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Summary English Consonants

The standard English consonant system is traditionally considered to comprise 17 obstruents (6 plosives, 2 affricates and fricatives! and 7 sonorants (" nasals, 2 li#uids and 2 semivo$el glides!%
&ilabia l p b m f w l t d 'abio( dental v )enta l   *lveola r t d n s z +ost( alveolar   j w ,etrofle +alata l .elar k g  h /lotta l

+losive 0asal 1ricative *ppro-iman t 'ateral *ppro-iman t *ffricate

2ith the e-ception of the fricative 3h3, the obstruents are usually classified in pairs as 4voiceless and 4voiced4, although the presence or absence of periodicity in the signal resulting from laryngeal vibration is not a reliable feature distinguishing the t$o classes% They are better considered 4fortis4 (strong! and 4lenis4 ($ea5!, $ith duration and intensity of the noise component signalling the distinction ( 1!% The si- plosives are 3p3, 3b3, 3 t3, 3d3, 3 53 and 3 g36 (E-amples $ith sound at6 http633$$$%udl%es3usuaris3m716" 8 3sdbplo%htm ! Symbol 3p3 (.oiceless! 3b3 (.oiced! 3t3 (.oiceless! 3d3 (.oiced! 353 (.oiceless! 3g3 (.oiced! Word +in &in Toy )og ;ind give Transcription 9pin: 9bin: 9toi: 9dg: 95aind: 9giv: Place of Articulation &ilabial *lveolar .elar

The t$o phonemic affricates are 3 t  3 and 3  3 (E-amples $ith sound6 http633$$$%udl%es3usuaris3m716" 8 3sdbfri%htm ! Symbol .oiceles s .oiced 3t3 3d3 2ord church /eorge Fricatives
1 http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/sampa/english.htm

Transcription 9t<6t_: 9d  6d:

+lace of *rticulation +alato( *lveolar

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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Symbol .oiceles s .oiced 1 . Symbol .oiceles s .oiced   Symbol .oiceles s .oiced S = Symbol .oiceles s .oiced   Symbol .oiceles s .oiced ?

2ord 1ine .erb 2ord thought they 2ord say >oo 2ord ship measure 2ord half

Transcription 9fain:

+lace of *rticulation 'abiodental

9v6b: Transcription 96t: )ental 9ei: Transcription 9sei: *lveolar 9>u6: Transcription 9ip: +alato(alveolar 9me<: Transcription 9ha6f: +lace of *rticulation /lotal +lace of *rticulation +lace of *rticulation +lace of *rticulation

The sonorants are three nasals 3m3, 3 n3 and 3 3 (E-amples and sounds at6 http633$$$%udl%es3usuaris3m716" 8 3sdbnas%htm , t$o li#uids 3 r3 and 3 l3, and t$o sonorant glides 3$3 and 3 @36 Symbol A 0  Symbol , ' 2ord Aother 0ose thing 2ord 2rong light asals Transcription 9m  : 9n<>: 9  : !i"uids Transcription 9r: 9lait: +lace of *rticulation 0asals

+lace *rticulation 'i#uids

of

Semivo$els glides Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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Symbol 2 B

2ord 2or5 university

Transcription 9$65: 9@u6nCv<6st:

+lace of *rticulation Semivo$els

1% +'DSE.ES

*lso 5no$n as FStopsG or FDcclusivesG% They are formed by a temporary bloc5ing off the air, then e-plode rapidly (hence the name plosive!%

Image 1

#p##b# Sound +roduction6 To produce 3 p 3 first close your lips hard (Emage 1!% +ush air for$ard in your mouth, and then open your lips #uic5ly% )o not use your voice because it is a voiceless sound% Spanish spea5ers may fail to aspirate this sound, causing confusion $ith 3b3% (See http633$$$%edict%com%h53vlc3pronunciation3consonant3p%htm ! To produce 3b3 use your voice% (Emage 2!

