not on"# in the Mos!o& re%ion- but a"so b# mai" in =a>an: and U5raine- as &e"" as throu%h the Petersbur% boo5se""er G"a>uno', It a"so had a "on%er "i$es(an Herald o! +urope ?6HG036780 's, 670/36780@- e'en i$ it !ou"d not boast the same re(ertoire o$ $amous Euro(ean &riters in trans"ation or the "e%a!# o$ its $ounder- Ni5o"ai =aram>in, At its hei%ht in 6768- its (rint run &as .79- so its s!o(e &as !om(arab"e to Russian Herald,1/0 The editors o$ these Dourna"s !ombed throu%h 'arious Euro(ean (ub"i!ations to brin% the (ub"i! the best arti!"es and "iterar#
R, N, ="emeino'a estimated a (rint run in 6768 o$ .79 $or I"> 's, 6-769 $or :+, In 6769- the numbers o$ subs!ribers throu%h the mai" !om(ared as $o""o&s ?I">J:+@2 throu%h the uni'ersit# ?66/J801@A throu%h mai" to Mos!o& re%ion ?69HJ99G@A throu%h mai" to U5raine ?G8J/90@A throu%h mai" to =a>an: ?/6J.1@A to G"a>uno' in St, Petersbur% ?60JH0@, See ;ni4hnaia Moskva pervoi poloviny XIX veka, ?Mos!o&2 Nau5a- 6GG6@ 9739G, On G"in5a:s reader3base- see A"e4ander Martin- BThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet# and Russian Nationa" Identit# in Ser%ei N, G"in5a:s Russian Messen$er ?67073 676/@-C "lavic Revie# 9H26 ?6GG7@2 19, Un$ortunate"#- the so!ia" !om(osition o$ :estnik +vropy and Istoricheskii, "tatisticheskii, i $eo$ra!icheskii 4hurnal is un5no&n,


(rodu!tions $or the de'e"o(ment o$ Russian taste, The# thus had a!!ess to the dis!ussions emanatin% in the Euro(ean (rint s(herees(e!ia""# the ri%ht3&in% (ress, The Russian (o"iti!a" essa#ists used !ommon notions about an idea o$ Euro(e and its need o$ rene&a" to (ro'ide the histori!a" ba!5%round $or Russia:s nationa" mission,


e+(oro+: &he &radition of Moral Legislation

The $irst (o"iti!a" sa"'os a%ainst the ren!h Re'o"ution and on beha"$ o$ shared traditions &ere "aun!hed in one o$ the "ess3$amous Dourna"s- I">- &hose main (o"iti!a" essa#ist &as Ma4im Ne'>oro'- a mason a!ti'e in the Mos!o& "od%es o$ the 6H70s,1/6 His (o&er at the

I"> &as one o$ the "on%est (ub"i!ations at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#Esin!e 6HG0, It had !han%ed names man# times2 6HG036HG82 -oliticheskii 4hurnal i poka4aniem uchenykh i dru$ikh veshchei A 6HG1367062 -oliticheskii 4hurnalA 670/3670.2 -oliticheskii 4hurnal ili "ovremennaia istoriia svetaA 670.3670G2 -oliticheskii, "tatisticheskii, i >eo$ra!icheskii 4hurnal A 670G367802 Istoricheskii, "tatisticheskii, i >eo$ra!icheskii 4hurnal ,Sin!e its $oundin% tit"e &as -oliticheskii 4hurnal- trans"ated $rom the German $rom Hambur%- it &as the Russian trans"ation o$ Hambur$er -olitisches ?ournal?6H7636701@- a$ter the !"ose o$ &hi!h the Dourna" !ontinued to o(erate under Ga'ri"o':s !ontro" unti"" Ne'>oro' too5 o'er in 6761, The Dourna" &as trans"ated $rom German unti" 670., See N, M, Liso's5ii- Russkaia periodicheskaia pechat0, &,(K) &.(( $$9 ?Petro%rad2 G, Shuma5her and *, *ru5er- 6G69@- H, On Hambur$er -olitisches ?ournal see- E(stein- >enesis o! >erman Conservatism 1G1, Hen!e- the R%" !"aim that Ne'>oro' inherited the -oliticheskii 4hurnal in 6768 rea""# shou"d be understood as I">, N, M, si%ned the introdu!tion to the $irst issue o$ 6761, On Ne'>oro' and the uni'ersit#- see N, N, *u"i!hOcherki po istorii russkoi literatury i prosveshcheniia s nachala XIX veka ;o", 6- ?St, Petersbur%2 M, M, Stasiu"e'i!h- 6G6/@- 8963898,


t#(o%ra(h# he"(ed $a!i"itate the (ub"i!ation o$ I"> durin% the (ost3 in'asion rebui"din% o$ uni'ersit# institutions, Remar5ab"#- the (rintin% (ress &as a"most the on"# uni'ersit# (ossession to sur'i'e the $ire,1// Hen!e- his !riti)ues o$ Na(o"eoni! (o"iti!s are the sour!es !"osest in time to the a!tua" o!!u(ation, Thou%h Ne'>oro' ardent"# o((osed the ren!h Re'o"ution- he ironi!a""# &as one o$ the Russians (erse!uted $or su((osed s#m(athies &ith it, Ha'in% arri'ed at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# 'ia the %enerosit# o$ the $reemasons: riend"# Learned So!iet#- he as!ended the Masoni! hierar!h# to his o&n detriment, rom 6H77 to 6HG/Ne'>oro' tra'e"ed on his brothers: mone# to *er"in ?ostensib"# to stud# medi!ine@- to Lei(>i% ?&here he re!ei'ed a do!torate o$ "a& in 6HG0@- and to Strasbour%, There he heard o$ the re'o"utionar# e'ents and in dis%ust !an!e""ed ("ans $or a 'isit to ran!e,1/8 The e'ents in ran!e stru!5 him as the out!ome o$ s(iritua" retro%ression- a s#m(tom o$ &hi!h he $ound e'en in the 'er# German uni'ersit# stru!ture that &as su((osed to train him,1/1 Catherine:s o$$i!ia"sho&e'er- sus(e!ted that his German uni'ersit# tour &as a $a–ade $or
Ste(an Petro'i!h She'#re'- Istoriia Imperatorska$o Moskovska$o universiteta- ?N,!,- n,(,2 6799@- 1/0,

A, M, Ran!hin and L, M, Sh!heme"e'a- BNe'>oro'- Ma5sim I'ano'i!h-C in Russkie pisateli &'(()&.&,: %io$ra!icheskii slovar0 - 'o", 1- ?Mos!o&2 *o"•shaia Rossiis5aia entsi5"o(ediia( 6GGG@- /9H,
423 424

Ocherki po istorii russkoi literatury- 'o", 6- 81H381G,


an internationa" Masoni! mission- (resumab"# !onne!ted to a +a!obin !ons(ira!#,1/9 A$ter his rehabi"itation under Tsar Pau" in 6HG7- Ne'>oro' resumed !onta!t &ith the Mos!o& Masons- es(e!ia""# I'an Lo(u5hin&ho 'ou!hed $or Ne'>oro' and too5 him in, Ne'>oro' soon a!hie'ed hi%h ran5 in the &or"d o$ !i'i" ser'i!e ?he had obtained hereditar# nobi"it# b# 676/@ b# &or5in% at the Mos!o& Uni'ersit# t#(o%ra(h# and !arried on a &ar &ith philosophes and re'o"utionar# ideas throu%h a dida!ti!3re"i%ious Dourna"- 1riend o! Nouth, Ne'>oro' $i""ed the Dourna" &ith mo!5 dia"o%ues o$ an!ient Gree5 $i%urese4("anations o$ Christian (rin!i("es- s(iritua" (oetr#- and ideo"o%i!a" (o"emi!s, Not sur(risin%"#- ;o"taire &as a !ommon tar%et- and Ne'>oro' trans"ated ren!h arti!"es to assai" the !orres(ondent o$ Catherine the Great, Whi"e Ne'>oro' did not (ro'ide !itations- the !ontent o$ the !riti)ues resemb"ed Chateaubriand:s !omments on the modern philosophes: !u"tura" insi%ni$i!an!e, ;o"taire:s anta%onism to&ard re"i%ion- in the 'ie& o$ one arti!"e- sti$"ed his abi"it# to
On returnin% to Russia- he &as in!ar!erated in the S!h"”sse"bur% and Peter and Pau" $ortresses and "ater dis(at!hed to an as#"um, His rea!tion to arrest re'ea"ed a uni)ue as(e!t o$ his se"$3identit#, He insisted to his !a(tors that he (ossessed the !or(orate (ri'i"e%es o$ Euro(ean uni'ersit# students and &ou"d on"# be )uestioned b# a member o$ the uni'ersit#, BI be"on% to the Uni'ersit#- and a!!ordin% to its !harter ? ustav@ I shou"d not ans&er e4!e(t be$ore a uni'ersit# de(ut#,C A Russian s!ho"ar has re!ent"# seen this e(isode as (art o$ the $ormation o$ student identit# at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# a(art $rom ser'i!e- ran5- or $ami"# 8niversitet dlia Rossii- the )uotation is on 6.6, or the "ar%er ar%ument- see 867386G,


understand dee( truths, As a (erson- he $irst e4!ited #ou- but then "e$t #ou !o"d, His "earnin% seemed im(ressi'e at $irst- but !ou"d ne'er %ras( hi%her 'erities,1/. +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau- on the other handsu!!eeded &here ;o"taire had $ai"ed, An arti!"e $rom the ren!h !om(ared Rousseau as the better o$ the t&o $or absorbin% Christianit# and !a""ed the $irst (art o$ the BCon$ession o$ a Sa'o#ard ;i!arC a (ro!"amation o$ truth unmat!hed b# An!ients or Moderns,1/H BThere is no &a# not to "o'e and res(e!t Rousseau,C1/7 Ne'>oro' a"so de'e"o(ed an a"ternati'e and (ositi'e !on!e(tion o$ re'o"ution in his (re3in'asion &or5 at 1riend o! Nouth, In 6766- Ne'>oro' $i""ed the Dourna":s (a%es &ith bio%ra(hi!a" s5et!hes o$ %reat $i%ures throu%hout histor#- in!"udin% maDor "e%is"ators and "a&%i'ers "i5e So"on- Ci!ero- and Mar!us Aure"iusA and mora"ists- su!h as +an Hus- Martin Luther- and Pne"on, Ne'>oro' !onsidered Lutheranism as a mere e4terna" as(e!t o$ Christian !i'i"i>ation- a"beit one &ith a substantia" (resen!e in Euro(e, Luther himse"$- ho&e'er- re(resented a Bre'o"ution-C $or &hi!h he used the
BPortret G, ;o":tera-C trans"ated b# Ma5sim Ne'>oro'- 6ru$ Iunoshestva. ?6766@2 8H31/A BNe5otor#e mneniia o ;o":tere- Russo i "iterature semnadtsata%o 'e5e-C trans"ated b# Ma5sim Ne'>oro'- 6ru$ Iunoshestva6/ ?6766@2 16317,

The author did ha'e reser'ation about the se!ond (art- ho&e'er, BNe5otor#e mneniia o ;o":tere- Russo i "iterature semnadtsata%o 'e5e-C 903 91,
427 428



Russian &ord perevorot rather than the ren!h3soundin% revolutsiia, The re'o"utionar# (ro!ess- a!!ordin% to Ne'>oro'- estab"ished a ne& "a&%i'in% (o&er, Luther s#mbo"i>ed the &ithdra&a" o$ di'ine $a'or on Roman *ab#"on- in $a'or o$ a ne& "a& to be s(read &ith the "earnin% o$ the %os(e",1/G The mi4ture o$ mora" %reatness and a re'o"utionar# a((roa!h to "a&%i'in% thus "a# behind Ne'>oro':s 'ie&s on Euro(e:s Christian tradition and Na(o"eon:s missed o((ortunities, As a do!tor o$ "a& &ith a bureau!rati! Dob- Ne'>oro' &as unab"e to em("o# his ta"ents in a (resti%ious !areer in the %o'ernment administration, His re"i%ious (oetr#- ho&e'er- indi!ates that he &as more interested in B"a&C as it re"ated to the a!tua" !ondu!t o$ his !ountr#men, Ne'>oro' be"ie'ed that duties to&ard the monar!h &ere (art o$ an# Dust s#stem o$ "e%is"ation, *ut "i5e the O"d Testament (ro(hets- he em(hasi>ed the so!ia" !om(onent o$ a !iti>en:s res(onsibi"ities, Ne'>oro':s BOde on the O!!asion o$ War &ith the ren!h in 676/C des!ribed the !a"" to arms in terms o$ a !o'enant bet&een God and the Russian (eo("e- most o$ &hom &ere not $o""o&in% the "a&s and &ho &ou"d ha'e been $a!ed &ith ruin &ere it not $or the s(iritua" 'irtue o$ the tsar &ho inter!eded $or them, In a s(ee!h o$ God to the nobi"it#- Ne'>oro':s ode reDe!ted (ride o$ ra!e
BIstoriia Liutera-C trans"ated b# Ma5sim Ne'>oro'- 6ru$ Iunoshestva- 9 ?6766@2 9639/,


and aristo!rati! indu"%en!e in $a'or o$ s(iritua" nobi"it#- !ontrastin% the ethni! term S"a's ?"laviane@ &ith %"or# ?slava@ to be a!)uired,
…csnp^b\- ]grt\ \ yd^ergcS ip\e\hc fec`^ ‚g^k _sadjS …j hcp _^e`\hcmn- }h^ isadrgcE |^ [Z`hc msadgj `cs^p djS †mhadnhc e^mq^xn \ tada[j†h q^\l fa`aoh ycebadj ifcx\hc ga _^s^m waer •_^- †hc}cmhd^ mfamakhc~ ~pcgcp ‚^\p qaeakhc …ea_^d tsjl wceqd\ ‚^crS ?Ma%nates- Prin!es- Nob"esS Humb"e #ourse"'es be$ore me Iou are (roud that #ou are S"a's *ut be %"orious in deedS Lea'e behind #our amusement and "u4ur# rom &hi!h Great Po&ers de!"inedA Hurr# to the 'oi!e o$ the TsarA Sa'e Him and the ather"andand in m# Name (unish the &i!5ed $oes o$ M# Chur!hS@180

The admonition to de$end the !hur!h &as not a nationa"isti! one, In the (oem- Ne'>oro' re$erred to the !"er%# b# the term B(astorsC ?pastyri@ rather than B!"er%#C ?dukhovenstvo@- &hi!h &ou"d ha'e denoted the estate and &ou"d ha'e $o""o&ed the rhetori! o$ the tsar:s +u"# mani$esto- !a""in% the nob"es- !"er%#- and !iti>enr# to unite $or &ar,186 Ne'>oro':s de$ense o$ di'ine "a&s &as his o&n (arti!u"ar &a# o$ e4(ressin% nationa" (rideEthat Russia had a !o'enant &ith God,
Ma5sim Ne'>oro'- BOda na s"u!hai 'oin# s rantsu>ami 676/ %oda-C in "obranie&'&3- 'o", 6- 8H,
430 431

Ne'>oro'- BOda na s"u!hai 'oin# s rantsu>ami 676/ %oda-C 8H,


*ut it a"so !an be seen in the !onte4t o$ a &ider (henomenon asso!iated &ith the re'o"ution, In the (re3re'o"utionar# #ears- the ren!h philosophes !reated a B!u"t o$ the "e%is"ator-C &hi!h e4tended into the re'o"utionar# #ears in &ritin%s- s(ee!hes- and e'en (aintin%s o$ +a!)ues3Louis Da'id,18/ As e4("ained b# Da'id Wisner- the ima%e o$ the heroi! "e%is"ator emer%ed out o$ the philosophes0 desire to $ind midd"e3%round in the batt"e bet&een the monar!h and the parlements, ;o"taire and Rousseau de(i!ted the idea" "e%is"ator &ith )uasi3di'ine (o&ers to !reate a ne& order o$ Dusti!e rather than the (ett# s)uabb"in% o$ !ontem(oraries, Durin% the re'o"utionCondor!et:s 'ersion o$ the "e%is"ator &as !om("ete"# de'oid o$ !om(romise2 he had to de'ote himse"$ &ho""# to the interests o$ the nation, As &ith man# other domains o$ re'o"utionar# !u"ture- C"assi! $orms &ere em("o#ed to !reate a &ho""# ne& re'o"utionar# $i%ure to !reate the order o$ Dusti!e,188 Ne'>oro'- &ith his o&n ideas about re'o"ution and "a&- a"so dei$ied the B"e%is"ator-C but in a re"i%ious !onte4t, It &as (re!ise"# in the tradition o$ "a&3%i'in% and mora" ad'an!e that Ne'>oro' sou%ht to %round the !ommona"it# o$ Russia and its nei%hbors, Ne'>oro':s
Da'id A, Wisner- The Cult o! the <e$islator in 1rance &,*()&'K(: "tudy in the -olitical Theolo$y o! the 1rench +nli$htenment , ?O4$ord2 ;o"taire oundation- 6GGH@,
432 433

Wisner- Cult o! the <e$islator- 689368.,


BNa(o"eoni! Po"iti!sC ?Se(tember and O!tober issues o$ I">@ out"ined the (ath o$ (ro'iden!e throu%h a series o$ (ositi'e re'o"utions in "a&ea!h o$ &hi!h !ontributed to the mora" de'e"o(ment o$ humanit#, These )uantum "ea(s in Btrue en"i%htenmentC in!"uded non3 Euro(eans and e'en non3Christians, Aside $rom Numa and Re%u"at#(i!a" $i%ures in (ane%#ri! "iterature $or Catherine the Great and re'o"utionar# ima%er#- Ne'>oro' "isted the Persian <oroaster and the Chinese Con$u!ius as initiators o$ mora" re'o"utions, *# introdu!in% %reat &or5s o$ "a& into histor#- these "e%is"ators a!!om("ished (ro%ressi'e"# the &i"" o$ hea'en- irres(e!ti'e o$ Christian be"ie$, Ne'>oro' assumed that these re'o"utions &ere !umu"ati'e- so that ea!h !onstituted an im(ro'ement that be)ueathed its ad'an!es to (osterit#, I%norin% the di$$erent eras o$ Christiani>ation- he ("a!ed Russia and Euro(e both in the traditions $rom the an!ient "a&%i'ers o$ China- Persia- and Rome- &hi!h he be"ie'ed &ere to ha'e !ome to $ruition under Na(o"eon, Un$ortunate"# $or Euro(e- Na(o"eon &as i""3 e)ui((ed to hand"e the tas5- be!ause his (ersona" de$i!ien!ies e4tri!ated him $rom the sour!e o$ ins(iration $or true "a&3%i'in%- and he $e"" (re# to B(hi"oso(h#,C Ne'>oro' de$ined B(hi"oso(h#C as %od"essness a!!om(anied b# !om("ete subDe!tion to the (assionsEin this !ase- (ride and (o&er "ust, He !om(ared Na(o"eon to a (u$$ed3


u( Roman em(eror &ho $ed on the mob:s adu"ation- rather than a "e%is"ator &ho &as !on!erned &ith the (eo("e:s mora" im(ro'ement, Moreo'er- his (ride "ed him to sub'ert "a& in an internationa" !onte4t as &e"", BI &ant to be se!ond no&here- but some&here- and i$ at a"" (ossib"e e'er#&here- I &ant to be $irst-C &ere the &ords Ne'>oro' (ut into Na(o"eon:s mouth,181 Ho&e'er mu!h Na(o"eon mi%ht ha'e been a !hi"d o$ the re'o"ution- he !ou"d not satis$# Ne'>oro':s idea o$ perevorot3 re'o"ution, Sti""- his $ai"ure did not th&art Pro'iden!e:s intentions, Ne'>oro' re!o%ni>ed that enemies o$ mora" im(ro'ement &ere omni(resent in a"" times, In $a!t- the# !onstituted (art o$ the shared tradition bet&een Russia and Euro(e- as !an be seen b# his ran5s o$ the unri%hteous, These in!"uded barbarians ?Atti"a the Hun@(erse!utors o$ Christians ?+u"ian the A(ostate@- and !orru(t !"er%#men ?Po(es@, A sur(risin% in!"usion- ho&e'er- &as *oris Goduno'- a tsar in the interre%num bet&een Riuri5id and Romano' d#nasties,189 Whi"e Na(o"eon made himse"$ into a ne& Nebu!hadne>>ar instead o$ a ne& L#!ur%us- he (re(ared the &a# $or Russia to assume the "eadershi( ro"e destined $or him, Sin!e Russia

BNa(o"eono'a (o"iti5a,C I">- 828 ?Se(t 676/@2 /07,

BNa(o"eono'a (o"iti5a,C I">- 828 ?Se(t 676/@2 /073/0G, A"so re"eased as Ma5sim Ne'>oro'- Napoleonova politika ili tsarstvo $ibeli narodnoi i sostoianie evropeishkih $osudartstv do nachatiia !rantsu4skoi voiny &'&3 $ , ?Mos!o&- n,(,- 6768@,


had &eathered the Bdar5 storms-C it !ou"d no& return the "a& o$ God, BIt !an be said de!isi'e"# that there &i"" be a de"i'eran!e o$ man# (eo("es $rom the ne& Nebu!hadne>>ar:s #o5e- but a bri$ht ray #ill $o !orth and the li$ht o! true enli$htenment #ill rush to Euro(e and the other !ountries o$ the &or"d,C18. In &or"d3histori!a" (ers(e!ti'ethis a!t o$ return &ou"d inau%urate a ne& era in the !onstant e'o"ution o$ human5ind b# dea"in% a $ata" b"o& to modern atheism and $ree3thin5in%, The ne4t &a'e o$ "a&3%i'in% &as to ta5e ("a!e $or Russia and Euro(e to%ether, As he (ut it e'en at the end o$ 676/ ?and there$ore be$ore an# Russian su!!esses in Euro(e@A BA$ter the dar5 storms (rodu!ed b# in'asion o$ this emissar# o$ he"":s dar5ness into Mos!o&- &hi!h had not &itnessed in a"most t&o !enturies the $"ames o$ an enem# $orei%ner- the Contem(orar# Histor# o$ the Wor"d is be%innin% ane&,C18H Ne'>oro' shared &ith the ear"# ren!h Romanti!s and other Russians the ho(e that Euro(e !ou"d under%o a mora" reDu'enation that &as mora" and Christian &ithout bein% tied to an estab"ished !hur!h, He e4(e!ted this re'i'a" to !ome $rom a "a&%i'er- as had ha((ened in the (ast to the ad'anta%e o$ Russia and Euro(e,

Ita"i!s in ori%ina"- Ma5sim Ne'>oro'- B<a5"iu!henie-C I"> 12/J8 ?No'JDe! 676/@2 /8G,
436 437

BNa(o"eono'a (o"iti5a,C I">- 828 ?Se(t 676/@2 6G/,


Assumin% that Na(o"eon had been a((ointed and had $ai"ed to introdu!e the ne& "e%a" order- Ne'>oro' shi$ted Na(o"eon:s destin# to Russia and de$ined its ne& tas5 as the $urtherin% o$ Ben"i%htenmentC a!ross Euro(e, 'ladimir )(mailo+: &he &radition of Enlightened Synthesis

Un"i5e Ne'>oro'- ;"adimir I>mai"o' !ame $rom o"d %entr#enDo#ed (ri'ate edu!ation- and enro""ed in the Semeno's5ii Guards re%iment in 6HG1- be$ore he be!ame a (ro$essiona" litt@rateur,187 I>mai"o' be"on%ed to the uni'ersit# orbit and asserted the (rima!# o$ the !u"tura"3inte""e!tua" "i$e o'er the standard nob"e (ath o$ ser'i!e, Ha'in% se!ured a Dob tea!hin% at the Mos!o& Uni'ersit# %#mnasiumI>mai"o' assisted Mi5hai" =a!heno's5ii at Herald o! +urope and e'en assumed $u"" !ontro" $or the #ear- 6761,
;"adimir I>mai"o' shi$ted out o$ the norma" !ourse o$ im(eria" !areer ad'an!ement to Doin the Mos!o& sentimenta"ists and to tr# to ride the !oattai"s o$ =aram>in:s -oor <i4a to "iterar# su!!ess, It &as not $orth!omin%, In 67003670/- I>mai"o' (ub"ished one o$ the $irst Russian tra'e" stories about Russia- but subDe!ti'e re$"e!tions o'erburdened it, A$ter =aram>in:s $oundin% o$ Herald o! +urope (ro'ed that B%ent"eman"#C Dourna"ism !ou"d rea!h subs!ribers in the thousands- I>mai"o' o(ened his o&n Dourna"-atriot- &hi!h had "ess (o"iti!a" !ontent and &as !"osed in the same #ear it o(ened2 6701, A$ter his &or5 at Hera"d o$ Euro(e in the &ar #ears- he Doined the So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Russian Literature at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# rather "ate in 676., Thou%h !"oser to the aristo!rati! &riters that "ater $ormed the Ar>amas so!iet#- in 67//- I>mai"o' he"(ed $ound a So!iet# &hose !harter $orbade members: adheren!e to either Shish5o'ite or =aram>inians ?the ar!haists and inno'ators- see !h, 6@,


In "oo5in% $or shared traditions o$ Euro(e- I>mai"o' sou%ht a union o$ the 'irtuous mind and the 'irtuous ru"er that !ou"d e4("ain the "on% (ro%ress o$ Euro(e and Russia u( unti" the "ate ei%hteenth3 !entur#, I>mai"o':s debut into publitsistika BThe Ruins o$ Mos!o&-C ar%ued that Russia and Euro(e had !ommon roots in C"assi!a" anti)uit#, The arti!"e a((eared in Ma# 676818G- a time o$ transition in the &ar- &hen the memor# o$ the de!eased ie"dmarsha" Mi5hai" =utu>o' subsided and be$ore the %reat batt"es &here the German (rin!es s&it!hed to the Russian side, Conse)uent"#- I>mai"o':s (ie!e a'oided usin% an# (arti!u"ar !urrent e'ent as a tou!hstone and de!"ared that its (ur(ose &as to !on'e# the author:s ruminations on the $ate o$ em(ires, Their destin#- he !"aimed- de(ended on the a!ti'ities o$ t&o t#(es o$ %reat men2 ru"ers and &riters, These &ere in (er(etua" !ontest e'en into the C"assi!a" a%e o$ Gree5 Anti)uit#, or e'er# Dio%enes- there &ere se'era" A"e4anders b"o!5in% the sun &ith !"ouds o$ &ar,110 Whi"e I>mai"o' attem(ted to (ortra# these $or!es in
See Ocherki po istorii russkoi 4hurnalistiki i kritiki , / 'o"s, ?Lenin%rad2 Lenin%rad Uni'ersit#- 6G90@ 679!!, $or the ar%ument that I>mai"o' !reated an ideo"o%# o$ B(ea!etime-C in the sense that I>mai"o' turned to !i'i"ian a$$airs, That ar%ument rests on the !ombination o$ BRa>'a"in#C &ith a "ater arti!"e that &as &ritten under the (seudon#m BP-C instead o$ I, ;, E,

A!!ordin% to P"utar!h- A"e4ander the Great en!ountered the (hi"oso(her Dio%enes sunbathin% one da# and in)uired &hether he &anted an#thin%, Dio%enes- to that (oint una&are o$ A"e4ander:s (resen!e- as5ed him on"# to mo'e out o$ the &a# o$ the sun, Re(orted"#- A"e4ander &as not insu"ted but rather admired the $a!t that Dio%enes (aid no attention to him and !"aimed that Bi$ he &ere not A"e4ander- he &ou"d !hoose to be Dio%enes,C P"utar!h440


ba"an!e- he )uite !"ear"# (re$erred the &riters- &ho marsha"ed rhetori! a%ainst mi%ht,
The ones (ossess the (eri"ous ri%ht o'er the "i$e o$ those "i5e themthe others (ossess (rudent in$"uen!e on their thou%hts and mannersA the ones ru"e b# the (o&er o$ the s&ord- but the others throu%h the %i$t o$ e"o)uen!e ?krasnorechie@A those a((ear at the !ourt o$ (osterit# &ith the name o$ the $ier!e !on)uerors o$ the &or"d- and these are adorned in (o(u"ar !hroni!"es &ith %"or# o$ (ros(erous sa%es,116

I>mai"o':s (resum(tuousness that a &riter !ou"d ri'a" a ru"er deri'ed $rom the !ommon (oeti! tradition $rom Lomonoso' to Der>ha'in o$ Bad'isin%C ru"ers in 'erse, What &as di$$erent &as that I>mai"o' !onsidered this ri'a"r# a histori!a" d#nami!, With this moti'atin% ener%#- the !ourse o$ histor# (ro!eeded $rom an ori%in that in!"uded Russia &ithin the s!o(e o$ Euro(e, A"thou%h Dio%enes ne'er rid himse"$ o$ A"e4anders- Rome brou%ht un$oreseen a!hie'ements, A!!ordin% to I>mai"o'- the em(eror Mar!us Aure"ius reso"'ed the &riter3ru"er !on$"i!t b# !ombinin% both ro"es &ithin his o&n (erson, The Aure"ian s#nthesis "aid the $oundation $or the de'e"o(ment o$ subse)uent Euro(ean !i'i"i>ationsin!"udin% Russia- in mutua" stri'in% $or en"i%htenment, In tr#in% to dra& Russian into the s!o(e o$ Euro(ean !u"tura" (ro%ress- I>mai"o'
<ives o! the Noble >reeks- edited b# Edmund u""er ?Ne& Ior52 De""- 6G9G@/7/, IN>mai"o'O,- ;N"adimirO, BRa>'a"in# Mos5'#,C :estink +vropy .G2GJ60 ?Ma# 6768@2 661,


i%nored the $"u!tuations &ithin Euro(e:s o&n de'e"o(ment and (ortra#ed the s(an $rom the se!ond !entur# to the (resent as a !onstant ad'an!ement, E'en the ei%hteenth !entur# a((eared to $u"$i"" human ho(es- &hen the %oa" o$ B!om("etionC &as in si%ht, So $ar this state had not been a!hie'ed- due to the ren!h Re'o"ution, I>mai"o' (ortra#ed Russia as the "and embod#in% the best $eatures o$ Euro(e and thus as the best o(tion $or returnin% !i'i"i>ation to&ard B!om("etion,C Russia:s )ua"ities- in I>mai"o':s

estimations- (ara""e"ed those o$ *enDamin Constant- a $ormer member o$ Na(o"eon:s tribunate &ho "ater (ub"ished ?ournal des debats, A"thou%h Constant:s (am(h"et On the "pirit o! ConIuest and 8surpation in their Relations #ith +uropean Civili4ation did not a((ear ti"" No'ember- I>mai"o' !ou"d easi"# ha'e be!ome a!)uainted &ith his ideas amon% the &ide3ran%in% anti3re'o"utionar# arti!"es in the ?ournal,11/ When in 6761- Constant returned to Paris $rom e4i"ehe ad'o!ated both $reedom o$ e4(ression and "ibera" monar!h#, I>mai"o'- &ho be!ame a !ensor at Mos!o& Uni'ersit# in 67/H- &ou"d ha'e been rash to ad'o!ate the "atter- but GThe Ruins o$ Mos!o&C !arried a remar5ab"e "itan# o$ su((osed Russian ad'anta%es in!"udin% "ibera"it# in e4(ression, In $a!t- I>mai"o' ar%ued that the broad ran%e o$ Russian $reedoms (ro'ed that the re'o"ution !ou"d

M!Mahon- +nemies o! the +nli$htenment- 6/H!!,


not brin% (ositi'e !han%es to the Russian em(ire, I>mai"o' s!orned the notion that 'io"ent u(hea'a" !ou"d im(ro'e a "and b"essed &ith the %reatest ru"er- a (eo("e %"orious in !u"ture and &ar$are- $reedom o$ e4(ression ?S@- %uarantees o$ (ro(ert# ?S@ and !iti>en:s ri%hts ?S@- as &e"" as (ersona" inde(enden!e ?S@,118 I>mai"o' a"so marsha"ed ar%uments simi"ar to The "pirit o! ConIuest in his assau"t on Na(o"eoni! he%emon#, Most im(ortant"#he "i5e Constant be"ie'ed that (o"iti!a" institutions &ere meanin%"ess &ithout stron% sentimenta" atta!hments,111 Perha(s a Dire!tor# &as more Brationa"C than a traditiona" $orm o$ %o'ernment- but &ithout the (atrioti! atta!hment o$ the (eo("e- the rationa" or%ani>ation &ou"d $ai", The $irst main (rob"em- a!!ordin% to I>mai"o'- !on!erned the administrators- &ho &ou"d not $ee" ade)uate res(e!t and "o'e $or the (eo("e &hom the# &ere administerin%,
Who !an be"ie'e &ithout b"indness that $orei%n bureau!rats- a"ien to "o'e $or the (eo("e- and our se"$3&i""in%"# besto&ed de(uties- &i"" obser'e the "a&s o$ Dusti!e more $aith$u""# than Russian !hie$s- &ho &ithout a doubt enri!h their !om(atriots &ith %oodness and the mer!# o$ their "a&$u" Ru"erL119

Go'ernmenta" indi$$eren!e &ou"d be mat!hed b# (o(u"ar re'o"t a%ainst institutions im(osed b# $orei%ners, No $ather- a!!ordin% to

BRa>'a"in# Mos5'#-C ((,66.366H, ontana- KNa(o"eoni! Em(ire-K 6/., BRa>'a"in# Mos5'#-C ((,366G,




I>mai"o'- !ou"d a""o& $orei%n institutions to %o'ern their !hi"dren &ithout abdi!atin% his natura" $ami"ia" duties, In order to ma5e a stron% state- institutions &ere an!i""ar# to traditiona" $orms o$ "i$e that (reser'ed the stren%th o$ sentimenta" atta!hments, In 6761- &hen he be!ame editor o$ Herald o! +urope- I>mai"o' !"aimed that the &ho"e (ro!ess o$ nationa" stabi"i>ation in Euro(e !ou"d be understood as a return to the !ommon (ath o$ inte""e!tua" de'e"o(mentE$rom BAristot"e to La Har(e,C11. This (ro!ess re$"e!ted the de'e"o(ment o$ "earnin% and the (reser'ation o$ re"i%ion- as !an be seen in I>mai"o':s non3(o"iti!a" arti!"es $rom 6761, BO"#m(us:s +ud%mentC a((eared in I>mai"o':s editorshi( under the (seudon#m I,;,E, ?I4datel0 :estnika +vropy@, The 'erdi!t !on!erned the out!ome o$ a S"a'i! redu4 o$ the Iliad, The ne& iteration disru(ted the hea'ens: tran)ui"it# and !aused di'isions o$ the &ho"e su(ernatura" &or"d, The (ro(onents o$ the Russians &anted the return o$ tran)ui"it#- e'en thou%h the# !ounted Mars amon% their number, The others &ere Miner'a ?Wisdom@- Themis ?+usti!e@- and Phoebus ?Wisdom and art@- a"on% &ith the muses, The BGau"C !am(- in !ontrast- !om(rised a mot"e# horde o$ deities ?P"uto and +uno@terri$#in% earth"# !reatures ?S(hin4es- Centaurs- Gor%ons- ChimerasB= !hitate"iam ;estni5a ot i>date"ia-C :estnik +vropy H826 ?+anuar# 6761@2




Graea- Sat#rs@- su(ernatura" $i%ures o$ di'ine (unishment ?Cerberusates- uries@- and Chaos, I>mai"o':s stran%e !oterie o$ assorted $i%ures &as $o""o&ed b# an e'en more bi>arre s(ee!h o$ +u(iter that reso"'ed the !on$"i!t in $a'or o$ the (ro%ress o$ "earnin%, BWhere ha'e the ste(s o$ that %reat en"i%htenment &hi!h has throu%h the !enturies !om("eted the !reation o$ !i'i" &e"$are- and im(er!e(tib"# "ed (eo("es to the ends o$ truth- Dusti!e- and bene$a!tionLC <eus mused be$ore endin% the &ar,11H I>mai"o' a"so resha(ed the m#tho"o%i!a" $i%ures to tea!h Christian "essons, Instead o$ re!o%ni>in% that +u(iter himse"$ &as a !reature ?a"beit di'ine@- I>mai"o':s deit# e4("ained the reasons he !reated the &or"d, As !reator he $oresa& that his !reatures &ou"d be &ea5 and need to ba"an!e $ree &i"" &ith their reason, He introdu!ed the %oddess B;eraC ? aith@ &ho atta!5s Na(o"eon:s ties to Is"am,117 And a$ter the Dud%ment- on"# the &i!5ed %o do&n to the under&or"d ?BadC in Russian is e)ui'a"ent to Gree5 Hades and Christian He""@,11G ina""#- the (ie!e ends &ith an eterna" ins!ri(tion $or the tsar2 B;irtuous ALEQANDER &i"" reDoi!e,C Whi"e this (hrase &ou"d be ins!ribed into a boo5 o$ B$oreto"d $ates-C rather than the Bboo5 o$ "i$eC
I, ;, E,- BSud (o O"im(ie i"i ssora bo%o' >a S"a'ian i Ga""o' ' 676/ %odu-C :estnik +vropy H826 ?+an 6761@2 6.36H,
447 448

BSud (o O"im(ie-C /1, BSud (o O"im(ie-C /H,



$rom Revelation- I>mai"o' (robab"# too5 the idea $rom the Christian (assa%e- be!ause in Gree5 m#tho"o%#- $ate is &o'en throu%h threads and ta(estries- not ins!ribed b# &ords, An identi$i!ation o$ en"i%htenment- Christianit#- and the A""ied !ause a"so in$ormed (o"emi!s de$endin% B(hi"oso(h#C $rom the !har%e that it had s(a&ned re'o"ution, I>mai"o' (ub"ished an arti!"e b# the Dourna"ist Gar"ieb Mer5e" o$ Ri%a- &ho (ointed out that the $ier!est o((onent o$ ran!e &as En%"and- a "and $u"" o$ (hi"oso(hers and s!ientists, Mean&hi"e- Mer5e" ar%ued- on"# (hi"oso(her3"ess 5in%doms- Po"and and ;eni!e- had re!ent"# been destro#ed, Ob'ious"# (hi"oso(hers are not dan%erous to so!iet#- B$or en"i%htenment is (o&er,C190 As editor- I>mai"o' &as (ri'# to debates in anti3philosophe Dourna"s "i5e Mercure de 1rance and ?ournal des debats- &here 'arious authors assai"ed K(hi"oso(h#K or re'o"utionar# K(rin!i("esK as $ata" diseases b"o!5in% (o"iti!a" rene&a",196 I>mai"o' introdu!ed German Idea"ist (hi"oso(h# to Herald o! +urope:s readin% (ub"i! throu%h an arti!"e on i!hte in Ma# o$ 6761, The trans"ated arti!"e de'oted more s(a!e to i!hte:s bio%ra(h# than an# o$ his theories- de$ended the Germans $or (i!5in% u( the "i%ht o$ "earnin%

B<ame!hanii o $i"oso$ii-C :+ HH26H ?Se(tember 6761@2 H03H6,

or more on the Dourna"isti! $i%hts o'er (hi"oso(h# and re'o"utionar# (rin!i("es- see *ian!amaria ontana- %enSamin Constant and the -ost) Revolutionary 2orld, ?Ne& Ha'en2 Ia"e- 6GG6@- 69,


$rom the ren!h ?&here re'o"ution had snu$$ed it out@- and ended b# tri'ia"i>in% (hi"oso(h#:s in$"uen!e on (o"iti!sE&ithout e4aminin% i!hte:s re!ent nationa"ist s(ee!hes- the ddresses to the >erman

Nation $rom 670H to6707,19/ Sti""- in the !onte4t o$ the Dourna"s that I>mai"o' re'ie&ed- his attitude sho&ed that he !ou"d distin%uish bet&een the philosophes and (hi"oso(h# and that he had a 'ested interest $or Russia and Euro(e•s $uture in the (ro%ress o$ the (ious inte""e!t, I>mai"o' &as "ess interested in understandin% (hi"oso(h# than in de$endin% it as an as(e!t o$ Btrue Christianit#C re"ated to "earnin% and (ro%ress, He de$ined his o&n 'ie&s in BRe"i%ion and Phi"oso(h#C in Se(tember o$ 6761, The (ie!e a((ro'ed (hi"oso(h#:s "abor in %enera"- but !"aimed that it !ou"d not as!end as hi%h as $aith, The "atter des!ended $rom hea'en throu%h re'e"ation- &hereas reason &as on"# a di'ine %i$t and !ou"d not trans!end its inherent "imits, Ne'erthe"ess- I>mai"o' "auded se!u"ar thin5ers &hose &or5 seemed to him to e4hibit res(e!t $or true Christianit#, His (raise o$ %reat $i%ures o$ the (ast o$ !ourse &as a &a# to !om(are Russia to Rome2 Mar!us Aure"ius ?not to mention So!rates- P"ato- and P"utar!h@ &as on a "e'e" &ith Catherine- an identi$i!ation that !"ear"# a""ied her &ith
BO i5hte- ii"i o $i"oso$ii Nemtso' i rantsu>o'-C :+ H9260 ?Ma# 6761@2 6/63 680,


the !ontinuit# o$ the a%es: &isdom, Li5e&ise- he !"aimed that Ga'rii" Der>ha'in $o""o&ed in a "on% train $rom Homer and Hora!e to Po(eCornei""e and Wie"and, The %enerations o$ thin5ers in 'arious !ountries (ossessed unit# b# dint o$ their inte""e!tua" ser'i!e to Christianit#, BThe &ea(on o$ the en"i%htened mind shou"d eradi!ate dan%erous (reDudi!es- but de$end use$u" truthsA and &hen (hi"oso(hers o$ other (re!edin% !enturies tau%ht (eo("e the %reat truths- the# did not ro!5 the bui"din% &hose sa!red (i""ars bind earth &ith hea'en,C The B(hi"oso(h#C o$ the ren!h Re'o"ution be"on%ed to an entire"# di$$erent !ate%or# o$ thin5in%- &hi!h reDe!ted (ea!e- the %enera" %ood- and the %os(e", I>mai"o' he"d u( Rousseau as the e4am("e o$ a true (hi"oso(her &hom his !ontem(oraries mart#red $or his de$ense o$ the %os(e",198 Li5e Ne'>oro'- I>mai"o' sa& the (ro%ress o$ !i'i"i>ation ine4tri!ab"# intert&ined &ith re"i%ion, He a'oided e4tremism and sou%ht to de$end B(hi"oso(h#C $rom !har%es that it a!ted as a !orru(t $or!e on so!iet#, I>mai"o' a"so de$ined a (ast !ommon to Russia and Euro(e, In his BRuins o$ Mos!o&C essa#- this (ast