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En the case of 3b3 Spanish spea5ers may pronounce it close to 3v3 in some positions% See (http633$$$%edict%com%h53vlc3pronunciation3consonant3b%htm ! Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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S+E''E0/6 The sound 3p3 is $ritten $ith the letter HpC6 +aper, people, pupil, happy, supper Sometimes English spea5ers do not pronounce FpG6 e%g% cupboard, receipt, empty, @umped The sound 3b3 is $ritten $ith the letter HbC6 &ig 9big:, baby, about English people do not pronounce the sound 3b3 $hen it is follo$ed by FtG e%g% debt 3 doubt 3 subtle 3 3, 3, 3

Dr $hen it is in final position follo$ing an HmC e%g% lamb9 comb9 bomb9 plumber 9 :, :, :, :%

E-amples6 +ractice6 butcher 9 :, picture 9 :, footballer 9 :, potatoes 9 :, pipe9 : bottle of beer 9 bread and butter 9

:, :%

#t#

Sound +roduction%

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Step 1% Step 2

+ut the front of your tongue behind your top teeth% +ush air for$ard in your mouth% Then move your tongue a$ay, releasing the air%

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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*t the end of $ords Spanish spea5ers may confuse the sounds 3 t 3 and 3d3 Spelling The sound 3t3 is $ritten $ith the letter HtC% e%g% time 9 :, late 9 :, little 9 :, dirty 9 :, pretty 9 :, #uiet 9 :, #uite 9 telephone 9

:, :%

En some proper names HthC is pronounced 3t36 Thames 9 Thomas 9 :, : :

3t3 is no usually pronounced bet$een 3s3 and 3l36 castle 9

2e can also find some very $ell 5no$n $ords $here the sound 3t3 is not pronounced6 Christmas 9 :, ballet 9 :, mortgage 9 : See6 http633$$$%edict%com%h53vlc3pronunciation3consonant3t%htm $% AFF&'(AT)S

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( 3 t  3 3d  3 Sound consisting of a stop consonant follo$ed by a fricativeI they are also called affricative% They have got t$o elements, the first one is plosive and the second one is fricative% Sound +roduction6 &egin pronouncing as if it $as a plosive, then rela- your mouth and $hen you gradually open your mouth there is friction% There is a similar sound in Spanish, usually $ritten $ith the letters FchG% E-amples6 Cheap 9 :,

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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child 9 match 9 chal5 9 Dther spellings6 ( tch6 ( ture6 ( t6 ( tune6 $atch 9 picture 9 #uestion 9 fortune 9

:, :, :

:, butcher 9 :, : :3 9 :3 9

: :

Dther important $ords6 cherry 9 :, lunch 9 :, chocolate 9 children 9 :, chic5en9 teacher 9 chair 9 :, catch 9 :, nature 9 :, creature 9 0eptune 9 rich 9 :, reach 9 :%

:, :, :,

:, :39

:,

3d 3 There is no similar independent sound in Spanish% 2e can spea5 of a similar sound $hen $e pronounce FyG emphatically (e%g% yo, ya!% Dnce you have understood and pronounced 3 t 3 use your voice to ma5e 3d 3% This sound is usually $ritten $ith the letters6 (@6 @o5e 9 :, @am 9 :% (g3e6 /erman 9 :, gentleman 9 :, vegetables 9 :, oranges 9 :, cabbage 9 :% ( d@6 ad@ust 9 :% (di6 soldier 9 : *% F&'(AT'+)S% Consonants produced by the friction of the breath through a narro$ opening bet$een t$o of the mouth(organs% *lso called spirant% 2e can define fricatives as6 'abiodental6 3 f 3 y 3 v 3% 'inguointerdental6 3  3 y 3 , 3 'inguoalveolar6 3 s 3 y 3> 3 st Phonetics. 1 Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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+alatoalveolar6

3  3 y 3 3%

There are also t$o special sounds6 3 r 3 ( no corresponding voiceless sound ! 3 h 3 ( no corresponding voiced sound ! Symbol .oiceles s .oiced E-amples6 ? 2ord half Transcription 9ha6f: +lace of *rticulation /lotal

fine 9 :, vie$ 9 :, thin5 :, this 9 :, see 9 :, easy 9 :, sheep 9 :, pleasure 9 :

'*&ED)E0T*'% Symbol .oiceles s .oiced 1 . 2ord 1ine .erb Transcription 9fain: 'abiodentals 9v 6b: +lace of *rticulation

SDJ0) +,D)JCTED06 #f# and # v # Touch your top teeth $ith your bottom lip% &lo$ out air bet$een your lip and your teeth (for 3f3! for 3v3, voice it%

3 f 3 Aost students do not have difficulty $ith 3f3% Et may appear in
initial ( fish 9fi :, find 9faind:, %%% !, medial (laughing 9 :, coffee :, %%% ! and final position (tough 9 :, staff 9 :, off 9 :3 old(fashioned and in compounds, stiff 9 :, %%%!

9

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SP)!!' - # f #6 (f6 fine 9 :, fe$ 9 :, off ( not of ! off6 offer%9 : ph6 physics 9 :, phonetics 9 :% gh6 laugh 3 3 ( @ust for this $ord! Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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3 v 3 2e do not have this sound in Spanish because $e usually replace it $ith 3b3% Et

is helpful the contrast of the sound in isolation, beginning $ith 3 f 3 for e-ample6 fino3vinoI faca 3 vaca SP)!!' - # v # The sound 3 v 3 is usually $ritten $ith the letter HvC% e%g% visitor 9 :, heavy9 :, seven 9 :, eleven 9 :, seventeen 9 seventy 9

:, :

Dther spellings6 (ve6 give 9 :, have 9 :9 :, five 9 :, t$elve 9 (f6 of 9<v: but Fa bowl of fruitG 9 )E0T*'S% Symbol .oiceles s .oiced   2ord thought they Transcription 9 9ei: 6t: )ental +lace of *rticulation

:% :

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 Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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3 , 3 There is no similar independent sound in Spanish, although $e can find a

similar phoneme bet$een vo$els, e%g% lado, dedo% 2e should try do discriminate bet$een 3d3 and 3 ,#6 the day, they did that . etc% To produce this sound put the tip of your tongue bet$een your teeth, touching your top teeth% &lo$ out air bet$een your top teeth and your tongue and use your voice% The sound 3,3 is al$ays $ritten $ith the letters FthG6 $ith 9 :, mother 9 :, brother9 :, father 9 :, feather 9 :, that 9 :9 this 9 :, another 9 :, $eather 9

:, :

Ef the letters HthC are at the end of a $ord the corresponding sound is voiceless6 FbathG9 :% /WithK as it is a very fre#uently used $ord it is pronounced 9$iL:% Et may appear in initial ( then 9Len:, this, that, %%%!, medial ( brother, other 9 :, father, ! or final position ( $ith, bathe 9 :, %%%! produce voice%

# 0 3 Et is very similar to the Spanish sound represented by H>C or HceC, HciC% To

this sound follo$ the same procedure as in 3L3 but do not use your

This sound is al$ays $ritten $ith the letters HthC Aouth 9 month 9 thirsty 9 three 9 north 9 south 9 through 9 thro$9 thin5 9 *'.ED'*,% Symbol .oiceles s s 2ord say Transcription 9sei: +lace of *rticulation *lveolar :, :, :, :, :, :, :, :, :%

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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.oiced #s# y #z#

>

>oo

9>u6:

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3s3

2e can find a similar sound in Spanish and although most students can pronounce it they tend to say 9espu6n: instead of 9spu6n:%

Spelling6 The sound 3s3 is usually $ritten $ith the letter HsC6 HsC6 Class, lesson, student 9 :, %%% HsC6 bicycle 9 :,, e-ersi>e 9H HseC6 house 9 ha s:, horse 9 :% HceC6 policeman 9 :, face 9 H-C (pronounced 35s36 si- 9 :, bo- 9 &ut He-ampleC 9 ig>a6mpl:% :, %%% :, %%% :, e-ercise%

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3>3

There is no similar independent sound in Spanish, although $hen HsC precedes a voiced consonant (e%g% mismo, rasgo, %%%! $e can see it is very similar although $ith some differences% ,emember to use your voice to produce this sound% 2e may find this sound in English in initial ( >ip 9 :, >oo 9 :, >ebra 9 : !, medial ( busy 9 :, cra>y 9 : ! and final position ( lose 9 : loose 9 :, $ise 9