;, I, BRe"i%iia i $i"oso$iia-C :+ HH26H ?Se(tember 6761@2 90396, Interestin%"#- Ne'>oro':s trans"ated !ommentar# on Rousseau a"so !onsidered him a mart#r- but more a$ter the $ashion o$ So!rates than Christ, See BNe5otor#e mneniia o ;o":tere- Russo I "iterature 'osemnadtsata%o 'e5e,C Trans, Ma5sim Ne'>oro', 6ru$ Iunoshestva —6/ ?6766@2 91,


en!om(assed a ba"an!e bet&een ru"ers and &ritersE$or!e and (ersuasion, When Na(o"eon u(set this ba"an!e- he (resumab"# deterred Euro(e:s %enera" (ro%ress to&ard $u"$i""in% the %oa"s o$ the En"i%htenment, Russia- in I>mai"o':s 'ie&- !ou"d restore the e)ui"ibrium ne!essar# $or (ro%ress be!ause it embodied the "iberties that the re'o"ution had $ai"ed to (ro'ide ?e4(ression- (ro(ert# ri%hts@ and its (eo("e maintained their stron% sentimenta" atta!hments to $ami"# and $ather"and, These "ast t&o )ua"ities &ere (rominent in the &or5 o$ Constant and sho& ho& I>mai"o' dre& on Euro(ean se"$3 !riti)ues to $ashion the (ositi'e )ua"it# o$ Russia:s nationa" mission &hi"e b"endin% as(irations $or Romanti! rene&a" and the endurin% (ro%ress o$ en"i%htened !i'i"i>ation, "le/ei Mer(liako+: &he &radition of Political -alance

The (o"iti!a" essa#ist A,M, most "i5e"# &as A"e4ei Mer>"ia5o'&hose theories about Russia:s de$ensi'e ro"e in a +une 6761 s(ee!h mat!hed A, M,:s e4a!t"#,191 Mer>"ia5o' &as the de !acto !hair o$ the
See ne4t !ha(ter on Mer>"ia5o', +ud%in% $rom the entries $or A,M, in I, , Masano'- "lovar0 psevdonymov russkikh pisatelei, uchenykh i obshchestvennykh deiatelei- 1 'o"s,- ?Mos!o&2 ;sesoiu>naia 5ni>hnaia (a"ata- 6G9.3.0@- the on"# other (ossib"e !andidate &as the $amous anti)uarian A"es5ei edoro'i!h Ma"ino's5ii, One tra!t o$ A, M,- O vseobshchei monarkii v politicheskom i nravstvennom smysle ?On Uni'ersa" Monar!h# in the Po"iti!a" and Mora" Sense@ &as (rinted in St, Petersbur%&hi!h &ou"d be odd $or someone &ith dire!t a!!ess to the uni'ersit# t#(o%ra(h#, The other- I4stuplenie !rantsu4skoi politiki v &. veka &as $ound


Uni'ersit# So!iet#, Thou%h not a Dourna" editor- he &as a Dourna" !ensor ?in!"udin% $or G"in5a:s Russian Herald@ and thus !ame a!ross $orei%n Dourna" !ontents $or his %o'ernment duties, A$ter =aram>in "e$t Herald o! +urope- he had been o$$ered its editorshi(- but de!"ined &ith onerous uni'ersit# res(onsibi"ities,199 He attended Mos!o& Uni'ersit# a$ter Ne'>oro':s time- but &hi"e masons &ere sti"" in$"uentia" in sha(in% edu!ationa" !urri!u"a, His ear"# (ub"ishin% !areer boasted 'erses !ombinin% Christian mora"it# and (atriotism, 19. Whi"e the !ontem(orar# !onte4t o$ the atta!5 on Na(o"eon:s uni'ersa" monar!h# !an be seen in the "ibera" rea!tion o$ ren!h Pmi%rPs- !riti!ism o$ the !on!e(t o$ uni'ersa" monar!h# itse"$ $ormed a "on% histor# e'en &ithin the !onte4t o$ Euro(ean inte""e!tua" histor#, The o"d idea" o$ Christendom ins(ired ear"# modern (rin!es to attem(t to uni$# Euro(ean "ands under their o&n ae%is- as a &a# to end the intra3Christian b"ood"ettin% and uni$# a%ainst the Tur5s, The Catho"i! Re$ormer Erasmus- ho&e'er- &orried that su!h s!hemes $or (o"iti!a" inte%ration !ou"d be the ambition $or a Buniversalis
&ithout bib"io%ra(hi! re!ord s("i!ed onto Cnai Russkikh ?(ub"ished at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#@ in the Russian State Librar#- a"so &ithout (ub"isher or !it# in$ormation- but &ith the initia"s A, M,

BPis:ma 5 ;, A, <hu5o's5omu,C Russkii

rkhiv ?67H6@2 681367H,

Man# e4am("es $rom the 6HG0s !an be $ound in A, , Mer>"ia5o'"ochineniia 9 19 Mer4liakova- 'o", 6- ?Mos!o&2 obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei rossiis5oi s"o'esnosti- 67.H@,


Monarchiae,C19H In the En"i%htenment- Montes)uieu atta!5ed the !on!e(t o$ uni'ersa" monar!h# in a tra!t that he did not (ub"ish ti"" 6H182 Re!lections on 8niversal Monarchy,197 With the ad'ent o$ Na(o"eon- the !har%e &as "e'e"ed on!e a%ain b# Constant, No&ho&e'er- the o"der Dusti$i!ation o$ (rote!tin% Christendom a%ainst the Tur5s had disa((eared, Na(o"eon- in Constant and Mer>"ia5o'•s estimation- &as estab"ishin% this s#stem out o$ unadu"terated se"$3 interest and "ust $or internationa" domination,19G The !on!e(t o$ uni'ersa" monar!h# under Na(o"eon thus !ou"d ha'e broader im("i!ations than the o"der $orm that sou%ht to unite $ra!tured Christendom, Russians o$ten inter(reted Na(o"eon:s strate%# as a !am(ai%n $or &or"d dominan!e, In the Coa"ition Warsran!is Hins"e# trans"ates this (hrase as B&or"d em(ire-C but the !on!e(t is the same, See his -o#er and the -ursuit o! -eace: Theory and -ractice in the History o! Relations %et#een "tates- ?London2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.H@ 67,

His reti!en!e &as !aused no doubt b# the $a!t that he ob'ious"# had Louis QI; in mind &hen he &rote it, or a"" his ana"#sis o$ Orienta" des(otisms- Montes)uieu !"aimed that none o$ them &ere su!!ess$u" at estab"ishin% su!h a monar!h#, He did- ho&e'er- hint that !ertain !a"umnies &ere made a%ainst a B%rand (rin!eC $or see5in% su!h a (o"iti!a" s#stem- an o$$hand remar5 that he reiterated in On the "pirit o! the <a#s ?"ur l0espirit des lois in Montes)uieu- Tuvres ComplUtes- 'o", 6- NGa""imard- 6G96O- /7,@ He then de$ended the B%rand (rin!eC a%ainst the !har%e b# ar%uin% that it &ou"d ha'e been to nationa" disad'anta%e to estab"ish su!h a (o"iti!a" s#stem, The on"# (erson &ho !ou"d ha'e rea"i>ed this s#stem &as the Sun3 =in% himse"$,

*ian!amaria ontana, BThe Na(o"eoni! Em(ire and the Euro(e o$ Nations,C in The Idea o! +urope !rom ntiIuity to the +uropean 8nion, edited b# Anthon# Pa%den ?Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- /00/@- 6/136/H,


$orei%n (ub"ishin% had &arned Russians that Na(o"eon &anted a uni'ersa" em(ire, ?see re$eren!e $rom !ha(ter 8@, These themes resur$a!ed a$ter 676/- &hen (ub"ishers &ere a""o&ed to (rint tra!ts !riti!a" o$ ran!e, A bro!hure $rom 6768- $or instan!e- (ut Na(o"eon:s !am(ai%n in Russia in the !onte4t o$ a "ar%er dri'e to India- $rom &hi!h to de$eat the *ritish and thus dominate the &or"d:s seas and dr# "and,1.0 Mer>"ia5o' a((roa!hed the !urrent dri'e to&ard Buni'ersa" monar!h#C as a ubi)uitous $eature o$ &or"d histor#, The author !onsidered Na(o"eon both the ar!hite!t o$ a uni'ersa" monar!hist (roDe!t and the su!!essor o$ a "on% strin% o$ !on)uerors &ho attem(ted to a!hie'e the same, Without in'esti%atin% the others: (o"iti!a" s#stems- he de$ined the (re'ious 'i""ains in !ontrast to Russia- &hi!h &as a"&a#s their stumb"in%3b"o!5, O'er time- these &ou"d3be em(erors a((eared in the West rather than the East- but the# a"&a#s $ai"ed to destro# Euro(e be!ause o$ Russia, On 8niversal Monarchy hi%h"i%hted the thirteenth3!entur# &hen BRussiaC sto((ed the su!!essors o$ Gen%his =han $rom subDu%atin% Western Euro(e, The nation $o""o&ed &ith a de$ense a%ainst a non3Christian entit#2 the

A, Chui5e'i!h- -okushenie Napoleona na Indiiu &'&3 $oda ili ra4$ovor dvukh o!itserov Rossiiska$o i 1rantsu4ska$o nad avanpostakh armii, s 4amechaniiami i nekotorymi prika4ami otdannymi v !rantsu4skoi armii - ?St, Petersbur%2 ti(o%ra$iia , Dre4"er- 6768@,


Is"ami! $or!es o$ the Ca"i(hate ?the Is"ami>ed Go"den Horde based in the Crimea@, Mer>"ia5o':s $as!ination &ith Russia as the bu"&ar5 a%ainst uni'ersa" monar!h# !aused him to o'er"oo5 Ear"# Modern Euro(ean (rin!es and e'en Louis QI; in $a'or o$ enemies that Russia had su!!ess$u""# troun!ed, He inter(reted the Peter the Great:s mi"itar# nemesis in the Great Northern War ?6H0036H/6@- the S&edish =in% Char"es QII, as a uni'ersa" !on)ueror, rederi!5 the Great $o""o&ed in this train- as did re'o"utionar# ran!e, Hen!e- the Russians (ossessed a tradition o$ sa'in% the rest o$ Euro(e $rom an!ient da#s to the a%e o$ em(ire, In identi$#in% a !ommon (ast- Mer>"ia5o' re3inter(reted Montes)uieu as (roo$ that Na(o"eon &as betra#in% both %ood (o"iti!s and order, Mer>"ia5o' esteemed Montes)uieu as true man o$ the En"i%htenment- in !ontrast to the philosophes- the mo'ement o$ &hom ostensib"# ins(ired the de"usions o$ the B(o(u"ar rabb"e,C Montes)uieu:s theories had ("a#ed a "ar%e ro"e in the Russia En"i%htenment- es(e!ia""# &ith em(ress Catherine the Great- &ho a((ro(riated man# "essons o$ his On the "pirit o! the <a#s in her Instruction $or the Le%is"ati'e Coun!i" o$ 6H.H36H.7, 1.6 Mer>"ia5o' did
Not a"" o$ them- thou%h, Catherine o'er"oo5ed Montes)uieu:s (re$eren!e $or Bmi4edC $orms o$ %o'ernment and idea"i>ed her o&n one3(erson auto!ra!# as a non3des(oti! $orm o$ %o'ernment- &here the bureau!ra!# !ou"d mediate &ith the (eo("e, See Pau" Du5es essa# on Russia in Ro# Porter and Mi5u"˜™s Tei!h- eds, The +nli$htenment in National Conte/t ,


not indi!ate the te4t $rom &hi!h he &as &or5in%, On the "pirit o! the <a#s made a brie$ re$eren!e to uni'ersa" monar!h# in *oo5 G&hereas Montes)uieu:s Re!lections on 8niversal Monarchy &as &ho""# de'oted to the subDe!t, In either !ase- Mer>"ia5o' !"ear"# admired Montes)uieu more $or his assau"t on the !on!e(t o$ uni'ersa" monar!h# rather than his "ar%er !on!e(tua" a((aratus about ho& state!ra$t best $un!tions, Montes)uieu !ombined a be"ie$ in the uni'ersa"it# o$ human nature &ith the need o$ ea!h (eo("e to ada(t institutions in a nationa""#3s(e!i$i! &a#, or Mer>"ia5o'- Montes)uieu re(resented a mani$estation o$ his o&n !on!e(t o$ sobstvennost:- "itera""# one:s o&n3ness- denotin% the thin%s that are !hara!teristi! or !ou"d be !onsidered (ro(erties o$ a nationa" !hara!ter, Mer>"ia5o' used sobstvennost0 in both a !u"tura" and (o"iti!a" sense, "obstvennost0 to some e4tent embodied time"ess uni'ersa" idea"s, A !u"ture that embodied this )ua"it#- he thou%ht- &as not inherent"# martia"- but &ou"d $i%ht &ars o$ se"$3de$ense, "obstvennost0 ins(ired resear!h into nationa" !hara!teristi!s- es(e!ia""# $rom the do!uments and manus!ri(ts o$ the (ast,1./ A !u"ture o$ sobstvennost0 intera!ted &ith
?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G76@ 671, A, M, O vseobshchei monarkhii v politicheskom i nravstvennom smysle , ?St, Petersbur%2 , Dre5hs"er- 6768@ /7386, Not !oin!identa""#- both Mer>"ia5o' and Ma"ino's5ii had been members o$ the Mos!o& So!iet# o$ Russian Histor# and Anti)uit#- &hi!h sou%ht to (ub"ish an!ient


others- but did not a!!e(t their $ruits &ithout $u""# understandin% them, Mer>"ia5o' !riti!i>ed German (rin!es: a!!e(tan!e o$ ren!h $or di("omati! (ur(oses- be!ause it tau%ht the Germans to imitate b"ind"# ren!h &a#s o$ reasonin%,1.8 Sin!e A,M,:s &or5 &as (ub"ished in 6768- it "i5e"# &as &ritten be$ore most German (rin!es s&it!hed to the A""ies, Not sur(risin%"#- then- S(ain and En%"and- but not German#- a((eared as "ands de$ined b# sobstvennost:, One !u"ture !ou"d ha'e more sobstvennost0 than others, Russians- a!!ordin% to Mer>"ia5o'- (ossessed a su(er"ati'e de%ree o$ sobstvennost: than5s to Peter the Great, Mer>"ia5o' !"aimed that Peter had out"ined $or Russia the 5e#s to hea"th# nationa" de'e"o(ment, The (ath to Ben"i%htenmentC &as (a'ed b# a((ro(riations o$ Bthe bestC $rom a"" &or"d !u"tures that &ere not imitators, This (ro!ess &as es(e!ia""# ne!essar# to (reser'e the mora" )ua"it# o$ the nation:s "an%ua%e- a tas5 at &hi!h Russia $ar sur(assed ran!e, Mer>"ia5o':s ar%uments on the du("i!it# o$ ren!h "an%ua%e re$"e!ted Admira" Shish5o':s !"aims that S"a'i! &as in a sense more mora" than other "an%ua%es- be!ause its meanin%s &ere
manus!ri(ts , The# be"on%ed to t&o di$$erent eras in the so!iet#:s histor#ho&e'er, Ma"ino's5ii &as a member in the a$ter the initia" start- &ith $amous %entr# "i5e =aram>in and Musin3Push5in, Mer>"ia5o' !ame into the so!iet# in 6766 a$ter I, Go"enish!he'3=utu>o' reor%ani>ed it to bo"ster the a!ademi! (resen!e, Andree'- Moskovskii universitet- 6./36.9,

O vseobshchei monarkhii- 6736G,


more (rimordia"- and that others ?es(e!ia""# ren!h@ !ou"d not mat!h its ri!hness,1.1 The author ana"#>ed the de"eterious e$$e!ts o$ the ren!h "an%ua%e on the ren!h (eo("e and b"amed their !a(ti'it# on misa((rehensions o$ re'o"utionar# rhetori!, BA "ar%e (art o$ the ren!h did not understand the meanin% o$ mora" $reedom ?svoboda1.9@- and %ettin% !arried a&a# b# this &ord- re!5oned b# it the (h#si!a" $reedom o$ $or!e2 libert@ meant $or them the ri%ht o$ the (o&er$u",C "obstvennost: &as treated as an im(ortant as(e!t o$ Russia and Euro(e:s shared tradition- &hi!h !ou"d be restored in ran!e Dust as it &as in 'arious German (rin!i(a"ities &here ren!h mores had brou%ht on en!oura%ed Bthe mis$ortune o$ $ami"ies and o$ten the destru!tion o$ 5in%doms,C1.. This immora"it# &as on"# B$ashionab"eC and that it &ou"d (ass- as the resistin% (o&ers had (ro'en, Li5e&isethe ren!h &ere not entire"# to b"ame $or "osin% their res(e!t $or sobstvennost:, Mer>"ia5o' !"aimed the estab"ishment o$ re'o"utionar#
Shish5o' be"i'ed S"a'i! &as o$ di'ine ori%in, Martin- Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries- /H,

In doin% so- the author reasoned- the ren!h misa((rehended the true meanin% o$ the &ord- &hi!h the Russian "an%ua%e (reser'ed, The &ord B$reedomC in Russian !an be rendered as s'oboda or 'o":nost- &hi!h has a mu!h more arbitrar# !onnotation, See B'o":nostC in ;"adimir Da":- Tolkovyi slovar0 4hivo$o velikorussko$o ia4yka- ;o", 6- ?St, Petersbur%2 Diamant6GG.@- /10,
465 466

O vseobshchei monarkhii- /.,


(o&ers rested on a number o$ uni)ue !ir!umstan!es- in!"udin% the de(arture o$ Pmi%rPs and the %o'ernment:s de"iberate de!e(tion o$ the nation, E'en &hen he bemoaned the "oss o$ nationa" di%nit#Mer>"ia5o' re$erred to the )ua"it# o$ the ru"ers- not the (eo("e at "ar%e, B ran!e herse"$ a"read# has disa((eared- and in her ("a!e has been !onstituted some 5ind o$ enormous so!iet# o$ Napoleonists &ho do not obser'e the ri%hts and %oa"s o$ a State,C1.H This )uotation a((eared in the !onte4t o$ ren!h $orei%n (o"i!# and des!ribed (o"iti!ians- e"se&here !hara!teri>ed as one monstrous horde su!!eedin% another $rom the Con'ention to the (resent,1.7 The author:s atta!5 on the "o%i! o$ uni'ersa" monar!h#ho&e'er- did !oin!ide to a "ar%e de%ree &ith Montes)uieu:s remar5s, In both o$ the te4ts mentioned abo'e- Montes)uieu tried to sho& that uni'ersa" monar!hies undermined themse"'es, He thou%ht that a $undamenta" shi$t had o!!urred in Modern Euro(eA the s(irit o$ trade and !ommer!e had dis("a!ed the s(irit o$ !on)uest, urthermoremodern !ountries &ere de$ined in si>e a!!ordin% to "imits set b# nature- so !on)uerin% e4!ess territor# &ou"d be un(ro$itab"e, An o'er3ambitious monar!h &ou"d ha'e to de$end &ide borders that !ou"d be (un!tured easi"#, He thus &ou"d a"so ha'e to e4(end his

I4stuplenie !rantsu4skoi politiki v &. veka - /6, I4stuplenie !rantsu4skoi politiki v &. veka - /,



o&n resour!es to ("a!ate the (eo("e he !on)uered, In short- the s#stem &ou"d !ost too mu!h- &ou"d drain the !enter:s resour!es- and &ou"d &ea5en the state,1.G In this sense- Montes)uieu !"aimed the B%rand (rin!eC shou"d o(t to be the most (o&er$u" o$ Euro(e:s 5in%snot the on"# one, Na(o"eon- in Mer>"ia5o':s estimation- sim("# o'er"oo5ed the &isdom o$ these !riti!isms, The ren!h em(eror:s !a""s $or &a'es o$ dra$ts and a%%ressi'e mo'ements a%ainst Euro(ean !ountries seemed to 'io"ate a"" sense o$ (ro(ortiona"it# and ba"an!e,1H0 The o!!u(ation o$ Euro(e &ou"d (ro'e $uti"e $or Montes)uieu:s reasons2 the hei%htened !om(etition &ou"d hinder the state rather than (romote its %ro&th, Na(o"eon:s su!!ess &as &rea5in% ha'o! on Euro(e and sub'ertin% ran!e:s o&n (osition, Un"i5e Ne'>oro' and I>mai"o'- Mer>"ia5o' (ro(osed ("ans $or a ne& order o$ internationa" ba"an!e and moderation, The main (rin!i("e o$ the ne%otiations to $o""o& the end o$ the &ar- he thou%ht&as to re!o%ni>e the need $or ea!h (eo("e to maintain its sobstvennost0 and the im(erati'e $or ea!h to re!o%ni>e the ri%ht o$ the other to their o&n, or Mer>"ia5o'- this !ardina" demand not on"# emer%ed $rom the stud# o$ nature and natura" boundaries- but &as the &or5 o$ (ro'iden!e itse"$, His (o"iti!a" tra!t thus !onstru!ted the

Montes)uieu- Tuvres ComplUtes,- /6, I4stuplenie !rantsu4skoi politiki v &. veka - .,



di'ine (ur(ose behind the !ourse o$ e'ents as the (o"iti!a" unit# o$ Euro(e, BPea!e !annot be as be$ore- un"ess it is $ounded b# a"" the !ontra!tin% (arties $or a %enera" State %oa", The# shou"d a%ree &ith the (ros(erit# o$ ea!h state2 in (arti!u"ar- their &e"$are and in %enera"- the re"ations amon% them,C1H6 In other &ords- i$ a"" the (arties !ou"d a%ree to res(e!t ea!h other- then the (ea!e o$ the (ast !ou"d return- and the !ountries !ou"d maintain their natura" $un!tions and in!rease the %enera" &e"$are, Thou%h Mer>"ia5o':s aim to ba"an!e nationa" (arti!u"arit# &ith a Euro(ean order &as t#(i!a" $or 6768- he sti"" (ossessed a uni)ue $eature in !ontrast to Montes)uieu, In Re!lections- Montes)uieu !"aimed that the %eo%ra(h# o$ Euro(e had sa'ed it $rom the Mon%o"s, In Euro(e- (eo("e "i'ed more dense"# and (ossessed more $orti$i!ations- so the# natura""# !ou"d resist the ons"au%ht that s&e(t &est&ard, or A, M,- the %uarantor o$ Euro(ean stabi"it# &as RussiaE and this !hara!teristi! he"(ed the nationa" mission o$ Russia:s an!estors Dust as mu!h as the !ontem(orar# em(ire, The ho(e to restore (o"iti!a" order and indeed- the &a#s o$ (ro'iden!e- de$ined a s(e!ia" mission $or Russia2 to (rote!t sobstvennostE and (er(etuate stabi"it# in the order to !ome, Less interested in re"i%ion than I>mai"o' or Ne'>oro'471

I4stuplenie !rantsu4skoi politiki v &. veka - 6/,


Mer>"ia5o':s &or5 a"so re$"e!ted the be"ie$ that a di'ine histori!a" (ro!ess &as a$oot in the &ar e$$ort and &ou"d !u"minate in the restoration o$ ba"an!e amon% Euro(e:s nations, His $o!us &as %eo(o"iti!a"- but Mer>"ia5o' too sa& this ne& re'i'ed state as a (art o$ the En"i%htenment, Distin%uishin% the &isdom o$ Montes)uieu $rom the rebe""ious (hi"oso(hes- he "in5ed Na(o"eon &ith an!ient !on)uerors &ho had threatened Euro(e:s inte""e!tua" de'e"o(ment and &e"$are, Conse)uent"#- Mer>"ia5o' de$ended Russia:s nationa" mission as a mi""ennium3"on% 'o!ation o$ sa$e%uardin% Euro(eEe'en $rom itse"$,

Russian (o"iti!a" !riti!s sou%ht to out"ine the trends o$ Euro(e and Russia:s $uture $rom a set o$ shared traditionsEa"so a (roDe!t o$ *enDamin Constant- Mme de Sta•"- and other ear"# ren!h Romanti!s, Whi"e the 'ie&s o$ the shared traditions !ertain"# !on$"i!ted in s!o(e and ori%in- the# a"" !oin!ided in (roDe!tin% ba!5&ard on the de'e"o(ment o$ those traditions assum(tions o$ un$ettered (ro%ress in Christian "earnin% and en"i%htenment, A"thou%h ear"# ren!h Romanti!s a"so understood the so!ia" (o&er o$ re"i%ion- the# be"ie'ed that the ren!h Re'o"ution had destro#ed traditiona" as(e!ts o$


Christianit# and that ne& (rin!i("es- a(o"o%eti!s- and a((roa!hes needed to be dis!o'ered $or the (ost3re'o"utionar# &or"d, The Russian essa#ists a!!e(ted the notion that Euro(e su$$ered a s(iritua" de$i!it but assumed that their o&n nation &as unde$i"ed and hen!e !a(ab"e o$ restorin% the other !ountries, Moreo'er- the# understood this nationa" tas5 as a de$ense o$ en"i%htened !i'i"i>ation, or Ne'>oro'- Russia !ou"d brin% the "i%ht ba!5 to the West and usher in a mora" re'o"ution throu%h "a&A I>mai"o' thou%ht Russia !ou"d he"( re'i'e re"i%ion &hi"e restorin% res(e!t $or nationa" di$$eren!esA and $or Mer>"ia5o'- Russia:s !hara!teristi! de$ense o$ Euro(e $o""o&ed en"i%htenment (res!ri(tions about the (ro(er use o$ 5in%"# (o&er, The (o"iti!a" !riti!s thus !ontinued the (ro!ess o$ !onstru!tin% a""3Euro(ean or uni'ersa" Russian 'a"ues- &hi!h e"e'ated their nation abo'e the rest but assumed a dee(3seated a$$init# &ith Euro(e, Their (arti!u"ar in'esti%ations dramati!a""# !ontributed to the (er!e(tion that Russian histor# $ormed a (ath that "ed to&ard the !urrent &ar &ith Na(o"eon, Thus the idea o$ the &ar e$$ort as a (art o$ a sa"'i$i! (ath o$ histor# be!ame intert&ined &ith the de$ense o$ en"i%htened idea"s and Romanti! ho(es o$ rene&a", In 6761- these ho(es !ame to $ruition, There o!!urred an e'ent


o$ su!h ma%nitude that the nebu"ous but anti!i(ated nationa" mission &as no "on%er a ho(e- but a !ait accompli,


Chapter 3! Ro-antici#- and the I-a'e o$ the Me##ianic T#ar in Triu-pha* Pane'"ric# o$ 1 . In 6761- the unthin5ab"e o!!urred2 A""ied armies 'an)uished the mi%ht# Na(o"eon- and Paris $e"" to o!!u(#in% $or!es- in!"udin% Russians, In Russia- a bro!hure des!ribin% the a!tions o$ Russian Tsar A"e4ander made !"ear that he &as no hau%ht# !on)ueror- but a "o'in%- humb"e- Christ3"i5e $riend o$ the ren!h, The bro!hure de(i!ted him2 te""in% his so"diers to "o'e their enemies- hearin% a!!"amations o$ BG"or# to God in the Hi%hestC on the !it# streets- and settin% (risoners $ree,1H/ Most im(ortant- the bro!hure de(i!ted a re"i%ious (ra#er ser'i!e ?molebstvie@ $rom Easter 6761 that o!!urred at the P"a!e de "a Con!orde- $ormer"# 5no&n as P"a!e de la Revolution- &here the Con'ention %o'ernment beheaded Louis Q;I in 6HG8, In the (resen!e o$ 70-000 so"diers and !iti>ens- A"e4ander a((roa!hed the ("a!e o$ e4e!ution and- on the ho"ida# !e"ebratin% Christ:s resurre!tion- himse"$ (ra#ed to God $or the sins o$ re'o"utionar# ran!e,1H8 Whi"e the tsar (ersona""# $e"t !a""ed b# a hi%her (o&er to
Imperator leksandr v -ari4hie i padenie Napoleona ili be4primiernyia cherti velichiia, pravosudiia i bla$osti russka$o tsaria, daruiushcha$o miru mir, ?Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia N, S, ;se'o"o>hs5a%o- 6761@- 71379,

See Ri!hard Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy- ;o", 6 ?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG9@//.3//H,

a!!om("ish a (ro'identia" mission- some &riters inter(reted this e'ent as (roo$ that A"e4ander &as set a(art $or a ro"e hi%her than other morta"s or Euro(ean 5in%s, Messiani! (oets ima%ined that A"e4ander:s a!tion in Paris re!on!i"ed the di'isions o$ the re'o"utionar# &or"d in a &a# that restored to Euro(e the 'a"ues that Russian had a"&a#s embodied, In these &or5s- A"e4ander:s inter!ession !ombined &ith !ommon be"ie$s in the sa"'i$i! (ro!ess o$ histor# and Russia:s uni'ersa" 'a"ues- so that a"" the messiani! !om(onents &ere (resent, The Mus!o'ite (oets Ni5o"ai =aram>inA"e4ei Mer>"ia5o'- and ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii brou%ht the m#th o$ nationa" e"e!tion to a !"ima4 b# (ro!"aimin% that Russian had reDu'enated Euro(eEba!5 into the en"i%htened order, The (ane%#ri! "iterature o$ these three &riters is use$u" be!ause its authors: inte""e!tua" ba!5%rounds !an be $air"# &e"" estab"ished- the do!uments themse"'es are o$ su$$i!ient "en%th to e4("ore their a(("i!ation o$ ideas- and the $o!us o$ (raise on the Christ3"i5e tsar a""o&ed messiani! themes to be (resent $ar more than in other t#(es o$ "iterature, *e%innin% &ith their !ommon e4(osure to (re3Romanti! !urrents- this !ha(ter "oo5s at the &a# ea!h stru!tured their stories o$ nationa" e"e!tion to e$$e!t Romanti! re!on!i"iation throu%h the ima%e o$ Tsar A"e4ander,

Romantic Structure and )ts Sources Whi"e other s!ho"ars ha'e noti!ed Romanti! e"ements and themes in the &or5 o$ =aram>in and Mer>"ia5o'- on"# <hu5o's5ii&ith his dee( interest in German "iterature and massi'e !or(us o$ German trans"ations- is usua""# !onsidered an a!tua" Romanti!, 1H1 Ma5in% (re!ise de$initions o$ Romanti!s and Romanti!ism has (ro'en e4traordinari"# di$$i!u"t- but re!ent s!ho"arshi( has de'e"o(ed !onsensus on one o$ the main $eatures o$ Romanti! dis!ourse2 &hat Ni!ho"as Riasano's5# !a""ed BRomanti! Stru!ture2C a (assa%e $rom unit# into disunit#- and then a return to unit# but on a hi%her "e'e", 1H9 This (ro!ess !ou"d a(("# to the mind:s o(erations- the mo'ement o$ musi!- or the (hi"oso(h# o$ histor#, U"timate"# %rounded in Christian inter(retations o$ human sin and sa"'ation- this !on!e(tion !an a"so be !onsidered one o$ the !ardina" Bun!ons!ious assum(tionsC o$ the
On other in'esti%ations into Romanti! e"ements in Mer>"ia5o' and =aram>in- see ;"adimir *i"en5in- KThe Sub"ime Moment2 ;e"i!hest'ennoe in N, M, =aram>in•s Letters o$ a Russian Tra'e"er,K "lavic and +ast +uropean ?ournal 1/21 ?Winter 6GG7@2 .093./0A BThe P"a!e o$ N, M, =aram>in in Euro(ean Historio%ra(h#,C Presentation at Great La5es Histor# Con$eren!eGrand Ra(ids- MI- O!tober /00/A Rudo"$ Neuhšuser- To#ards the Romantic $e: +ssays on "entimental and -reRomantic <iterature in Russia , ?Ha%ue2 Martinus NiDho$$- 6GH1@ 6G7!!A +uriD Murasho'-, ?enseits der Mimesis: Russische <iteraturtheorie im &'9 und &.9 ?ahrhundert von M9 :9 <omonosov 4u :9 >9 %elinskiS, ?Muni!h2 Wi"he"m in5 ;er"a%- 6GG8@ 660366/,

Riasano's5#- +mer$ence o! Romanticism - ?NI2 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press6GG/@- G6, This de$inition a"so !orres(onds to M, H, Abrams:s ana"#sis o$ the Christian (hi"oso(h# o$ histor# that under"ies Romanti!ism, See his Natural "upernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic <iterature - ?London2 W, W, Norton- 6GH6@- 676,

Romanti! mo'ement, The Russian messianist (oets: use o$ Romanti! stru!tures to de$end their nationa" identit# as the dominant en"i%htened nation demonstrates a &a# that Russians s#nthesi>ed the t&o %reat inte""e!tua" !"imates o$ o(inion, This !ha(ter turns $irst to the messianists: sour!es o$ e4(osure to Romanti! ideas, =aram>in- Mer>"ia5o'- and <hu5o'5s# en!ountered a 'ariet# o$ (re3Romanti! in$"uen!es in their time &ith the Mos!o& masons, Thou%h no $i%ure be!ame a (rominent mason- ea!h (assed throu%h the masons: inte""e!tua" domain &hi"e %ro&in% into inte""e!tua" maturit#, The mason I'an Tur%ene' too5 the ado"es!ent Ni5o"ai =aram>in under his tute"a%e in (ro'in!ia" Simbirs5- and the "atter !ontinued to &or5 &ith masons at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#:s riend"# Learned So!iet# $rom 6H7936H7G- u( unti" his Dourne# throu%h Euro(e, Thou%h he bro5e $rom the masons be$ore his de(arture=aram>in most "i5e"# $o""o&ed the sto(s and a route that his Masoni! brothers (ro(osed, When he returned to Russia- he !ontinued to see5 inte""e!tua" %ro&th a(art $rom the m#ster#- se!re!#- and hermeti! (ra!ti!es o$ the masons,1H. Sti""- the herita%e endured in at "east one res(e!t2 =aram>in be"ie'ed that the s(iritua" and inte""e!tua" im(ro'ement o$ the nation needed to (re!ede (o"iti!a" and so!ia"
;, I, Sa5haro'- BN, M- =aram>in i 'o":n#e 5amensh!hi5i-C in Masonstvo i russkaia literatura X:III)nachala XIX vv,- edited b# ;, I,Sa5haro' ?Mos!o&2 URSS- /000@- 611369/,

!han%es, The e"e'ation o$ taste- st#"e- and (ub"i! a((re!iation $or "iterature thus demanded !ommitment to s"o&- !ohesi'e (ro%ress &ithout (o"iti!a" u(hea'a"s, The tumu"tuous rei%n o$ Tsar Pau" I- the murdered $ather o$ A"e4ander I- seemed to him to threaten the !ountr#:s Ben"i%htenmentC and re("a!e %ood monar!h# &ith ba"d des(otism in a &a# simi"ar to +a!obin rei%n in ran!e,1HH Whi"e =aram>in himse"$ 5e(t )uite si"ent about his $reemason e4(erien!e- he un)uestionab"# &as e4(osed to (o(u"ar Masoni! s(iritua" &ritin%s- &hi!h des!ribed in 'arious &a#s a 'ision o$ s(iritua" re%eneration that Romanti!s e4(anded in the nineteenth3!entur#, Most im(ortant"#- masons be"ie'ed that their e$$orts to&ard se"$3 (er$e!tion- &hat the# !a""ed B&or5in% the rou%h stone-C1H7 !ou"d o'er!ome the stain o$ ori%ina" sin in Christian do!trine, The#
Other s!ho"ars o$ =aram>in ha'e !on$irmed that the !ommitment to aestheti! de'e"o(ment and s"o& (ro%ress "asted throu%hout a"" his "i$e, On the Masoni! ori%ins o$ this be"ie$- see G, A, Gu5o's5ii- Russkaia literatura X:II veka: uchebnik dlia vysshikh uchebnykh 4avedenii , ?Mos!o&2 Nar5om(ros- 6G8G@ 1G7A or an ar%ument that =aram>in maintained this be"ie$ !onsistent"#- see +, L, *"a!5- Nicholas ;aram4in and Russian "ociety: in the Nineteenth Century : a "tudy in Russian -olitical and Historical Thou$ht, ?TorontoJ*u$$a"o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Toronto Press- 6GH9@- 8/, A re!ent mono%ra(h# has ar%ued that =aram>in e'en !ontended $or the (osition o$ Minister o$ Po(u"ar Edu!ation &ith a (ro%ram that &ou"d $o!us on re$ormin% Russian edu!ation $rom the bottom u(- in "ine &ith his &ider and s"o&er a((roa!h to nationa" (ro%ress, See A, Iu, Andree'- Moskovskii universitet v obshchestvennoi i kulAturnoi 4hi4ni Rossii nachala XIX veka , ?Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i russ5oi 5u":tur#- /000@ 6/936/G,

On the $reemasons %enera""#- see Dou%"as Smith- 2orkin$ the Rou$h "tone: 1reemasonry and "ociety in +i$hteenth)Century Russia - ?De=a"b2 Northern I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGG@- and es(e!ia""# !ha(ter 8 on be"ie$s in se"$3(uri$i!ation,

assumed that human bein%s be%an in a state o$ (er$e!tion- a5in to the *ib"i!a" Garden o$ Eden- but $e"" into disorder- mar5ed b# disunit# $rom nature and $e""o& (eo("e and the ru"e o$ (assions o'er the sou" and inte""e!t, Their e"aborate ritua"s and se!ret (ra!ti!es thus too5 this Brou%h stoneC and "i5e a mason- made somethin% beauti$u" and (er$e!t out o$ itErestorin% it to the ori%ina" state o$ (er$e!tion, On an internationa" "e'e"- the masons be"ie'ed that the (eo("e &ho had mastered their m#steries !ou"d "ead humanit# be#ond the di'isions o$ nation- re"i%ion- and other arbitrar# &ed%es so as to $orm a uni'ersa" human union under Masoni! dire!tion, Thus their ho(e $or human re%eneration o$ the sou" &as a (re"ude to a uto(ian $uture resemb"in% a Masoni! theo!ra!#,1HG In Russia- the Mos!o& masons themse"'es $o!used more on the !u"tura" re%eneration o$ the Russian nation as a (re"ude to its (o"iti!a" trans$ormation- but the "od%es: internationa" ties and "ibraries o$ "iterature (ro'ided a!!ess to the &ider 'isions o$ other Euro(ean "od%es,170 <hu5o's5ii and Mer>"ia5o' a"so !ame under the su(er'ision o$ the Mos!o& masons- but in 'er# di$$erent !ir!umstan!es, Mer>"ia5o'

Sa5haro'- BN, M- =aram>in i 'o":n#e 5amensh!hi5i-C 617361G,

or an e4!e""ent o'er'ie& o$ the !ontinuit# in masons: %oa"s bet&een the 6H70s and 6700s- see Ra$$ae""a a%%ionato- B rom a So!iet# o$ the En"i%htened to the En"i%htenment o$ So!iet#2 the Russian *ib"e So!iet# and Rosi!ru!ianism in the A%e o$ A"e4ander I,C "lavic and +ast +uropean Revie# HG28 ?+u"# /006@2 19G317H,

arri'ed at Mos!o& on"# a$ter a "o!a" $reemason re!o%ni>ed his ta"ent at ode3&ritin% and sent an e4am("e to Catherine the Great- &ho subse)uent"# brou%ht Mer>"ia5o' to Mos!o& to !ontinue his studies, He and <hu5o's5ii both studied at Mos!o& Uni'ersit#:s Nob"e *oardin% S!hoo" at a time &hen masons &ere 'er# in$"uentia"Ea$ter (erse!ution and (aranoia o$ the ear"# 6HG0s, In the &a5e o$ the ren!h Re'o"ution- Mus!o'ite !iti>ens $eared $reemasons and a""e%ed attem(ts o$ the I""uminati to sei>e !ontro" o$ Euro(e, The (o"i!e arrested the main masoni! (ub"isher- Ni5o"ai No'i5o'- and others ?"i5e Ma5sim Ne'>oro'- see "ast !ha(ter@- &ere in!ar!erated and their boo5s banned, When Tsar Pau" too5 (o&er on his mother:s death ?6HG.@- he $reed Catherine:s (o"iti!a" enemies, Subse)uent"#- man# im(ortant masons "i5e I'an Tur%ene'- Mi5hai" =heras5o'- I'an Lo(u5hin- and Mi5hai" Mura':e' returned to Mos!o& and set the dire!tion and !ir!umstan!es o$ the Nob"e *oardin% S!hoo", The# set !ourses o$ instru!tion &ith Masoni! readin%s2 Saint3Martin- +ohann Arndt- +ohann Mason- as &e"" as se!u"ar authors o$ the Bsentimenta"C or (re3Romanti! s!hoo"- su!h as Christo(her Wie"and and +ean3 +a!)ues Rousseau, <hu5o's5ii:s (oetr# $rom the "ate 6HG0s d&e"t on themes o$ 'irtue and se"$35no&"ed%eEa !riti!a" re"ationshi(- sin!e &or5in% the rou%h stone demanded ri%orous intros(e!tion, 176

A, S, Ian5ushe'i!h- B;, A, <hu5o's5ii i masonst'o-C in Masonstvo i

Des(ite the (o(u"ar stereot#(es- the masons &ere )uite o((osed to the e'ents o$ 6H7G and be#ond- and an anti3re'o"utionar# s(irit endured amon% the $a!u"t# o$ the *oardin% House, The institution:s dire!tor- Anton Pro5o(o'i!h3Antons5ii- ne'er &as a $u"" mason but &as a $aith$u" adherent o$ No'i5o':s $ormer (artner +ohann S!h&ar>, In a (ro%ram s(ee!h $rom 6HG7- Pro5o(o'i!h3 Antons5ii out"ined (eda%o%i!a" %oa"s that sou%ht to &rest Ben"i%htenmentC $or the students a&a# $rom re'o"utionar# asso!iations, BOh- it is time- time- to sense that en"i%htenment &ithout (ure mora"it# and re$inement o$ the mind is the most &i!5ed o$ (oisons- e4tin%uishin% bene$a!tion not on"# $rom $ami"# "i$e- but $rom &ho"e (eo("es,C Re"i%ion and s(iritua" %ro&th- the s(ea5er !ontinued- &as ne!essar# $or the stabi"it# o$ the %o'ernment- and thus the *oardin% S!hoo" needed not Dust tea!h "an%ua%e- mi"itar# (re(aration- and mathemati!s- but nourish the memor# and ima%ination &ith $ine arts- musi!- (h#si!a" edu!ation and re'eren!e $or God,17/ Hen!e- &hen Mer>"ia5o' and <hu5o's5ii attended the *oardin%3S!hoo"- the# &ere inau%urated into a &or"d o$ "earnin% &here re"i%ious (iet# &as &edded to be!omin% a %ood son o$ the
russkaia literatura X:III)nachala XIX vv,- edited b# ;, I,Sa5haro' ?Mos!o&2 URSS- /000@- 6HG3676, Tuoted in N, Sa5u"in- I4 istorii russka$o ideali4ma9 ;nia40 :9 19 Odoevskii, Myslitel0)pisatel0- ;o", 6- ?Mos!o&2 M, R S, Sabashni5o'- 6G68@- 67,