:, days 9

: !%

0ota6 &oth 3 > 3 and 3 s 3 are very important in English because they represent the plural morphemes, the Sa-on genitive and the third person singular present tense% Spelling6 Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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The sound 3>3 is usually $ritten $ith the letter HsC6 is, trees 9 9 :, %%% Dther important spellings6 (>3>e6 ( se6 :% (> ( pronounced 3g>3 !6 e-ample% PA!AT1A!+)1!A&% Symbol .oiceles s .oiced
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:, birds

>oo, si>e%9 : please 9 :, these 9 :, e-ercise 9 because 9 :, $hose 9

:, nose 9 :, :, noise 9 :, lose 9

2ord ship measure

Transcription 9ip:

+lace of *rticulation +alato(alveolar

 

9me<:

3 3 Et doesnCt e-ist in Spanish% En some parts of *ndalucia and E-tremadura it is used instead of FchG, for e-ample FmuchachoG% +ronounce first 3s3 then put your tongue up and bac5 a little to ma5e 3 3

Et may appear in o 'nitial position6 ( ship 9 :, shut 9 o medial ( fishes 9 :, fashion 9 o final position ( $ash 9 :, crash 9 This sound is usually $ritten $ith the letters HshC6 ship 9 shop 9 finish 9 Dther spellings ,ussia 9 :, ,ussian 9 :, sugar 9 :, Scotish 9 :, Erish 9 :, S$edish 9 :, )anish 9 :, +olish 9 :, Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez :, :, :

, shave 9 :, dishes 9 :, rush 9

:, %%%!, :, %%% ! or :, %%%!%

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1rench 9 Spain 9 Spanish 9 Tur5ey 9 Tur5ish 9

:, :, : :, :

3 3There is no similar sound in Spanish% To produce it follo$ the same steps as for 33 and use your voice because it is a voiced sound%

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This sound is not found in initial position ( e-cept for some 1rench $ords !%Et is found in o medial position6 ( leisure 9 :, treasure9 :, %%%! and o final position6 garage 9 :, 9 : The sound 33 is usually $ritten $ith the letters HsC or HgeC6 Jsual 9 :, pleasure 9 :, television 9 :

3 3 and 3 3 are very productive in the pronunciation of the endings in (tion and (sion6 3<n 36 motion9 3<n 36 : 'EMJE)S% Symbol , ' 2ord 2rong light Transcription 9r  : 9lait: +lace *rticulation 'i#uids of nation 9 :% vision 9 :,reduction9 :, e-plosion9 :, creation9 :, decision9 :,

:, e-clusion 9

# r # Aost students have difficulty $ith this sound and nearly all pronounce HrC $hen it should be silent%

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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Image 13

Image 14

To produce this sound turn the tip of your tongue up and slightly bac5% )o not touch the roof of your mouthI the sides of your tongue should touch your bac5 teeth% The sound 3 r 3 is $ritten $ith the letter HrC% Tomorro$ 9 : En some varieties of English ( *merican, Scottish! the letter HrC is al$ays pronounced% 2ords ending in HerC usually end $ith the sound 3<3, if the follo$ing $ord begins $ith a vo$el the 3r3 is pronounced6 e%g% ?is mother and father 9 : :, carry9 :, lorry9 :, narro$ 9

'oo5 at the follo$ing e-amples $here $e can find silent HrC6 fourteen9 :, arm9 :, thirty9 :, yesterday9 :, forty9 : dar59 : $orse9 :, e-ercise9 :, north9 :, party 9 :, hers9 :, forget 9 : important 9 : Thursday 9 : understand 9 :, $orld 9 : $orse 9 : Saturday 9 :, for5 9 :, carpet 9 : 'aterals6 l