$ather"and- and both e"ements &ere asso!iated &ith en"i%htenment and se"$3im(ro'ement, Mer>"ia5o':s 'erses $rom the 6HG0s b"ended !i'i! themes &ith (ersona" 'irtue,178 He e'en re3&rote S!hi""er:s BOde to +o#C into a more nationa"isti! BG"or#,C171 Mer>"ia5o' and <hu5o's5ii &ere "ess interested in s(iritua" ste(s to (er$e!tion than in in!rementa" and !onstant strides to&ard "iterar# %reatness, The# &ere t&o members o$ the riend"# Literar# So!iet# at the *oardin%3S!hoo", This %atherin% a""o&ed its members to read "iterature and !riti!i>e ea!h other &ith the aim o$ "iterar# se"$3 im(ro'ement- &hat Mer>"ia5o' "ater !a""ed Ban una'oidab"e s(iritua" demand,C179 The da#s at the Literar# So!iet# a"so brou%ht these &riters in !"oser !onta!t &ith (re3Romanti! !urrents- es(e!ia""# Goethe and S!hi""er, S!hi""er &as one o$ the most (o(u"ar #oun% &riters asso!iated &ith Romanti!ism and ne& ideas, <hu5o's5ii studied S!hi""er:s aestheti!s in de(th- as is e'ident $rom the e"aborate or%ani>ation o$ S!hi""er:s &or5s in his "ibrar#,17. S!hi""er:s &or5 e4hibited an aestheti!
See $or e4am("e- BRoss-C in A, , Mer>"ia5o'- "ochineniia 9 19 Mer4liakova- 'o", 6- ?Mos!o&2 obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei rossiis5oi s"o'esnosti67.H@- 1G390,
483 484

Neuhauser- To#ard the Romantic

$e- 6G7,


Introdu!tion- "ochineniia i perevody 19 19 Ivanova - ;o", 6, M- 67/1, 66,

See Annette Pein- "chiller and Chukovskii: esthetic Theory in -oetic Translation- ?Main>2 Liber ;er"a%- 6GG6@- ..3.7, I$ the# had on"# 5no&n

'ersion o$ Romanti! stru!ture- 'er# simi"ar to the $reemasons: re"i%ious be"ie$s about bein% reborn on a hi%her "e'e", or S!hi""erho&e'er- the (rob"em &as not a s(e!i$i!a""# re"i%ious )uandar#, He sa& di'isions in man# areas o$ "i$e2 the indi'idua" 'ersus the so!ia" &ho"e- the (ri'ate 'ersus the (ub"i!- or the se"$3interest 'ersus the !ommon %ood, S!hi""er be"ie'ed that he !ou"d o'er!ome these di$$eren!es throu%h art and the !reati'e (ro!ess, These ho(es &ere not !on$ined to so"itar# %eniuses, S!hi""er thou%ht that an Baestheti! stateC !ou"d re!on!i"e di$$eren!es and hea" !i'i"i>ation as a &ho"e,17H S!hi""er o$$ered an a"ternati'e to the masons: idea o$ (ersona" and nationa" re%eneration b# (ri'i"e%in% the !reati'e (art o$ "i$e- &hi!h a((ea"ed to #outh ea%er to (ro'e their nationa" "iterar# ta"ents to Euro(e, Moreo'er- his &or5 e4hibited the !on!ern &ith re!on!i"in% the di'isions o$ modern "i$e, This tas5 o!!u(ied a !entra" ("a!e $or the messianists &hen the# set out to e4("ain Tsar A"e4ander:s inter!ession in Paris in 6761, In addition to $reemason readin%s and ne& $orei%n "iteratureS!hi""er:s ("a#s in their Russian 'ersions- the# &ou"d ha'e re!ei'ed a 'er# s5e&ed im(ression- sin!e the demands o$ !ensor and idios#n!rasies o$ trans"ators (ro'ided %reat dis!re(an!ies &ith the ori%ina"s, Passa%eChar"es E, BThe In$"uen!e o$ S!hi""er in Russia 670036710,C merican "lavic and +ast +uropean Revie#- ;o", 9- No, 6J/, ?Ma#- 6G1.@- 666368H, A"so see Martin Ma"ia- le/ander Her4en and the %irth o! Russian "ocialism - 87311 on the "imits o$ S!hi""er:s in$"uen!e in an# re'o"utionar# sense, Da'id Aram =aiser-, Romanticism, esthetics, and Nationalism, ?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGG@ 8H,

another (re"ude $or Romanti! thou%ht !ou"d be $ound in Russian !u"ture, Ironi!a""#- the most C"assi!a" "iterature o$ the Russian En"i%htenment !ontained an e"ement that be!ame a maDor interest $or Euro(ean Romanti!s, Thou%h Russian ei%hteenth3!entur# !u"ture &itnessed the addition o$ a 'ast domain o$ the se!u"ar a"on%side the sa!red-177 tra!es o$ Christian (atterns o$ thin5in% remained in the !o""e!tion o$ &ritin%s that !om(rised the BParadise M#th,C This term a(("ied to &or5s that (ortra#ed Russia as a re%enerated nation in the sense that its "and had been restored to the ori%ina" (urit# o$ human5ind be$ore sin2 in *ib"i!a" termsA Russia resemb"ed the %arden o$ Eden, The ima%e o$ (aradise as identi$ied &ith Russia entered into one o$ the ear"iest Russian manus!ri(ts- the Tale o! %y$one Nears$rom Christian (atristi! &ritin%s, E"aborated in (o"emi!s &ith the BLatinsC a$ter the $a"" o$ Constantino("e in 6198- it &as brou%ht into the domain o$ state "iterature and ru"er %"ori$i!ation b# Simeon Po"ots5ii at the Mus!o'ite Court in the "ate 6Hth !entur#,17G Under Peter the Great and "ater ru"ers- this idea be!ame re!ast in se!u"ar !onte4ts- e'en borderin% on the b"as(hemous, The tsar:s name a((eared in !a(ita" "etters ?on!e an e4!"usi'e trademar5 o$ God@, The tsar assumed the $orm o$ a !reator e/ nihilo- "i5e the God o$ >enesis,

Iu, Lotman- I4 istorii russkoi kul0tury2 X:III vek- 68G, *aehr- -aradise Myth- 6G3/6A *aehr- BParadise No&-C GH3G7,


The !reations o$ (aradise !ou"d e'en be identi$ied &ith re$eren!e to C"assi!a" deities- hitherto !onsidered as (a%an as An!ient S"a'i! $o"5"ore $i%ures- Mohammed- and other non3Orthodo4 Christians,1G0 In (ra!ti!e- $orms o$ the BParadise M#thC o$ten assumed an abru(t and 'io"ent !hara!ter, The ear"iest (osthumous de(i!tions o$ Peter the Great e)uated his Btrans$ormationC o$ Mus!o'# &ith the !osmo%on# o$ >enesis, The time be$ore him thus &as !ast into the ab#ss- &hi"e the time a$ter him assumed the di'ine (er$e!tion o$ human5ind:s ear"iest state in a Euro(ean !onte4t, Post3Petrine tsars (re$erred to re(resent (o&er as an o'er&he"min% and reDu'enati'e a!t $or the (eo("e- but &ithout the shar( brea5 $rom the (ast,1G6 Trans$ormations o$ the Paradise M#th e4(anded in breadth $or ne&"#3 !on)uered territories in the ei%hteenth3!entur#- in (arti!u"ar the Crimea- &hi!h &as to be a ne& %arden ?vi49- o$ Eden@ ("anted b# Catherine the Great,1G/ The rene&ed &or"d &as not a uto(ia $or a
;, M, <hi'o' and *, A, Us(ens5ii, BMetamor$o># anti!hno%o ia>#!hest'a ' istorii russ5oi 5u":tur# Q;II3Q;III 'e5a,C in Lotman- IIR;, 1..31.H,
490 491

Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er- 7/,

See Andrei <orin-, ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla: literatura i $osudarstvennaia ideolo$iia v rossii v poslednei treti X:III)pervoi treti XIX veka - ?Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- /006@- !hs, 831A Andreas S!hFn"e- BGarden o$ the Em(ire2 Catherine:s A((ro(riation o$ the Crimea,C "lavic Revie# .026 ?S(rin% /006@2 63/8, Gardens !ou"d a"so (ossess a 'er# (ri'ate meanin% that re"ated to broader an4ieties o$ "ando&nin% nob"es, See Thomas Ne&"inThe :oice in the >arden: ndrei %olotov and the n/ieties o! the Russian -astoral, &,K')&'KK- ?E'anston- IL2 North&estern Uni'ersit# Press- /006@,

distant unrea!hab"e idea" or a !onser'ati'e %"an!e ba!5&ard- but a euto(ia- $u"" o$ "a&- order- stab"e monar!h#- and $"ourishin% !u"ture,1G8 The roots o$ the Russian (aradise:s m#th %o ba!5 to Orthodo4 theo"o%#, Ste(hen *aehr has ar%ued that the m#th in Russia re$"e!ted the Orthodo4 be"ie$ in Brea"i>ed es!hato"o%#,C This theo"o%i!a" &or"d'ie& a!!e(ted the (ossibi"it# that the b"essin%s o$ hea'en are a!!essib"e to humans or that Bthe !hur!h is a terrestria" (aradiseEan earth"# ima%e o$ the =in%dom o$ God in hea'en,C1G1 In other &ords- humans did not need to a&ait the A(o!a"#(se or the end o$ human histor# to be !on$ormed to GodA dei$i!ation !ou"d ta5e ("a!e here and no&, The Paradise M#th "iterature (resented the em(eror as thou%h he or she had e$$e!ted this 5ind o$ dei$i!ation, The a!tion !ou"d a((ear as !ir!u"ar ?more C"assi!@ or "inear ?t#(i!a" $or Christianit#@ de(endin% on &hether the ru"er bein% (raised &as ("antin% a ne& Garden o$ Eden or !u"ti'atin% it2 Peter the Great 'ersus Catherine the Great,1G9 The m#th:s "iterar# !hara!ter made it a'ai"ab"e to the nineteenth3!entur#, It endured in a hu%e arena o$ !ourt !u"ture throu%hout the ei%hteenth3!entur#Ees(e!ia""# in (ane%#ri! (oetr#,

*aehr- -aradise Myth- 66836/7, *aehr- -aradise Myth- 6836., *aehr- -aradise Myth- 19,



The most $re)uent o!!asions $or the m#th &ere ones in'o"'in% a (ub"i! !e"ebration2 the a!!ession or name3da# o$ an em(eror or em(ress- a de!isi'e turn in &ar- or a ro#a" 'isit to a !it# in the em(ire, Sin!e these !om(ositions &ere de"i'ered ora""#- the# be!ame the !ommon (ro(ert# o$ the other edu!ated %rou( at o$$i!ia" !e"ebrations2 the !"er%#- &ho tried to restrain the a""e%ori!a" re$eren!es &ithin the !on$ines o$ An!ient Israe" rather than C"assi!a" Anti)uit#,1G. Man# o$ the most $amous odists o$ the ei%hteenth3 !entur#- in!"udin% Mi5hai" Lomonoso' and Ga'rii" Der>ha'in- and Mos!o& Uni'ersit#:s Mi5hai" =heras5o'- de'e"o(ed $orms o$ the m#th, A"thou%h *aehr !"aimed that (re3Romanti! st#"es a$ter the ren!h Re'o"ution annu""ed the m#th:s o(timism- it did not die a$ter 6H7G,1GH A"e4ander:s a!!ession hai"ed a ne& &a'e o$ o(timism and the re'i'a" o$ the m#th in the (ub"i! !e"ebration o$ the tsar:s !oronation in Mos!o&, In a (oem $or the ne& tsar- =aram>in des!ribed rura" beaut#- bust"in% nationa" trade- and the u(s&in% o$ arts and s!ien!es that &ou"d a!!om(an# A"e4ander:s rei%n2 Bthe "and seems "i5e Eden,C 1G7
See !ha(ters 1 and H o$ this stud#, or an ei%hteenth3!entur# e4am("esee Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er- 6/6,
496 497

*aehr- -aradise Myth- E(i"o%ue,

N, M, =aram>in- Na tor4hestevnnoe koronovanie e$o imperatorska$o velichestva <+;" N6R -erva$o, samoder4htsa vserossiiska$o , ?Mos!o&2 Uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6706@ 7,

Whi"e the idea that the tsar &as someho& dra&in% the nation ba!5 to its ori%ina" state o$ $e"i!it# !an be !onsidered a (rodu!t o$ the En"i%htenment- a simi"ar !on!ern o!!u(ied the minds o$ German and En%"ish Romanti!s in the &a5e o$ the ren!h Re'o"ution, As M, H, Abrams has ar%ued- German# and En%"and had both e4(erien!ed a sur%e in mi""enarian re"i%ion and A(o!a"#(ti! e4(e!tation around the time o$ the ren!h Re'o"ution, Romanti! &riters and (hi"oso(hersa!!ordin% to Abrams- "oo5ed on the e'ents o$ 6H7G &ith a Bmi""ennia" (attern o$ thin5in%, The# in'ested the re'o"ution B&ith the e4(ansi'e (o&er o$ the %reat Western m#th o$ A(o!a"#(se- and so e4(anded a "o!a" (henomenon into the (er$er'id e4(e!tation that man e'er#&here &as on the thresho"d o$ an earth"# (aradise restored,C 1GG When the b"oodshed o$ the Con'ention #ears betra#ed this ho(e- the Romanti!s "oo5ed $or non3(o"iti!a" &a#s to rea"i>e the return to $e"i!it#, The# sti"" be"ie'ed in a Bsudden- uni'ersa" and abso"uteC !han%e in humanit#:s $ortunes- but it &as to be a!!om("ished throu%h interna" meansEthe "iberation o$ the understandin%ima%ination- or !o%nition,900 The En"i%htenment Paradise M#th thus di$$ered $rom the

M, H, Abrams- Natural "upernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic <iterature, ?London2 W, W, Norton- 6GH6@- 6HG3677- 886,
499 500

Abrams- Natural "upernaturalism, !h,.,

German and En%"ish Romanti! 'ersions (rimari"# in terms o$ theo"o%i!a" ba!5%round, The Romanti! e4(e!tation o$ a suddenabso"ute- and uni'ersa" !han%e re"ated to mi""enarian es!hato"o%#&hi!h e4(e!ted turmoi" and destru!tion in the brie$ rei%n o$ the anti3 Christ (rior to the &or"d:s !om("ete annihi"ation and the !reation o$ a ne& hea'en and ne& Earth, The Russians: Paradise M#th- on the other hand- $o""o&ed the Orthodo4 tradition o$ e4(e!tin% to taste the $ruits o$ hea'en"# b"iss in this &or"d, Whi"e the return to (aradise !ou"d seem 'io"ent and disru(ti'e- !ourt (oets made it into a !ontinuous and e'en !onser'ati'e (ro!ess b# the end o$ the !entur#, In 6761- the messiani! (oets $used !onser'atism and restoration o$ en"i%htened order in a 'ain attem(t to (ronoun!e the ren!h Re'o"ution:s end, ikolai 0aram(in: Restoration of !i+ili(ation or a"" the messianists- Romanti! stru!ture a((eared in the narrati'es that the# used to de(i!t the &ar e$$ort, The $irst maDor messiani! narrati'e- Ni5o"ai =aram>in:s BThe Liberation o$ Euro(e and G"or# o$ A"e4ander IC ?herea$ter BLiberation-C 6761@- &as &ritten in a $it o$ de"irium- a!!ordin% to its author, =aram>in:s !orres(onden!e indi!ates that he &as $i""ed &ith desire $or ne&s o$ !urrent e'ents, He a"so had !orres(onded &ith the em(ress about

the (ossibi"it# o$ (uttin% aside his &or5 on Russia:s ear"ier !enturies to immorta"i>e the histori!a" si%ni$i!an!e o$ the (eriod 676/36761, 906 Thou%h the mi"itar# 'i!tor# in'o"'ed a trium(h o'er the ren!hthe ideas o$ (re3re'o"utionar# ran!e sti"" o!!u(ied =aram>in in the (re"ude to &ar, The immediate inte""e!tua" ba!5%round to BLiberationC &as "ess German Romanti!ism than the (hi"oso(h# o$ histor# o$ +ean *eni%ne *ossuet- the ren!h Catho"i! theo"o%ian $rom the era o$ Louis QI;, To&ard the end o$ 6766- =aram>in &as 'er# o((osed to rene&ed &ar &ith Na(o"eon and e'en re!ommended to the tsar that Na(o"eon:s $ias!oes &ou"d !ome to an end &ithout Russian in'o"'ement, At the T'er: estate o$ A"e4ander:s sisterE5aterina Pa'"o'na- =aram>in read to A"e4ander (art o$ his $orth!omin% History and made some (ra!ti!a" re!ommendations to A"e4ander about &ron%3headed re$orms &ithin the state administration, More interestin%"#- he a"so %a'e an a"bum to E5aterina Pa'"o'na ?5no&n intimate"# as the T'er: Bdemi%oddessC@ &hi!h o(ened &ith the sentiments o$ *ossuet on the ro"e o$ (ro'iden!e in the $ate o$ human a$$airs, *ossuet:s 6iscourse on 8niversal History- &ritten $or the son o$ Louis QI;- sou%ht to !ontrast the Bdur@e perpetuelle de la R@li$ionC &ith Bles causes des $rands
M, Po%odin- Nikolai Mikhailovich ;aram4in, po e$o sochineniiam, pis0mam, i ot4yvam sovremennikam- ?Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia A, I, Mamonto'a67..@- 669,

chan$ements arriv@s dans les empiresC b# $o!usin% on the radi!a" !han%es in $ortune amon% (o"iti!a" a!tors, rom the hei%ht o$ their %"or#- the# are sudden"# dashed to obs!urit#- so that the# mi%ht "earn not to rest on their o&n "aure"s- but re!o%ni>e a hi%her (o&er,90/ In the a"bum- =aram>in !onne!ted this (assa%e &ith one o$ Rousseau on "o'e $or the ather"and and other ada%es on humans: dut# to "i'e 'irtuous"# e'en &hen the# do not understand the "ar%er out"ines o$ (ro'iden!e,908 =aram>in:s !hoi!e o$ *ossuet and themes o$ (ro'iden!e &ere not in!identa", The historio%ra(her had stru%%"ed &ith )uestions o$ histori!a" !ontinuit#- (ro'iden!e- and re'o"ution "on% be$ore Na(o"eon:s rise to (o&er, =aram>in had initia""# admired the re'o"ution, As a #oun% man abroad durin% the ren!h Re'o"ution=aram>in had e4(erien!ed enou%h o$ the ei%hteenth3!entur#:s o(timism to thin5 that the e'ents o$ 6H7G mi%ht $ina""# brin% reason to the (ra!ti!e o$ state!ra$t- but the Con'ention #ears se'ere"# disa((ointed him,901 His rea!tion &as a dia"o%ue ?6HG8@ on the
+a!)ues3*eni%ne *ossuet- 6iscours sur l0histoire universelle, par %ossuet ?Paris2 Librarie de irmin Didot rVres- 679/@- 1- 1/H31/7,
502 503

Po%odin- Nikolai Mikhailovich ;aram4in, 7737G,

Lotman- ;aram4in- //H3//GA See a"so L, G, =is"iDa%ina- BThe Tuestion o$ the De'e"o(ment o$ N, M, =aram>in:s So!ia" Po"iti!a" ;ie&s in the Nineties o$ the Ei%hteenth3Centur#2 N, M, =aram>in and the Great ren!h *our%eois Re'o"ution-C in +ssays on ;aram4in : Russian Man)o! <etters, -olitical Thinker, Historian, &,BB)&'3B, edited b# +, L, *"a!5 ?The Ha%ue2 Mouton504

&or5in%s o$ (ro'iden!e- &here the !hara!ters dis!uss &hether the en"i%htenment &ou"d de!a# and endure, Me"odor ?Gree52 ta"ented &ith son%@ $eared that the &or"d o$ en"i%htenment mi%ht !rash ba!5 into barbarianism- &hi"e i"a"et ?Gree52 "o'er o$ truth@ a$$irmed that en"i%htenment !ou"d !ontinue throu%h %radua" (ro%ress and !onstant e'o"ution,909 +ust as *ossuet sa& the "i$e o$ the !hur!h "ast throu%hout (o"iti!a" u(hea'a"- =aram>in "oo5ed to (ro'iden!e as a %uarantee o$ the (er(etuit# o$ the en"i%htened order, =aram>in:s enthusiasm $or Na(o"eon in his ear"# da#s at Herald o! +urope stemmed $rom his be"ie$ that the ren!h irst Consu" &ou"d stabi"i>e Euro(e so that arts and "etters !ou"d $"ourish a"" the more abundant"#, Natura""#- the !on$"i!ts &ith ran!e had destro#ed this ho(e, In 676/- on the 'er# e'e o$ in'asion- he &as re(orted to ha'e 5e(t his !omrades u( a"" ni%ht &ith (ronoun!ements on the hi%her meanin% behind the &ar and the rea"i>ation o$ (ro'iden!e:s ("ans, BIn =aram>in there &as somethin% ins(ired- attra!ti'e- and a"so Do#ousness-C re!a""ed A"e4ander *u"%a5o',90. A$ter dis("a!ement- materia" hardshi(- and a $uti"e attem(t to Doin the mi"itar# e$$ort- =aram>in sett"ed do&n on
6GH9@- 6003606, =aram>in- I4brannye "ochineniia- ;o", / ?Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 =hudo>hest'ennaia "iteratura- 6G.1@- /913/9., See a"so Pi(es- ;aram4in0s Memoir- 16318,
505 506

Po%odin- Nikolai Mikhailovich ;aram4in- G73GG,

the estates o$ his in3"a&s- &here he &rote BLiberation,C BLiberationC $o!used on Na(o"eon a"one as the !ause o$ the di'ision &ithin Euro(eMs en"i%htened !i'i"i>ation, His treatment o$ Russia as the $ina" bastion o$ Euro(e mi4ed (atriar!ha" )ua"ities and !u"tura" a!hie'ement, He o(ened the (oem &ith re$eren!e to Bone b"essed (eo("eC remainin% in Euro(e and not #ie"din% to Bhe"":s (o&er,C His des!ri(ti'e (ortions o$ Russia (raised its maturin% !u"tura" abi"it# &ithout ne%"e!tin% its roots, On the one hand- Russia had !"ear"# be!ome a (art o$ the !i'i"i>ed &or"d, BWe a"read# ha'e (rided ourse"'es in s!ho"arshi( J $ruits o$ the mind- and the %uarantee o$ the %ood,C90H On the other hand- the su((osed re!i(ro!a" bonds o$ "o'e bet&een the ru"er and ru"ed (reser'ed its traditions in a &a# that no other !ountr# !ou"d mat!h,
… d^kgal \t`ecdsc f^[cb`asA yadas \gjp mheagap Zmhadj|^ map b\s h^snq^ f^ md^\pwaer so[\s- waecp so[\p, ?It had trium(hed in &ars sin!e o"den times It %a'e "a&s to other !ountries*ut "i'ed on"# b# its o&n Lo'in% the tsar- b# him "o'ed,@907

The an!ient (o"iti!a" bonds &ere !om("emented b# $aith, In a des!ri(tion $rom the (re3in'asion se)uen!e- $aith binds the !ountr# into a uni$orm &ho"e,

=aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I-C /073/0G, =aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I-C /0G,


Š mhaeuj- bcgj fe^mh\eaoh ycmg\uZ q …jxgcpZ m p^sn[^kA isctap\ ‰sa_^mhn Zp\sroh…ct`c qZe\hmr ›\p\apA {^mm\r cmhn ^[x\egjk leap, ?*ut the e"ders- &omen stret!h out Their hands in (ra#er to the A"mi%ht# %oodness tou!hes &ith tearsIn!ense burns e'er#&hereA Russia is a 'ast !hur!h,@90G

Not sur(risin%"#- Na(o"eon embodied o((osite )ua"ities, As a (erson- he "a!5ed the sim("e bonds o$ $ea"t# and $aith that the Russians dis("a#ed, =aram>in as!ribed Na(o"eon:s des!ent to the "ust $or Buni'ersa" stateC ?vsemirnaia der4hava@- a !"aim 'er# simi"ar to the Dourna"isti! atta!5s on Na(o"eon as the betra#er o$ the En"i%htenment, The des!ent (ossessed both a %eo%ra(hi! and a (s#!ho"o%i!a" as(e!t, Not on"# &as the ba"an!e o$ the s!e(tersEthe order o$ monar!hs a!ross Euro(eEdisru(ted- but Na(o"eon a"so ru(tured the sentimenta" bonds that (reser'ed the unit# o$ states, The ro"e o$ (atrioti! sentiment in maintainin% a ba"an!ed state order ("a#ed a !entra" ro"e in the Dourna"ism o$ ;"adimir I>mai"o' ?then editor at Herald o! +urope@, It a"so &as an o"d be"ie$ o$ =aram>in&hose do!ument shared &ith the tsar in 6766 ar%ued that the di'ision o$ (re3Mon%o" Russia resu"ted $rom the &ea5enin% o$ su!h atta!hments,960 In BLiberation-C =aram>in !"aimed $irst that Na(o"eon

=aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I-C /60, Pi(es- ;aram4inEs Memoir on ncient and Modern Russia - 660,


rent these ties a!ross the !on)uered territories- but a"so that he himse"$ had "ost them, The narrator a"most rea!hed a note o$ s#m(ath#- (onderin% ho& Na(o"eon !ou"d ha'e !hosen to reDe!t the ha((# unit# o$ $ami"# "i$e2
…j [js\ ea`^mhno mcpckmhda~pcs\ [s\bg\l \ `eZtck2 „^}h^ [j _\[cs\ \mqas\ … `as\ f^sZg^•gjl mhcfckL ?Iou &ere a $ami"#:s Do#Iou had dear ones and $riends2 Wh# did #ou see5 (eri" In the distant Northern ste((esL@966

Moreo'er- =aram>in !ontrasted Na(o"eon to the s(irit o$ the e(o!h&hi!h he !a""ed theBa%e o$ the !iti>enCEin &hi!h the ren!h em(eror a((eared to be an ana!hronism &orse than Atti"a the Hun or *atu, Those $i%ures at "east %re& u( amidst barbarians and beasts&hereas the $ormer himse"$ had de'iated $rom the en"i%htened a%ein &hi!h he &as born, As =aram>in e4("ained in a $ootnote- BI$ Na(o"eon had &or5ed his 'i""ain# ?4lodeistvoval@ not in en"i%htenedbut barbarian times- then he !ou"d ha'e died in %reatness,C96/ Whi"e =aram>in did not !asti%ate the (eo("es o$ Euro(e $or $a""in%- their subDe!tion to Na(o"eoni! (o&er di$$erentiated them $rom the one b"essed !ountr#,

=aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I-C /6/, =aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I- C /67,


BLiberationC treated the e'ents o$ the Euro(ean !am(ai%n as a (ro!ess that !u"minated in sa"'ation $rom Na(o"eoni! barbarism- but the tsar ("a#ed the on"# si%ni$i!ant inter!essor# ro"e in this (ro!ess, Whi"e he re$erred to the themes o$ su$$erin% and sa!ri$i!e in his de(i!tion o$ the in'asion o$ 676/- =aram>in (resented the $ire o$ Mos!o& as a de"iberate ta!ti!a" maneu'er,
‚^mqdaS „e^•acpmr m h^[^o~ gaxck m^[mhdcgg^k eZq^o vc[r pj d fcfcs ^[eah\pS „jsak2 mc fsapr ^}\•cg\rS ‚j tcpso m gc[^p fe\p\e\p, vj bcehda ^[•a_^ mfamcg\rS ?Mos!o&S We &i"" sa# $are&e"" to #ouAnd &ith our 'er# o&n handWe &i"" turn #ou into dustS *urn2 this is the $"ame o$ (uri$i!ationS We &i"" re!on!i"e earth &ith hea'en, Iou are the sa!ri$i!e $or e'er#one•s sa"'ationS@968

=aram>in a"so i%nored the (o(u"ation:s mi"itar# sa!ri$i!es- heroismand "e%endar# (artisan de$enses, +ust o'er ha"$&a# throu%h the (oem- Na(o"eon sim("# $a""s- &ithout mention o$ an# si%ni$i!ant resistan!e, =aram>in e'en treated the Russian em(eror as &or"d&ide monar!h rather than a nationa" tsar, In a !oronation s!ene- ("a!ed bet&een e'ents o$ 676/ and 6761- =aram>in modi$ied ei%hteenth3 !entur# (ane%#ri! !on'entions to (resent A"e4ander as the ne&"#3
N, M, =aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I,C in "obranie stikhotvorenii otnosiashchikhsia k ne4abvennomu &'&3 $odu ,;o", 6 ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761@- /66,

!ro&ned 5in% o$ the entire &or"d, The em(erors a$ter Peter the Great &ere intent on re(resentin% their o&n rei%ns as "e%itimate su!!essors to their (rede!essor, Odes (ro!"aimed this "e%itima!# in'o"'ed the o(enin% o$ the hea'ens so that Peter the Great !ou"d "oo5 do&n $a'orab"# u(on the (resent ru"er, As Ri!hard Wortman noted- Peter:s $a'or ?un"i5e God:s@ &as not automati!A it (ro'ed that the em(eror had earned the ri%ht to be the su!!essor,961 In this situation- A"e4ander attained "e%itima!# not Dust o'er his o&n (o(u"ation but on beha"$ o$ the &or"d to brin% about a trans$ormation &ithin it,
†hdcets\mr deaha œ›\ea~ `Zl\ djmfecggr_^ p\ea „ae\s\ ga` _sad^k vd^ck„^patagg\q- i^mZ` ~t[eaggjk ]^ \t[adcsg\o so`ck‚^gael- {^mm\co dcg}aggjk|^ `aggjk ‰^_^p dmcp mhaeagpˆtjqap- [Z`Z•\p dcqap ?The %ates o$ the ether o(ened And the s(irits o$ the hi%her &or"d Ho'ered o'er th# head The Anointed- the Chosen ;esse" or the de"i'eran!e o$ (eo("e The Monar!h- !ro&ned b# Russia*ut %i'en to God b# a"" "andsPeo("es- and $uture %enerations,@

In the subse)uent s!ene $rom Easter 6761- Tsar A"e4ander:s (ra#er re!on!i"es the ("a!e &here Bthe barbarians s"e& Louis QI;C &ith
On (ost3Petrine em(erors: !eremonies- see Ri!hard S, Wortman"cenarios o! -o#er: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy - 'o", 6?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG9@- 7/,

hea'en and restores the (re3re'o"utionar# order,969 The (ro!ess o$ sa"'ation !on!"uded &ith Easter- the tamin% o$ di'ine an%er- and the re!o%nition that A"e4ander &as a ru"er o$ a"" ru"ers, As a 5ind o$ !oda- =aram>in added t&o "on% a(ostro(hes $rom BWisdomC and $rom Louis Q;III to summari>e &hat the re'o"ution and restoration had tau%ht humanit#, Wisdom:s admonition in'o"'ed a %enera" statement o$ !onser'atism- a5in to Edmund *ur5e:s de$ense o$ traditions de'e"o(ed o'er time- as o((osed to !ontri'ed re'o"utionar# (o"iti!a" ideo"o%ies,
]aq heZ`g^ ^[•cmhd^ m^t`ahnS †g^ Zmhe^\s\mn dcqap\2 Y^eat`^ sc_}c eateZxahn ‰ctZpuZ m `cetq\p\ eZqap\, |c djpjxsrkhc g^djl [c`2 … mcp p\e m^dcexcgmhda gchS ?Ho& di$$i!u"t it is to !reate so!iet#S It is $ounded throu%h the !enturies, *# $ar easier to destro# or a mind"ess man &ith darin% hands, Don:t thin5 u( no'e" mis$ortunes2 In the &or"d there is no (er$e!tion,@96.

Louis Q;III:s s(ee!h si%na"ed the ro"e that the Russians ("a#ed in returnin% Euro(e to its (ro(er 'a"ues and !ourse, As the 'oi!e o$ the ren!h monar!h stated- Euro(e as a &ho"e &ou"d be!ome im(ro'ed be!ause o$ the "essons to be "earned b# the Russian e4am("e, BWe &i"" $or%et the e'i"- but &ith re$"e!tion ?ra4su4hdaia@ J the e4(erien!e

=aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I-C /69, =aram>in- BOs'obo>hdenie E'ro(# i s"a'a A"e4andra I-C /673/6G,


&i"" "ead us to Wisdom-C Louis !"aimed be$ore a "on% de$ense o$ the Russian tsar:s !hara!ter as a mode" $or a"" nations, A mode" o$ 'irtue$aith- and ho(e- A"e4ander sur(assed a"" other heroes in the BChroni!"es o$ G"or#C and brou%ht the b"essin%s o$ the Russian (aradise m#th throu%hout Euro(e, Louis re'e"s at the re'i'a" o$ trade and s!ho"arshi( and most o$ a""- at the return o$ B(ea!e-C a"" due to A"e4ander, =aram>in thus treated the Russian tsar not on"# as a (ea!e3 brin%er- but as the a%ent in a (ro!ess to rene& the di'ision that threatened the En"i%htenment, Whi"e not as o(en"# re"i%ious as Mer>"ia5o' and <hu5o's5ii- =aram>in:s thin5in% on B(ro'iden!eC &as sha(ed in dia"o%ue &ith *ossuet:s 8niversal History and its (romise o$ !ontinuit# amidst (o"iti!a" !han%e and the do&n$a"" o$ the mi%ht#, =aram>in dre& on ei%hteenth3!entur# (ane%#ri!s- but !ast them in a Euro(ean !onte4tEso that the &ho"e &or"d !ou"d be restored &ithout bein% destro#ed, The out!ome o$ his 'ie& o$ the rene&a" o$ di'ision a"so brou%ht to !"ima4 the obsession to (ro'e that Russia &as as %ood or better than its Euro(ean tea!hers, I$ the Coa"ition Wars (ro'ided the o((ortunit# $or (oets to assert this su(eriorit#- 6761 seemed to (ro'e it, Persona""#- =aram>in re!o%ni>ed that the mi"itar# trium(h had not #et been met b# a !orres(ondin% "iterar# !ou(, BWe

ha'e !on)uered Na(o"eon2 soon &e &i"" see the "i%ht &ith our reason, It:s sad that I &i"" not hear Euro(e:s a(("ause $or NourO "iterar# %eniuses $rom be#ond the %ra'e,C96H Nonethe"ess- he (ut in the ren!h monar!h:s mouth the instru!tion to $o""o& the Russian e4am("e to attain &isdomEa sentiment to be re(eated man# times throu%hout the nineteenth3!entur#, "le/ei Mer(liako+: Religion and Euto*ia In !om(arison to =aram>in- Mer>"ia5o':s -ane$yric Oration to the ll)Merci!ul Ruler +mperor le/ander the 1irst, Most u$ust

6eliverer and -eacemaker o! +urope ?herea$ter "lovo- 6761@ &as more theoreti!a" and (hi"oso(hi!a", Thou%h it &as a s(ee!h- not a (oem- one (art o$ it tra!ed the e'ents o$ &ar as a sa"'i$i! (ro!ess !u"minatin% in restoration- &hi"e the other e"aborated on the di$$eren!e bet&een human Dusti!e and hea'en"# order, Mer>"ia5o':s "lovo undoubted"# rea!hed more ears, =aram>in &as more $amous a &riter- but had &ritten BLiberationC $or the em(ress, ?It &as "ater (ub"ished in Herald o! +urope@, Mer>"ia5o':s "lovo- (rinted in Dourna"s as &e""- rea!hed a uni'ersit# audien!e $o""o&in% t&o months o$ !e"ebrations and (arties in Mos!o&, His (ride in the trium(h and Russia:s ne& (rominen!e &ithin en"i%htened Euro(e !an be seen in the o(enin% o$ his address,

-is0ma ;aram4ina k 6mitrievu- 678,

+usti!e demands that no&here is (raise to Him e4!"aimed more hearti"#- than in #our ha""o&ed ashes- in &hi!h &as !hosen the ("a!e o$ the und#in% $"ame o$ "o'e $or $ather"andA no&here more so than in the tem("es o$ "earnin%- adornin% #ou- and to%ether &ith #ou su$$erin%A no&here more $or!e$u""#- than in the 'er# !it# &hi!h $or si4 hundred #ears &as the most $aith$u" su((ort o$ the throne- and in that tem("e o$ "earnin%- &hi!h enDo#s the s(e!ia" %enerosities o$ the a""3mer!i$u" Ru"er,967

Whi"e Mer>"ia5o' !ertain"# 'ie&ed Na(o"eon as a threat to the (ro%ress o$ "earnin%- he atta!5ed the ren!h em(eror and his re'o"utionar# (rede!essors $or institutin% a !haoti! (o"iti!a" order that disru(ted the norma" harmon# bet&een hea'en and earth, The (ro(er re"ation o$ the natura" and su(ernatura" &or"ds- he !"aimed!ou"d be summed u( in the &ord ri%hteousness ?pravota@, O'era""the "lovo ar%ued that the &ar e'ents u( to the ta5in% o$ Paris &ere a"" (redestined to ma5e Euro(e ri%hteous on!e a%ain, To&ard the end o$ "lovo- Mer>"ia5o' !"aimed to ha'e (enetrated the abode o$ di'ine Wisdom- &here he en'isioned $rom time immemoria" the Bse!ondC rene&a" o$ Euro(e- a!!om("ished in 6761, 96G More e4("i!it"#he (resented the s(ee!h:s hi%h ar%ument as a 'indi!ation o$ the !on!i"iator# %oa" o$ the &ar e$$ort,
A, , Mer>"ia5o'- "lovo pokhval0noe vsemilostiveishemu $osudariu imperatoru leksandru pervomu, av$usteishemu i4bavateliu i mirotvortsu +vropy, proi4nesennoe v publichnom $odovom sobranii imperatorsko$o moskovska$o universiteta Iiulia &( dnia &'&O $oda, ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761@- (( H37, Herea$ter re$erred to as "lovo pokhval0noe, The s(ee!h &as a"so (rinted in abrid%ed $ashion2 B;#(us5i i> Re!hi- (roi>nesennoi A, , Mer>"ia5o'#m ' %odo'om sobranii Mos5o's5a%o im(erators5a%o uni'ersiteta 60 Iiu"ia 6761 %oda,C R: /7261 ?6761@2 8.31G,
518 519

Mer>"ia5o'- "lovo pokhval0noe- H.,

NThe trium(hO unites in itse"$ the !onsonant ha((# $ee"in%s and !ries o$ the &ho"e &or"d2 it is a trium(h o$ a"" (eo("es- a"" 'irtues- a"" true en"i%htenment- s!ho"arshi( and arts- a trium(h- i$ I dare utter it- o$ God Himse"$- in his (unishments o$ bene$i!en!e- dra&in% us in the s&eetest !a(ti'it# o$ mee5 (iet#- in the !a(ti'it# o$ indubitab"e aith in His (ro'iden!e- not 'isib"e- but !onstant- a!tin% in us in the ser'i!e o$ ri%hteousness,9/0

The (ro!ess o$ attainin% that %oa"- ho&e'er- &as di$$i!u"t- and on"# the best o$ monar!hs !ou"d a!hie'e it, A!!ordin% to Mer>"ia5o'most states $e"" short o$ ri%hteousness- &hi!h e4isted (er$e!t"# on"# in the su(ernatura" rea"m o$ di'ine order, Ri%hteousness "e$t its im(rint in human bein%s and sustained a"" 'irtues in the &or"d- but it &as ina!!essib"e in its $u""ness to most men, *# 'irtue o$ their anointment- a!!ordin% to "lovo- 5in%s re!ei'ed a"" the %i$ts o$ the Ho"# S(irit, The# thus !ou"d $u""# !om(rehend ri%hteousness and trans!end the morta" "imits that a$$e!ted a"" other humans, Le%itimate 5in%s &ho used this di'ine &isdom sa& their 5in%doms $"ourish,9/6 Mer>"ia5o':s "e%itimism &as !ou("ed &ith standard assum(tions about the (ro(er o$$i!e o$ an en"i%htened ru"er, As a member o$ the a!ademi! !ommunit#- he (ersona""# !onsidered A"e4ander a %reat (atron o$ "earnin% and !u"tura" (ro%ress be!ause o$ the tsar:s uni'ersit# and edu!ation re$orms $rom ear"# in his rei%n,9// As the rest o$ "lovo sho&ed- A"e4ander:s uni)ue (ro(erties

Mer>"ia5o'- "lovo pokhval0noe- 831, Mer>"ia5o'- "lovo pokhval0noe- /73/G, Mer>"ia5o' himse"$ &as 'er# %rate$u" $or the %enerosities besto&ed u(on



and di'ine !a""in% ("a!ed him hi%her than other en"i%htened ru"ers, Mer>"ia5o' (resented the tsar as the "ast 5in% o$ ri%hteousness and thus the on"# (ossib"e Euro(ean !andidate to restore order, Sin!e &isdom had ins!ribed Bits out"ineC on his heart- A"e4ander:s (ers(i!a!it# !ou"d s(an the ab#ss that se(arated di'ine &isdom $rom earth"# 5no&"ed%e and there$ore he !ou"d understand the (ath o$ (ro'iden!e as it un$o"ded, So $rom the $irst batt"es in 67093670HA"e4ander (ossessed an in!redib"e ad'anta%e o'er Na(o"eonre%ard"ess o$ the re'o"utionar# arm#:s si>e, E'er# B'i!tor#C o$ Na(o"eon:s turned out to be A"e4ander:s &ise and (rudentia" strate%#- the !onse)uen!es o$ &hi!h he $oresa&, Mer>"ia5o' de$ined this (o&er as the main &a# that $aith trium(hs o'er its enemies,
God in'isib"e is re'ea"ed in the 'isib"e (henomena o$ nature- or in the e$$e!ts and !on!"usion o$ e'ents- &hi!h a((eared at $irst to be sim("# the &or5 o$ !han!e or a !o""usion o$ !ir!umstan!es, Thus the !ourse ?"it, out"ine@ o$ this un(re!edented &ar- ha'in% been dra&n u( and "astin% ti"" end &ith the %reatest ta"ent- (erha(s a((eared in!om(rehensib"e $or man# ear"ier on- but "ater it &as Dusti$ied !om("ete"#- b# the bri""iant su!!ess that on"# the Great ather o$ the ather"and had $oreseen,9/8

In (rin!i("e- this insi%ht shou"d ha'e been the (ro(ert# o$ an# Euro(ean monar!h- but Mer>"ia5o' !onsidered them subDe!t to the
the uni'ersit# in A"e4ander:s ear"# rei%n and- as "iaison to the OLRS !ha(ters in Iaros"a'": and =a>an:- &as e4!ited b# the edu!ation re$orms a!ross the em(ire, Mer>"ia5o' sent A"e4ander the &or5s o$ OLRS3MU and in %enera" !onsidered him a (atron o$ s!ho"arshi(,

"lovo pokhval0noe- /G,

Na(o"eoni! #o5e and there$ore out o$ a!!ord &ith ri%hteousness, Mer>"ia5o' &as mu!h more b"unt about the short!omin%s o$ Na(o"eon:s !hara!ter- "abe"in% him a subhuman- !reation o$ nothin%ness- and someone tr#in% to be!ome a man, He e'en drummed u( the (ro(a%andisti! !"aims that Na(o"eon had !on'erted to Is"am in E%#(t and !ons(ired &ith +e&s to mo!5 Christianit# in s#na%o%ues,9/1 Mer>"ia5o' a"so dre& a re"ation bet&een the ren!h "eader and his assemb"ed !ohort o$ so"diers- &hose beha'ior &as a"so dire!ted b# ma4imi>in% their o&n se"$3(ro$it at the e4(ense o$ 'irtue and their o&n mi"itar# !ohesi'eness, A"e4ander:s uni)ue (osition !ame at %reat !ost, When Mer>"ia5o' m#tho"o%i>ed the e'ents o$ 676/- he shi$ted the burden o$ nationa" su$$erin% $rom Mos!o& to the tsar &ith the !"aim that the (res!ient- ins(ired A"e4ander himse"$ made the de!ision to sa!ri$i!e the an!ient !a(ita" to the &ar e$$ort, A"e4ander a!tua""# &as astounded b# ie"dmarsha" =utu>o':s de!ision to retreat be#ond Mos!o&- but Mer>"ia5o':s be"ie$ in A"e4ander:s ri%hteousness "ed him to assume that the tsar had $oreseen the !ourse o$ e'ents, Mer>"ia5o' (resented the di"emma as a matter o$ se'ere %ra'it#2

He did not %o as $ar as the Orthodo4 !"er%#:s (ro!"amation o$ 670.&here Na(o"eon &as a!!used o$ tr#in% to be!ome the +e&s: ne& $a"se messiah,

A"e4ander needed the su((ort o$ an%e"s and the s(irit o$ the (eo("e,9/9 Po(u"ar en!oura%ement- ho&e'er- did not ma5e the nation a messiani! inter!essor, In "lovo- a"" the 5e# (oints in the &ar re'o"'ed around A"e4ander, Li5e =aram>in- Mer>"ia5o' de$ined the 6761 Easter ser'i!e as the (re!ise moment that $u"$i""ed the (ro!ess o$ sa"'ation and returned Euro(e to its ori%ina" b"essed state, As in the (aradise m#ththe tsar:s (ersona" a!tions determined the $ina" out!ome, Not on"# did A"e4ander rea!h the e4!ru!iatin% de!ision on Mos!o&- Mer>"ia5o' !"aimed- his humi"it# at the (ra#er ser'i!e )uashed the dis!ord ram(ant in (ost3re'o"utionar# ran!e and atoned $or the ren!h sin o$ re%i!ide,
The A"mi%ht# =in% o$ =in%s "oo5ed do&n on the (ra#ers o$ the *"essed ?A"e4ander@- and $or His sa5e b"essed $or the $irst time his out!ast ser'ant- ran!eA the earth )ua5ed &ith Do#- it &as !"eansed $rom trans%ression- and the shado& o$ the murdered Louis- !a""ed $orth b# the A"e4ander:s ma%nanimit#- a%ain be!ame re!on!i"ed &ith his (eo("e, Wondrous o!!urren!eS The sa'ior o$ the &or"d is resurre!ted- and throu%h A"e4ander ha'e been resurre!ted the *ourbonsS9/.

Mer>"ia5o' des!ribed the s!ene in another (assa%e b# a((ea"in% dire!t"# to Paradise M#th themes, Thou%h re!ent Russian tsars had (re$erred 'ersions o$ the m#th that em(hasi>ed !ontinuit#Mer>"ia5o' em("o#ed "an%ua%e that resemb"ed the more 'io"ent

"lovo pokhval0noe- 19, "lovo pokhval0noe- H13H9,


a!tions im(uted to Peter the Great ear"# in the ei%hteenth3!entur#,9/H In this !ase- A"e4ander stood o'er re'o"utionar# Euro(e "i5e God at the moment o$ !reation,
+ust as the A"mi%ht# Creator o$ the Wor"d im(osed order and stru!ture on nothin%ness &ith a sin%"e &ord and en"i'ened it- so did A"e4ander- our (resent !reator o$ the (o"iti!a" &or"d- an An%e" adorned in ri%hteousness- bearin% "i%ht o'er ab#ss and !haos o$ troub"ed Euro(e- di'ided the e"ements $i%htin% &ith dar5ness- de!a# &ith 'irtue- enmit# &ith !on!ord- disorder &ith harmon#- and s(o5e2 "et (ea!e e4istEand it &asS9/7

The En"i%htenment3era traditions o$ (raisin% a ru"er $or !reatin% a B$irm $oundation-C as &ith Catherine the Great:s "e%a" (roDe!t- thus a!)uired an e4(anded sense, In "lovo- the re!on!i"iation o$ Euro(e to di'ine order $urthered the %oa"s o$ the En"i%htenment, Mer>"ia5o':s (anorami! de(i!tion o$ Euro(e:s se!ond rene&a" a"so a((ea"ed to the uni'ersa" 'a"ues that Russians su((osed"# embodied to the hi%hest de%ree, As mentioned abo'e- the trium(h re!on!i"ed the (eo("e to the ren!h 5in%s and there$ore to hea'enbut the bene$its e4tended to a"" o$ Euro(e:s (eo("e in their $ami"iesbusiness- and e'en re"ation to nature, Mer>"ia5o' o(ened the s(ee!h &ith a 'ast tab"eau o$ the reDoi!in% that &as unanimous a!ross
Interestin%"#- in another (assa%e- Mer>"ia5o' uses a more !onser'ati'e ima%e to des!ribe A"e4ander:s re"ation to Russia, At home- A"e4ander tended the %arden and (re(ared to de$end Russian tishchina a%ainst im(endin% storms, See Mer>"ia5o'- "lovo pokhval0noe- 68369, On the %ardener ima%e- see see W, Gareth, +ones- Nikolay Novikov +nli$htener o! Russia, ?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G71@ 68H3687A and Ri!hard Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er- 'o", 6- 76,
527 528

"lovo pokhval0noe- 9/,

Euro(e- the Btheater o$ his trium(hC and a sin%"e thron% o$ &e""3 &ishers $rom London to St, Petersbur%, Nature res(onded2 the !"ouds (art- the sun brin%s nourishment $or $armers- the hea'ens "et de& !ome do&n- 'a""e#s $"ourish- and hi""s $ume "i5e in!ense to a"mi%ht#, The tsar:s a!tion united a"" the (eo("e o$ Euro(e as &e"", On the so!ia" "e'e"- a"" estates- trades- and orders $ee" unanimit#, Euro(e re!o%ni>es that A"e4ander re(resents the essen!e o$ (atriotism- the needs o$ the subDe!ts- and the as(irations o$ a"" "o'ers o$ "earnin%, Mer>"ia5o' e'en ado(ted the meta(hor o$ a !hur!h to des!ribe the ne& internationa" order, Thus he !"aimed that &here A"e4ander %oese'er# city is an a"tar- e'er# throne a sa!ri$i!e- and e'er# kin$dom is a $ami"# subDe!t to the Russian ru"er,9/G In other &ords- Mer>"ia5o' e4tended A"e4ander:s (o&er to be ab"e to re!reate Beuto(iaC throu%hout a"" o$ Euro(e, Thou%h a"" the messiani! !om(onents !entered on A"e4ander in "lovo- Mer>"ia5o' did !ontribute to the %ro&th in nationa" messianism, Whi"e Mer>"ia5o' !"aimed that the Bse!ondC rene&a" o$ Euro(e !ou"d be understood $rom the 'anta%e (oint o$ eternit#- he a"so (ut in nationa" histori!a" !onte4t, The "atest rene&a" &as (art o$ a series o$ de$enses o$ Euro(e- $rom &ithin Euro(e, He %a'e Russia the identit# o$ the de$ender o$ Euro(e $rom uni'ersa" monar!h# and

"lovo pokhval0noe- 93H,

o'er&he"min% a%%ression- seen ear"ier in Mus"im in'aders and Euro(ean ru"ers "i5e Char"es QII and rederi!5 the Great,980 Need"ess to sa#- "ater %enerations !ou"d easi"# add Hit"er to the "ist o$ (eo("e a%ainst &hom the# had de$ended Euro(e, Mer>"ia5o':s hi%her re"i%iosit# (ro'ided a broader 'ie& o$ the re!on!i"iation that A"e4ander had a!!om("ished, His use o$ (aradise m#th de'i!es and the e4(ansion o$ the (ane%#ri! euto(ia to a"" o$ Euro(e embodied the same en"i%htened3Romanti! (arado42 to (reser'e the !u"tura" %ains o$ the o"d order- he "oo5ed in a Romanti! &a# $or the 5ind o$ reDu'enation that &ou"d e"e'ate Russia to (rominen!e &ithin Euro(ean !i'i"i>ation, Thou%h the tsar re!ei'ed a"" !redit $or restorin% uni'ersa" 'a"ues- a!tin% as di'ine mediator- and !on!"udin% the sa"'i$i! (ro!ess o$ histor#- Mer>"ia5o' !ontributed to the idea that the &ar a%ainst Na(o"eon re"ated to a messiani! ro"e $or the nation- a!!om("ished b# the tsar:s inter!ession in ran!e, 'asilii 1huko+skii: " ew E/em*lar of 2aith

Whi"e ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii &as best 5no&n $or his e4traordinari"# (o(u"ar B*ard in the Cam( o$ Russian Warriors-C &ritten in the midd"e o$ 676/- his ear"ier re"i%ious (oetr# #ie"ds insi%ht into his understandin% the (rob"ems o$ ren!h !i'i"i>ation that eru(ted in
O$ !ourse- he ne'er a!!ounted $or Peter III:s drasti! re'ersa", Poeti! "i!ense- o$ !ourse,

&ar, Li5e other Russian !riti!s- <hu5o's5ii $o""o&ed the insi%hts o$ +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau- &hose stor# o$ the E(hraim Le'ite <hu5o's5ii trans"ated in 67093670., This stor# $rom the O"d Testament boo5 o$ ?ud$es had a (ro$ound e$$e!t on <hu5o's5ii:s re$"e!tions about Russian nationa" identit# vis)P)vis Euro(e, The stor# im(ressed u(on him the &ides(read "a&"essness and anar!h# that arose in the era o$ Dud%es- a (eriod in Israe"ite histor# &ith no 5in% or uni$ied %o'ernment, To <hu5o's5ii- this B"a&"essnessC o$ the "and &as !onne!ted to a mora" (rob"em and re$"e!ted the resu"t o$ "i'es in thra"" to the (assions, E'en thou%h the "a&"essness &as endemi! to the !hosen nation Israe"- <hu5o's5ii (er!ei'ed a stron% di$$eren!e bet&een Israe" as a "and o$ $aith and the disorder that arose $rom disbe"ie$, This di'ision $or him mirrored the s("it bet&een a $ree $aith$u" (erson and a se"$3interested one- or the !on$"i!t bet&een Russia and ran!e, The (rob"em a$$e!tin% ran!e &as (rimari"# o$ indi'idua"ism and !ou"d be o'er!ome on"# throu%h $aith and u"timate"# throu%h the a "o'in% se"$3sa!ri$i!e,986 In his +pistle to Tsar A"e4ander in 6761- <hu5o's5ii dis("a#ed (re!ise"# this messa%e in his m#tho"o%i>ation o$ the &ar and the a!tions o$ A"e4ander,98/
aina <ino':e'na =anuno'a- :oprosy mirovo44reniia I estetiki :9 9 Chukovsko$o: po materialam biblioteki poeta - ?Toms52 I>date":st'o- 6GG0@1831G,

<hu5o's5ii:s idea o$ se"$3reDe!tion in the $a!e o$ (ro'iden!e are a"so intimate"# tied to his (ersona" !ir!umstan!es and un$u"$i""ed "o'e, See

Whi"e the mode" $or seein% A"e4ander as a su$$erin% ser'ant a5in to +esus Christ &as seen in Mer>"ia5o':s "lovo- <hu5o's5ii tied the theme to a more (ersona" !ha""en%e $or the tsar, When A"e4ander as!ended to the throne- he !ame under the shado& o$ his $ather:s murder, A"e4ander had 5no&n o$ a !ons(ira!# to sta%e a coup a%ainst his $ather Pau"- but did not e4(e!t it to in'o"'e murder, Thou%h the (ub"i! %reeted A"e4ander &ith une4(e!ted enthusiasmthe ne& tsar $e"t the &ei%ht o$ !ons!ien!e throu%hout his &ho"e "i$e, Re$errin% in +pistle to the author:s o&n e4!itement at A"e4ander:s !oronation- <hu5o's5ii &rote- BIou ("a!ed #our mi%ht# iron on the $earsome !ross- J and #our #oun% shou"der bent under the ro#a" !"oa5 ?ba$rianitsa@,C988 %a$rianitsa denotes an o$$i!ia" ro#a" !"oa5- o$ (ur("e or !rimson !o"or- and is !"ose"# re"ated to the 'erb oba$riat0meanin% to redden or stain &ith b"ood- es(e!ia""# in &ar (oetr#, or instan!e- A"e4ander Pro>hin: $rom =har:5o' thus des!ribed Na(o"eon2
]as\_Zsa- |ce^g- •\s\ff ^bcmh^}cggjk~ wctaen \ Šsq\` \ `cetg^dcggjk ]aes|c haq d qe^d\ so`ck gcd\ggjl ^[a_ecggj]aq •eagu\\ _sadaU ?Ca"i%u"a- Nero- Phi""i( the Crue" And Caesar- Her!u"es- and Im(udent Char"es Were not so reddened ?oba$rennikh@ in the b"ood o$ the inno!ent

Andrei <orin- ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla: literatura i $osudarstvennaia ideolo$iia v rossii v poslednei treti X:III)pervoi treti XIX veka - ?Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- /006@- /H83/G9, ;, A, <hu5o's5ii- BIm(eratoru A"e5sandru, Pos"anie,C In "obranie sochinenii v chetyrekh tomakh- ?Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 GI=hL- 6G9G@- /00,

As the head o$ ran!e,,,@981

This subt"e re$eren!e to a ba$rianitsa &hi!h &ei%hed do&n his #oun% shou"ders had !"ear asso!iations &ith b"ood and im("ied that A"e4ander bore the &ei%ht o$ the re%i!ida" sin that brou%ht him to (o&er, A"e4ander:s &i""in%ness to a!!e(t su$$erin% and burden ("a#ed a !ru!ia" (art in the !on$"i!t o$ Russia and ran!e in +pistle, <hu5o's5ii $ramed the mi"itar# a !on$"i!t in terms o$ a &ar bet&een $aith and disbe"ie$, Thou%h re"i%ious (iet# &as more im(ortant to <hu5o's5ii than other messianists: !on!ern &ith "earnin% and en"i%htenment- he de(i!ted the rise o$ Na(o"eon a!!ordin% to the same (attern o$ a $a"" into di'ision and dis!ord &hi!h (ro(e""ed Russia to &or"d "eadershi( o$ the !i'i"i>ed, *e$ore Na(o"eon subDu%ates ran!e- he (ro!"aims his "a!5 o$ $aith and denies (ro'iden!e ?una&are that (ro'iden!e a!!om(anies him to hasten his doom@,989 On!e Euro(e has $a""en- a (ersoni$ied B$aithC sees ho(e on"# in Russia,
•\xn …cea d h\x\gc tdc`tj md^ck b`asai mdrhjp hcefcg\cp hrbcsjk qecmh s^[tasa ~ dt^ej ga d^mh^q m ga`cb`^k ^[ea•asaU

A, Pro>hin- B= dru>i:amC in "obranie stikhotvorenii otnosiashchikhsia k ne4abvennomu &'&3 $odu- 'o", 6- ?Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia6761@- 60G,
534 535

<hu5o's5ii- BIm(eratoru A"e5sandru, Pos"anie-C /06,

?On"# aith in the tran)ui"it# o$ her starWith sa!red (atien!e 5issed the hea'# !ross And &ith ho(e turned her e#es to the East,,,@98.

A"" o$ A"e4ander:s a!tions- in !ontrast- e4hibited not Dust $aith- but (er$e!t se"$3sa!ri$i!e, or instan!e- &hen A"e4ander a((roa!hes the Neman Ri'er ?and thus entr# into Euro(e@- <hu5o's5ii de(i!ts him (ausin% and "istenin% to the entreaties o$ united humanit#- ur%in% him to !ross and !a""in% him *"essed, *ut Dust as A"e4ander in a!tua" "i$e turned do&n the tit"e *"essed- <hu5o's5ii:s A"e4ander i%nores the 'oi!e o$ humanit# in $a'or o$ a hi%her !a""in%, B*ut #ouL Iou (ra#ed $or b"essin% $rom the hea'ens-C a$ter &hi!h he made the desired &a'e o$ his hands to !ommen!e the "iberation, In +pistle- A"e4ander:s (er$e!t obedien!e to God meant that the tsar !ou"d not a!!om("ish the %reat $eat in store sim("# to $u"$i"" his ambitions or the desire o$ a"" (eo("e, or <hu5o's5ii- as $or the other messianists- A"e4ander:s inter!ession trans$ormed him into the tsar o$ all (eo("e &ho embodied uni'ersa" 'a"ues in an un(re!edented &a#, A"thou%h his ear"ier o(inions on the ren!h and the ru"e o$ the (assions !ou"d im("# that <hu5o's5ii (ossessed a nationa"ist anti(ath# to&ard his enem#- he (ortra#ed ren!h !hara!ters )uite s#m(atheti!a""# in +pistle, The &or5 !ontained se'era" s!enes &ith ordinar# (eo("e

<hu5o's5ii- BIm(eratoru A"e5sandru, Pos"anie-C /0/,

su$$erin% (ri'ations and sa!ri$i!es o$ &ar, When Na(o"eon:s armies mo'ed a!ross ran!e- a har'ester had to %i'e u( his "ast ("ou%h- a (oor man his ra%s- and $ami"ies "ost their sons so easi"# that the "atter be!ame %uests in their o&n homes, When Na(o"eon has !om("eted his de'astation o$ Euro(e- <hu5o's5ii !"aims that the Birre(roa!hab"e manners o$ humb"e $ami"iesC "ie buried under the rubb"e, A$ter the resurre!tion o$ Euro(e b# Tsar A"e4ander<hu5o's5ii 'isited a%ain &ith so"diers &ho !ou"d han% their bro5en shie"ds and return to $ami"ies &ith Do#,98H <hu5o's5ii a"so !om(ared A"e4ander to a di'init#- the ru"er o$ a"" ru"ers- and someone &ho (arta5es in the %oods and mis$ortunes o$ a"" (eo("e, At the 'er# end<hu5o's5ii used a !ontri'ed s(ee!h to ha'e A"e4ander de"i'ers a dis!ourse on the (ro(er $un!tion o$ a monar!h $or other nations to emu"ate,
,,, vd^ecu- ^g dcmn d `Zxc p^ck|a Z`\dscg\c gae^`^d \ uaeck•_^ p^_Z•cmhd^p \ m}amh\cp fe^msadso~ he^g md^k ashaecp so[d\ cpZ f^mhadsoA ]aq gc[^- ga` p^ck fe^mhceh^c _sad^kY`c tdct` [cm}\mscggjl gcgaeZx\pjk mhe^kvaq mhe^kg^ [Z`n p^c dsa`j}cmhd^ p^c, „eadscg\c [^bcmhdaEtceuas^ pgc mdrh^c ?UThe Creator- he is in m# sou"In the astonishment o$ (eo("es and 5in%sI %"ori$# him in (o&er and ha((iness And I ("a!e m# throne as an a"tar o$ "o'e to him, Li5e hea'en- stret!hed out o'er m# headWith its host o$ !ount"ess indestru!tib"e starsThus order"# ma# m# earth"# ru"ershi( be,

<hu5o's5ii- BIm(eratoru A"e5sandru, Pos"anie-C /60,

Di'init#:s ro"eEa ho"# mirror to me@987

This )uotation demonstrates the 'er# !"ose a$$init# o$ <hu5o's5ii and Mer>"ia5o':s understandin% o$ A"e4ander:s messiani! a!tion2 e$$e!tin% re!on!i"iation o$ hea'en and earth, <hu5o's5ii a"so treated the Easter s!ene o$ 6761 as the time o$ resurre!tion- but the rene&a" o$ (eo("e and monar!hs #ie"ded in the end o$ the (oem to an e4am("e o$ s(iritua" re%eneration throu%h the tsar himse"$, <hu5o's5ii treated A"e4ander:s abundant e4am("es o$ se"$3sa!ri$i!e as a mode" o$ $aith $or a"" human bein%s- in!"udin% other 5in%s, On the one hand- <hu5o's5ii (raised A"e4ander as su(reme amon% a"" heroes $or his !ombination o$ trium(h and humi"it#, His ma%nanimit# in Paris indi!ated that he (ro'ed himse"$ to be &hat Ga'rii" Der>ha'in had so $amous"# !a""ed $or at his birth2 to be an en"i%htened ru"er- or a Bman on the throne,C98G or <hu5o's5ii- ho&e'er- the e(itome o$ en"i%htened ru"e !oin!ided !om("ete"# &ith subDe!tion to (ro'iden!e, His e4am("e thus tau%ht his subDe!ts the (ath o$ $aith as &e"",
„Zmhn dceg^mh\ ^[ch- ^hc}cmhd^ \ }cmhn …csrh gap ta uaer ga bcehdZ b\tgn fe\gcmhnE †h f^``agjl uaeo q^scg^fecqs^gcgnc |^ `agn md^[^`gar- `agn mce`uaEZdabcg\c|c dsamh\- gc dcguZ- g^ }cs^dcqZ `agn, ?Let the !o'enant o$ $aith$u"ness- the $ather"and and honor Order us to brin% "i'es as o$$erin%s $or the tsarE rom subDe!ts on to the tsar on bended 5nee538

<hu5o's5ii- BIm(eratoru A"e5sandru, Pos"anie-C /0G, On Der>ha'in:s ode- see Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er- 617,


*ut o$ tribute $ree- the tribute o$ a heart- res(e!tTribute not to (o&er or a !ro&n- but to a man,@910

Whi"e <hu5o's5ii dre& "ess de"iberate"# on the Paradise M#thhe sti"" en'isioned the ne& time as an era o$ Btran)ui"it#C and !redited A"e4ander:s )uasi3di'ine a!tions &ith the restoration o$ (ast b"iss, Thou%h his em(hasis &as on ne& $aith rather than ne& a!hie'ements in "earnin%- <hu5o's5ii:s messiani! (oetr# sti"" e4hibited the assum(tions about nationa" (ride $ound throu%hout the Russian rea!tion in the Na(o"eoni! Wars, A"e4ander had be!ome the s(o5esman $or uni'ersa" human 'a"ues and throu%h him- Russia had inter'ened &ith hea'en to sa'e Euro(e and rene& its !i'i"i>ation, Thou%h re$eren!es to "earnin% and (ro%ress &ere s!ar!e<hu5o's5ii:s a$$irmation o$ A"e4ander as a man be$ore his subDe!ts ("a#ed to one o$ the most $amous !omments about an en"i%htened ru"er, Whi"e <hu5o's5ii !ertain"# &as the !"osest to the Romanti! mo'ement- his messiani! (oetr# too sho&ed the &a# that Romanti! ideas about the reDu'enation o$ Euro(e arose in de$ense o$ the en"i%htened order, Messiani! themes in Russian "iterature (ea5ed in 6761 than5s to the de'e"o(ment o$ ideas about nationa" mission and the uni)ue


<hu5o's5ii- BIm(eratoru A"e5sandru, Pos"anie-C /60,

!ir!umstan!es o$ Tsar A"e4ander:s o&n re"i%ious BmissionC in Euro(e, =aram>in- Mer>"ia5o'- and <hu5o's5ii de'e"o(ed the !om(onent o$ inter!ession b# e"aboratin% u(on the &a#s that Tsar A"e4ander:s Easter ser'i!e had re!on!i"ed hea'en and earth- Euro(e &ith Russiathe *ourbons &ith the ren!h- and disbe"ie$ &ith $aith, Thou%h their em(hasis on restoration and !u"tura" reDu'enation &as a !ommon Romanti! attem(t to o'er!ome the di'isions o$ the (ost3 re'o"utionar# &or"d- their 'isions de$ended their o&n ancien r@$ime&hi!h to them &as sti"" #oun% and in need o$ !u"tura" de'e"o(ment and (o"iti!a" stabi"it#, The (ane%#ri! nature o$ their "iterature and their obsession &ith A"e4ander o'er(o&ered re$"e!tion u(on the messiani! ro"e o$ the (eo("e, This subDe!t $e"" to the edu!ated !"er%# and in (arti!u"ar- Mos!o&:s ar!hbisho( A'%ustin,

Chapter 4! Second I#rae* $or a Ne% A'e! Arch&i#hop A5'u#tin and Ru##ian Me##iani#Whi"e the messiani! (oets o$ the "ast !ha(ter &ere se!u"ar &riters- the Bmessianism o$ the (eo("eC that endured throu%h nineteenth3!entur# Russian emer%ed $rom an Orthodo4 !"er%#man2 A'%ustin ?A"e4ei ;ino%rads5ii- 6H..3676G@, A'%ustin &as a (rodu!t o$ the Russian En"i%htenment and &as in'o"'ed in the &ar e$$ort as a (rea!her- e'a!uation or%ani>er- and (arti!i(ant in the tsar:s (ub"i! s(e!ta!"es $or the (eo("e, More im(ortant"#- he &as attuned to the !urrents o$ !ontem(orar# (atrioti! dis!ourse and en'isioned a theo"o%i!a""#3%rounded 'ersion o$ Russia:s nationa" mission that brou%ht to%ether the messiani! !om(onents o$ this stud#, A'%ustin:s sermons used the !om(arison o$ Russia and An!ient Israe" both to (ro'ide a histori!a" and re"i%ious $oundation $or the de"i'eran!e o$ Euro(e, In doin% so- he m#tho"o%i>ed the histori!a" (ro!ess o$ sa"'ation in the &ars a%ainst Na(o"eon in mu!h the same &a# as his se!u"ar !ounter(arts, Li5e them- his messiani! sermons a"so re'ea" a mi4ture o$ en"i%htened and Romanti! thin5in% and indi!ate that !ontem(orar# inte""e!tua" !urrents a$$e!ted the Russian Orthodo4 !"er%#, Indeed- this Orthodo4 ar!hbisho( e"aborated the 5ind o$

messiani! thin5in% that resur$a!ed re(eated"# in Russian thou%ht, "n "lternati+e Path to the Moderate Enlightenment Due to his birth and inte""e!tua" maturation in Mos!o&A'%ustin a"&a#s remained !"ose to the se!u"ar readin% (ub"i! and shared man# o$ the other messiani! &riters: themati!- histori!a"- and "iterar# interests, A"e4ei ;ino%rads5ii &as born on . +une 6H.. to ;asi"ii Mi5hai"o'i!h ;ino%rads5ii- a (riest and an i!on3(ainterJrestorer, ;ino%rads5ii the e"der o&ed his (osition in the !u"tura" !a(ita" to his o&n ta"ents2 his abi"it# as an i!on3(ainter se!ured his (osition as (riest at the !hur!h o$ Saint Dmitrii Se"uns5ii in the =itai3%orod nei%hborhood o$ Mos!o&, At the a%e o$ 7- A"es5ei ;asi":e'i!h be!ame an or(han and &as dis(at!hed to the Mos!o& S(iritua" A!adem# and enro""ed in the Pere'ins5ii Seminar# on the %o'ernment:s a!!ount unti" 6H77,916 ;ino%rads5ii entered the &or"d o$ !"eri!a" edu!ation at a time &hen Latin3based s!ho"arshi( &as bein% au%mented &ith more Euro(ean trends in hi%her "earnin%, Peter the Great had re)uired edu!ation $or the !"er%#,91/ In the $irst ha"$ o$ the !entur#- the tsar
I, M, Sne%ire'- Ocherk 4hi4ni moskovska$o arkhiepiskopa v$ustina, ?Mos!o&2 %uberns5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6716@ 638,
541 542

The !"er%# su((orted this as a &a# to !ombat s!hismati!s and O"d

im(orted U5rainian tea!hers to the seminaries, 918 Tea!hin% methods in'o"'ed rote memori>ation- &hi!h in one !ase en!oura%ed students to memori>e a &ho"e boo5 rather than stru%%"e &ith !om(rehendin% the %rammar, The $o!us on Latin a"so !ame at the e4(ense o$ !u"tura" tradition and S"a'i! sour!es, Students: (ro$i!ien!# &as measured b# the mar5s o$ edu!ation in se!u"ar uni'ersities2 the abi"it# to !om(ose (oeti! stan>as- to use C"assi!a" a""usions- and to !ontend in (ub"i! dis(utes, Most students had to "ea'e (art &a# throu%h their studies- o$ten $or $inan!ia" reasons, Sin!e theo"o%# &as the $ina" !ourse o$ stud# ?a$ter at "east 60 #ears@- students o$ten emer%ed $rom the seminar# &ithout mu!h 5no&"ed%e o$ theo"o%i!a" subDe!tsEand some B"earnedC on"# outri%ht im(iet#,911 This situation !han%ed durin% the rei%n o$ Catherine the Great, In the seminaries near Mos!o& under his Durisdi!tion- Metro(o"itan P"aton shi$ted edu!ationa" instru!tion $rom rote "earnin% and obedien!e to (ersuasion and en!oura%ement,919 Thou%h he o(ened
*e"ie'ers- remnants o$ the !hur!h s("it in the 6..0s, ree>e- Russian <evites- H7, D, ;, Pos(ie"o's5# !"aims that this made the Great Russian !"er%# en'ious o$ the "u4urious "i$est#"e o$ the U5rainians, See his The Orthodo/ Church in the History o! Russia, ?Crest&ood2 St, ;"adimir:s Seminar# Press6GG7@ 61/,
543 544

ree>e- Russian <evities- G03G., ree>e- Russian <evites- 606,


the seminaries u( to the stud# o$ other *ib"i!a" "an%ua%es ?Gree5 and Hebre&@ as &e"" as modern "an%ua%es- he 'a"ued Latin as a &a# o$ (reser'in% the !"er%#:s (resti%e vis)P)vis both the %entr# and Euro(e,
I do not ad'ise that &e a""o& "e!tures at !hur!h s!hoo"s to be %i'en in Russian, Our !"er%# are 'ie&ed b# $orei%ners as a"most unedu!ated- sin!e the# do not 5no& ren!h or German, *ut in our de$ense is the $a!t that &e s(ea5 and &rite in Latin, I$ &e &ere to stud# Latin as &e do Gree5 ?that is- (oor"#@ then &e &ou"d "ose our "ast honor- inso$ar as &e &ou"d not s(ea5 or !orres(ond in an# ?$orei%n@ "an%ua%e,91.

Latin edu!ation &as to ser'e not Dust as a brid%e to theo"o%#- but a"so as a means to "earn about the an!ient &or"d- es(e!ia""# the &or"d o$ Au%ustan Rome, Moreo'er- &hi"e Latin boosted (resti%e so did 5no&"ed%e o$ !ontem(orar# "iterar# mo'ements, P"aton a""o&ed his students to attend Mos!o& Uni'ersit# to be!ome a!)uainted &ith modern "an%ua%es and as (art o$ his ambition to he"( trans$er the nobi"it#:s eti)uette to the !"er%#,91H ;ino%rads5ii:s edu!ationa" resumP bene$ited $rom P"aton:s !han%es and mentorshi(, In 6H7.- He summoned ;ino%rads5ii to ta5e (art in ne& edu!ationa" te!hni)ues bein% tested in the em(ire,


P"aton )uoted in ree>e- Russian <evites- 7637/,

P"aton himse"$ 5ne& ren!h and !hatted &ith Diderot in his time at !ourt, R, M, =orot5e'i!h- BO $ormiro'anii '>%"iado' Mitro(o"ita P"atona na or%ani>atsiiu obra>o'aniia ' du5ho'n#5h sh5o"a5h Troitse3Ser%ie'oi "a'r#,C in Troitse)"er$ieva lavra v istorii, kul0ture, i dukhovnoi 4hi4ni Rossii: Materialy me4hdunarodnoi kon!erentsii 3. sentiabria V & oktiabria &..' $9 ?Mos!o&2 BPod5o'a-C /000@ /663/67

The #outh attended a Lan!aster3mode" s!hoo" under the dire!tion o$ the Serb Ian5o'i!h de Mirie'o, This o((ortunit# a""o&ed ;ino%rads5ii $ree time to attend Mos!o& Uni'ersit# "e!tures- be!ome a!)uainted &ith students- and de'e"o( an interest in the histor# o$ Russian "iterature, Thou%h the "e!tures about Russian to(i!s &ere de"i'ered in Latin- the# ins(ired him to tr# to im(ro'e his o&n e4(ressi'e (otentia" in his nati'e "an%ua%e, A$ter $inishin% his edu!ation- ;ino%rads5ii &ent in 6H7/ to tea!h rhetori! at the St, Ser%ius3Trinit# Seminar#- the (remier !"eri!a" institution o$ hi%her "earnin% &ith an in!om(arab"e "ibrar#!ountin% o'er .-000 'o"umes,917 He 5e(t !"ose ties &ith P"aton- &ho trans"ated his (u(i":s Latin 'erse and !orre!ted his %rammar, Whi"e the trend in both !a(ita"s &as to mo'e edu!ation to&ard Russian "e!tures and Russian subDe!ts- ;ino%rads5ii sti"" (ossessed more $a!i"it# at e4tem(oraneous s(ee!h in Latin than Russian, In 6HG/- he obtained ne& res(onsibi"ities and be!ame a tea!her o$ (hi"oso(h# . In 6HG1- he Doined the monaster#- ta5in% the name o$ A'%ustin. P"aton !hose the name o$ the 9th3!entur# *isho( o$ Hi((o Au%ustine be!ause ;ino%rads5ii (ossessed a simi"ar 5ind o$ e"o)uen!e- not $or an# (redis(osition to&ard the (hi"oso(h# o$ histor#,91G A'%ustin:s

ree>e- Russian <evites- G., Sne%ire'- Ocherk- G366,


oratori!a" ta"ents &ere &e""35no&n in the Mos!o& dio!ese- and he ins(ired man# "o&er !"er%#men to im(ro'e the homi"eti! dimension o$ their duties,990 His ties to P"aton 5e(t A'%ustin !"ose to Mos!o& and the edu!ated (ub"i! in the rei%n o$ A"e4ander I, P"aton ("a#ed a !entra" ro"e in the !oronation o$ tsar A"e4ander in Mos!o&- 6706, *ut he a"so made sure that A'%ustin !ou"d de"i'er a &e"!ome s(ee!h at the Trinit# Monaster#:s auditorium, A'%ustin:s address $o!used on the ho(e that A"e4ander:s rei%n &ou"d be !ondu!i'e to the s(read o$ "earnin%- a t#(i!a" sentiment o$ other (oets hai"in% A"e4ander:s re("a!ement o$ the des(oti! Tsar Pau",
Iou- Russia:s bene$i!ent Ra# o$ Li%htS I""uminatin% us no& &ith Iour "i$e3!reatin% %a>e and throu%h it the de(artin% sun returns to us in Iou- in'itin% us to "i$e, In'i%orate our "i$e- and >ea" $or en"i%htenment in our hearts $"ares u(, Hen!e more and more this sma"" %arden o$ "earnin% &i"" thri'e,996

+ust as se!u"ar &riters re!ei'ed snu$$3bo4es $or their odes- !"eri!a" sentiments &ere re&arded as &e""- but in this !ase &ith s#mbo"i! honors, A"e4ander a&arded A'%ustin the order o$ Anna- /nd !"ass $or his &e"!ome,99/
Ni5o"ai Pa'"o'i!h Ro>ano'- Istoriia moskovska$o eparkhial0na$o upravleniia so vremeni uchre4hdeniia sv9 "ynoda , Part III- *oo5 /, ?Mos!o&2 T, Ris- 67H6@- 71,
550 551

Tuoted in Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4 I- 8, On the e'ents asso!iated &ith A"e4ander:s ear"# rei%n- see Ri!hard S,


*# 6766- Metro(o"itan P"aton had trans$erred most o$ his duties to A'%ustin- &ho be!ame a maDor Orthodo4 $i%ure in the edu!ated (ub"i!, A'%ustin Doined Mos!o& Uni'ersit#:s orbit o$ s!ho"ar"# so!ieties, He &as an honorar# member o$ the So!iet# o$ Lo'ers o$ Russian Literature- the So!iet# o$ Do!tora" and Ph#si!a" S!ien!es and e'entua""# be!ame a member o$ the Mos!o& Medi!a"3Sur%i!a" A!adem#, Li5e man# se!u"ar authors- he !ou"d )uote Hora!e- Ci!eroand ;ir%i", He a"so &as at the !enter o$ attention durin% the &ar #ears be!ause he (rea!hed at the =rem"in Assum(tion Cathedra"- the most (resti%ious in the !it#- i$ not the &ho"e !ountr#,998 A"thou%h !athedra"s as a ru"e did not ha'e (arishioners- the Assum(tion Cathedra" &as the most "i5e"# si%ht in to&n to attra!t edu!ated audien!es durin% ho"ida#s or other !it#3&ide e'ents- "i5e the readin% o$ a (ro!"amation about the &ar, Sin!e o$$i!ia" ne&s !ame there- the Go'ernor3Genera" and (o&er$u" $ami"ies &ou"d o$ten be in attendan!e, The Assum(tion Cathedra" %ranted (ro4imit# to the u((er strata o$ so!iet# and the most (o&er$u" "o!a" state a!tors, The student Ste(an <hi5hare'- $or e4am("e- &as a""o&ed to stand near
Wortman- "cenarios o! -o#er: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy 'o", 6- ?Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG9@- 6G.3/06, Cathedra"s too had (ossessed a hierar!ha" nature- &ith the Mos!o& =rem"in !athedra"s bein% dire!t"# under S#noda" Durisdi!tion and o&nin% "ar%e amounts o$ "and and hen!e thousands o$ ser$s, ree>e- Russian <evites- 6/6,

the a"tar as A'%ustin (rea!hed to Mos!o&:s (o&er$u" e"ite, He $e"t e4!ited be!ause the !han!e to %et u( $ront- b# the a"tar- &as at#(i!a" $or a #oun% student "i5e himse"$,991 Li5e man# other se!ond3tier Mus!o'ite &riters &ho tried to de$end the histori!a" traditions o$ en"i%htened Russia- A'%ustin be!ame interested in the nationa" (ast, He had read the Russian manus!ri(ts !o""e!ted under Catherine the Great and &as $ami"iar &ith modern Russian historio%ra(h# sin!e the era o$ Peter the Great,999 In his resear!hes and o$$i!ia" duties- A'%ustin en!ountered re$eren!es to Russia as a ne& in!arnation o$ An!ient Israe", As Mos!o& E!!"esiasti!a" !ensor and P"aton:s (u(i"- he &ou"d ha'e had to read P"aton:s "hort History o! the Russian Church ?6709@, This t&o3 'o"ume &or5 tra!ed !hur!h histor# u( unti" Peter the Great, It &as "ess a narrati'e than a !hroni!"e- &ith "on% te4tua" e4!er(ts inters(ersed- in!"udin% a des!ri(tion o$ the !oronation o$ Tsar I'an I; &hi!h ma5es dire!t use o$ Se!ond Israe"ite ima%er#,99. As mentioned
Ste(an Petro'i!h <hi5hare'- Capiski sovremennika- 'o", /- ?Lenin%rad2 Is5usst'o- 6G7G@- G,

Thou%h he 5ne& ren!h (artia""#- he did not s(ea5 it- (re$errin% to !u"ti'ate the an!ient *ib"i!a" "an%ua%es, O$ these- he &as more (ro$i!ient in Gree5 than Hebre&- and his bio%ra(her !"aims that A'%ustin read the Orthodo4 athers throu%hout his "i$e, Sne%ire'- Ocherk- G83G1,

It a"so is (re!ise"# the same s!ene that Danie" Ro&"and ana"#>es, See his BMos!o&Ethe Third Rome or the Ne& Israe"LC Russian Revie# 99 ?O!t 6GG.@2 9G63.61,

in Cha(ter 1- the asso!iations o$ Russia and Israe" had sur'i'ed man# !enturies than5s to the !"er%# and to se!u"ar (oets: imitations o$ the (sa"ms, *ut &hereas most se!u"ar &riters made sim("e identi$i!ations in (oetr# that hinted at a nationa" mission and (ro'identia" desi%n- A'%ustin de'e"o(ed narrati'es and theo"o%i!a" a!!ounts o$ Russia:s messiani! mission as the Ne& Israe", A'%ustin:s ba!5%round e4hibits im(ortan!e simi"arities &ith other authors in this stud#, He &as edu!ated in Mos!o& in the era o$ the Cmoderate en"i%htenmentC ?see !h, 6@- a"thou%h he (ursued Orthodo4 Christianit# rather than the Masoni! Protestant3m#sti!ism, He &as a star (u(i" o$ the en"i%htened Metro(o"itan P"aton- &ho &anted to raise the so!ia" (er!e(tion o$ the !"er%#:s status and %enera" "e'e"s o$ edu!ation, *ut he $ound a basis $or the !ontem(orar# nationa" mission in Russia:s (ast, A"thou%h he &as an e4am("ar o$ the Russian En"i%htenment:s resu"ts amon% the !"er%#A'%ustin:s inter(retation o$ Russia as a Se!ond Israe" &ou"d !oin!ide &ith the Romanti! 'ie&s o$ the se!u"ar messianists, Preaching to the Peo*le A'%ustin be!ame &e""35no&n $or his oratori!a" s5i""s a$ter 676/, In his sermons durin% the in'asion and the Euro(ean !am(ai%n ?676/36769@- he de$ined the re"ationshi( bet&een the mission o$

Israe"s Ne& and O"d, One o$ the most im(ortant themes stret!hin% throu%hout this (eriod &as o$ Russia:s s(e!ia" re"ationshi( or !o'enant &ith God, In the O"d Testament- God had made a !o'enant &ith the Patriar!h Abraham- to be the e4!"usi'e deit# o$ his des!endants- &hi!h !ame to be 5no&n as the nation o$ Israe", The !o'enenta" re"ationshi( demanded (ious obser'an!e o$ the "a&&ithout &hi!h batt"es mi%ht be "ost- !ities mi%ht be !on)uered- or the nation mi%ht be "ed into e4i"e, A'%ustin as &e"" used ri%orous adheren!e to (iet# and s(iritua" obser'an!e as a si%n o$ the Ne& Israe":s $ortunes in &ar and its mission abroad, A'%ustin:s &ar sermons &ere re"ati'e"# no'e" "iterar# $orms, Aside $rom a $e& $amous an!ient do!uments- sermons be!ame !ommon in Russia on"# in the "ate se'enteenth3!entur# and e'en then (rimari"# at the Mos!o& !ourt, In the time o$ Peter the Great(rea!hin% be!ame an o$$i!ia" dut#- &ith %uide"ines (rinted in the "piritual Re$ulation o$ 6H/6, or most o$ the !entur#- ho&e'er(rea!hin% (robab"# did not de'e"o( 'er# $u""#,99H In a!ademies- on"# the most senior students re!ei'ed an# (ra!ti!e be$ore %raduation ?or a 'i""a%e assi%nment@, To&ard the end o$ the ei%hteenth3!entur#Metro(o"itan P"aton insisted that the !"er%#men under his !ontro"
In 6H1G- on"# 10 sermons &ere (rea!hed in the &ho"e o$ Mos!o&, ree>e !"aims that sermons &ere t#(i!a" in !ities b# 6700, See his Russian <evites6H1,

de"i'ered sermons- and he set u( a s#stem o$ substantia" $ines $or $ai"ure to do so, As an added in!enti'e- a %ood sermon ?"i5e a %ood ode@ !ou"d earn the em(eror:s admiration and "o'e, *# 676/- Mos!o& !"er%# in A'%ustin:s dio!ese started !om(etin% to see &ho !ou"d de"i'er the most sermons2 in some !ases u(&ards o$ 90 a #ear, On"# t&e"'e &ere re)uired b# P"aton:s ru"es,997 A'%ustin:s homi"eti! em(hasis on (iet# do'etai"ed &ith his o$$i!ia" duties, A!!ordin% to Peter the Great:s "piritual Re$ulationarti!"e /8- e'er# !"er%#man &as su((osed to dis!ourse on !ertain themes2 re(entan!e- re%eneration- submission to authorities- and the duties o$ ea!h estate, E'er# (rea!her a"so needed to ha'e the &or5s o$ +ohn Chr#sostom at hand so that he !ou"d imitate a hea"th# mode",99G Moreo'er- the !"er%# &ere dut#3bound to read (ronoun!ements and "a&s $rom the tsar- &hi!h $o""o&ed their sermons, Most o$ A'%ustin:s sermons at the time o$ in'asion aimed to dire!t the (o(u"ar mind ba!5 to&ard traditiona" e"ements o$ re"i%ious !u"ture &hi"e !u"ti'atin% a &artime ethos, Hen!e the -astoral +/hortation ?+u"# /7- 676/@- &ide"#3distributed in a (ress3run o$ 6-900- s(o5e o$ the dut# to (reser'e the Russian earth &hi!h he"d


See note Error2 Re$eren!e sour!e not $ound,

The "piritual Re$ulation o! -eter the >reat- edited and trans"ated b# A"e4ander ;, Mu""er ?Seatt"e2 Uni'ersit# o$ Washin%ton Press- 6GH/@- 11,

un!orru(ted Russian saints: bodies, It a"so en!oura%ed (eo("e to 'isit !hur!h at noon and in the e'enin% and to (ra# more, A'%ustin:s instru!tions to the (eo("e- ho&e'er- di$$ered $rom the o$$i!ia" messa%es o$ the %o'ernment, Whi"e his duties entai"ed readin% tsarist mani$estoes- A'%ustin sha(ed his (rea!hin% in &a#s that attributed res(onsibi"it# to the Russian (eo("e to a %reater de%ree than did o$$i!ia" dis!ourse, The tsars: mani$estoes- &ritten b# Admira" Shish5o'- attested that a"" the &ar e'ents &ere so mira!u"ous that their %randeur sur(assed human a%en!#, The o$$i!ia" (ro(a%anda thus de(ri'ed the (eo("e o$ an# (o(u"ar a%en!# $or a!!om("ishin% a nationa" 'i!tor#- a strate%# that Ri!hard Wortman !onsiders a $undamenta" (art o$ A"e4ander:s desire to )uash an# nas!ent !"aims o$ (o(u"ar "e%itima!#,9.0 The tsar:s mani$estoes indeed (ro!"aimed the o'er3ar!hin% (o&er o$ (ro'iden!e that a!!om("ished a"" %reat $eats- but the# a"so !onstant"# "auded the $aith$u"ness o$ the (eo("e, Ironi!a""#- this (raise a"so de(ri'ed the (eo("e o$ an# %ui"t, In the em(ire3&ide mani$estos $rom the &ar #ears- the ima%er# o$ a (unishin% God &as a"&a#s dire!tin% &rath to&ard the in'aders &ho had ra'a%ed his ho"# thin%s- but ne'er the

Ri!hard Wortman inter(rets this messa%e as a &a# to de$"e!t notions that the tsar:s so'erei%nt# &as rooted in (o(u"ar (o&er, See his "cenarios o! -o#er- 'o", 6- //63/80,

Russian (eo("e,9.6 Throu%h the &ar #ears- A'%ustin re("a!ed this (assi'e ima%er# &ith his !onstant admonitions that nationa" (ros(erit# de(ended on its (eo("es: $ide"it# and (ious a!ti'it#, On ne&s o$ the in'asion- his -astoral +/hortation !a""ed $or nationa" unit# as a means o$ se!urin% di'ine $a'or, A'%ustin tau%ht that God &ou"d hear the !ries on"# o$ a (eo("e united in (ra#er, In $a!t- he said that the ren!h in'asion &as a harbin%er o$ God:s an%er to&ard the Russian (eo("e- so the# shou"d in!rease their (ra#er mornin% and ni%ht,9./ He a"so en!oura%ed sin%in% and tears o$ tenderness ?umilenie@- &hi!h he re(orted"# shed &ith the tsar durin% his summer 'isit,9.8 These ima%es- !ommon in se'enteenth3!entur# ru"er m#ths- &ere su((osed to en!oura%e a simi"ar s(iritua" attitude in the (eo("e so that the# mi%ht he"( a'ert the in'asion, Li5e&ise- A'%ustin !on$irmed that the Russian su(("i!ation had been su!!ess$u" on!e the ren!h had de(arted, Pea!e- ne'erthe"ess- &as !ontin%ent on the s(iritua"
See the mani$estoes $rom No'ember 8- 676/ and Ma# 67- 6761 es(e!ia""# in Capiski, mneniia i perepiska dmirala 9 "9 "hishkova - ;o", 6 ?*er"in2 *, *ehr- 67H0@- 111Œ1..,

A'%ustin- -astyrskoe nastavlenie, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, Moskovskoi Metropolii :ikariem i ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskoi sobore, &'&3 $oda iiulia 3' dnia- ?Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 676/@- 839,

On the 'isit and the tears- see Sne%ire'- Ocherk 4hi4ni moskovska$o arkhiepiskopa v$ustina- /63//,

a!ti'it# o$ the (eo("e to maintain God:s &i"",9.1 Castin% as(ersion on the so!ia" "i$e in Mos!o&- A'%ustin abandoned his !on'entiona" !om(arisons o$ Russia &ith An!ient Israe" and instead !hara!teri>ed !ontem(orar# ro&diness as the anar!hi! a!ti'it# o$ Noah:s antedi"u'ian nei%hbors,9.9 He &arned that su!h a!ti'it# !ou"d in!ur God:s &rath on!e a%ain, A'%ustin a"so di'ini>ed the e$$orts o$ the so"diers b# usin% doub"e meanin%s that re"ated a""e%ori!a""# to s!ri(tura" sa"'ation histor#,9.. In Au%ust 6768- &hen Russia:s $ortunes &ere risin%A'%ustin re!ei'ed the standard o$ the Mos!o& Mi"itia- on the anni'ersar# o$ its de(arture to batt"e, A'%ustin a((ea"ed to the so"diers to (re(are $or (ea!etime and (romised them that their return o$ the standard to the Mother o$ God had earned them a ("a!e in eternit#,9.H In a subse)uent oration to !ommemorate the e(i!

A'%ustin- "lovo, po sluchaiu 4namenitoi i vechno)slavnoi pobedy, oder4haninoi pri <eiptsi$e Rossiiskimi i soiu4nymi voisk nad 1rantsu4sko$o armieiu pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o >ospodu %o$u molebstviia, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, &'&K $oda noibria 3 dnia- ?Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768@- H,
564 565

Ibid9 A'%ustin- -astyrskoe nastavlenie- .,


BS"o'o (ri so'ersheniia %odi!hna%o (omino'eniia (o 'oina5h >a 'eru i Ote!hest'o na brani *orodnis5oi >hi'ot s'oi (o"i>hi'shi5h-C "yn otechestvaG210 ?6768@2 .H,

batt"e o$ *orodino- he !"aimed that the so"diers $ou%ht a &ar a%ainst deathEon t&o "e'e"s, In one sense- the so"diers &ou"d sto( death b# endin% the !#!"e o$ &ars $o""o&in% the ren!h Re'o"ution, *ut- he a"so distin%uished death in the ser'i!e o$ $aith- tsar- and $ather"and as be"on%in% to a hi%her !a""in% o$ sa"'ation, The death o$ the $aith$u""i5e Christ- a!tua""# o'er!omes death in the meta(h#si!a" sense,9.7 The (arti!i(ation o$ a"" Russians &as ne!essar# to maintain $aith$u"ness &ith God, When re$errin% to Russia as the B!hosen nation-C he identi$ied the (eo("e &ith the indi'idua" liudi instead o$ the !o""e!ti'e term narod, 9.G BRussians are the !hosen (eo("e- God:s (eo("eC ?Rossiiane sut0 ia4yk i4brannyi liiudie %o4hii@, He thus a((ea"ed to 'arious non3mi"itar# audien!es &ith simi"ar rhetori! on themes o$ resurre!tion, A'%ustin to"d the mer!hants that their !harit# not on"# (ro'ided the &ar e$$ort &ith needed materie"- but a"so !ontributed to nationa" redem(tion, B*ut "et shine in them that nob"e (ride- that #ou redeemed the ather"and &ith the "oss o$ #our (ro(ert#A that Euro(e:s $reedom is reborn $rom the ashes o$ #our houses and 5in%doms- buried under the ruins o$ their (ros(erit#- are

A'%ustin- BS"o'o (ri so'ersheniia %odi!hna%o (omino'eniia (o 'oina5h >a 'eru i Ote!hest'o na brani *orodins5oi >hi'ot s'oi (o"o>hi'shi5h-C "yn Otechestva G210 ?6768@2 .H,
568 569

A'%ustin- BS"o'o (ri so'ersheniia-C H6,

resurre!ted,C9H0 He e'en dire!ted the themes o$ (o(u"ar res(onsibi"it# to&ard "i$e in the bureau!ra!# and 'eteran re"ie$, BAnd in #our !i'i" ser'i!e- in the midst o$ a"" #our a!tions- sho& to #our !om(atriots that most ardent "o'e that the# sho&ed on the $ie"d o$ batt"e,C9H6 A$ter the in'asion- A'%ustin Dud%ed that Russians had (ro'en their $ide"it# to God and asso!iated Russians: s(iritua" a!ti'it# &ith ho(es $or a simi"ar situation in ran!e, E'en on the a((roa!h o$ Russian armies to&ard Paris- A'%ustin he"d out o(timism that B*ab#"onC ?Paris@ &ou"d 'o"untari"# renoun!e its &a#s- o(en its doorsand end the b"oodshed, 9H/ Durin% the $irst o$$i!ia" !hur!h !e"ebration


A'%ustin- Rech0 pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o >ospodu %o$u molebstviia, sovershenna$o &'&* $oda, 6ekabria * dnia, po sluchaiu vo4hdelenneisha$o vo4vrashcheniia e$o imperatorska$o velichestva >osudaria Imperatora i "amoder4htsa :serossiiska$o leksandra I v Rossiiu i v "tolichnyi $rad s9 -eterbur$a, po okonchanii brannykh podvi$ov, proi4nesennoe v Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, "inodal0nym chlenom, upravliaiushchim Moskovoiu Mitropolieiu, -reosviashchennym v$ustinom, rkhiepiskopopom 6mitrovskim, "viato)Troitskiia "er$ievy lavry sviashchenno) rkhamandritom i ;avalerom , ?Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6769@ .,

A'%ustin, "lovo, pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o $ospodu %o$u molebstviia po sluchaiiu 4namenitoi pobedy, oder4hannoi nad 1rantsu4sckimi silami u <aona, v4iatiia pristupom $oroda Reimsa, istrebleniia korpusa Mashala Marmonta i sovershenna$o pora4heniia dvukh divi4ii nepriiatel0skikh Rossiiskami voinskami pod lichnym predvoditel0stvom ero imperatorska$o velichestva $osudaria imperatora leksandra I, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordenov: sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, prelia &3 dnia &'&O $oda, ?Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia6761@- 83.,

a$ter the $a"" o$ Paris- A'%ustin !"aimed that the re'o"ution ended &hen a"" humanit# !ried out and &e(t, The !hosen (eo("e- the Russians- "ed the &a# in unit# and (ra#er $or their brothers and sisters in Euro(e and (re!eded them in re!o%ni>in% their o&n sin, *e!ause the Russians a!ted $irst- Euro(e $o""o&ed and God inter!eded on beha"$ o$ humanit#- on!e it re!o%ni>ed that its sin had %enerated the re'o"ution and Na(o"eon,
Na(o"eon &as a terrib"e &ea(on in the hand o$ the A"mi%ht#(unishin% (eo("e $or their dishonor and "a&"essness, ALEQANDER is the bene$i!in% Emissar# o$ hea'en- (ardonin% humanit# and de"i'erin% it $rom those horri$i! mis$ortunes to #hich it became subSect out o! its o#n unri$hteousness,9H8

*# dra&in% on their o&n s(iritua" se"$3a&areness- the Russians "aid the $oundation $or Euro(e:s $reedom $rom the t#rann# o$ sin and its (o"iti!a" !onse)uen!es, A'%ustin:s (rea!hin% em(hasi>ed the !o'enanta" re"ationshi( o$ Russia &ith God- on the mode" o$ An!ient Israe", He ur%ed (eo("e to be"ie'e that their e$$orts as so"diers- indi'idua"s- and bureau!rats ser'ed the mission o$ (ro'iden!e as &e"" as the !ommon %ood, A'%ustin:s sermons a"so (resented the Russians: (iet# and $ide"it# as

A'%ustin- "lovo, pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o $ospodu %o$u molebstviia po sluchaiiu pokoreniia 1rantsu4sckoi "tolitsy pobedonosnymi Rossiiskami i soiu4nymi voinskami, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, &'&O $oda aprelia 3K dnia - ?Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761@ herea$ter "lovo 3K pril &'&O-- 60

the (rere)uisite $or the re(entan!e that brou%ht di'ine inter!ession, Thou%h he !a""ed A"e4ander the emissar# o$ hea'en- A'%ustin re%arded the s(iritua""#3!ons!ious Russian (eo("e as a &ho"e as the messiani! a%ent o$ inter!ession, Whi"e this 'ie& o$ (o(u"ar res(onsibi"it# did not !ontradi!t o$$i!ia" dis!ourse- it did de(art $rom the o$$i!ia" stati! 'ie&s o$ (o(u"ar $ide"it# and !hara!teri>ed the messiani! a!t o$ inter!ession in terms o$ (eo("e- rather than tsar, &he Di+ine Mission Durin% the #ears o$ 676836761- A'%ustin e4(anded u(on his theme o$ (o(u"ar res(onsibi"it# in a number o$ sermons that e'a"uated Russia:s &ar e$$ort sub specie aeterni, A'%ustin:s ideas on the !ourse o$ histor# a((ear (rimari"# in t&o sermons- both $or o$$i!ia" ho"ida#s2 the tsar:s name3da# ?Au%ust 80@ in 6768- and Christmas o$ 6761, The $ormer !oin!ided &ith ne&s o$ Austrians and *a'arians brea5in% ran5s to Doin the a""iesA the "atter &ith A"e4ander:s bein% o$$ered the tit"e BThe *"essedC ?&hi!h he re$used@, *oth sermons intert&ined themes o$ nationa" inter!ession &ith a di'ine (ro!ess o$ histor# that &as $ar more e"aborate than an# o$ the se!u"ar messianists: 'isions, A'%ustin:s Au%ust 80- 6768 sermon ("a!ed the de$eat o$ Na(o"eon in 676/ as the !u"mination o$ a sa"'i$i! histori!a" (ro!ess

be%innin% at !reation, A'%ustin:s e4e%esis o$ the boo5 o$ >enesis &as hard"# no'e"- but its (oints are use$u" $or understandin% the s!o(e o$ the Russian mission in Euro(e, Re!o%ni>in% di'ine $oresi%ht o$ man5ind:s "a(se into sin- A'%ustin !"aimed that God ne'erthe"ess had to !reate the &or"d so that his %oodness !ou"d shine $orth, The means o$ !reation &as his Word ?lo$os in Gree5 or slovo in Russian@&hi!h "ater &as in!arnated &ithin human histor# as +esus the Christ, B+esus Christ is the (rimar# !ause ?nachalo@ o$ a"" e4isten!e and (henomena in the &or"d,C9H1 The !reation throu%h lo$os (ro'ed si%ni$i!ant $or t&o reasons, irst- it be)ueathed to a"" !reation a di'ine im(rint or out"ine ?cherte4h@- &hi!h the $a"" into sin !ou"d not distort, Se!ond- the out"ine (ut the !reated &or"d under the ru"e o$ Christ, A'%ustin (rea!hed that the di'ine Bout"ineC im(osed a (attern a!ross the !ourse o$ histor#, Throu%h the out"ine- the "o%os Bdire!tsC the (art o$ the &or"d that has been $reed $rom !orru(tion- &hi!h !an be summed u( as Christ:s 5in%dom, BChrist rei%ns o'er the 5in%dom o$ nature and the human domain a"i5e, A"" mira!u"ous (henomenaa"" %reat a"terations- &hatsoe'er God does in them- he does than5s to the 5in%dom o$ Christ,C9H9 Hen!e A'%ustin im("ied that God:s

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- 16, Ibid,


5in%dom &as to be $ound in this &or"d and that human histor# &as mo'in% to&ard its estab"ishment, A'%ustin did not (ro(hes# an end to this (ro!ess- but 'ie&ed the 5in%dom o$ God:s %ro&th in e'an%e"isti! terms2 it s(read b# dis(ersin% edi$i!ation and sa"'ation, In this (ro!ess- !hrono"o%# mattered "ess than s(iritua" a$$i"iation2 he i%nored the mi""ennium %a( bet&een Christ and the !on'ersion o$ Rus:, T&o !hosen (eo("es- Russia and An!ient Israe"- i""uminated the (ath o$ sa"'ation histor# and enDo#ed a !o'enanta" re"ationshi( &ith di'ine (ro'iden!e, God made both nations (ros(er- a!)uire &ea"thand e4(and their borders, *ut on the $"i( side- both !i'i"i>ations $e"t the Bhand o$ GodC &hen the# i%nored their (ro(hets ?i,e,- the Russian (eo("e did not "isten to the Orthodo4 !"er%#@, ina""#- God a"&a#s returned the (eo("es to Him be!ause the# &ere ne!essar# to $urther His messiani! ("ans, Hen!e the !ontinuit# o$ both (eo("e:s histories demonstrated God:s eterna" ("an $or a s(e!ia" mission,9H. Continuit# o$ the Russian (resent &ith the (ast &as a dominant theme in the $"ood o$ (atrioti! "iterature- drama- and (o(u"ar i""ustrations $rom 676/, The se!u"ar (ub"i!- ho&e'er- re(resented the "in5s bet&een a%es b# mi"itar# heroesEsaints in their o&n time- but asso!iated &ith the state more than the !hur!h,9HH A'%ustin 'ie&ed

Ibid,- 1631/, On saint (rin!es- see Mi!hae" Chernia's5ii- Tsar and -eople: "tudies in


mi"itar# e'ents as a mere ba!5dro( $or the de'e"o(ment o$ the !hur!h and subordinated the se!u"ar to the sa!red in his a!!ount o$ Russia:s de'e"o(ment, He di'ided Russian histor# b# $our e'ents2 Christiani>ation- $orei%n !on)uest- Mus!o'ite return- and Romano' e4(ansion, ;ie&ed $rom the state:s (ers(e!ti'e- these e'ents $o""o&ed a (ath that (ossessed an intrinsi! meanin%- A'%ustin maintained, The# demonstrated the need $or unit# amon% the Russians, BRussiaC &as &ea5ened &hen ("ots o$ "and &ere di'ided and (rin!es $e"" subDe!t to $orei%n !on)uest in the thirteenth3!entur#, Mus!o'# (ro'ed su!!ess$u" b# uni$#in% "ands- and the Romano's $inished the (ro!ess o$ unitin%- &hi!h inau%urated a (eriod o$ e4(ansion "eadin% to the (resent, The e'o"ution o$ the state- ho&e'er- !onstituted on"# an e4terna" mani$estation o$ the (ro%ress that the !ountr# &as ma5in% in re%ard to the &or5 o$ the 5in%dom o$ God, A'%ustin sa& the !hur!h de'e"o(in% a"on% a di$$erent (ath- one that (ro%ressed !onsistent"# &ithout the b"emish o$ disunit#, A!!ordin% to A'%ustinthe !hur!h b"ossomed $rom the time o$ its di'ine $oundation in G77, A'%ustin de(ri'ed the se!u"ar ru"ers o$ a%en!# in the estab"ishment o$ the !hur!h and the trans$ormation o$ the "and into Se!ond Israe",
Russian Myths ?Ne& Ior52 Random House- 6G.G@- 6381, Chernia's5ii (oints out that saint3(rin!es a"so (ro'ided histori!a" !ontinuit# in their o&n time,

He did not e'en name ;"adimir- the ba(ti>er o$ Rus:- mu!h "ess a!5no&"ed%e his sainthood, A'%ustin re$erred to him Dust as Russia:s (ossessor ?obladatel0@, He e'en di'ided the estab"ishment o$ the !hur!h $rom the sour!e o$ Orthodo4 Christianit#- Constantino("e, Russia:s Possessor !hose Orthodo4# as the state re"i%ion- be!ause it re$"e!ted &hat he !onsidered to be the ri%ht tea!hin%, In the Tale o! %y$one Nears- ;"adimir:s emissaries &ere !a(ti'ated b# the $ee" and beaut# o$ Orthodo4#- but A'%ustin shunned those reasons as a((ea"in% to adornment and "u4ur#, The Possessor- Bha'in% seen in the east the "i%ht o$ the Gos(e" truth- immediate"# i""uminates &ith it a"" the (eo("es subDe!t to him,C9H7 The se!u"ar ru"er thus $un!tioned Dust as an emissar# o$ God:s &i"" $or estab"ishin% the 5in%dom, BNot an earth"# (o&er- but the $or!e o$ hea'en trans$ormed the (o"#theisti! Dne(r NRi'erO into the hea'en"#J%ra!ed ?bla$odatnyi@ +ordan,C9HG Whi"e the (o"iti!a" domain o$ the ne&"#3Christiani>ed "and &as subDe!t to !o""a(se and ruin- the e!!"esiasti!a" rea"m $ound this !ir!umstan!e $ortuitous, The (eo("e &ere "ed o$$ Bin !hains-C but the !hur!h %re& immense"#- &ith more &ise men and a sur%e in saint"iness amon% ru"ers and the (ious, BO terrib"e but mira!u"ous

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4 I- 18, Ibid,


times $u"" o$ %ra!eS Ho& man# did the Lord !ause to a((ear- then those &ho $asted ?postniks@- trium(hant mart#rsA ho& man# >ea"ous and b"ame"ess (astors- stren%thenin% $aith and (iet# in their tea!hin% and "i'in%A ho& man# ri%hteous and (ious Cro&nbearers&ho ru"ed b# the s(irit and "a&s o$ the 5in%dom o$ ChristLC970 urthermore- the $a"" re3i%nited $aith$u"ness to God and =in%s, The $o""o&in% (eriod o$ Russian (o"iti!a" e4(ansion ser'ed the !hur!h:s edi$#in% ro"e2 not throu%h the distribution o$ e'an%e"i!a" "iteraturebut b# its "i'in% e4am("e, The nationa" unit# $or%ed in the Time o$ Troub"es ?"muta- 69G736.68@ and re'i'a" o$ (iet# to&ard God restored Russia:s (osition as God:s !hosen !ountr#, Hen!e e'er# domain o$ s(iritua" and materia" !u"ture $"ourished2 $armin%- trades!ien!e- arts- and im(eria" !on)uest, A'%ustin maintained that the e4am("e o$ Russia:s (ros(erit# itse"$ testi$ied to God:s %ra!e be$ore the nations,976 Throu%h the $ortunate $a"" o$ (o"iti!a" !on)uest- the Russians mo'ed $rom (rin!e"# disunit# to tsarist unit#- but on a hi%her "e'e" o$ e4isten!e- $or the !hur!h had made substantia" territoria" %ains- and the state had be!ome a (o&er o$ internationa" reno&n, In an A(ri" /8- 6761 sermon- A'%ustin !on$irmed that this im(eria" mission !arried on &ithout !han%e throu%h the rei%n o$

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4 I- 18311, Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4 I- 11,


Peter the Great to the (resent, Ima%inin% Peter a((ro'in% Tsar A"e4ander $rom hea'en- A'%ustin "auded him $or $urtherin% the !hur!h and state:s &or5, BIou %a'e us a ne& e4isten!e and a ne& "i$eA and Russia be%an to ru"e o'er the 5in%doms o$ the Earth,C97/ The em(ire retained the tas5 o$ Se!ond Israe"2 to !on'ert others and bui"d the 5in%dom, A'%ustin (resented the in'asion and re(u"sion o$ the enem# in 676/ as the a!t that (re(ared Russia to brin% sa"'ation to other (eo("es, Re!ountin% the (re"ude to in'asion- he !ast himse"$ and the !hur!h in the ro"e o$ Israe"ite (ro(hets- &arnin% a%ainst the dar5ness the !onsumed Euro(e, Un"i5e some o$ his more >ea"ous !omradesA'%ustin did not b"ame e"ite $as!ination &ith m#sti!ism or re"i%ions o$ the Binner !hur!h,:978 The in'asion o$ 676/- said A'%ustin- &as one as(e!t o$ the destru!tion a!ross a Euro(e- &hi!h had s"i((ed into &i!5edness, Whi"e the ren!h had started the (ro!ess- the Russians bore %ui"t as &e""- $or the# had $ai"ed to res(ond to the !hur!h:s !a"" &ith (ro(er de'otion to&ard God, B>od0s an$er !rom heaven opens up on each human dishonor and unri$hteousness2 that:s &hat the !hur!h announ!ed, We heard this 'oi!e- but did not heed it2 &e did

"lovo 3K pril &'&O- 7,

See $or instan!e- =a(nist- B;idenie ("a!hush!he%o nad Mos5'oio Rossianina,C in "obranie sochinenii v dvukh tomakh- ;o", 6?Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 AN SSSR- 6G.0@- 6G8,

not $ee"- that its s(o5en &ord ?$la$ol@ &as a mira!u"ous (remonition o$ that terrib"e storm &hi!h stro'e to !ast do&n its thunders u(on us,C971 Sti""- A'%ustin maintained that its )ui!5 duration and s(e!ta!u"ar nature testi$ied to the Russian (eo("e:s uni)ue $ide"it# and thus its maintenan!e o$ di'ine $a'or, When the Russian (eo("e did return to !hur!h- God inter'ened in mira!u"ous &a#s, C"ouds dro&ned out ra%in% $ires, *ui"din%s im("oded &ithout smashin% a"tars, A !ross a((eared in the s5# as a testament to di'ine e"e!tion, E'en thou%h the (rint 'ersions o$ this sermon !ontained $ootnotes e4("ainin% the mira!"es in natura" terms- A'%ustin addu!ed them as !on$irmation o$ the tsar:s !"aim that the trium(h o'er the ren!h de$ied human !om(rehension,979 The mira!"es- ho&e'er- a"so (ertained to his "ar%er ar%ument about the estab"ishment o$ the 5in%dom o$ Christ, A'%ustin !a""ed the mira!"es $la$oly- a term he used s(e!i$i!a""# e"se&here to denote

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- 1., BG"a%o"C in the o"d Russian te4ts had a narro&er meanin% that slovo- &ith &hi!h A'%ustin asso!iates the entire ("an o$ !reation, A!!ordin% to I, I, Sre>ne's5ii:s "lovar0 drevnerussko$o ia4yka- ;o", 6- Part 6- ?Mos!o&2 =ni%a- 6G7GA re(rinted ed,@- $la$ol &as used in the !onte4t o$ ?ohn .2.8- &hen +esus sa#s- BThe &ords that I s(ea5 unto #ou- ?the#@ are s(irit- and ?the#@ are "i$e,C ? ;in$ ?ames :ersion@ Thus a $la$ol is more than an ora" utteran!e, It denotes a s(o5en &ord &ith di'ine (o&er- i$ not &ith the a""3en!om(assin% sense o$ slovo, See be"o& as &e"" $or $la$ol as a%ent in the &or"d:s !reation,
584 585

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- 1731G $or detai"ed des!ri(tions o$ the mira!"es,

God:s (o&er to !reate the uni'erse e/ nihilo,97. In other &ords- the# $it into the (ro!ess o$ estab"ishin% sa"'ation in a 5in%dom on earth, Moreo'er- the Russians: uni)ue abi"it# to re!o%ni>e their o&n need $or re(entan!e and di'ine aid sho&ed that the# had a mission "i5e An!ient Israe", A!!ordin% to A'%ustin- the Russians had distin%uished themse"'es as the ne& (eo("e o$ God be!ause the# had re(ented &ithout (rom(tin% $rom $orei%n sour!es, In this res(e!t- he !om(ared them to the +esus Christ:s a(ost"esA he !"aimed that their a!tion in &ar &ou"d s(read the %os(e" to a &or"d in need o$ sa"'ation,97H He e'en addu!ed the ne& a""ian!es &ith German (rin!es as a (roo$ o$ the e$$e!t that the Russians &ere ha'in%, A'%ustin e"aborated a mu!h %rander 'ision o$ the Russian mission a$ter the ta5in% o$ Paris, On Christmas o$ 6761- the da# &hen a s(e!ia" (ra#er3ser'i!e &as added to the "itur%# to (ra# in than5s%i'in% $or sa"'ation- A'%ustin returned to Russia:s messiani! ro"e as a Se!ond Israe", *# this time- messiani! themes &ere 'er# !ommon in &ar "iterature and e'en (ub"i! !e"ebrations- and the# a"most a"&a#s (ortra#ed the a!t o$ di'ine3human mediation throu%h the (erson o$ A"e4ander in Paris at the (ra#er ser'i!e at the P"a!e de


See Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- 16, Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- 96,


"a Con!orde,977 A'%ustin- &hi"e !a""in% A"e4ander the Bmost !hosenC o$ a"" 5in%s and admittin% that the tsar mo""i$ied God:s an%er- ne'er assumed that A"e4ander (ossessed an# inter!essor# (o&er, Mos!o& &as the Bsa'ioressC o$ both Russia and Euro(e, Instead- he e4(anded the Se!ond Israe" a""e%or# to in!or(orate the ne& (o"iti!a" situation o$6761 into sa"'ation histor#, On!e a%ain- A'%ustin e4("ained the meanin% o$ the monar!hi!a" restoration in terms o$ God:s ("an $rom the outset o$ !reation, Usin% humanit#:s $a"" as an i""ustration- A'%ustin !"aimed that su$$erin% in the &or"d &as ne!essar# in order to brin% about hi%her %oa"s and thus &as on"# a (re"ude to sa"'ation, God:s &isdom ?premudrost0@ &ou"d ne'er ha'e a""o&ed su$$erin% i$ it had not a"so ("anned redem(tion, BGod (ermitted the $a"" o$ man in order to o(en to him the (ath to %reater b"essedness than &hat he had be$ore the $a""A to i""uminate him &ith %reater %"or# than that &ith &hi!h he shone on de(artin% $rom the hands o$ the Creator, Hen!e &e %ained more in Christ- than &e "ost in Adam,C97G Israe" &as tested b# &anderin% in a desert $or 10 #ears a$ter bein% de"i'ered $rom E%#(tA Russia had been tested b# the ra'a%es o$ in'asion, Ea!h o$ the situations- "i5e the (rimordia" $a"" o$ human nature- brou%ht %reater

See "ast !ha(ter, Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- H13H9,


%"or# both to God and human5ind &ithin the !onte4t o$ sa"'ation histor#, Thou%h $a"" and redem(tion de$ined the histori!a" (ro!essA'%ustin maintained that the ne& restoration o$ ran!e !ontinued Russia:s e'an%e"isti! mission, The do&n$a"" o$ Na(o"eon !onstituted (ro%ress to&ard the s(read o$ this Christian 5in%dom- $or on"# anointed ru"ers !ou"d (ro'ide the earth"# !onditions needed $or its de'e"o(ment, B*# the same (aths that NGodO !reated man the heir o$ the hea'en"# 5in%dom and $ounded his 5in%dom on Earth- He raised u( human 5in%doms to su((ort His 5in%dom- the =in%dom o$ Christ- in them,C9G0 Te""in% them that their $aith$u"ness throu%h the time o$ su$$erin% had (reser'ed God:s 5in%dom on earth- he e4horted his "isteners to&ard s(iritua" rene&a" &ith an em(hasis on (iet#, Indi'idua"s needed to s(read the 5in%dom on earth b# be!omin% born a%ain in Christ,9G6 Hen!e- the s(iritua" rene&a" o$ (eo("e needed to sustain the uni'ersa" re%eneration in &hi!h Russia had ("a#ed the de!isi'e ro"e, A'%ustin:s maDor sermons de'e"o(ed themes $rom his shorter homi"ies on the messiani! mission o$ Russia:s &ar e$$ort, Its sa"'i$i! (ro!ess o$ histor# rea!hed ba!5 e'en $arther than the &ho"e o$ the

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- H., Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- 70,


Russian (ast2 to the ori%in o$ the uni'erse itse"$, It in'o"'ed the inter!ession o$ the Russian (eo("e to brin% Euro(e to both territoria" and s(iritua" sa"'ation, And it (resumed that the !hara!teristi! Russian )ua"it# &as a uni'ersa" one- &hi!h Russians (ossessed to a hi%her de%ree than the Euro(eans &hom the# &ou"d sa'e, "+gustin in !onte/t Thou%h A'%ustin:s sermons had the e$$e!t o$ tea!hin% obedien!e and re(entan!e ?his o$$i!ia" duties@- the# a"so $ormed a (art o$ the &ide Romanti! rea!tion to Na(o"eon, A'%ustin sa& the dama%e and disasters o$ &or"d histor# bein% !onstant"# dri'en ba!5 u(&ard b# di'ine (ro'iden!e to %reater out!omes2 in this !ase- the e4(ansion o$ the 5in%dom o$ God on earth, The themes o$ nationa" mission to hi%her "e'e"s o$ %oodness indi!ate that A'%ustin- ho&e'er un&ittin%"#- en'isioned Russian histor# a!!ordin% to the same BRomanti! stru!tureC that the se!u"ar messianists used in their (ane%#ri!s2 a (ro!ess mo'in% $rom unit#- throu%h a $a""- and then return on a hi%her "e'e",9G/ The Romanti!s a!tua""# ado(ted this stru!ture $rom Christianit#- and man# o$ them be%an their !areers as theo"o%ians, Moreo'er- Romanti! "iterature &as bein% trans"ated in the rei%n o$ A"e4ander I, *ut re%ard"ess o$ &hether he had read
Ni!ho"as Riasano's5#- +mer$ence o! Romanticism- ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG/@- G6,

German (hi"oso(hers or En%"ish (oets- A'%ustin shared &ith them the need to e4("ain the enormous !han%es o$ the re'o"utionar# era &ith an in$ormed- inte""e!tua" Christianit#, German and En%"ish Romanti!s !an be understood as ha'in% Bse!u"ari>edC Christian !on!e(ts $or the (ur(oses o$ e4("orin% human (otentia"-9G8 but A'%ustin ada(ted Christian tea!hin% and stories to rationa"i>e the enormous amount o$ nationa" su$$erin% sustained in the &ar &ith Na(o"eon, Ni5o"ai Ro>ano':s ana"#sis o$ Bt#(i!a"C boo5s amon% the Mos!o& !"er%# "isted no Romanti! tit"es- but some o$ the ins(irations $or En%"ish Romanti!s- +ohn Mi"ton:s -aradise <ost and -aradise Re$ained- &ere (o(u"ar,9G1 The Bhi%h ar%umentC o$ -aradise <ost is theodi!#2 the attem(t to Dusti$# the &a#s o$ God to humans- &hi!h &as the (rin!i(a" to(i! o$ A'%ustin:s sermons &hen he dis!oursed about the meanin% o$ e'ents in histori!a" !onte4t, Un"i5e the Romanti!s- A'%ustin did not Dettison the su(ernatura"- but 'ast"# e4(anded an o"d a""e%ori!a" mode o$ (o"iti!a" identit# into a theo"o%# o$ histor# $rom !reation to the (resent- in!or(oratin% se!u"ar e'ents, In so doin%- A'%ustin a(("ied his o&n inte""e!t in &a#s that $ar e4!eeded the o"d "an%ua%e residin% in an!ient manus!ri(s, *#
This is the thesis o$ M, H, Abrams:s master$u" Natural "upernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic <iterature- ?Ne& Ior52 Norton- 6GH6@,

Ni5o"ai Pa'"o'i!h Ro>ano'- Istoriia Moskovskoi eparkhiia- In $a!t- a Mos!o& !"er%#man had done the trans"ation- &hi!h he dedi!ated to P"aton, See +ones- Nikolay Novikov- 6.9,

dis!ernin% theo"o%i!a" (rin!i("es under"#in% a"" o$ Russian and &or"d histor#- A'%ustin (rea!hed to the histori!a" interest o$ the readin% (ub"i!- &hi!h &as e'ident $rom the su!!ess o$ ("a#s about e(i! nationa" batt"es- "i5e ;"adis"a' O>ero':s 6mitrii 6onskoi and Mat'ei =riu5o's5ii:s -o4harskii, A'%ustin !an be understood as a Russian Orthodo4 e4am("ar o$ the &ider Euro(ean re35ind"in% o$ Christianit# in the Romanti! era- &hi!h a((ea"ed both to tradition and to ne& inte""e!tua" dimensions to attra!t the thin5ers &ho had be!ome "ess re"i%ious durin% the En"i%htenment,9G9 Whereas in German "ands- the ne& inte""e!tua" dimension mi%ht ha'e been more (hi"oso(hi!a"- in Russia- (hi"oso(h# he"d "ess s&a# o'er (eo("e:s minds than did thou%ht about their o&n (ast, Moreo'er- A'%ustin:s tea!hin%s on reason and (hi"oso(h# $it &e"" &ith the (rea!hin% o$ the restoration- &hi!h used reason instead o$ $i%htin% it,9G. This !on!ern &as (aramount in Russia- &here the Ben"i%htenmentC &as not asso!iated &ith re'o"ution and su((osed"# &as %uaranteed b# the tsar:s ru"e, A'%ustin dis!oursed on the use and misuse o$ reason in +u"# 6761- a month a$ter a series o$

*ernard M, Reardon- Reli$ion in the $e o! Romanticism ?Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79@- /.3/H
595 596


$esti'ities that 5e(t the !it# u( a"" ni%ht,9GH E'en at the hei%ht o$ su!!ess o'er the ren!h- he s#m(athi>ed that the !on)uered (eo("e had on!e been the Bshinin% e4am("eC o$ menta" re$inement, A BtenderC (eo("e- he assumed- their imba"an!e o$ reason and (assions bro5e do&n the bonds o$ brother"# "o'e and "e$t the Bs("endid streets o$ Lutetia b"an5eted in the !or(ses o$ her inhabitants,C9G7 Reason itse"$- he !"aimed- &as God:s most im(ortant %i$t to human5ind, B*ut this same reason is the most dan%erous enem# o$ man &hen "e$t to itse"$- be!ause it "eads a&a# $rom the Trinit#,C9GG Odd"# enou%h- reason $e"" into a tra( &hen di'ided !rom (hi"oso(h#A the resu"t &as a B"#in%3(hi"oso(h#,C This term did not indi!ate that (hi"oso(h# &as $a""a!ious in %enera"- but that a (er'erted $orm &as, In Russian seminaries sin!e the 6.70s(hi"oso(h# &as !onsidered a subDe!t in harmon# &ith re"i%ion,.00 Indeed the t&o hi%hest !"asses in the seminar# &ere (hi"oso(h# and theo"o%#- the "atter !a((in% o$$ a "on% edu!ationa" Dourne#, A'%ustin thus needs to be seen &ithin a &ider Euro(ean
M, Ger>hen>on- >riboedovskaia Moskva, /nd ed, ?Mos!o&2 M, R S, Sabashni5o'#5h- 6G6.@, 1631/,
597 598

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- 831, Ibid9


On the ori%ins o$ this union- see *ush5o'it!h- Reli$ion and "ociety in Russia: the "i/teenth and "eventeenth Centuries ?Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG/@- 6H636H/,

re"i%ious !onte4t- but he shou"d a"so be seen as a re(resentati'e o$ Orthodo4# &ho tried to sta# &ithin the !hur!h instead o$ dra&in% o$$ German Pietism or the m#sti!a" mo'ements, To be sure- he &as a man &ho $e"t so !om$ortab"e in Latin that he used the "an%ua%e to out"ine his Russian sermons, *ut he a!)uainted himse"$ &ith !hur!h $athers and the nationa" (ast instead o$ the ne& m#sti! and Protestant3in$"uen!ed "iterature that (oured in a$ter 676/ and the estab"ishment o$ the *ib"e So!iet#, In $a!t- his re"ations &ith the *ib"e So!iet# demonstrated his re"u!tan!e $or the non3Orthodo4 re"i%ious >ea" !omin% $rom the northern !a(ita", When the St, Petersbur% bran!h o$ the *ib"e So!iet# &anted to e4tend to Mos!o&- it !onta!ted A'%ustin- &ho !ontributed some mone# and en!oura%ed other !"er%#men to ta5e (art- but &ithout mu!h enthusiasm, In 6761- A'%ustin &as nominated $or 'i!e3 (resident- a (ost he de!"ined, Later- Prin!e Go"its#n ?the head o$ the De(artment o$ orei%n Con$essions@ sim("# a((ointed him 'i!e3 (resident- but A'%ustin &as "a!5"uster in his duties, In $a!tA'%ustin:s o(inion o$ the so!iet# !ontro'erted its stated (ur(ose The so!iet# sou%ht to distribute the s!ri(tures &ithout note or !ommentar#- so that no one bod# o$ do!trine !ou"d mono(o"i>e the "a# reader:s inter(retation, A'%ustin a!!"aimed the %oa" o$ (resentin%

the te4t b# itse"$- but on"# in so mu!h as it attra!ted "a(sed be"ie'ers ba!5 into !hur!h, As he said in his o(enin% s(ee!h to the so!iet#("ain s!ri(ture !an be use$u" $or dire!tin% (eo("es: minds to&ard Godbut2
, , , b# dee(enin% #ourse"$ in the readin% o$ the Word o$ Gode4aminin% Its re'e"ations- #ou &i"" not understand mu!h- and &orn out b# misunderstandin%s #ou e4!"aim- ho# can I understand, that #hich no one teaches meW E The !hur!h- our Orthodo4 Chur!h#hich is the pillar and !oundation o! truth - instru!ts #ou in e'er# truth- and e4(osin% the h#(o!ris# o$ !alsely)named reason- &i"" o(en $or #ou the de(ths o$ God:s m#steries, Go into the !hur!hes o$ the LordAEthere Phi""i(s !onstant"# o(en their mouths and e'an%e"i>ethere ;asi"#s- Gre%or#s- and Chr#sostoms in!essant"# (ro!"aim the hea'en"# &isdom- &hi!h God $a'ors to shroud $rom the &ise and the reasonin%- and re'ea" to !hi"dren,.06

In the (ost&ar (eriod- the tsar and man# other %o'ernment o$$i!ia"s sou%ht s(iritua" rene&a" outside o$ the Orthodo4 Chur!h- and the *ib"e So!iet# &as a !ru!ia" (art o$ their e$$orts, *ut $or A'%ustin- the so!iet#:s Dusti$i!ation &as the (re!ise o((osite2 to assist in the s(iritua" rene&a" o$ the (eo("e throu%h the !hur!h, The messianism in A'%ustin:s sermons inau%urated this trend o$ Russian thou%ht b# !onne!tin% Russia:s destin# &ith the (eo("e, Sin!e his ideas about Russa:s nationa" e"e!tion too5 sha(e be$ore the trium(h o$ 6761- A'%ustin did not $a"" under A"e4ander:s !harmin% s(e"" as !om("ete"# as did se!u"ar &riters, As a resu"t- A'%ustin !onsistent"# em(hasi>ed in his &artime (rea!hin% the inter!essor#

Sne%ire'- Ocherk- A((endi4- 71,

(o&er o$ the &ho"e (eo("e in an histori!a" (ro!ess to sa'e humanit#, Mar5 A":tshu""er (ointed out that A"e4ander Shish5o':s admiration $or the (rimordia" %oodness o$ the Russian (eo("e ma5es the O"d3St#"e Bar!haistC the $orerunner o$ the S"a'o(hi"e inte""e!tua"s "ater in the !entur#,.0/ Whi"e that Dud%ment is true in some res(e!ts- A'%ustin shou"d be !onsidered the inte""e!tua" (rede!essor o$ the messiani! thin5in% that emer%ed in the S"a'o(hi"e3Westerni>er !ontro'ers#, .08 *oth %rou(s &ere %ra'e"# !on!erned &ith Russia:s re"ationshi( to Euro(e and indeed- ho& Russia !ou"d sa'e it2 &hether b# the Orthodo4# in the (eo("e- the or%ani>ation o$ the 'i""a%e !ommunesor man# other $a!tors, These "ater 'ariants- emer%in% in res(onse to ne& inte""e!tua" $erment and trans$ormed throu%h German Idea"ism$o""o&ed A'%ustin:s mode" set in the Na(o"eoni! Wars, A'%ustin &as a uni)ue !ase- at the summit o$ edu!ation and in !onta!t &ith the inte""e!tua" "i$e o$ Mos!o& Uni'ersit#, What he re(resented- ho&e'er- &as that Russian Orthodo4 !"er%# ada(ted to
Mar5 A":tshu""er- -redtechi slaviano!il0stva v russkoi literature 5Obshchestvo G%eseda liubitelei russko$o slovaH7 , Ardis2 Ann Arbor- 6G71@87,

or an ar%ument that (ro(oses that the messiani! nature o$ the !ontro'ers# &as u"timate"# %rounded in German Pietism missionar# idea"ssee Lauren!e Di!5e#- BTranslatio Imperii and Translatio Reli$ionis2 The BGeo%ra(h# o$ Sa"'ation in Russian and Ameri!an Messiani! Thin5in%-C in Catherine E'tuho' and Ste(hen =ot5in- eds, The Cultural >radient: the Transmission o! Ideas in +urope, &,'.)&..&- ?Lanham- MD2 Ro&man R Litt"e$ie"d- /008@- 6838/,

!han%in% Euro(ean inte""e!tua" !"imates "on% be$ore the ad'ent o$ Russian re"i%ious (hi"oso(h#, Cau%ht u( in the "ar%er &a'e o$ interest in the Russian (ast- A'%ustin de'e"o(ed a nationa" messianism based on tradition, *ut &here se!u"ar &riters a(otheosi>ed the tsarA'%ustin instead !hose the (eo("e- based on their s(iritua" res(onsibi"it# to a!t as thou%h the# (ossessed a uni)ue !o'enant &ith God, A'%ustin:s 'ision &as deri'ed $rom o"d Russian manus!ri(ts and the a%e3o"d asso!iation o$ Russia and An!ient Israe", This interest- and the messiani! 'ision that it (rodu!ed- &as !ommon to !"er%# and se!u"arists in Russia durin% the Na(o"eoni! Wars, There$ore- A'%ustin shou"d be understood as an Orthodo4 !"eri! dea"in% &ith the same (rob"ems o$ the Romanti! A%e, His 'ision $ormed (art a &ide s(e!trum o$ attem(ts to dea" &ith the (rob"ems that u"timate"# s(ran% $rom Euro(e in 6H7G,


A"thou%h the more $amous inte""e!tua"s o$ the 6780s36710s de'e"o(ed ideas o$ nationa" mission and destin# $rom the "an%ua%e o$ German Idea"ist (hi"oso(hers- Mos!o&:s se!ond3tier &riters !reated the $irst modern $orms o$ nationa" messianism in the stru%%"e a%ainst Na(o"eon, Treatin% messianism as a $orm o$ (atrioti! dis!ourse &ith the essentia" !om(onents o$ uni'ersa" 'a"uessoterio"%oi!a" stru!ture- and nationa" inter!ession- this stud# has tra!ed the e"aboration o$ messiani! themes $rom the Third Coa"ition War to the end o$ Na(o"eon:s rei%n in Euro(e ?670936769@, In (arti!u"ar- the stud# has e4amined the inte""e!tua" Bun!ons!ious assum(tionsC (re'a"ent in the !onstru!tion o$ nationa" identit# in (oems and Dourna"ism- o$ heroes in ("a#s- and o$ di'ine mission in (ane%#ri!s and sermons, In a"" !ases- Romanti! as(e!ts o$ (atrioti! dis!ourse su((orted the authors: desires to restore an order to Euro(e reminis!ent o$ the En"i%htenment, As ear"# as the Coa"ition Wars- the se!ond3tier Russian &riters !onstru!ted $orms o$ nationa" identit# that b"ended Romanti! (arti!u"arit# &ith En"i%htenment uni'ersa"it#, The odes- tra%ediesand !omedies o$ 67093670H that dire!t"# and indire!t"# dea"t &ith

&ar themes (ortra#ed Russians not as uni)ue (eo("e $ree o$ $orei%n in$"uen!e- but ones that !ou"d out3!om(ete their !u"tura" (eers, The hero $rom the Time o$ Troub"es Po>hars5ii did not need to a!)uire a throne "i5e Na(o"eonA his dedi!ation to the !ommon %ood &as so su(er"ati'e that he !ou"d see abo'e su!h a tem(tation, C"assi!a" a""usions su(("ied a $oi"- a%ainst &hi!h Russian &riters !ou"d assert their ne& $orms o$ 'i%or- !oura%e- and mora"it#, This !u"tura" res(onse a$$irmed the messa%e (ourin% in $rom $orei%n (ro(a%anda2 that Russia &as Euro(e:s "ast bastion o$ sa"'ation and the on"# remnant o$ the En"i%htened (ast, Ser%ei G"in5a (er(etuated the be"ie$ in the uni'ersa"it# and su(eriorit# o$ Russian !hara!ter throu%h his (atrioti! Dourna"- Russian Herald- &hi!h hit its (ea5 o$ (o(u"arit# in the Ti"sit Era ?670H36766@&hen Russia and ran!e &ere at "east nomina""# $riends, Des(ite his desire to dedi!ate the Dourna" to Russian nationa" !hara!ter- G"in5a !ou"d not he"( but be in$"uen!ed b# +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau and es(e!ia""# b# Rousseau:s admonitions a%ainst ren!h philosophes, G"in5a thus trans("anted these sentiments to Russian soi"- &hen!e he assumed that Rousseau:s (ositi'e 'ision had eterna" sta#in%3(o&er amon% his o&n (eo("e, This in'ersion sti"" (resumed that Russians (ossessed 'a"ues that &ere 'a"id $or a"" (eo("e- and G"in5a

de"iberate"# dre& u( his o&n de$inition o$ En"i%htenment to sho& that Russia &as the su(reme e4em("ar o$ a"" mora"it#, G"in5a a"so stro'e to !on'in!e !ontem(oraries o$ a "o%i! to the de'e"o(ment o$ Russian histor#, His be"ie$ that the Russian (ast had been sa'ed $rom (hi"oso(he and re'o"utionar# in$"uen!e $ound &ider e4(ression in the re"i%ious (oetr# o$ 676/, *# this (oint- a$ter the in'asion- memories o$ the $ire sti"" %"o&ed- and re"i%ious"#3in!"ined (oets sou%ht to deri'e a (ro'identia" or sa"'i$i! meanin% $rom the disaster, Conser'ati'es in Petersbur% used the in!ident to re(eat o"d so!ia" !riti!ism &ith ne& 4eno(hobia- &hi"e Mus!o'ites embe""ished the ta!ti!a" Bsa!ri$i!eC o$ Mos!o& and m#tho"o%i>ed 676/ as the startin%3(oint o$ the rea"i>ation o$ a di'ine ("an &ithin histor#- &ith Russia as the (rime a!tor, In !ontrast to the Petersbur% %rou(- the Mus!o'ites ho(ed that Mos!o&:s sa!ri$i!e !ou"d e$$e!t reunion o$ Russia and Euro(e, The# (ortra#ed the $ire and in'asion as an a!t o$ su$$erin% that !ou"d atone s#mbo"i!a""# $or $orei%n sins, The intert&inin% o$ uni'ersa"ism and the !onstru!tion o$ a (ath o$ histor# !ontinued into (o"iti!a" Dourna"ism- as messiani! ideas about sa"'ation &ere ada(ted to anti3(hi"oso(he and anti3 re'o"utionar# ideas s&ee(in% Euro(e2 "ibera"- !onser'ati'e- and re"i%ious, Po"iti!a" essa#ists "i5e ;"adimir I>mai"o'- Ma5sim Ne'>oro'-

and A"e4ei Mer>"ia5o' tried not Dust to in'ent an idea o$ Euro(eEbut one in &hi!h Russia had !"aim to herita%e, This (roDe!t re)uired the de$inition o$ !ommon traditions- &hi!h ostensib"# &ou"d attest to the basi! "i5eness in !u"ture and (o"iti!a" s#stems $rom East to West, *# (reser'in% the stereot#(i!a" a4iom o$ Russia:s !u"tura" (rima!# 'is3’3 'is Euro(ean nations- the Russian essa#ists !reated a 'ariet# o$ inter(retations on the sa"'i$i! (ro!ess o$ histor#, In a"" !asesho&e'er- the# 'ie&ed the %oa" o$ reunion as the return o$ en"i%htened !i'i"i>ation and the %enera" (ro%ress o$ a"" !ountries in $riendshi(, Ho(es $or Euro(e:s sa"'ation seemed to !ome true in 6761&hen Russian troo(s des!ended on Paris- BLon% Li'e A"e4anderC &as heard in the streets- and the a""e#s o$ Mos!o& &ere i""uminated a"" ni%ht &ith !e"ebration- Dubi"ation- and reno'ation, Prominent Mus!o'ite &riters &rote (ane%#ri!s to e4a"t the tsar in the $ashion o$ the ei%hteenth3!entur# Russian ru"erEbut $or on!e on Euro(ean soi", The o"der m#ths o$ nationa" reDu'enation &ere no& dire!ted to&ard the "and that had in the (ast been a mode" $or ru"ers, Catherine the Great:s m#tho"o%i!a" (o&er to trans$orm Russia &as based on her &i""in%ness to brin% Russia a Western "a& !ode- but A"e4ander seemed to ha'e brou%ht the West the best $ruits o$ order- harmon#-

"a&s- and the other standard e"ements o$ the earth"# Beuto(iaC o$ the Russian En"i%htenment, The (ane%#ri!s o$ A"e4ei Mer>"ia5o'- Ni5o"ai =aram>in- and ;asi"ii <hu5o's5ii brou%ht out the inter!essor# $un!tion o$ the tsar in a!!om("ishin% the sa"'ation o$ Euro(e:s en"i%htened order, Another "ine o$ thou%ht- ho&e'er- had de'e"o(ed sin!e the burnin% o$ Mos!o& and $ound its %reatest rea"i>ation in the main (rea!her o$ Mos!o&:s most im(ortant !athedra"EAr!hbisho( A'%ustin, An honorar# member o$ the "iterar# so!iet# &ith Mer>"ia5o' and <hu'5os5iiA'%ustin &as not distant $rom the edu!ated se!u"ar (ub"i!, In $a!this sermons a"so s#nthesi>ed the messiani! !om(onents o$ uni'ersa" 'a"ues- sa"'i$i! histor#- and inter!ession, *ut he em(hasi>ed the duties o$ a"" (eo("e- not Dust the tsar- in !arr#in% out the tas5 o$ re!on!i"in% Euro(e and Russia- hea'en and earth, or him- the (eo("e:s dut# rested in (ersona" res(onsibi"it#- not in a s(e!ia" state o$ so!ia" or%ani>ation, His messiani! 'ie&s on Euro(e:s sa"'ation throu%h the 'irtue o$ the Russian (eo("e (redated a &ho"e !entur# o$ a"ternati'e 'ersions on this theme, A'%ustin and the (ane%#ri! &riters e4hibited in their &or5s most !"ear"# the Romanti! (attern o$ unit#- $a""- and return on a hi%her "e'e", As the# understood this (ro!ess- ho&e'er- on"# Euro(e had B$a""en-C and thus on"# the

re'o"utionar# dar5ness needed to be s&e(t a&a#, The a$$irmation o$ a ne& a%e o$ re!on!i"iation a"so 'a"idated the traditions o$ en"i%htened auto!ra!# in Russia, I$ this messiani! dimension o$ (atrioti! dis!ourse is to be understood as (art o$ the broader (henomenon o$ Romanti! Nationa"ism- then the "atter ma# !ertain"# be !a""ed a rea!tion to Na(o"eon and the ren!h Re'o"ution, *ut it &as not a rea!tion to the En"i%htenment, To be sure- !riti!ism o$ the (hi"oso(hes aboundedbut the Russian !riti!s a"so tried to estab"ish ne& de$initions o$ BEn"i%htenmentC that (ertained to nationa" traditions, The ear"# #ears o$ &ar !a""ed $orth de$enses o$ Tsar A"e4ander as an en"i%htened auto!rat in !ontrast to the des(ot Na(o"eon, A$ter the Ti"sit (eriod- these sentiments a((eared a%ain $rom di$$erent !orners, In a"" !ases- the (o"iti!a" essa#ists stressed the need o$ Russia to sa'e Euro(e $rom barbarism so that it !ou"d return to !i'i"i>ation, The messiani! "iterature o$ the &ar #ears !ontained no shar( demar!ation o$ Russia and the West, Un"i5e di'isi'e German Romanti! Nationa"ists &ho de"iberate"# reDe!ted ren!h !u"ture and thou%ht- man# o$ the Russians in this deri'ed their 'er# ideas $rom ran!e, +ean3+a!)ues Rousseau- the en"i%htened !riti! o$ the (hi"oso(hes- enDo#ed %reat (o(u"arit# in

Russia, The histor# o$ *ossuet &as &e""3enou%h 5no&n to ma5e it $it $or use in an a"bum- and Montes)uieu !ou"d a((ear as an authorit# on (o"iti!a" stabi"it# a!ross Euro(e $or Mer>"ia5o', Christianit# !om(rised another reason $or the !ommona"it# o$ Romanti! themes in Russia and Euro(e, The $amous En%"ish (oets and German (hi"oso(hers &ho "aun!hed the Romanti! mo'ement mi%ht ha'e made "itt"e head&a# into edu!ated Russia b# 6761- but their ideas &ere based on a Christian (hi"oso(h# o$ histor#, Orthodo4 !"er%# and a 'ariet# o$ se!u"ar (oets en'isioned the same 5ind o$ Romanti! re!on!i"iation as the %oa" o$ the nationa" mission be!ause re"i%ion %a'e them a shared set o$ (rete4ts- Dust as en"i%htened auto!ra!# (ro'ided a !ommon idea", The inte""e!tua" histor# o$ A"e4ander:s era thus is inse(arab"e $rom re"i%ious histor#- and both !ou"d stand to bene$it $rom other in'esti%ations o$ edu!ated Orthodo4 !"er%#men, This stud#:s !on!"usions indi!ate that some o$ the ear"ier $ears about Russian messianism mi%ht be (ut to rest, I$- as Ni5o"ai *erdiae' !"aimed- messianism is Ba"most !hara!teristi!C o$ the Russian (eo("e- that $eature does not ne!essari"# ma5e them e4tremists or in!"ined to&ard re'o"utionar# ideo"o%#, Messianism in modern Russian thou%ht arose as (art o$ an attem(t to de$an% the

re'o"utionar# beast and en!oura%e moderation in internationa" a$$airs, It u"timate"# &as rooted in the desire to assert that modern Russian !i'i"i>ation &as &orth# o$ Euro(ean esteem- not to subDu%ate others under the hee" o$ the o"d re%ime, Most im(ortant"#- it &as based on a 'ision o$ re!on!i"iation amon% $riends that &ou"d restore (ro%ress, Ho&e'er "imited this 'ision mi%ht ha'e been- it did not emanate $rom a ma"i!ious instin!t, Perha(s in the ne& mi""ennium- as Russian inte""e!tua"s and (o"iti!ians stru%%"e to emer%e $rom under the rubb"e- the# !an remember that the messiani! trend so (re'a"ent in 6Gth !entur# Russian thou%ht arose as a &a# to de$end !u"tura" ties &ith Euro(e and !onstituted an enormous a!t o$ o(timism a%ainst a de!ade o$ &ar on a hitherto unima%inab"e s!a"e,

)3 "rchi+es
Go#udar#t5enn"i ar,hi5 Ro##ii#,oi $ederat#ii. GAR/ 1ond B,.: leksandr I 1ond ,3.: ;ollektsiia rukopisei 4imne$o dvortsa Ro##ii#,ii 'o#udar#t5enn"i ar,hi5 *iteratur" i i##,u#t5a. RGALI 1ond &.*: :ia4emskie, I9 9, 9 I9, -9 9, -9 -9 Ro##ii#,ii 'o#udar#t5enn"i 5oenno7i#toriche#ii ar,hi5. RG0IA 1ond O,O: Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 Ro##i#,aia nat#iona*8naia &i&*iote,a( Otde* Ru,opi#ei. OP RN6 1ond 3'B: Chukovskii, :9 9 1ond *O3: Oleniny 1ond ,,*: Titova, 9 9 "obranie9

))3 Printed Primary Sources
&'&3 $od v russkoi poe4ii i vospominaniiakh sovremennikov , Mos!o&2 i>date":st'o Pra'da- 6G7H, A5sa5o'- Ser%ei Timo$ee'i!h, Ra4nyia sochineniia, Mos!o&2 L, Ste(ano'a- 6797, A5sa5o'- S, T, "obranie "ochinenii, 1 'o"s, Mos!o&2 GI=hL- 6G993 6G9., A":tshu""er- Ro>a"iia E$imo'a and Andrei Ga'ri"o'i!h Tarta5o's5ii- eds, <istovki Otechestvennoi voiny &'&3 $oda9 "bornik dokumentov, Mos!o&2 i>date":st'o A5ademiia Nau5 SSSR- 6G./, Am'rosii ?Podobedo'@, BPreos'iash!henna%o Am'rosiia Mitro(o"ita No'%orods5a%o i San5t(eterbur%s5a%o (ast#rs5oe (ri%"ashenie 5 mo"it'e o b"a%o(os(eshenii 'o 'remia nastoiiash!hei brani 676/ %,C I"> /28 ?+u"# 676/@2 91399, Am'rosii, BRe!h: %o'orennaia (ri '5hode E%o Im(erators5a%o ;e"i!hest'a ' =a>ans5ii Sobor- Am'rosiem- Mitro(o"itom No'%orods5im- Iiu"ia 61 dnia- 6761 %oda,C "yn Otechestva 69280 ?6761@2 6993., Am'rosii, BRe!h: (o os'iash!henii meda"ei- %o'orennaia Preos'iash!henn#m Am'rosiei Mitro(o"itom No'%ords5im i San5t(eterbur%s5im- 80 A'%usta 6768 %oda ' A"e5sandro3 Ne's5oi "a're,C "yn Otechestva G216 ?6768@2 7G3G6, Am'rosii, BS"o'o (ri so'ersheniia %odi!hna%o (omino'eniia (o

'oina5h >a 'eru i Ote!hest'o na brani *orodins5oi >hi'ot s'oi (o"o>hi'shi5h,C "yn Otechestva G210 ?6768@2 .H3H8, Arndt- Ernst, BG"as istin#,C "yn Otechestva 626 ?676/@2 836., A'%ustin, -astyrskoe nastavlenie, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, Moskovskoi Metropolii :ikariem i ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskoi sobore, &'&3 $oda iiulia 3' dnia, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 676/, A'%ustin, Rech0 ero imperatorskomu velichestvu $osudariu imperatoru leksandru -ervomu, na sluchai vysochaisha$o e$o imperatorsko$o velichestva pribytiia v "viato)Troitskuiu "er$iievu <avru, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 676., A'%ustin, Re!h: e%o im(erators5omu 'e"i!hest'u- %osudariu im(eratoru A"e5sandru (er'omu- na s"u!hai '#so!haisha%o e%o im(erators5a%o 'e"i!hest'a (rib#tiia ' tsarst'uiush!hii %rad Mos5'u- %o'orennaia -reosviashchennym v$ustinom, 8pravliaiushchim Moskovskoiu Metropolieiu, rkhiepiskopom 6mitrovskim ;avalerom, &'&B $oda, v$usta &* dnia, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 676., A'%ustin, Rech0 ero imperatorskomu velichestvu samoder4htsu leksandru I, -ri :ysochaishei +>O :+<ICH+"T: vshestie v Moskovskoi %ol0shoi 8spenskii sobor dlia preneseniia bla$odarstvenna$o >ospodu %o$u molebstviia, $ovorennaia -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, Moskovskoi Metropolii :ikariem i ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shoi 8spenskii sobore, &'&3 $oda iiulia &3 dnia , Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 676/, A'%ustin, Rech0 po osviashchenii oblachenii ustroennykh ot shchedrot eia imperatorsko$o velichestva bla$ochestveishei $osudaryni Imperatritsy +lisavety lekseevny, $ovorennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore &'&K $oda aprelia 3( dnia, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, A'%ustin, Rech0 pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o >odpodu %o$u molebstviia, sovershenna$o &'&* $oda, 6ekabria * dnia, po sluchaiu vo4hdelenneisha$o vo4vrashcheniia e$o imperatorska$o velichestva >osudaria Imperatora i "amoder4htsa :serossiiska$o leksandra I v Rossiiu i v "tolichnyi $rad s -eterbur$a, po okonchanii brannykh

podvi$ov, proi4nesennoe v Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, "inodal0nym chlenom, upravliaiushchim Moskovoiu Mitropolieiu, -reosviashchennym v$ustinom, rkhiepiskopopom 6mitrovskim, "viato)Troitskiia "er$ievy lavry sviashchenno) rkhamandritom i ;avalerom9 Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6769, A'%ustin, BRe!h: (ri s"u!hae 'o>'rash!heniia 5horu%'i- b#'shei (ri Mos5o's5om o(o"!henii- E%o Siiate":s'om Gra$om L, I, Mar5o'#m,C "yn Otechestva G210 ?6768@2 H7370, A'%ustin, "lovo na vysokotor4hestvennyi den0 sviashchenneishei koronatsii e$o imperatorsko$o velichestva, bla$ochestiveisha$o velika$o $osaduria Imperatora leksandra I, $ovorennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, &'&K $oda sentiabria &* dnia , Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, A'%ustin, "lovo, po sluchaiu 4akliucheniia vo4hdelenna$o i vechnoslavna$o mira, pobedonosnoi Rossii s !rantsieiu i vo4stanovleniia svobody i spokoistviia vo vsei +vrope, pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o >odpodu %o$u molebstviia, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, &'&O Iiunia 3& dnia, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, A'%ustin, "lovo, po sluchaiu 4namenitoi i vechno)slavnoi pobedy, oder4haninoi pri <eiptsi$e Rossiiskimi i soiu4nymi voisk nad 1rantsu4sko$o armieiu pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o >ospodu %o$u molebstviia, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, &'&K $oda noibria 3 dnia, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, A'%ustin, "lovo, pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o $ospodu %o$u molebstviia po sluchaiiu pokoreniia 1rantsu4sckoi "tolitsy pobedonosnymi Rossiiskami i soiu4nymi voinskami, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, &'&O $oda aprelia 3K dnia,

Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, A'%ustin, "lovo, pred nachatiem bla$odarstvenna$o $ospodu %o$u molebstviia po sluchaiiu 4namenitoi pobedy, oder4hannoi nad 1rantsu4sckimi silami u <aona, v4iatiia pristupom $oroda Reimsa, istrebleniia korpusa Mashala Marmonta i sovershenna$o pora4heniia dvukh divi4ii nepriiatel0skikh Rossiiskami voinskami pod lichnym predvoditel0stvom ero imperatorska$o velichestva $osudaria imperatora leksandra I, proi4nesennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordenov: sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore, prelia &3 dnia &'&O $oda, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, A'%ustin, "lovo v presvetlyi pra4dnik Ro4hdestva >ospoda %o$a i spasa nashe$o Iiususa ;hrista i na den0 vospominaniia i4bavleniia Tserkvi i 6er4havy Rossisskiia ot nashestviia >allov, i s nim dvadesiati ia4yk, Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, A'%ustin, "lovo v vysokotor4hestvennyi den0 vysochaisha$o te4oimenstva e$o imperatorsko$o velichestva, $osudaria imperatora i samoder4htsa vserossiiska$o leksandra I, i po osviahshchenii Moskovska$o bol0sha$o8spenska$o "obora, $ovorennoe -reosviashchennym v$ustinom +piskopopom 6mitrovskim, :ikariem Moskovskim, i ordena sv9 leksandra Nevska$o i sv9 nny &)$o klassa, ;avalerom9 : Moskovskom bol0shom 8spenskom sobore &'&K $oda av$usta K( dnia , Mos!o&2 Sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, A'%ustin, B;o>>'anie (reos'iash!henna%o A'%ustina- E(is5o(a Dmitro's5a%o Mos5o's5a%o ;i5ariia >hite"iam Mos'5#,C "yn Otechestva /26/ ?676/@2 /8H3/10, *e"ins5ii- ;, G, -olnoe sobranie sochineniia, 60 'o"s, Mos!o&2 AN SSSR- 6G98391, 828/939.A 12H3GA 92/673//7, *e5eto'- P"aton Petro'i!h, Rech0, chitannaia pri otkrytii perva$o 4asedaniia vnov0 obra4ovanna$o obshchestva istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh, Mos!o&- 6768, %eseda stoletnia$o podmoskovna$o 4hitelia s plennym !rantsu4sckim soldatom, S(b2 ti(o%ra$iia 'oenna%o ministers'a- 676/, *,- M, Ra4$ovory kalu4hskoi $ubernii krest0ianina s 4henoiu svoeiu o prevratnosti shchastiia !rantsu4ska$o oru4hiia i chudnykh uspekhakh Rossiiskikh voisk, St, Petersbur%2 M, *ai5o'- 6768, *or5- =ar" riedri!h, Napoleonov pervyi son v Moskve, St, Petersbur%2 ti(o%ra$iia G, ;oenna%o Gubernatora- 676/,

*oro>dna- ;asi"ii, :idenie prestarela$o sibirska$o 4hretsa vo vremia narodnoi bitvy pri <eiptsi$e &'&O $oda, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, *ossuet- +a!)ues3*eni%ne, 6iscours sur l0histoire universelle, par %ossuet, Paris2 Librarie de irmin Didot rVres- 679/, *u"%a5o'- A, I, Ruskie i Napoleon %onaparte, i>d /3oe s risuno5om, S, Se"i'ano's5ii- 6761, ?Ruski i Napoleon %onaparte, ili ra4smotrenie povedentia nynieshia$o obladatelia !rantsii s til04itska$o mira do i4$nanie e$o i4 prevnei rossiisskoi stolitsy s prisovokupleniem mno$ikh liubopythnykh anekdotov, plana moskvy, v koem o4nacheny s$orievshiia i ostavshttiasia v tselosti chasti $oroda, Pisano mos5o's5#m >hite"em, Ti(o%ra$iia S, Se"'iano's5o%o- 6768, *unina- Anna Petro'na, "obranie stikhotvoreniia nna %uninoi, 8 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 ti(o%ra$iia Rossiss5oi A5ademii- 676G, Choiseu"3Gou$$ier- Madame La Comtesse de, Historical Memoirs o! the +mperor le/ander I and the Court o! Russia, Trans"ated b# Mar# *erni!e Patterson, Chi!a%o2 A, C, M!C"ur%- 6G00, Chui5e'i!h- P, A, BAna"iti!hes5ii (roe5t 'oenn#5h deist'ii ' 676/ %,C in Rossisskii arkhiv: Istoriia Otechestva v sviditel0stvakh i dokumentakh, ;#(, ;II, Mos!o&2 BTriteC Ni5it# Mi5hai"o'a BRossiss5ii ar5hi'-C 6GG., Chui5e'i!h- P, A, -okushenie Napoleona na Indiiu &'&3 $oda ili ra4$ovor dvukh o!itserov Rossiiska$o i 1rantsu4scka$o nad avanpostakh armii, s 4amechaniiami i nekotorymi prika4ami otdannymi v !rantsu4skoi armii, St, Petersbur%2 ti(o%ra$iia , Dre5hs"era- 6768, ?R(t, as Catei Napoleona v prodol4henii pokhoda &'&3 $oda, St, Petersbur%2 ti(o%ra$iia I, *ai5o'a6761,@ Chui5e'i!h- P, A, Ra4su4hdeniia o voine &'&3 $oda, St, Petersbur%2 Senats5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, BChu'st'o'aniia (ri nashest'ii ne(riiate"ia ' Mos5'u,C ISG /2/J8 ?Ma#J+une 6768@2 II- (, /1/3/90, 6ays o! a Russian Noble#oman: the Memories o! nna <ab4ina &,*') &'3&, Edited and trans"ated b# Gar# Mar5er and Ra!he" Ma#, De=a"b2 Northern I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- /006, Demins5ii- Ia5o', Ruskie v -ari4hie ili opisanie proisshestvii, byvshikh vo vremia vstuplenie i prebyvaniia v -ari4hie rossiiskikh voisk s soiu4nymi pod predvoditel0stvom e$o velichestva Imperatora leksandra I)$o, St, Petersbur%2 mors5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761,

Der>ha'in- G, R, ;hory petye v tor4hestvennom sobranii %esedy liubitelei Ruska$o slova 6ekabria K( dnia &'&*, St, Petersbur%2 meditsins5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6769, Der>ha'in- G, R, BS"a'a,C :estnik +vropy .926. ?Au% 676/@2 80/3809, Der>ha'in- Ga'rii" Romano'i!h, "ochineniia, Edited b# Ia, =, Grot, G 'o"s, St, Petersbur%- 67.136778, Der>ha'in- Ga'rii" Romano'i!h, Capiski, &,OK)&'&3: -olnyi tekst, Mos!o&2 M#s":- /000, Dmitrie'- Mi5hai", >lavy i4 vospominanii moei 4hi4ni, Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- 6GG7, i"aret, BOt'et na (red#dushee (is:mo,C "yn Otechestvo H28/ ?6768@2 //83/89A 7288 ?6768@2 836 9, i"aret, "ochineniia 1ilareta Mitropolita Moskovska$o i ;olomenska$o, 9 'o"s, Mos!o&2 A, I, Mamonto'- 67H836779, 1ilareta mitropolita Moskovsko$o i ;olomensko$o tvoreniia , Edited b# Ma5sim =o>"o', Mos!o&2 Ot!hii dom- 6GG1, "a'ius +ose(hus, The 2orks o! 1lavius ?osephus, Trans, Wi""iam Whiston, 1 'o"s, Grand Ra(ids2 *a5er *oo5 House- 6GHG, ren ? ršhn@- =h, D, "lovo po sluchaiiu tor4hestva o 4aniatii -aris4ha $ovorennoe desiata$o maia &'&O)$o $oda v ;a4ani v tserkvi <iuteranska$o ispobedaniia odnim i4 chlenov onoi, Trans"ated $rom German, =a>an:2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, >eneral0nyi smotr sovesti Napoleona, ili besedy Napoleona s sovest0iu, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, Gera5o'- Ga'ri"", Chuvstva vernopodanna$o i4livshiiasia pri chtenii mani!esta o militsii ot K( Noiabria, &'(B $oda, St, Petersbur%2 Per'#i 5adets5ii 5or(us- 670H, ?/nd ed2 Chuvstva Ruska$o, St, Petersbur%2 rubernaia (ra'"eniia- 676/,@ >ermaniia v $lubokom uni4henii svoem, /nd ed, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia A5ademiia Nau5- 670H, >las +vropy pri verolomnom vstuplenii na bre$a 1rantsii vra$a vselennyia vtorokratnom pokhishchenii eia prestola kliatvo) prestupno$o e$o der4ostiiu v &'&* $odu, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6769, >las iuna$o rossianina k sootechestvennikam svoim po sluchaiu vysochaisha$o mani!esta o vooru4henii vremenno$o voiska, ili militsii, Mos!o&2 %uberns5aia ti(o%ra$iia A, Reshetni5o'a- 670., G"ebo'- D, P, -evets v kru$u rossiian, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia A, Reshetni5o'a- 6768,

G"ebo'- D, P, -ol0skoi po sluchaiiu vysochaisha$o pribytiia +>O IM-+R TOR"; >O :+<ICH+"T: v Moskvu, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia A, Reshetni5o'a- 676., G"ebo'- D, P, "ra4henie pri %orodine, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia N, S, ;se'o"o>hs5a%o- 6768, G"in5a- Ser%ei, BChto sde"ano ' Rossii d"ia (ros'esh!heniia naroda i d"ia s"a'# ote!hest'a ot 'remen Riuri5a do PETRA ;e"i5a%o,C :estnik +vropy /926 ?+an 670.@2 83/0A /92/ ?+an 670.@2 7/3G., G"in5a- Ser%ei, Iun$ovy nochi, Mos!o&2 P"aton *e5eto'- 670., G"in5a- Ser%ei, BMinin,C in "ochineniia "er$eia >linki, Mos5'a2 ti(o%ra$iia S, Se"i'ans5a%o- 676H, G"in5a- Ser%ei- BO (ros'esh!henii rus5i5h do 'remeni Petra (er'a%o,C Ruskoi :estnik 82H ?+u"# 6707@2 6H317, G"in5a- S, N, Capiski o &'&3 $ode "er$ei >linki, perva$o ratnika Moskovska$o opolcheniia, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia a5ademiia nau5- 678., G"in5a- Ser%ei, B<ame!haniia na odno mesta i> 5ni%a2 Sra'nenie s'oist' i de" =onstantina ;e"i5a%o s s'oist'ami i de"ami Petra ;e"i5a%o,C Ruskoi :estnik 682/ ? eb 6766@2 60736/., G"in5a- Ser%ei Ni5o"ae'i!h, Capiski "er$ei Nikolaevicha >linki, St, Petersbur%2 Russ5aia Starina- 67G9, Gre!h- N, I, Capiski o moei 4hi4ni, Edited b# E, G, =a(ustina, Mos!o&2 =ni%a- 6GG0, Gre!h- N, I, BObo>renie Rus5oi "iteratur# 6761 %oda,C "yn Otechestva 6G26 ?6769@2 836H, Grammatin- N, , "tikhotvorenie, / 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 ti(o%ra$iia Im(erators5oi Rossiis5oi A5ademii- 67/G, Grot- Ia, and Petr Pe5ars5#- eds, -is0ma N9 M9 ;aram4ina k I9 I9 6mitrievu, St, Petersbur%2 A5ademiia Nau5- 67.., Herder- +ohann Gott$ried, On 2orld History : an ntholo$y, Edited# b# Hans Ad"er and Ernest A, Men>e, Trans"ated b# Ernest A, Men>e &ith Mi!hae" Pa"ma, Armon5- N,I, 2 M,E, Shar(e- 6GGH, Imperial Russia: a "ource %ook, &,(()&.&,, Edited b# *asi" Dm#tr#sh#n, Ne& Ior52 Ho"t- Rinehart- and Winston- 6G.H, Imperator leksandr v -ari4hie i padenie Napoleona ili be4primiernyia cherti velichiia, pravosudiia i bla$osti russka$o tsaria, daruiushcha$o miru mir, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia N, S, ;se'o"o>hs5a%o- 6761, I slavili otchi4nu mech i slovo9 &'&3 $od $la4ami ochevidtsev: poe4iia

i pro4a, Mos!o&2 So'remenni5- 6G7H, BIstoriia Liutera,C Trans"ated b# Ma5sim Ne'>oro', 6ru$ Iunoshestva, —9 ?6766@2 ((, 96368H, Istoriia pervo$o konsula %onaparte so vremeni e$o ro4hdeniia do <iunevil0sko$o mira, / 'o"s, St, Petersbur%- 670/, I'ano'- edor edoro'i!h, "emeistvo "tarichkovykh, Mos!o&2 Dubro'in and Mer>"ia5o'- 6707, I'ano'- , , "ochineniia i perevody 19 19 Ivanova, deistvitel0na$o chlena Obshchestva <iubitelei Rossisskoi "lovesnosti pri IM-+R TOR";OM Moskovskom universitete, 1 'o"s, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 67/1, I, ;, E, BSud (o O"im(ie i"i ssora bo%o' >a S"a'ian i Ga""o' ' 676/ %odu,C :estnik +vropy H826 ?+an 6761@2 603/7, I>mai"o'- ;"adimir, B= mos5o's5im stri5hot'ortsam,C :estnik +vropy .9267 ?Se(t 676/@2 G83G1, IN>mai"o'O,- ;N"adimirO, BRa>'a"in# Mos5'#,C :estink +vropy .G2GJ60 ?Ma# 6768@2 66/36/1, =a"aido'i!h- P, , Ten0 <iudovik X:I na bere$akh Moskvy reki * sentiabria &'&3 $oda9 "ochinenie Moskovska$o 4hitelia, =a>an:2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, =a(nist- ;, ;, "obranie sochinenii v dvukh tomakh, Edited b# D, S, *ab5in, / 'o"s, Mos!o& and Lenin%rad2 AN SSSR- 6G.0, =aram>in- N, M, I4brannye stat0i i pis0ma, Mos!o&2 So'remenni56G7/, =aram>in- N, M, Na tor4hestevnnoe koronovanie e$o imperatorska$o velichestva <+;" N6R -erva$o, samoder4htsa vserossiiska$o, Mos!o&2 Uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6706, =aram>in- N, M, -olnoe sobranie stikhotvoreniia, Edited b# Iu, M, Lotman, Mos!o&JLenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6G.., ;aram4inEs Memoir on ncient and Modern Russia9 Translation and nalysis, Trans"ated b# Ri!hard Pi(es, Ne& Ior52 Atheneum6G.., =h'osto'- D, I, -olnoe sobranie stikhotvoreniia, H 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 im(erators5aia rossiss5aia a5ademiia- 67/736781, =h'osto'- D, I, Oda na sluchai voiny i pobed &'(* $oda, chitannaia na -ublichnom kte, v universitetskom bla$orodnom pansione, dekabria 3K dnia &'(* $oda, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- n, d, =orbe"ets5ii- edor I'ano'i!h, ;ratkoe povestvovanie o vtor4henii !rantsu4ov v Moskvu i o prebyvanii ikh v onoi, St, Petersbur%2 De(artament 'neshnei tor%o'"i- 6768,

=orbe"ets5ii- , I, Oda na pobedy v italii voisk e$o imperatorska$o velichestva -avla perva$o samoder4htsa vserossiiska$o pod predvoditel0stvom $eneral)!el0dmarshala "uvorova) Rimnikska$o &,.. $oda, St, Petersbur%2 n,(,- 6HGG, =orbe"ets5ii- , I, Oda v chest0 pobedonosna$o rossiiska$o voinsta, po poluchenii i4vestiia o be$stve i4 Moskvy Napoleona, i o sovershennym e$o pora4henii, St, Petersbur%2 De(artament 'neshnei tor%o'"i- 6768, =o'an:5o- I, A, BPesnia Rus5a%o so"data ' soiu>noi armii sobiraiush!heisia na Reine ' (os"ednii (o5hod (roti' Na(o"eona *ona(arte,C "yn Otechestva //2/6 ?6769@2 9H, =riu5o's5oi- Mat'ei, -o4harskoi9 Tra$ediia v trekh deistviiakh, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5ii teatr- 670H, ; "ibiri, o vseobshchei patrioti4me, St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'676/, =u%ushe'- N, M, -ra4dnoe vremia invalida, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitet5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, =units#n- A, BG"as rus5a%o,C "yn Otechestva 62/ ?676/@2 1831., =units#n- A, BPos"anie 5 rus5im,C "yn Otechestva /29 ?676/@2 6H83 676, =units#n- A, BRe!h: S5i$s5a%o (os"a A"e5sandru Ma5edons5omu,C "yn Otechestva /266 ?676/@2 67G36G1, NLab>in- A, ,O Obstoiatel0noe i4vestie o chudesnom spasenii vdovy $eneral)maior I9 L19M MLiulinoiM pri nashestvii na Moskvu !rantsu4ov v &'&3 $odu, St, Petersbur%2 Mors5aia ti(o%ra$iia676/, Lamans5ii- I, BRa>bor re!hi Pros'iash!henna%o P"atona mitro(o"ita Mos5o's5a%o (ra>dnesennoi (ri 5oro'anii EGO IMPERATORS=OGO ;ELICHEST;A ALE=SANDRA I,C :estnik +vropy .126. ?676/@2 /HG3/77, Le'shin- ;asi"ii A"e5see'i!h, -oslanie russko$o k !rantsu4oliubtsam9 :mesto podarka v novyi &'(, $od, St, Petersbur%2 , Dre5s"er670H, <iteratura drevnei rusi: khrestomatiia, Edited b# D, S, Li5ha!he', St, Petersbur%2 A5ademi!hes5ii (roe5t- 6GGH, The <iterature o! +i$hteenth)Century Russia, Edited b# Haro"d *, Se%e", / 'o"s, Ne& Ior52 E, P, Dutton R Co,- In!,- 6G.H, <iteraturnye salony i kru4hki: -ervaSa polovina XIX veka, Edited b# N, L, *rods5ii, Hi"desheim- Ne& Ior52 Geor% O"ms ;er"a%- 6G71, M,- A, I4stuplenie !rantsu4skoi politiki v &. veka, N,(- n,d, M,- A, O vseobshchei monarkhii v politicheskom i nravstvennom smysle, St, Petersbur%2 , Dre5hs"er- 6768,

Mas"o'- S, A, -uteshestvie v Moskvu vo vremia prebyvaniia v onoi !rantsu4ov, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, Materialy dlia istorii prosveshcheniia v Rossii: Moskovskii universitet i "t9 -eterbur$skii uchenyi okru$ v &'&3 $odu, Edited b# =, ;oens5ii, St, Petersbur%2 Ministerst'o Narodna%o Pros'esh!heniia- 6G6/, Memors5ii- M, Nabliudatel0 proi4shestvii ili v4$liad na pobedy ruskikh, / 'o"s, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia N, S, ;se'o"o>hs5a%o- 6768, Memors5ii- M, Russkie slaviatsia i tor4hestvuiut v -ari4he9 " kratkim opisaniem sei stolitsy, i Otchaianie Napoleona %onaparte, %yvsha$o obladatelia se$o 4namenitna$o $oroda, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia N, S, ;se'o"o>hs5a%o- 6761, Mer5e"- G, B= >hite"iam ost>eis5i5h (ro'intsii Rossii,C :estnik +vropy .126. ?Se(t 676/@2 80.380G, Mer>"ia5o'- A, , >las radovaniia voskhishchennykh mu4, po sluchaiiu, vo4hdenneisha$o pribytiia v pervoprestol0nyi $rad Moskvu vsemilostiveisha$o $osudaria imperatora leksandra -erva$o, v pervyi ra4 po eia vo4obnovlenii , Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 676., Mer>"ia5o'- A, , BPis:mo A"e5seiia edoro'i!ha Mer>"ia5o'a 5 edoru Mi5hai"o'i!hu ;e":iamino'u3<erno'u - o Mos5'e (os"e (o>hara 676/ %oda,C Russkii rkhiv L2L 60H6360HH, Mer>"ia5o'- A, , "lovo pokhval0noe vsemilostiveishemu $osudariu imperatoru leksandru pervomu, av$usteishemu i4bavateliu i mirotvortsu +vropy, proi4nesennoe v publichnom $odovom sobranii imperatorsko$o moskovska$o universiteta Iiulia &( dnia &'&O $oda, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, ?Printed in (art2 B;#(us5i i> Re!hi- (roi>nesennoi A, , Mer>"ia5o'#m ' %odo'om sobranii Mos5o's5a%o im(erators5a%o uni'ersiteta 60 Iiu"ia 6761 %oda,C Ruskoi :estnik /7261 ?6761@2 8.31G,@ Mer>"ia5o'- A, , "tikhotvoreniia, / 'o"s, Mos!o&2 obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei rossiis5oi s"o'esnosti- 67.H, Mi"ono'- Mi5hai" ;asi"e'i!h, "atiry, poslaniia, i dru$ie melkie stikhotvoreniia, St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'- 6768, Mir +vropy ili kartina slavy imperatora leksandra I, / 'o"s, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia N, S, ;se'o"o>hs!5o%o- 6761, Montes)uieu- Char"es de Se!ondant- baron de, Tuvres ComplUtes, Edited b# Ro%er Cai""ois, / 'o"s, Paris- Ga""imard- 6G1G36G96, Moskovskii universitet v vospominaniiakh sovremennikov, &,**) &.&,, Edited b# Iu, N, Eme":iano', Mos!o&2 So'remenni56G7G,

BMos5o's5iia >a(is5i-C :estnik +vropy .926H?Se(t 676/@2 .83.7, BM#s"i i (ra'i"a,C "yn Otechestva, /2H ?676/@2 H637/, Pseud2 IA Mysli Napoleona pri vstuplenii v Moskvu, ili ra4$ovor sovesti s ra4lichnymi e$o strastiami, St, Petersbur%2 De(artament 'neshnei tor%o'"i- 6768, BM#s"i o 'ero"omnom 'tor>henii $rantsu>o' ' (rede"# Rosssii-C R:6G2G ?676/@2 6366, BM#s"i o Rossii- i"i ne5otor#ia >ame!haniia o %ra>hdans5om i nra'st'ennom sostoianii Russ5i5h do tsarst'o'aniia Petra ;e"i5a%o,C :estnik +vropy 8626 ?+an 670H@2 83/GA 862/ ?+an 670H@2 60H36/0, Mysli prestarelo$o rossianina v pervyi den0 $envaria &'&K $oda o vo4mo4hnosti pobed rossian nad !rantsu4ckii voiskami s pribavleniem nekotorykh politicheskikh i voennykh 4amechanii , Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, BNe5otor#e mneniia o ;o":tere- Russo I "iterature semnadtsata%o 'e5e,C Trans"ated b# Ma5sim Ne'>oro', 6ru$ Iunoshestva 6/ ?6766@2 1639H, Ne'>oro'- Ma5sim, Napoleonova politika ili tsarstvo $ibeli narodnoi i sostoianie evropeishkih $osudartstv do nachatiia !rantsu4skoi voiny &'&3 $, Mos!o&- 6768, Ne'>oro'- Ma5sim, Tri Ody, /nd (rt, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, Ni5o"e'- N, P, ;hor dlia -ol0ska$o, petyi v publichnoi maskerade >enerala Maiora i ;avalera -etra ndreianovicha -o4dniakova, Mos!o&2 A, Reshetni5o'- 6761, Ni5o"e'- N, P, Tri liricheskiia stikhotvoreniia, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, O"enin- A"e5sei, BPis:mo 5 Ar5himandritu i"aretu,C "yn Otechestva H28/ ?6768@2 /6G3///, BO no'oi 5ni%e2 Sobranie sti5hot'orenii- otnosiash!hi5hsia 5 ne>ab'ennomu 676/ %odu,C I"> 826J/ ?+u"#JAu% 6761@2 6..3 6.7, Orest ;iprensii9 -erepiska9 6okumenty9 "videtil0stva "ovremennikov , Edited b# Ia, ;, *ru5, St, Petersbur%2 Is5usst'o3SD*- 6GG1, O sooru4henii pamiatnika $ra4hdaninu ;o40me Mininu i boliainu ;nia4iu -o4harskomu, St, Peterbur%2 meditsins5aia ti(o%ra$iia670G, Osta!0evskii arkhiv knia4ei :ia4emskikh, 7 'o"s, St, Petersbur% 2 I>d, S,D, Sheremete'a- 67GG36G68, Os'inni5o'- N, G, B;os(ominanie stara%o 5ni%o(rad'tsa o Peterbur%s5oi 5ni>hnoi tor%o'"e >a (iatidesiati"etie do 67H0 %,C

in Materialy dlia istorii russkoi kni4hnoi tor$ovli, St, Petersbur%2 I, I, G"a>uno'- 67HG, O>ero'- ;, A, BDmitrii Dons5oi, Tra%ediia ' (iati deist'iia5h,C in "ocheniniia :9 9 O4erova, ;o", /, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5oi teatr- 676., Pa'"o's5ii- A", Chudo i4 chudesa9 "tikhi $ospodinu $eneral) !el0dmarshalu, svetleishemu knia4iu Mikhailu <arionovichu >olenishchevu);utu4ovu)"molenskomu na pora4henie !rantsu4skikh voisk i ochishchenie ot nikh Rossii, St, Petersbur%2 Mors5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, P"aton- Metro(o"itan o$ Mos!o&, Letter o$ /8 +u"# 676/ to Tsar A"e4ander, "evernaia -ochta - —.. ?6H Au% 676/@2 6, BPis:ma 5 ;, A, <hu5o's5omu,C Russkii rkhiv ?67H6@2 ((, 681367H, BPis:mo o n#neshni5h obstoiate":st'a5h nashi5h s Rossii,C :estnik +vropy H828 ?6761@2 963.8, BPo"iti!hes5iia i>'estiiaC :estnik +vropy H826 ?6761@2 .93H7, BPo"iti!hes5ie otr#'5i d"ia dobr#5h Nemtso'-C :estnik +vropy .926GJ/0 ?O!t 676/@2 80.3866, BPo!hemu o(asna na(o"eono'no (ra'ite":st'o,C R; 626 ?+an 6768@2 9/397, BPortret G, ;o":tera,C Trans"ated b# Ma5sim Ne'>oro', 6ru$ Iunoshestva, —. ?6766@2 8H31/, -lach0 rossiianki na ra4valinakh Moskvy, St, Petersbur%2 I, *ai5o'6768, PEN, B*eseda Rus5a%o s soot!hi!hami s'oimi na ra>'a"#na5h Mos5'# ?' O5tiabre 676/@,C "yn Otechestva /2. ?676/@2 //63 /8/, -oety &,.()&'&(kh $odov, Edited b# Iu, M, Lotman, Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6GH6, -oety)Radishchevtsy, Edited b# P, A, Or"o', Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6GHG, -olnoe sobranie 4akonov rossiisskoi imperii, s &BO. $oda , ;o", 8/2 676/36769, St, Petersbur%2 II otede"enie sobst'ennoi e%o im(erators5a%o 'e"i!hest'a 5anste"iarii- 6780, Po(o'- I'an, Oda na sluchai vysochaisha$o +$o Imperatorska$o velichestva mani!esta, i4danna$o v$usta K( chisla L&'(BM , Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- n,d, Po(o'- I'an, Oda na sluchai vysochaisha$o +$o Imperatorska$o velichestva mani!esta, i4danna$o Noibria &B dnia &'(B $oda, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- n,d, Po(o'- I'an, Oda na sovershennoe ni4lo4henie vra$a rossii i vselennoi, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761,

Po(o'- I'an, Oda na 4akliuchennyi me4hdu rossieiu i !rantsieiu mir, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, Po(o'- I'an, -evets sredi Moskovskikh $ra4hdan, /nd (rintin%, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, Po(o'- I'an, -esn0 na pribytie e$o imperatorsko$o velichestva i4)4a $ranitsy v "anktpeterbur$, po 4akliuchenii s 1rantsieiu mira, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, Po(o'- I'an, -esn0 na tor4hestvennoe vshestvie vseav$usteisha$o $osudaria imperatora leksandra perva$o v -ari4h, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, BPo>hert'o'aniia ot (er'o(resto":na%o %rada-C I"> 826 ?+u"# 676/@2 H93HG, BPrimer# !hestnosti i userdiia s"u% russ5i5h,C :estnik +vropy .926GJ/0 ?O!t 676/@ .92 /H/3/G0. Rassu4hdenie ob uchastii, priemlemom Rossiei v nyneshnei voine, sochinennoe dru$om politicheskoi svobody i v4aimnoi ne4avisimosti vsekh narodov v nachale &'(, $, =e":n- 670H, Ra4$ovor dvukh rossian i istinnyia chuvstva rossiiska$o dvorianina pri poluchenii vysochaishe$o mani!esta ot B iiulia &'&3 $, Mos!o&2 A, ;oei5o' i 5om(aniia- 676/, Ra4smotrenie -oliticheskikh proi4shesvii nyneshnia$o vremeni, pisannoe Russkim -atriotom k e$o sootechestvinnikam, St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'- 670., BRe!h: na tor>hest'o- (o s"u!haiu (obed- oder>hann#5h rossiiss5im 'oinst'om nad $rantsu>s5oiu armieiu 676/ %oda Noiabria 93%o i .3%o- %o'orennaia toro >he Noiabria /83%o,C :estnik +vropy ..2/6J// ?No' 676/@2 836/, BRe!h:- (roi>nesennaia Smo"ens5im d'orianinom OŽ ' (risutst'ii mno%i5h d'orian- sobrann#5h ' Smo"ens5e 6.3% iiu"ia 676/ %, (ri i>branii !hino'ni5o' 'o 'remennoe o(o"!henie,C Russkii :estnik 8269 ?6761@2 10, BRossiis5omu 'oinst'u na (obed# ' na!ha"e 670H %oda,C :estnik +vropy 8621 ? eb 670H@2 869386H, Rosto(!hin- , ;, Mysli v slukh na krasnom kryl0tse, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia P"atona *e5eto'a- 670H, Rosto(!hin- , ;, Okh, 1rantsu4yX Edited b# G, D, O'!hinni5o', Mos!o&2 Russ5aia 5ni%a- 6GG/, Rousseau- +ean +a!)ues, +mile, or, On +ducation9 Trans"ated b# A""an *"oom, Ne& Ior52 *asi! *oo5s- 6GHG, Russkie esteticheskie traktaty pervoi treti XIX veka v dvukh tomakh, Edited b# <, A, =amens5ii, Mos!o&2 Is5usst'o- 6GH1, Russkie prosvetiteli 5ot Radishcheva do 6ekabristov7, Edited b# I, Ia, Sh!hi(ano', / 'o"s, Mos!o&- BM#s":C 6G..,

R,- R, BRa>m#sh"eniia rus5a%o (atriota o b#str#5h us(e5ha5h ra>rushite":noi sistem# rantsu>s5o%o (ra'ite":st'a,C "yn Otechestva 1260 ?6768@2 619369G, S ,,, a- N, ;hram "lavy, opera v trekh deistviiakh, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, Sha5ho's5oi- A, A, ;o4ak stikhotvorets, anekdotskaia opera vodevil0 v odnom deistvii, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5oi teatr- 6769, Sha5ho's5oi- A, A, ;restiane ili vstrecha ne4vannykh9 Novaia opera vodevil0 v dvukh deistviiakh, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5oi teatr- 6769, Sha"i5o'- Petr I, Istoricheskoe i4vestie o pred99 v Moskve !rantsu4y v &'&3 $odu, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia S, Se"i'ano's5o%o- 6768, Sha"i5o'- Petr I, Ostrov +l0ba i novyi "ankho)-ansa, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, Shatro'- Ni5o"ai Mi5hai"o'i!h, "tikhotvoreniia, Mos!o&- 6786, Sh!he%o"e'- N, G, -obednaia pesn0 po poluchenii i4vestiia o v4iatii $oroda -ari4ha soiu4nymi voiskami i otrechenii Napoleona %onaparte ot imperatorskoi !rantsu4skoi korony, sochinennaia Nikoaliem "hche$olevym v &'&O $9 v Moskve, Mos!o&- 6761, Sh!he%o"e'- N, G, -oslanie k moim 4nakomym v nachavshemsia &'&K $odu po i4$nanii !rantsu4ov i4 Rossii, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- n, d, Sh!he%o"e'- N, G, 8teshitel0naia pesn0 so$ra4hdanam Moskvy, sochinennaia v den0 te4oimenstva e$o imperatorska$o velichestva leksandra I, samoder4htsa :serossiiska$o, po sovershenii osviashchenniia v onyi obnovliaema$o moskovska$o bol0sha$o uspenska$o sobora, oskverenna$o i o$rablenna$o nepriiatelem, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, Sh!he%o"e'- N, G, : nedeliu sviatyia paskhi: privetstvie pobedonosnomu rossiiskomu voinstvu, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768, SP%ur- Comte Phi""i(e3Pau" de, Napoleon0s Invasion o! Russia, Trans"ated b# +, Da'id To&nsend, Ne& Ior52 Time In!or(orated6G97, Shish5o'- A, S, Capiski, mneniia i perepiska dmirala 9 "9 "hishkova, / 'o"s, *er"in2 *, *ehr- 67H0, Shish5o'- A, S, "obranie sochinenii i perevodov admirala "hishkova, Rossiiskoi imperatorskoi akademii pre4identa i ra4nykh uchenykh obshchestv chlena, 6. 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia Rossiss5aia A5ademiia- 676736781, Simeon, BRe!h: (ri ot(ra'"enii (omino'eniia (ra'os"a'n#5h 'oino'-

>a 'eru i ote!hest'o >hi'ot !'oi (o"o>hi'shi5h 676/ %oda A'%usta /.3%o dnia 'o brani (od se"om *orodin#m,C :estnik +vropy H6268 ?+u"# 6768@2 763L, ?a"so "yn Otechestva G210 ?6768@2 H13HH, Simeon, BS"o'o na den:s 'osshest'iia na (resto": EGO ;ELICHEST;A,C:estnik +vropy .926H ?Se(tember 676/@2 8369, "obranie stikhotvorenii otnosiashchikhsia k ne4abvennomu &'&3 $odu, / 'o"s, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6761, "obranie vysochaishikh mani!estov, $ramat, uka4ov, reskriptov, prika4ov voiskam i ra4nykh i4vieshchenii, posliedovavskikh v techenie &'&3)&'&B $$, St, Petersbur%2 Mors5aia ti(o%ra$iia676., "tikhotvornaia tra$ediia, Edited b# ;, A, *o!h5are', /nd ed, Mos!o& and Lenin%rad2 So'ets5ii (isate":- 6G.1, Stra5ho'- N, BDo(ros '>iatoi Minosom s Na(o"eono'a "iubomtsa,C "yn Otechestva 6.28H ?6761@2 /013/0G, Tim5o's5ii- R, , BTor>hest'o Mos5o's5i5h mu>- 'os5hish!henn#5h be>smertn#mi deianiiami ;e"i5a%o Gosudaria Im(eratora ;serossiis5a%o A"e5sandra I,C "yn Otechestva 682/0 ?6761@2 83 /0, U,- S, Mysli Napoleona pri vstuplenii v Moskvu, ili ra4$ovor sovesti s ra4lichnymi e$o strastiami, St, Petersbur%2 De(artament 'neshnei tor%o'"i- 6768, ;, BPrie>d Im(eratora A"e5sandra I ' Mos5'u,C Russkaia "tarina 696 ?6G6/@2 H6379, ;,,,m- A, Opisanie danna$o v Moskve &. Maiia &'&O obshchestvom bla$odarnnykh liudei, po sluchaiu v4iatiia Rossiiskimi voiskami -ari4ha i shchaslivykh proi4shestvii posledovavshikh 4a 4aniatiem sei "tolitsy, Mos!o&2 S, Se"i'ano's5aia ti(o%ra$iia6761, ;e":iamino'3<erno'- ;, BOda na 'oinu,C :estnik +vropy 802/6 ?O!t 670.@2 /G38/, ;ia>ems5ii- Petr, -omniki po %orodinskoi bitve i vospominaniia o &'&3 $ode, Mos!o&2 Ti(o%ra$iia Gra!he'a i 5om(,- 67.G, ;i%e":- , , Capiski, 8 'o"s, Mos!o&2 Arte": (isate"ei =ru%- 6G/7 ?;o"s, I3II- r(t, Cambrid%e2 Orienta" Resear!h Partners- 6GH1@, ;oei5o'- A, B= moim so%ra>hdanam,C :estnik +vropy 862/ ?+an 670H@2 6/036/6, ;osto5o'- A"e5sandr =hristo$oro'i!h, -erepiska 9 ;h9 :ostokova v povremennom poriadke, St, Petersbur%2 Im(erators5aia a5ademiia nau5- 67H8, :4$liad na politicheskoe sostoianie +vropy s pribavleniem Russkikh

anekdotov, Istinno%rad- 670.A St, Petersbur%2 A5ademiia nau5670., <a5haro'- I, S, Mirskaia skhodka9 Cabava v odnom deistvii, sochinennaia po sluchaiu vtor4henii nepriiatelia v Rossiiu, ra4oreniia im Moskvy i postydna$o be$stva i4 onoi, St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'- 6768, <a5haro'- I, S, :ysylka 1rantsu4ov, St, Petersbur%2 I'an G"a>uno'670H, Medieval Russia0s +pics, Chronicles, and Tales, Edited b# Ser%e A, <en5o's5#, Re'ised ed, Ne& Ior52 Meridian- 6GH1, <hdano'- Petr, -amiatnik !rantsu4am ili -rikliucheniia Moskovska$o 4hitelia -9 9 9 Ch 9 9 9, Ti(o%ra$iia I, *ai5o'a- 6768, <hi5hare'- Ste(an Petro'i!h, Capiski sovremennika, / 'o"s, Lenin%rad2 Is5usst'o- 6G7G, <hu5o's5ii- ;, A, Imperatoru leksandru, St, Petersbur%2 , Dre5hs"er6769, <hNu5ho's5iiO- ;, NA,O BPesnia ' 'ese"oi !has,C :estnik +vropy .H26J/ ?+an 6768@2 H.3HH, Cnai ruskikh, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6768,

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Ior5- 6GG6, Andree'- Andrei Iure'i!h, BMGettin%ens5aia dusha: Mos5o's5o%o uni'ersiteta2 I> istorii nauh!n#5h '>aimo s'ia>ei Mos5'# i Gettin%ena ' na!ha"e QIQ sto"etiia,C ?http:YYmuseum9$uru9ruYdataYbibliotekaYocherkiY$otin$en9htm @ Andree'- A, Iu, Moskovskii universitet v obshchestvennoi i kulAturnoi 4hi4ni Rossii nachala XIX veka, Mos!o&2 Ia>#5i russ5oi 5u":tur#/000, Ara(o'- Pimen, <etopis0 russka$o teatra, St, Petersbur%2 N, Tib"ena67.6, Ar5han%e":s5ii- A"e5sandr Ni5o"ae'i!h, BLibera":naia uto(iia ' %ro>u d'enadtsato%o %oda,C Chelovek 9?6GG8@2 88311, Artem:e'a- T, ;, Russkaia istorioso!iia X:III veka, St, Petersbur%2 i>date":st'o San5t3Peterburs5o%o uni'ersiteta- 6GG., Auerba!h- Eri!h, "cenes !rom the 6rama o! +uropean <iterature, Ne& Ior52 Meridian- 6G9G, *aehr- Ste(hen Lessin%, B rom Histor# to Nationa" M#th2 Translatio Imperii in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russia,C Russian Revie# 8H26 ?+an 6GH7@2 6368, *aehr- Ste(hen Lessin%, The -aradise Myth in +i$hteenth)Century Russia: 8topian -atterns in +arly "ecular Russian <iterature and Culture, Stan$ord2 Stan$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG6, *ann, Ste(hen, Romanticism and the Rise o! History, Ne& Ior52 T&a#ne- 6GG9, *ant#sh3=amens5ii- Dmitrii N, "lovar0 dostopamiatnykh liudei russkoi 4emli, soder4hashchii v sebe 4hi4n0 i deianiia 4namenitykh polkovodtsev, ministrov i mu4hei $osudarstvennykh, velikikh ierakhov pravoslavnoi tserkvi, otlichnykh literaratov i uchenykh, i4vestnykh po uchastiiu v sobytiiakh otechestvennoi istorii, 9 'o"s, Mos!o&- 678., 6opolnenie, 8 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 Shtaba Otde":na%o =or(usa ;nutrennei stra>hi671H, *arran- Thomas Pau", Russia Reads Rousseau, &,B3)&'3*, E'anston2 North&estern Uni'ersit# Press- /00/, *arran- Thomas, BThe ren!h Re'o"ution and Russian Rea!tions to Rousseau:s -remier 6iscours-C Revue des +tudes "laves 96263 /?6G7G@2 76379, *ar>un- +a!)ues, Classic, Romantic, and Modern, Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o Press- 6GH9,

*e!5er- Car" L, The Heavenly City o! the +i$hteenth)Century -hilosophers, Ne& Ha'en2 Ia"e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G8/, *er!o'it!h- Sa!'an, The merican ?eremiad, Madison2 Uni'ersit# o$ Wis!onsin Press- 6GH7, *eiser- rederi!5, +nli$htenment, Revolution, and Romanticism: the >enesis o! >erman -olitical Thou$ht, &,.()&'((, Cambrid%eMA2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG/, *erdiae'- Ni5o"ai, Russkaia ideia: Osnovnye problemy russkoi mysli XIX veka i nachala XX veka, Paris2 IMCA- 6G1., *ere>ina- ;, G, et a", Istoriia russkoi 4hurnalistiki X:III)XIX vekov, Mos!o&2 B;#sshaia sh5o"a-C 6GH8, *er"in- Isaiah, BThe Counter En"i%htenment-C in his $ainst the Current: +ssays in the History o! Ideas, Edited b# Henr# Hard#, Ne& Ior52 ;i5in%- 6G70, *er"in- Isaiah, The Crooked Timber o! Humanity: Chapters in the History o! Ideas, Edited b# Henr# Hard#, Prin!eton- N,+,2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG0, *e'ir- Mar5, BHo& to *e an Intentiona"ist,C History and Theory 16 ?Ma# /00/@2 /0G3/6H, *e'ir- Mar5, BMind and Method in the Histor# o$ Ideas,C History and Theory 8. ?Ma# 6GGH@2 6.H367G, *eu5en- Wim, Messianism throu$h History, Mar#5no""2 Orbis- 6GG8, %io$ra!icheskii slovar0 pro!essorov i prepodavatelei imperatorska$o moskovska$o universiteta, 4a istekaiushchee stoletie, so dnia uchre4hdeniia ianvaria &3)$o &,** $oda, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6799, *i"en5in- ;"adimir, 1rom Nature to History: N9 M9 ;aram4in in the Conte/t o! +uropean esthetic Thou$ht, Ph,D, DissertationUni'ersit# o$ Pittsbur%h- 6GH/, *i"en5in- ;"adimir, KThe Sub"ime Moment2 ;e"i!hest'ennoe in N, M, =aram>in•s Letters o$ a Russian Tra'e"er,K "lavic and +ast +uropean ?ournal 1/21 ?Winter 6GG7@2 .093./0, *i""in%ton- +ames, The Icon and the /e: n Interpretive History o! Russian Culture, Ne& Ior52 ;inta%e- 6GH0, *"a!5- +, L, Citi4ens !or the 1atherland : +ducation, +ducators, and -eda$o$ical Ideals in +i$hteenth Century Russia, *ou"der2 East Euro(ean Tuarter"#- 6GHG, *"a!5- +, La&ren!e, BN, M, =aram>in- Na(o"eon- and the Notions o$ De$ensi'e War in Russian Histor#,C Canadian "lavonic -apers

6/2 6 ?S(rin% 6GH0@2 8031., *"a!5- +, La&ren!e, Nicholas ;aram4in and Russian "ociety: in the nineteenth century : a study in Russian political and historical thou$ht, TorontoJ*u$$a"o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Toronto Press- 6GH9, *oime- A"bert, rt in the $e o! %onapartism, &'(()&'&*, Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o- 6GG0, *onamour- +ean, 9 "9 >riboedov et la vie litt@raire de son temps, Paris2 Presses uni'ersitaires- 6G.9, *o&"t- +ohn E, BNineteenth3Centur# Russian Cari!ature,C in rt and Culture in Nineteenth)Century Russia, Edited b# Theo$anis Sta'rou, *"oomin%ton2 Indiana Uni'ersit# Press- 6G78, *o&"t- +ohn E, BRussian Paintin% in the Nineteenth Centur#,C in rt and Culture in Nineteenth)Century Russia, Edited b# Theo$anis Sta'rou, *"oomin%ton2 Indiana Uni'ersit# Press- 6G78, *rods5ii- N, and N, Sidoro', Otechestvennaia voina v Russkoi poe4ii, Mos!o&2 Po":>a- n,d, *ro&n- Wi""iam Ed&ard, History o! +i$hteenth)Century Russian <iterature, Ann Arbor2 Ardis- 6G70, *ro&n- Wi""iam Ed&ard, History o! Russian <iterature o! the Romantic -eriod, 1 'o"s, Ann Arbor2 Ardis- 6G7., *run3<eDmis- +u"ia, BMessiani! Cons!iousness as an E4(ression o$ Nationa" In$eriorit#2 Chaadae' and Some Sami>dat Writin%s o$ the 6GH0s,C in "lavic Revie# 9028 ? a"" 6GG6@2 .1.3.97, *u"i!h- N, N, Ocherki po istorii russkoi literatury i prosveshcheniia s nachala XIX veka, / 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 M, M, Stasiu"e'i!h6G6/, *ur#- +, *, The Idea o! -ro$ress: an InIuiry into Its Ori$ins and >ro#th, Ne& Ior52 Ma!Mi""an- 6G8/, *u5hert- *, G, BP, A, ;ia>ems5iiEs"u>hash!hii Me>he'oi 5antse"iarii,C "ovetskie arkhivy 6?6G7G@2 .13.H, *ush5o'it!h- Pau", BOrthodo4# and O"d Rus: in the Thou%ht o$ S, P, She'#re',C 1orschun$en 4ur osteuropZischen $eschichte 1. ?6GG/@2 /083//0, *utter$ie"d- H, Christianity and History, Ne& Ior52 Char"es S!ribner:s Sons- 6G90, Cassirer- Ernst, The -hilosophy o! the +nli$htenment, Trans"ated b# rit> C, A, =oe""n and +ames P, Pette%ro'e, *oston2 *ea!on Press- 6G96, Char"ton- D, G, The 1rench Romantics, / 'o"s, Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e

Uni'ersit# Press- 6G71, Chere(nin- L, ;, Istoricheskie v4$liady klassikov russkoi literatury , Mos!o&2 BM#s":C- 6G.7, Chernia's5ii- Mi!hae", BMHo"# Russia:2 A Stud# in the Histor# o$ an Idea,C merican Historical Revie#- .828 ?A(ri" 6G97@2 .6H3.8H, Chernia5s5ii- Mi!hae", Tsar and -eople: "tudies in Russian Myths, Ne& Ior52 Random House- 6G.G, Chisto'i!h- I, A, Rukhovodiashchiie deiateli dukhovna$o prosveshchennia v Rossii v pervoi polovine tekushcha$o stoletiia, St, Petersbur%2 sinoda":naia ti(o%ra$iia- 67G1, C"ard#- +esse ;, >9 R9 6er4havin: a -olitical %io$raphy, The Ha%ue2 Mouton- 6G.H, Co"in- Mauri!e, BComment ":o(inion russe a3t3e""e (u (er!e'oir et ressentir "es idees re'o"utionaires $ran–aises ?6H7G36767@LC Revue des +tudes "laves 96263/ ?6G7G@2 7H3606, Comparative Romanticisms: -o#er, >ender, "ubSectivity , Edited b# Larr# H, Peer- and Diane Lan% Hoe'e"er, Co"umbia- SC2 Camden House- 6GG7, Cranston- Mauri!e, The Romantic Movement, Cambrid%e2 *"a!5&e""6GG1, Cross- A, G, N9 M9 ;aram4in: a "tudy o! His <iterary Career, &,'K) &'(K, Carbonda"e2 Southern I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GH6, Cross- Anthon# G"enn, Russian <iterature in the $e o! Catherine the >reat: Collection o! +ssays, O4$ord2 Wi""em A, Meeu&s- 6GH., Cross- Anthon# G"enn, BRussian Per!e(tions o$ En%"and- and Russian Nationa" A&areness at the End o$ the Ei%hteenth and the *e%innin% o$ the Nineteenth Centuries,C "lavonic and +ast +uropean Revie# .626 ?+an 6G78@2 7G360., Da":- ;"adimir, Tolkovyi slovar0 4hivo$o velikorussko$o ia4yka, 1 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 Diamant- 6GG., Darnton- Robert, The ;iss o! <amourette: Re!lections in Cultural History, Ne& Ior52 Norton- 6GG0, De Madaria%a- Isabe""a, -olitics and Culture in +i$hteenth)Century Russia, London2 Lon%man- 6GG7, De Madaria%a- Isabe""a, Russian in the $e o! Catherine II, Ne& Ha'en2 Ia"e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G76, 6ictionary o! <iterary %io$raphy, Edited b# Mar!us C, Le'itt, ;o", 690, Detroit2 The Ga"e Grou(- 6GG9, Dmitrie'- Mi5hai", ;nia40 Ivan Mikhailovich 6ol$orukoi i e$o

socheneniia, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6796, Dode"e'- M, A, BRossiia i 'oina is(ans5o%o naroda >a ne>a'isimost: ?670736761@,C :oprosy Istorii 1.266?6GH/@2 88311, Do"inin- A"e4ander, KHistori!ism or Pro'identia"ismL Push5in•s Histor# o$ Pu%a!he' in the Conte4t o$ ren!h Romanti! Historio%ra(h#,K "lavic Revie# 972/ ?Summer 6GGG@2 /G63807, Dunae's5ii- ;, A, Istoriia Otechestvennoi voiny &'&3 $9 8ka4atel0 sovetskoi literatury 5&.&')&..($$97 , Mos!o&2 Nau5a- 6GG/, Dubro'in- Ni5o"ai, BPos"e ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# ?I> russ5oi >hi>ni ' na!ha"e QIQ 'e5a,@ Russkaia "tarina66. ?No' 6G08@2 /163H6 ?(t, 6@A ?De!ember 6G08@2 1763961 ?(t,/@A 66H ?+anuar# 6G01@2 93/7 ?(t, 8@A ? ebruar# 6G01@2 /163H1 ?(t, 1@A ?Mar!h 6G01@2 1763969 ?(t, 9@A ?A(ri" 6G01@2 9381 ?(t, .@A ?Ma# 6G01@2 /163.1 ?(t, H@, Dun!an- Peter +, S, Russian Messianism: Third Rome, Holy Revolution, Communism, and !ter, LondonJNe& Ior52 Rout"ed%e- /000, Dru>hinin- N, M, BIstori!hes5oe >na!henie ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# 676/ %oda,C :oprosy istoriii 6/ ?6G./@2 1739G, Dur#"in- Ser%ei, BRuss5ie (isate"i ' ote!hest'ennoi 'oine 676/ %oda,C :oin 9266 ?6GGH@2 .93H1, D>&i%a"a- W, B;o"taire and the Po"ish En"i%htenment2 Re"i%ious Res(onses,C "++R 7626 ?+anuar# /008@2 H037H, +astern Orthodo/ Theolo$y: a Contemporary Reader, Edited b# Danie" *, C"endenin, Grand Ra(ids2 *a5er *oo5s- 6GG9, Ei5henbaum- *, M, "kov40 literaturu: sbornik stat0ei, Lenin%rad2 A5ademia- 6G/1- re(rinted W”r>bur%2 +ourna"$ran>- 6GH/, Emi":iano'- *, ;, and ;, ;, Suda5o', Istochnikovedenie istorii russkoi obshchestvennoi mysli pervoi poloviny XIX veka, S'erd"o's52 Ura":s5ii %osudarst'enn#i uni'ersitet- 6G79, E(stein- ="aus, The >enesis o! >erman Conservatism, Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.., +ssays on ;aram4in: Russian Man)o! <etters, -olitical Thinker, Historian, &,BB)&'3B, Edited b# +, L, *"a!5, The Ha%ue2 Mouton6GH9, E'tuho'- Catherine and Ste(hen =ot5in- eds, The Cultural >radient: the Transmission o! Ideas in +urope, &,'.)&..&, Lanham- MD2 Ro&man R Litt"e$ie"d- /008, adee'- A, ;, BOte!hest'ennaia 'oina i russ5oe obsh!hest'o,C Istoriia """R . ?6G./@2 6G3/.,

a%%ionato- Ra$$ae""a, B rom a So!iet# o$ the En"i%htened to the En"i%htenment o$ So!iet#2 the Russian *ib"e So!iet# and Rosi!ru!ianism in the A%e o$ A"e4ander I,C "lavic and +ast +uropean Revie# HG28 ?+u"# /006@2 19G317H, edoto'- A, S, and O, E, Nitsie's5ii, BProb"em# '"iianiia ote!thest'ennoi 'oin# 676/ %oda na russ5uiu 5u":turu ' os'esh!hennii russ5oi i so'est5oi istorio%ra$ii,C in Russkaia kul0tura v usloviiakh ino4emnykh nashestvii i voin X)nachalo XXv, ;#(, /, Mos!o&2 AN SSSR- 6GG0, edoto'- G, P, The Russian Reli$ious Mind, ;o", 6, Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G1., enne""- +ohn and Anthon# Sto5es, +arly Russian <iterature, London2 aber and aber- 6GH1, i%es- Or"ando, Natasha0s 6ance: a Cultural History o! Russia, Ne& Ior52 Metro(o"itan- /00/, i":- Hr#horiD, BRe"i%ion and the Russian Arm# in the QIQ Centur#,C in +, G, Pur'es and D, A, West- eds, 2ar and "ociety in Nineteenth Century Russian +mpire, Toronto2 Ne& Re'ie& *oo5s- 6GH/, "oro's5#- Geor%es, The Collected 2orks o! >eor$es 1lorovsky, 6/ 'o"s, ;adu>2 *”!her'ertriebsta"t- 6G7G, "#nn- +ames T, The 8niversity Re!orm o! le/ander I, &'(3)&'K*, Washin%ton- D,C,2 Catho"i! Uni'ersit# Press- 6G77, ontana- *ian!amaria, BThe Na(o"eoni! Em(ire and the Euro(e o$ Nations,C in The Idea o! +urope !rom ntiIuity to the +uropean 8nion, Edited b# Anthon# Pa%den, Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press/00/, ree>e- Gre%or#, KHandmaiden o$ the StateL The Chur!h in Im(eria" Russia Re!onsidered-K +ourna" o$ E!!"esiasti!a" Histor#- 8. ?6G79@2 7/360/, ree>e- Gre%or#, BThe Re!hristiani>ation o$ Russia,C "tudia "lavica 1inlandensia H ?6GG0@2 606368., ree>e- Gre%or#, The Russian <evites: -arish Cler$y in the +i$hteenth)Century, Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press6GHH, ree>e- Gre%or#, BSo!ia" Mobi"it# and the Russian Parish C"er%# in the Ei%hteenth Centur#,C "lavic Revie# 8821 ?De! 6GH1@2 .163../, The 1rench Revolution and the %irth o! Modernity9 Edited b# eren! ehPr, *er5e"e#2 Uni'ersit# o$ Ca"i$ornia- Press- 6GG0, riedman- *arton R, 1abricatin$ History: +n$lish 2riters on the

1rench Revolution, Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6G77, r#e- Northro(, The >reat Code: the %ible and <iterature, Ne& Ior52 Har!ourt *ra!e +o'ano'i!h- 6G7/, uret- ran–ois, 6ictionnaire critiIue de la R@volution !ranDaise, Paris2 "ammarion- 6G77, Ga"a5ho'- A, BOb>or misti!hes5oi "iteratur# 'tsarst'o'anie A"e5sandra I,C in ChMN- 66 ?67H9@2 ((, 7H36H9, Ga"a5ho'- A, BRuss5aia (atrioti!hes5aia "iteratura- 67093676/ %%,C 1ilolo$icheskie 4apiski ;#(, 6 ?67.H@2 638/, Garrard- Graeme, BRousseau- Maistre- and the !ounter3 en"i%htenment,C History o! -olitical Thou$ht 6926 ?6GG1@2 GH3 6/0, Gas(aro'- *oris, -oeticheskii ia4yk pushkina kak !akt istorii russko$o literaturno$o ia4yka, Wien2 Gese""s!ha$t >ur Frderun% s"a&istis!her Studien- 6GG/, Ga#- Peter, The +nli$htenment: n Interpretation, / 'o"s, Ne& Ior52 =no($- 6G..36G.G, Ge"dern- +ames 'on, BThe Ode as a Per$ormati'e Genre,C "lavic Revie# 9021 ?Winter 6GG6@2 G/H3G8G, Gennadi- G, N, "pravochnyi slovar0 o russkikh pisatelei i uchenykh, umershikh v X:III i XIX st9 i spisok russkikh kni$ s &,3* po &'3* $, 8 'o"s, *er"in2 Rosentha"ia and Co,- 67H.36G07, Gerasimo'- Iu, =,- et a",- eds, Istoriia russkoi dramatur$ii: X:III) pervaia polovina XIX veka, Lenin%rad2 i>date":st'o BNau5a-C 6G7/, Gershen>on- M, >riboedovskaia moskva, /nd ed, Mos!o&2 M, R S, Sabashni5o'#5h- 6G6., Gershen>on- M, -9 Ia9 Chaadaev: Chi4n0 i myshlenie, St, Petersbur%2 M, M, Stasius"e'i!h- 6G07, Gite":man- L, I, B:;o":noe obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei s"o'esnosti nau5 i 5hudo>hest': i teatr,C Teatral0noe nasledstvo ?6G9.@2 /1311, G"assP- Antonia, The -oet in "earch o! an udience: Russian -oetry in the le/andrine -eriod, Ph,D, Dissertation2 Co"umbia- 6GH7, G"eason- Wa"ter, Moral Idealists, %ureaucracy, and Catherine the >reat, Ne& *runs&i!5- Rut%ers Uni'ersit# Press6G76,Gennadii- Gri%orii Ni5o"ae'i!h, "pisok russkikh anonimnikh kni$ s imenami ikh avtorov i perevodchikov , St, Petersbur%- 67H1, Go"!>e&s5i- ran5 and Gertrud Pi!5hon, Russischer Nationalismus:

6ie russische Idee im &.9 und 3(9 ?ahrhundert9 6arstellun$ und te/te, GFttin%en2 ;andenhoe!h and Ru(re!ht- 6GG7, Go":dber%- A, L, BPe!hatn#e materia"# (ub"i!hnoi bib"iote5i imeni M, E, Sa"t#5o'a3Sh!hedrina o 'oine 676/ %oda,C :oprosy istorii . ?6G./@2 /073/6/, Gordin- M, A, :ladislav O4erov, St, Petersbur%2 Iss5ust'o- 6GG6, Gors5ii- ;, BRussian Messianism and the Ne& Nationa" Cons!iousness,C in Mi!hae" Meerson3A5seno' and *oris Sha%rin- eds, The -olitical, "ocial, and Reli$ious Thou$ht o! Russian G"ami4datHJan ntholo$y, Trans"ated b# Ni!ho"as Lu(inin, *e"mont- MA2 Nor"and Pub"ishin%- 6GHH, 89838G8, Green- Mi!hae", K=heras5o'•s Gonim#e2 Sha5es(eare•s Se!ond A((earan!e in Russia,K "lavic Revie# 892/ ?+une 6GH.@2 /1G3 /9H, Gu5o's5ii- G, A, Russkaia literatura X:II veka: uchebnik dlia vysshikh uchebnykh 4avedenii, Mos!o&2 Nar5om(ros- 6G8G, Hammer-Wi""iam- BThe Con!e(t o$ the Ne& or Se!ond Rome in the Midd"e A%es-C "peculum 6G ?+an 6G11@2 903./, Hart"e#- +anet M, le/ander I, Lon%man2 London- 6GG1, Hart"e#- +anet M, BIs Russia Part o$ Euro(eL Russian Per!e(tions o$ Euro(e in the Rei%n o$ A"e4ander I,C Cahiers du Monde russe et sovi@tiIue 8821 ?6GG/@2 8.G37., Hart"e#- +anet M, BNa(o"eon in Russia 3 Sa'iour or Anti3ChristLC History Today NGreat *ritainO 16?+an 6GG6@2 /7381, Haumant- Emi"e, <a culture !ranDaise en Russie 5&,(()&.((7, /nd ed, Paris2 Librairie Ha!hette et Cie- 6G68, Heit- Sie%$ried, BGerman Romanti!ism2 an Ideo"o%i!a" Res(onse to Na(o"eon,C Consortium on Revolutionary +urope, &,*()&'*(: -roceedin$s, &.'(- Ed, Dona"d D, Hor&ard, Athens- GA2 the Consortium- 6G70, P(, 67H36GH, Hert>- rederi!5, The >erman -ublic Mind in the Nineteenth Century: "ocial History o! >erman -olitical "entiments, spirations and Ideas, Ed, ran5 E#!5, Trans, Eri! North!ott, Toto&a- N+2 Ro&man and Litt"e$ie"d- 6GH9, Hins"e#- ran!is, -o#er and the -ursuit o! -eace: Theory and -ractice in the History o! Relations %et#een "tates, ?London2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.H@, Hobsba&m- Eri! et a",- eds, The Invention o! Tradition, Ne& Ior52 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G78,

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+ohnston- Otto W, BNa(o"eon and the Germans2 Attem(t at a Criti!a" Dia"o%ue,C Consortium on Revolutionary +urope, &,*()&'*( ?6G70@2 /6/3//0, +ones- Me"issa Ann, u$ustine in Russia, Ph,D Dissertation2 Ari>ona State Uni'ersit#- /000, +ones- W, Gareth, B*io%ra(h# in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russia,C O/!ord "lavonic -apers // ?6G7G@2 97370, +ones- W, Gareth, BThe Mediation o$ ren!h -hilosophe Thou%ht in the 67th3Centur# Russian Periodi!a"s,C Russian <iterature LII ?/00/@2 696369G, +ones- W, Gareth, Nikolay Novikov +nli$htener o! Russia, Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G71, =ahn- Andre&, BReadin% o$ Im(eria" Rome $rom Lomonoso' to Push5in-C "lavic Revie# 9/21 ?Winter 6GG8@2 H193H.7, =aiser- Da'id Aram, Romanticism, esthetics, and Nationalism, Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGG, =anuno'a- aina <ino':e'na, :oprosy mirovo44reniia I estetiki :9 9 Chukovsko$o: po materialam biblioteki poeta, Toms52 I>date":st'o- 6GG0, =a(ustina- T, A, BA"e4andr I i >a%rani!hn#e (o5hod# russ5oi armii 676836761 %%,C in G+pokha napoleonovskikh voin: liudi, sobytiia, ideiH: materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii9 Moskva 3O prelia &..', Mos!o&2 Mu>ei3(anorama B*orodins5aia bit'a-C 6GGG, =ar"ins5#- Simon, Russian 6rama !rom Its %e$innin$s to the $e o! -ushkin9 *er5e"e#2 Uni'ersit# o$ Ca"i$ornia Press- 6G79, ;atalo$ russkikh kni$ po istorii otechestvennoi voiny biblioteki Ivana ;olodeeva, Otde" ;oenn#i, Mins52 *, I, So"omono'a- 6G6/, =a>a5o'- N, I, BNa(o"eon %"a>ami e%o russ5i5h so'remenni5o',C Novaia i noveishaia istoriia 8 ?Ma#3+une 6GH0@2 8631H and 1 ?+u"#3Au% 6GH0@2 1/399A =edourie- E"ie, Nationalism, 1th ed, Cambrid%e2 *"a!5&e""- 6GG8, =hra(5o'- S, BRuss5aia inte""i%entsiia ' Ote!hest'ennoi 'oine 676/ %oda,C Istoricheskii 4hurnal /2661 ?6G18@2 H/3H., =hudushina- I, , BA"e5sandro's5ii mistitsi>m i (rob"ema obno'"eniia (ra'os"a'noi tser5'i ' na!ha"e QIQ 'e5a, in I4 istoriia reli$io4noi !iloso!ii v Rossii XIX)nachalo XX vv, Mos!o&2 AN SSSR- 6GG0, =ir˜"#- *P"a, BNa(o"eon:s Pro!"amation o$ 670G and Its Hun%arian E!ho,C in Intellectual and "ocial 6evelopments in the Habsbur$

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Lo'eDo#- Arthur O, The >reat Chain o! %ein$: "tudy in the History o! an Idea, Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.1 ?/6st r(t, 6GG7@, LF&ith- =ar", Meanin$ in History: the Theolo$ical Implications o! the -hilosophy o! History, Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o Press6G1G, LF&#- Mi!hae" and Robert Sa#re, Romanticism $ainst the Tide o! Modernity, Durham2 Du5e Uni'ersit# Press- /006, L#si5o'a- O, ;, BRa>'itie obsh!hest'ennoi "ibera":noi m#s"i rossiii ' (er'oi !het'erti QIQ 'e5a,C in 6ukhovnaia s!era deiatel0nosti cheloveka, Sarato'2 i>date":st'o sarato's5o%o (eda%o%i!hes5a%o instituta- 6GG., Ma"ia- Martin, Russia under 2estern +yes: !rom the %ron4e Horseman to the <enin Mausoleum, Cambrid%e2 *e"5na(- 6GGG, Ma"#sh5in- S, A, BOb ar5hi'e istori5a Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# 676/ %, A, I, Mi5hai"o's5o%o3Dani"e's5o%o,C "ovetskie arkhivy 1 ?6G7H@2 H63HH, Mande"baum- Mauri!e, BThe Histor# o$ Ideas- Inte""e!tua" Histor#- and the Histor# o$ Phi"oso(h#,C in The Historio$raphy o! the History o! -hilosophyMS3Gra'enha%e2 Mouton R Co,- 6G.9, Mandr#5ina- Liudmi"a A"e5see'na- et a", ;atalo$ rukopisnykh materialov o voine &'&3 $9 khraniashchikhsia v otdele rukopisei >osudartvennoi publichnoi biblioteki, Lenin%rad2 Pub"i!hnaia bib"iote5a Sa"t#5o'a3Sh!hedrina- 6G.6, BMani$est o 'oine Rossii s rantsiei 676/ %oda,C Russkaia "tarina 6?+an3+un 67H0@2 11H3191, Mar5er- Gar#, BThe Ambi%uit# o$ the Ei%hteenth Centur#,C ;ritika /2/ ?S(rin% /006@2 /163/9/, Mar5er- Gar#, B aith and Se!u"arit# in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russian Litera!#- 6H0036HH9,C in Robert P, Hu%hes and Irina Pa(ernoeds, Christianity and the "lavs9 :olume II: Russian Culture in Modern Times, *er5e"e#2 Uni'ersit# o$ Ca"i$ornia Press- 6GG1, Mar5er- Gar#, -ublishin$, -rintin$, and the Ori$ins o! Intellectual <i!e in Russia, &,(()&'((, Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press6G79, Mar5ina- T, ;, BPreos'iash!henn#i A'%ustin ?;ino%rads5ii@ i ote!hest'ennaia 'oina 676/ %,C in +4he$odnaia bo$oslovskaia kon!erentsiia pravoslavno$o sviato)/ instituta, Mos!o&- 6GGH, Martin- A"e4ander, BThe ami"# Mode" o$ So!iet# and Russian Nationa" Identit# in Ser%ei N, G"in5a:s Russian Messen$er ?67073676/@,C

"lavic Revie# 9H26 ?6GG7@2 /731G, Martin- A"e4ander, BThe Res(onse o$ the Po(u"ation o$ Mos!o& to the Na(o"eoni! O!!u(ation o$ 676/,C In Eri! Lohr and Marsha"" Poeeds, The Military and "ociety in Russia, &O*()&.&,, Leiden2 *ri""- /00/, P(, 1.G317G, Martin- A"e4ander, Romantics, Re!ormers, Reactionaries: Russian Conservative Thou$ht and -olitics in the Rei$n o! le/ander I, De=a"b2 North I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGH, Masano'- I, , "lovar0 psevdonymov russkikh pisatelei, uchenykh i obshchestvennykh deiatelei, 1 'o"s, Mos!o&2 ;sesoiu>naia 5ni>hnaia (a"ata- 6G9.3.0, Mash5o'tse'- N, G, and A, , =orostin- eds, Istoriia russko$o iskusstva, / 'o"s, Mos5'a2 Gosudarst'ennoe i>date":st'o Bis5usst'o-C 6G9H, Masonstvo i russkaia literatura X:III)nachala XIX vv, Edited b# ;, I, Sa5haro', Mos!o&2 URSS- /000, Materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii GOtechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 Istochniki9 -amiatniki9 -roblemy9H &..O $, *orodino- 6GG9, Materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii GOtechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 Istochniki9 -amiatniki9 -roblemy9H &..*)&..B $$, *orodino6GGH, Materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii GOtechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 Istochniki9 -amiatniki9 -roblemy9H &.., $, *orodino- 6GG7, Materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii GOtechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 Istochniki9 -amiatniki9 -roblemy9H &..' $, *orodino- 6GGG, Materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii GOtechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 Istochniki9 -amiatniki9 -roblemy9H &... $, *orodino- /000, Ma#er- +, P, -olitical Thou$ht in 1rance, Ne& Ior52 Arno- 6GHG, M!Mahon- Darrin M, +nemies o! the +nli$htenment: the 1rench Counter)+nli$htenment and the Makin$ o! Modernity, Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- /006, Me":ni5o'a- L, ;, BMesto i ro": 'oenno%o du5ho'enst'a ' russ5oi armii ' 676/ %,C in O:I--)&..., Mos!o&2 Mo>hais53Terra- /000, Me":ni5o'a- L, ;, Russkaia pravoslavnaia tserkovA v otechestvennoi voine &'&3 $oda, Mos5'a 2 Mos5o's5ii Sretens5ii monast#r•/00/, Me":ni5o'a- N, N, I4daniia napechatannye v tipo$a!ii moskovso$o universiteta X:III veka, Mos!o&2 i>date":st'o Mos5o's5o%o uni'ersiteta- 6GG.,

Me">er- Arthur M, BThe Ori%in o$ the Counter3En"i%htenment2 Rousseau and the Ne& Re"i%ion o$ Sin!erit#,C The merican -olitical "cience Revie# G02/ ?+une 6GG.@2 81138.0, Mende":son- N, M, Obshchestvo liubitelei rossiiskoi slovesnosti pri Moskovskom universitete: Istoricheskaia 4apiska i materialy 4a sto let, Mos!o&2 A, Sne%ire'a- 6G66, Me#endor$$- +ohn, Rome, Constantinople, Mosco#: Historical and Theolo$ical "tudies, No !it#2 St, ;"adimir:s Press- 6GG., Me#endor$$- +ohn, %y4antine Theolo$y: Historical Trends and 6octrinal Themes, Ne& Ior52 ordham Uni'ersit# Press- 6GH1, Mi5hai"o's5aia- N, M, B<hurna" MS#n Ote!hest'a: (erioda Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# i stano'"eniia de5abri>ma ?676/36767@,C 8chennye 4apiski8dmurtsko$o peda$o$ichesko$o instituta , ;o", 68- ;#(, G ?6G9.@2 9H378, Mi"iu5o'- Pau" et a", The "uccessors o! -eter the >reatJ1rom Catherine I to the Rei$n o! Nicholas I, ;o", /, Trans, Char"es Lam Mar5ham, Ne& Ior52 un5 R Wa%na""s- 6G.7, Mish!hen5o- Tat:iana =onstantino'na, BGro>a d'enadtsato%o %oda,,,C Mir biblio$ra!ii 6?6GGG@2 7137G, Mi>5o- Ni5o"ai, BA"e5sei edoro'i!h Mer>"ia5o',C Russkaia starina /1 ?+an3A(ri" 67HG@2 6683610, Mordo'!hen5o- N, I, Russkaia kritika pervoi chetverti XIX veka, Mos!o& and Lenin%rad2 AN SSSR- 6G9G, Moser- Char"es A, The Cambrid$e History o! Russian <iterature, Ne& Ior52 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G7G, BMos5'a ' 676/ %odu-C Russkii rkhiv ?67H9@2 8.G38GG, Moskovskii 8niversitet i "9 -eterbur$skii uchenyi okru$ v &'&3 $odu , Edited b# =, ;oesn5ii, St, Petersbur%2 Ministerst'o Narodna%o Pros'esh!heniia- 6G6/, Murasho'- +uriD, ?enseits der Mimesis: Russische <iteraturtheorie im &'9 und &.9 ?ahrhundert von M9 :9 <omonosov 4u :9 >9 %elinskiS, Muni!h2 Wi"he"m in5 ;er"a%- 6GG8, Murato'a- =, D, Istoriia russkoi literatury XIX V nachala XX veka9 %iblio$ra!icheskii uka4atel9 Obshchaia chast0, St, Petersbur%2 Nau5a- 6GG8, Narins5ii- Mi5hai" Mat'ee'i!h, BNa(o"eon ' so'remennoi emu Rossiis5oi (ub"itsisti5e i "iterature,C Istoriia """R 6GG0 ?6@2 6/.3 687, Ne5raso'a- M, A, and S, M, <emtso', Otechestvennaia voina &'&3

$oda i russkoe iskusstvo, Mos!o&2 Is5usst'o- 6G.G, Nersisian- M, G, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda i narody ;avka4a, Ere'an2 AN Armans5oi SSR- 6G.9, Nero>na5- ;, P, -ushkin i Obschestvo liubitelei rossiiskoi slovesnosti, Mos!o&2 dom3mu>ei Marinoi Ts'etae'oi- 6GGG, Nestero'a- T, P, -atrioticheskie tendentsii v russkoi poe4ii pervoi poloviny XIX veka ob Otechestvennoi voine &'&3 $9 i !ol0klore: uchebno)metodicheskie posobie po spetskursu GRusskaia poe4iia pervoi poloviny XIX veka,C Mi!hurins52 MGPI- 6GG9, Neuhšuser- Rudo"$, To#ards the Romantic $e: +ssays on "entimental and -reRomantic <iterature in Russia, Ha%ue2 Martinus NiDho$$- 6GH1, Ne&"in- Thomas, The :oice in the >arden: ndrei %olotov and the n/ieties o! the Russian -astoral, &,K')&'KK, E'anston- IL2 North&estern Uni'ersit# Press- /006, Ni!ho"s- Robert L, BOrthodo4# and Russia:s En"i%htenment- 6H./3 67/9,C in Robert L, Ni!ho"s and Theo$anis Geor%e Sta'rou- eds, Russian Orthodo/y under the Old Re$ime, Minnea(o"is2 Uni'ersit# o$ Minnea(o"is Press- 6GH7, Ni!o"osi- Ri!!ardo, BMos5'a ' russ5oi (ane%iri!hes5oi "iterature Q;III 'e5a ?5 (ostano'5e tem#@, Russian <iterature LII ?/00/@2 G93 60G, Ni5o":s5ii- ?Protoerei@ A"e5sandr, Moskovskii ka4anskii sobor v &'&3 $odu, Mos!o&2 Russ5aia (e!hatnia- 6G66, Ni((erde#- Thomas, BRomantis!her Nationa"ismusC in his Nachdenken =ber die deustche >eschichte, Muni!h2 C, H, *e!56G7., No'i5o'a- L, I, and I, N, Si>ems5aia, Russkaia !iloso!iia istoriia, Mos!o&2 Ma%ister- 6GGH, Ocherki po istorii russkoi 4hurnalistiki i kritiki, / 'o"s, Lenin%rad2 Lenin%rad Uni'ersit#- 6G90, O5en$uss- Ma4 +, The Rise and 1all o! <atin Humanism in +arly Modern Russia: -a$an uthors, 8krainians, and the Resiliency o! Muscovy, Leiden2 *ri""- 6GG9, O5in- Susan Mo""er, BRousseau:s Natura" Woman,C The ?ournal o! -olitics 162/ ?Ma# 6GHG@2 8G8316., Or"o'- ;"adimir Ni5o"ae'i!h, Russkie prosvetiteli, &,.()&'(()kh $odov, /nd (rintin%, Mos!o&2 GI=hL- 6G98, Osvoboditel0naia voina &'&K $oda protiv napoleonovsko$o

$ospodstva, M2 i>date":st'o BNau5a-C 6G.9, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda i russkoe obshchestvo 5O:RO7 , H 'o"s, A, =, D>hi'e"e%o' et a"- eds, Mos!o&2 I, D, S#tin- 6G663 6G6/, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 8ka4atel0 literatury9 Mos!o&- no (ub,- 6G1/, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda v basniakh i stikhotvoreniiakh, Edited b# D, I, Ti5homiro', Mos!o&2 =, L, Men:sho'- 6G6/, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda v russkoi poe4ii &. veka, Mos!o&2 GI=hL- 6G16, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda v russkoi poe4ii &. veka, N,(,2 A5ademiia =rasnoi armii- 6G1/, Otechestvennaia voina v russkoi 4hurnalistike9 %iblio$ra!icheskii sbornik statei, otnosiashchikhsia k &'&3 $odu, Edited b# =, ;oesn5ii, St, Petersbur%2 *ere>h"i'ost:- 6G0., O>ou$- Mona, <0homme r@$@n@r@: esssais sur la R@volution !ranDaise, Paris2 Ga""imard- 6G7G, Pa"e#- Morton D, pocalypse and Millennium in +n$lish Romantic poetry, O4$ord2 C"arendon Press- 6GGG, Pa(meh"- =, A, Metropolitan -laton o! Mosco# 5-etr <evshin, &,'K) &'&37: the +nli$htened -relate, "cholar, and +ducator, Ne&ton'i""e- Mass,2 Orienta" Resear!h Pa(ers- 6G78, Pam(eh"- =, A, BThe Tuest $or the Nation:s Cu"tura" Roots in Russian Historio%ra(h# be$ore =aram>in,C in Russia and the 2orld o! the +i$hteenth Century, Edited b# R, P, *art"ett et a", Co"umbus2 S"a'i!a- 6G7.Par5er- Haro"d Ta"bot, The Cult o! ntiIuity and the 1rench Revolutionaries, Chi!a%o2 Uni'ersit# o$ Chi!a%o Press- 6G8H, Passa%e- Char"es E, BThe In$"uen!e o$ S!hi""er in Russia 670036710,C merican "lavic and +ast +uropean Revie#- ;o", 9- No, 6J/, ?Ma#- 6G1.@2 666368H, Pastushen5o- Liudmi"a Mi5hai"o'na, I4 istorii stanovleniia russkoi dramatur$ii vtoroi poloviny X:III veka 5M9 M9 ;heraskov7, Petro(a'"o's53=am!hats5ii2 =PGI- 6GG7, Pinsen- =o((e" S, -ietism as a 1actor in the Rise o! >erman Nationalism, Ne& Ior52 O!ta%on *oo5s- 6G.7, Po!o!5- +, G, A, BEn"i%htenment and Counter3En"i%htenmentRe'o"ution and Counter3Re'o"utionA a Euros!e(ti!a" En)uir#,C History o! -olitical Thou$ht /026 ?6GGG@2 6/9368G, Poe- Marsha"", BI>obretenie 5ontse(tsii BMos5'aETretii Rim,C b Imperio / ?/000@2 .637., Po%odin- M, Nikolai Mikhailovich ;aram4in, po e$o sochineniiam,

pis0mam, i ot4yvam sovremennikam, Mos!o&2 ti(o%ra$iia A, I, Mamonto'a- 67.., -olitical Thou$ht o! the >erman Romantics, Edited b# H, S, Reiss, O4$ord2 *asi" *"a!5&e""- 6G99, Pomar- Mar5 G, Russian Historical 6rama o! the +arly Nineteenth Century, Ph, D, Dissertation2 Co"umbia- 6GH7, Po(5in- +erem# D, BThe *oo5 Trades in Western Euro(e durin% the Re'o"utionar# Era-C The -apers o! the %iblio$raphical "ociety o! merica H721 ?6G71@2 1083119, Po(o'- Ni", BMos5o's5ii uni'ersitet (os"e 676/ %oda-C Russkii rkhiv 6 ?6776@2 87.31/6, BPo(#t5a 5 bor:be s Na(o"eonom (ri (omosh!hi (eriodi!hes5oi (e!hati,C Russkaia starina 8?6G08@2 18H3118, Porter- Ro# and Mi5u"˜™s Tei!h- eds, The +nli$htenment in National Conte/t, Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G76, Pos(ie"o's5#- Dimitr# ;, The Orthodo/ Church in the History o! Russia, Crest&ood2 St, ;"adimir:s Seminar# Press- 6GG7, Po>nans5ii- ;, ;, Ocherk !ormirovaniia russkoi natsional0noi kul0tury pervaia polovina XIX veka, Mos!o&2 BM#s":C- 6GH9, Predte!hens5ii- A, ;, Ocherki obshchestvenno)politicheskoi istorii Rossii v pervoi chetverti XIX veka, Mos!o& and Lenin%rad2 AN SSSR- 6G9H, Predte!hens5ii- A, ;, BOtra>henie 'oina 676/361 %%, ' so>nanii so'remenni5o',C Istoricheskie 4apiski, ;o", 86, Mos!o&- 6G90, P(, //1, Puts5o- ;, G, BMitro(o"it E'%enii *o"5hotino' ob Ote!hest'ennoi 'oine 676/ %oda,C in M9 I9 ;utu4ov i russkaia armiia na II etape otechestvennoi voiny &'&3 $oda: materialy nauchnoi kon!erentsii, posviashchennoi 3*()letiiu so dnia ro4hdeniia M9 I9 ;utu4ova, Ma"oiaros"a'ets2 Ma"oiaros"a'ets5aia ti(o%ra$iia6GG9, P#(in- A, N, ;haracteristika literaturnykh mnenii ot dvadtsata$o do piatidesiata$o $odov, /nd ed, St, Petersbur%2 M, M, Stanius"e'i!ha- 67G0, P#(in- A, N, Obshchestvennoe dvi4henie pri leksandre I, Petro%rad2 O%n:- 6G6., P#(in- A, N, Reli$io4nyia dvi4heniia pri leksandrie I, Petro%rad2 O%n:6G6., P#(in- A, N, Russkoe masonstvo X:III V pervaia chetvert XIX v9 Petro%rad2 O%n:- 6G6H, ?Re(rinted- D”sse"dor$2 *r”!5en3;er"a%6GH0@, Rae$$- Mar!, B i""in% the Ga( bet&een Radish!he' and the

De!embrists-C "lavic Revie#- 82/. ?Se(t 6G.H@2 8G93168, Rae$$- Mar!, -olitical Ideas and Institutions in Imperial Russia, *ou"der2 West'ie&- 6GG1, Rae$$- Mar!, BRussian Euro(eans,C ;ritika: +/ploration in Russian and +urasian History9 12/ ?S(rin% /008@2 87838G1, Raner- Samue" C, KThe Traditiona" and the Modern in the Writin%s o$ I'an Pnin,K "lavic Revie# 8128 ?Se(t,- 6GH9@2 98G399G, Reardon- *ernard M, Reli$ion in the $e o! Romanticism: "tudies in +arly Nineteenth)Century Thou$ht, Cambrid%e2 Cambrid%e Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79, Riasano's5#- Ni!ho"as ;, The +mer$ence o! Romanticism, Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG/, Riasano's5#- Ni!ho"as ;, The Ima$e o! -eter the >reat in Russian History and Thou$ht, Ne& Ior52 O4$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6G79, Riasano's5#- Ni!ho"as ;, BOn Lammenais- Chaadae'- and the Romanti! Re'o"t in ran!e and Russia,C merican Historical Revie# 7/29 ?De! 6GHH@2 66.93667., Riasano's5#- Ni!ho"as ;, -artin$ o! 2ays: >overnment and the +ducated -ublic in Russia: &'(&)&'**, O4$ord2 C"arendon Press6GH., Ri!oeur- Pau", <a m@taphore vive, Paris2 žditions du Seui"- 6GH9, Ro%%er- Hans, National Consciousness in +i$hteenth)Century Russia, Cambrid%e2 Har'ard Uni'ersit# Press- 6G.0, Ro%o'- =, Iu, B= istorii MMos5o's5o%o romanti>ma:2 =ru>ho5 I obsh!hest'o S, E, Rai!ha,C In <otmanovskii sbornik 3 Mos!o&2 O,G,I, I>date":st'o RGGU- 6GGH, P(, 98839H., Romanticism cross the 6isciplines, Edited b# Larr# H, Peer, Lanham2 Uni'ersit# Press o$ Ameri!a- 6GG7, Romanticism and Millenarianism, Edited b# Tim u"$ord, Ne& Ior52 Pa"%ra'e- /00/, Ro&"and- Danie" *, BMos!o&Ethe Third Rome or the Ne& Israe"LC Russian Revie# 99 ?O!t 6GG.@2 9G63.61, Ro&"e#- Da'id G, KRedeemer Em(ireK2 Russian Mi""enarianism, The merican Historical Revie# 60129, ?De!,- 6GGG@2 ((, 697/3 6.0/, Ro>ano'- I, ;, BPatrioti!hes5aia "ir5a (oeto' tre5h (o5o"enii ' Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# 676/36769 %%,C 8chenye 4apiski Moskovsko$o universiteta, ;#(, 667 ?6G1.@2 H/37/, Ro>ano'- Ni5o"ai Pa'"o'i!h, Istoriia moskovska$o eparkhial0na$o upravleniia so vremeni uchre4hdeniia sv9 "ynoda, Part III- *oo5 /, Mos!o&2 T, Ris- 67H6, Ro>h5o'a- E, E, BPeriodi!hes5ie i>daniia mos5o's5o%o uni'ersiteta

na!ha"a QIQ ',C :estnik Moskovsko$o universiteta, Series 72 Histor#, 6 ?6G7.@2 90397, Rudnits5aia- E, L, BMUstoi!hi'ost:E(er'oe us"o'iie obsh!hest'enno%o b"a%o(o"u!hiia:2 Russ5aia m#s": (ush5ins5o%o (erioda-COtechestvennaia istoriia 8?6GGG@2 83/8, Ruud- Char"es, 1i$htin$ 2ords: Imperial Censorship and the Russian -ress, &'(O)&.(B, Toronto2 Uni'ersit# o$ Toronto Press- 6G7/, Russkaia periodicheskaia pechat09 8ka4atel0 soder4haniia, &,3') &..*, St, Petersbur%2 Rossiis5aia natsiona":naia bib"iote5a6GG7, Russkie pisateli &'(()&.&,: %io$ra!icheskii slovar0, Edited b# P, A, Ni5o"ae', 1 'o"s, Mos!o&2 So'ets5aia entsi5"o(ediia- 6G7G3 6GGG, Sa5haro'- ;, I, BSoiu> uma i $urii2 ;e"i5aia $rantsu>s5aia re'o"utsiia %"a>ami russ5i5h romanti5o',C Moskovskii :estnik 6?6GGH@2 /613//1, Sa5u"in- P, N, I4 istorii russka$o ideali4ma9 ;nia40 :9 19 Odoevskii, Myslitel0)pisatel0, / 'o"s, Mos!o&2 M, R S, Sabashni5o'- 6G68, Sa(r#rina- E"ena, BNei>'estn#e (is:ma A"e5sandra I>mai"o'a Ni5o"aiu Grammatinu,C >ubernskii dom 8?6GG9@2 1931H, Sar5is#an>- Emanue", BRussian Im(eria"ism Re!onsidered,C In Russian Imperialism !rom Ivan the >reat to the Revolution, Edited b# Taras Hun!>a5, Ne& *runs&i!52 Rut%ers Uni'ersit# Press- 6GH1, Sa'ino'a- Irina, >ro4a &'&3 $oda i Nov$orodskaia 4emlia: istoricheskii ocherk ob uchastii nov$orodsko$o opolcheniia v otechestvennoi voine &'&3 $oda, No'%orod- 6GG/, Sh!hi(ano'- I, Ia, BOte!hest'ennaia 'oina 676/ %oda i ee '"iianie na ra>'itie obsh!hest'ennoi m#s"i ' Rossii,C :oprosy !iloso!ii 6/ ?6G./@2 H1378, S!haeder- Hi"de%ard, Moskau das dritte Rom9 "tudien 4ur >eschichte der politischen Theorien in der slavischen 2elt, Hambur%2 riedri!hsen- de Gru#ter R Co,- m, *, H,- 6G/G, S!hFn"e- Andreas, BGarden o$ the Em(ire2 Catherine:s A((ro(riation o$ the Crimea,C "lavic Revie# .026 ?S(rin% /006@2 63/8, She'#re'- Ste(an Petro'i!h, Istoriia Imperatorska$o Moskovska$o universiteta, Mos!o&2 uni'ersitets5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6799, Shi":der- N, =, Imperator le/ander -ervyi: e$o 4hi4n0 i tsarstvovanie, 1 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 A, Su'orin- 67GH367G7, Sirot5in- ;, G, BRuss5aia (ressa (er'oi !het'erti QIQ 'e5a na inostranna5h ia>#5a5h 5a5 istori!hes5ii isto!hni5,C Istoriia """R 1?6GH.@2 HH3GH,

S5inner- Tuentin, BMeanin% and Understandin% in the Histor# o$ Ideas-C History and Theory 726 ?6G.G@2 8398, Smirno'- A, BS 5restom ' ru5e '(eredi (o"5a,C Nauka i reli$iia G ?Se(t 6GG6@2 8038/, Smith- Dou%"as, 2orkin$ the Rou$h "tone: 1reemasonry and "ociety in +i$hteenth)Century Russia, De=a"b2 Northern I""inois Uni'ersit# Press- 6GGG, Sne%ire'- I, M, Ocherk 4hi4ni moskovska$o arkhiepiskopa v$ustina , Mos!o&2 %uberns5aia ti(o%ra$iia- 6716, So5o"o'- A, R, BMateria"na (omosh!h: nas"eniia Rossii armii ' 676/ %odu,C :oprosy istorii G ?Se( 6GG7@2 66036/0, Sore"- A"bert, +urope and the 1rench Revolution: the -olitical Traditions o! the Old Re$ime, A"$red Cobban and +, W, Hunteds, London2 Co""ins- 6G.G, Sre>ne's5ii- I, I, "lovar0 drevnerussko$o ia4yka, 8 'o"s, Re(rinted ed, Mos!o&2 =ni%a 6G7G, Ste(ano'- M, and , ;erma"e- eds, B<ho>e$ de Mestr ' Rossii,C <iteraturnoe nasledstvo /G380 ?6G8H@2 9HH3H/., Stremoou5ho$- Dimitri, BMos!o& the Third Rome2 Sour!es o$ the Do!trine,C "peculum /726 ?+an 6G98@2 713606, Stuart- Mar#, ristocrat)<ibrarian in "ervice to the Tsar : leksei Nikolaevich Olenin and the Imperial -ublic <ibrary, *ou"der2 East Euro(ean Mono%ra(hs- 6G7., S'et"o'- L, ;, B:Obsh!hest'o "iubite"ei rossiis5o%o u!henosti: (ri Mos5o's5om uni'ersitete,C Istoricheskii rkhiv ; ?6G90@2 8003 8//, "vodnyi katalo$ russkoi nele$al0noi i 4apreshchennoi pechati XIX veka9 8 'o"s, Mos!o&2 Gosudarst'ennaia bib"iote5i SSSR imeni ;, I, Lenina- 6GHH, Ta"mon- +, L, -olitical Messianism: the Romantic -hase, London2 Se!5er and Warbur%- 6G.0, Tar"e- E, ;, &'&3 >od: i4brannye proi4vedeniia, Mos5'a2 i>date":st'o BPressaC 6GG1, Tarsau"o- Iit>ha5, The Napoleonic Invasion o! &'&3 and the -olitical and "ocial Crisis in Russia, Ph,D Dissertation2 Ia"e Uni'ersit#6G78, Tarta5o's5ii- A, G, :oennaia publitsistika &'&3 $oda, Mos!o&2 I>date":st'o2 BM#s":C 6G.H, Te4isy nauchnoi kon!erentsii GOtechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda9 Rossiia i +vropa,C *orodino2 'oenno3istori!hes5ii mu>ei- 6GG/, Thaden- Ed&ard C, BThe *e%innin% o$ Romanti! Nationa"ism in

Russia-C merican "lavic and +ast +uropean Revie# ?De! 6G91@2 9013., Thaden- Ed&ard C, Interpretin$ History: Collective +ssays on Russia0s Relations #ith +urope, *ou"der2 So!ia" S!ien!e Mono%ra(hs6GG0, Thom(son- Mart#n, BIdeas o$ Euro(e durin% the ren!h Re'o"ution and the Na(o"eoni! Wars,C ?ournal o! the History o! Ideas 9926 ?+an 6GG1@2 8H397, Timo$ee'- L, ;, : kru$u dru4ei i mu4, Mos!o&2 Leni>dat- 6G78, Troits5ii- N, A, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda: isotriia temy, Sarato'2 i>date":st'o Sarato's5o%o uni'ersiteta- 6GG6, Troits5ii- S, "toletie Otechestvennoi voiny &'&3 $oda, Tsarits#n2 E, G, <hi%mans5aia- 6G6/, Troits5ii- ;, Iu, ;hudo4hestvennye otkrytiia russkoi romanticheskoi pro4y 3()K(kh $odov XIX v9 Mos!o&2 I>date":st'o BNau5a-C 6G79, Troits5ii- ;, Iu, Otechestvennaia voina &'&3 $oda i russkaia literatura XIX veka, Mos!o&2 Nas"edie- 6GG7, T#niano'- Iu, N, rkhaisty i Novatory, Lenin%rad2 Priboi- 6G/G, U%urianu- Dan, B;isions o$ Histor#2 ;eterans o$ 676/ on To"sto#:s 2ar and -eace,C "lavic and +ast +uropean ?ournal 1126 ?/000@2 173.8, 8niversitet dlia Rossii : v4$liad na istoriiu kulAtury X:III stoletiia , Edited b# ;, ;, Ponomare'a, Mos!o&2 Russ5oe s"o'o- 6GGH, ;en%ero'- Semen A$anas:e'i!h, Russkiia kni$i, s bio$ra!icheskimi dannymi ob avtorakh I perevodchikah 5&,(')&'.K7, 8 'o"s, St, Petersbur%2 I>d, G, ;, Iudina- 67GH367GG, ;e>otosn#i- ;, M, B*ar5"ai de To""i i nemts# ' 676/ %odu,C in Nemtsy v obshchestvennoi i kul0turnoi 4hi4ni Moskvy, X:I ) nachalo XX veka, Edited b# Iu, A, Petro', Mos!o&2 Gosudarst'enn#i istori!hes5ii mu>ei- 6GGG, ;"as5in- A, G, BOte!hest'ennaia 'oina 676/ %oda i d'i>henie nemets5i5h (atrioto',C Novaia i Noveishaia Istoriia 9?6G./@2 H/3 78, :oina &'&3 $oda i russkaia literatura: Issledovaniia i materialy, T'er:6GG8, ;oini!h- L, ;, B<hurna" MS#n ote!hest'a: ' (eriod 676/3676. %%,C in :oprosy Russkoi literatury, Edited b# N, ;, Ni5o"e', L:'o'2 ;#sh!ha sh5o"a- 6G0/, H83H7, ;se'o"ods5ii ?Gen%ross@- ;, Teatr v Rossii v epokhu otechestvennoi voiny, St, Petersbur%- 6G6/, Wa!hte"- Andre& *aru!h, n Obsession #ith History: Russian 2riters

Con!ront the -ast, Stan$ord2 Stan$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG1, Wa"i!5i- Andr>eD, History o! Russian Thou$ht !rom the +nli$htenment to Mar/ism, Trans, Hi"da Andre&s3Rusie!5a, ?Stan$ord2 Stan$ord Uni'ersit# Press- 6GHG@, Wa"i!5i- Andr>eD, -hilosophy and Romantic Nationalism: the Case o! -oland, Notre Dame2 Uni'ersit# o$ Notre Dame Press- 6GG1, Wa"5er- ran5"in A, KEn"i%htenment and Re"i%ion in Russian Edu!ation in the Rei%n o$ A"e4ander I,C History o! +ducation \uarterly 8/28 ?Autumn 6GG/@2 81838.0, Wa"5er- ran5"in A, BRea!tion and Radi!a"ism in the Russia o$ A"e4ander I2 the Case o$ the *rothers G"in5a,C Canadian "lavonic -apers /621 ?De!ember 6GHG@2 17G390/, Wes- Marinus A, Classics in Russia &,(()&'**: %et#een T#o %ron4e Horseman, =F"n- Leiden- R Ne& Ior52 E, +, *ri""- 6GG/, Wes"in%- Mo""# M, Napoleon in Russian Cultural Mytholo$y, Ne& Ior52 Peter Lan%- /006, Whitta5er- C#nthia H#"a, BThe Idea o$ Auto!ra!# amon% Ei%hteenth3 Centur# Russian Historians,C Russian Revie# 992/ ?A(ri" 6GG.@2 61G36H6, Whitta5er- C#nthia, The Ori$ins o! Modern Russian +ducation : an Intellectual %io$raphy o! Count "er$ei 8varov, &,'B)&'**, De=a"b2 North I""inois- 6G71, Whitta5er- C#nthia H, BThe Re$ormin% Tsar2 the Rede$inition o$ Auto!rati! Dut# in Ei%hteenth3Centur# Russia,C "lavic Revie# 9626 ?S(rin% 6GG/@2 HH3G7, Wisner- Da'id A, The Cult o! the <e$islator in 1rance &,*()&'K(: "tudy in the -olitical Theolo$y o! the 1rench +nli$htenment, O4$ord2 ;o"taire oundation- 6GGH, Wortman- Ri!hard S, "cenarios o! -o#er: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy, ;o", 62 rom Peter the Great to the Death o$ Ni!ho"as I, Prin!eton2 Prin!eton Uni'ersit# Press- 6GG9, Iates- ran!is, The Rosicrucian +nli$htenment, London and Ne& Ior52 Ar5- 6G7., <a!e5- +udith Cohen, The Russian %ible "ociety, &'&3)&'3B, Ph,D, Dissertation2 Co"umbia Uni'ersit#- 6G.1, <a"ess5ii- M, P, B= 'o(rosu o '"iianii sob#tii Ote!hest'ennoi 'oin# 676/ %oda na ra>'itie russ5oi "iteratur#,C 8chennye 4apiski moskovsko$o oblastno$o peda$o$ichesko$o instituta, ;o", 68;#(, 6 ?6G1G@2 6/G36.6, <dene5- Da'id ;, KThe In$"uen!e o$ +a!ob *oehme on Russian Re"i%ious Thou%ht,K "lavic Revie# /626 ?Mar!h 6G./@2 183.1, <en5o's5#- ;, ;, History o! Russian -hilosophy, London2 Rout"ed%e

R =e%an Pau"- Ltd,- 6G98, <hi'o'- ;, M, BGosudarts'enn#i mi$ ' e(o5hu (ros'esh!heniia i e%o ra>rushenie ' Rossii 5ontsa Q;III 'e5a,C in Lotman- IIR;, ((, .9H3.78, <hi'o'- ;, M, and *, A, Us(ens5ii, BMetamor$o># anti!hno%o ia>#!hest'a ' istorii russ5oi 5u":tur# Q;II3Q;III 'e5a,C in Lotman- IIR;, ((, 11G3989, <orin- Andrei, ;ormia dvu$lavo$o orla: literatura i $osudarstvennaia ideolo$iia v Rossii v poslednei treti X:III)pervoi treti XIX veka, Mos!o&2 No'oe "iteraturnoe obo>renie- /006, <orin- Andrei, B;ra% naroda2 5u":turn#e me5hani>m# o(a"# M, M, S(erans5o%o,C Novoe literaturnoe obo4renie 16 ?/000@2 /H3.7, <#5o'a- G, Churnal moskovsko$o universiteta G:estnik +vropyH 5&'(*)&'K( $$97: Ra4nochintsy v epokhu dvorianskoi kul0tury , Mos!o&2 Dia"o%3MGU- 6GG7,