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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+roduction6 *ir is obstructed by the tongue and the sides of the tongue are left lo$ so that air can escape over its sides% 2hen you say 3l3, you should be able to feel the air flo$ing over the sides of the tongue, indicating that it is a lateral sound% 3l3 is divided into t$o distinct sounds6 o the dar5 3l3 and o the light 3l3% Ef you say 3little3, you should be able to hear the difference bet$een the first and the second 3l3% En both the light and dar5 3l3, the tip of the tongue is in contact $ith the alveolar ridge% The difference bet$een the t$o stems from the position of the bac5 of the tongue% En the light 3l3, the bac5 of the tongue is in a more for$ard position% En the dar5 3l3, the bac5 of the tongue is further bac5 in the mouth% 3l3 is usually voiced, but if it comes after a voiceless plosive, such as 3p3 or353, then 3l3 is devoiced% Try saying 3play3 and 3clip3% English people pronounce clear FlG $hen it is in front of a vo$el or a 3@3% e%g% 'east, let, lamb 9l  m:, led, live, N )ar5 FlG al$ays follo$s a vo$el or $hen it is syllabic% E%g% tall, nail, mil5, bottle 9btl:, N 3 h 3 Sound +roduction6 +ush a lot of air out very #uic5ly% )o not touch the roof of your mouth $ith your tongue% This consonant is different from the Spanish 3-3 (@ota!I Spanish 3-3 is velar% 9 : This sound may be found only in initial ( him 9 :, her9 :%%%! and medial position (behind 9 :, someho$ 9 This sound is usually $ritten $ith the letter 3h3 hello 9 $hose 9 hospital 9 hurt 9 unhappy 9 ASA!S6 Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez :, :, :, :, :, home :, ahead 9

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Symbol A 0 

2ord Aother 0ose thing

Transcription 9m   : 9n< >: 9   :

+lace of *rticulation 0asals

English people produce three nasals6 3m3 (bilabial!I 3n3 (alveolar! y 3  3 (velar!% e%g% mine 9main:, ne$ 9n@u6:, coming 95mi :

# m # Et is very similar to the Spanish 3m3 pronounced in FmanoG% To produce this sound close your lips and use your voice%

Image 15

Spelling6 The sound 3m3 is $ritten $ith the letters6 HmC6 family 9 HmeC6 name9 HmmC summer 9 : farm9 :, me 9 :, man 9 :, come 9 :, home, time, game 9 :, s$imming 9 :, %%% :, %%% :, same, %%%

your mouth $ith the tip of your tongue% Jse your voice%

# n # Similar to the Spanish 3n 3 in FnenaG% To produce this sound touch the roof of

Image 16

Spelling6 This sound is usually $ritten $ith the letter HnC6 name, number 9 :, policeman, moon, pen, minute, begin, %%% Dther spellings6 H5nC6 5nife, 5no$%%% HnnC6 funny, Benny, sunny, beginner, thinner, %%% HneC6 one, nine, nineteen, ninety, aeroplane, telephone, sunshine% Syllabic HnC6 HenC6 listen, eleven, havenCt, seven, Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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seventeen, seventy, student, garden, present, often% HonC6 lesson, person% HanC6 important HionC6 television% the roof of your mouth $ith the bac5 of your tongue and use your voice%

# # Similar to the Spanish sound found in H manco’% To produce it touch the bac5 of

Image 17

Spelling6 this sound is usually $ritten $ith the letters HngC6 evening, morning, ring, long, young, reading, singing, bring, ceiling, nothing, spring, strong, angry, hungry, finger, England, English, stronger% Dther spellings6 HnC6 drin5, in5, pin5, thin5, sin5,

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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angry, than5 you, ban5% 3 3 is al$ays preceded by a vo$el and it is not used in initial position% 'oo5 at the contrasts in these minimal pairs6 Son &an Sinner ,un 2ins Clan Symbol 2 B sung bang singer rung $ings clang 2ord 2or5 Jniversity Transcription 9$65: 9@u6nCv<6st: +lace of *rticulation Semivo$els

3$3 This sound is very close the English sound 3u63% To produce it ma5e your lips round and hard for $% 3$3 is a short sound% Et is a semivo$el%

Image 18

This sound is usually $ritten $ith the letter H$C6 t$elve, t$enty, $arm, $atch, $eather, $et, $ind, $indo$, $oman, $ith, $ord% Dther spellings6 H$hC6 H#uC #ueen% HoC6 $hat, $hen, $here, $hich, $hite, $hy% (pronounced 5$!6 #uarter 9 :, #uestion, #uiet, s#uare, #uic5, one, once%

Sometimes the letter HuC is represented by 3$3 in6 persuade 9p<Cs$eid:, suave 9s$a6v:, suite 9s$i6t: or $hen it is follo$ed by 3l3 or 3@36 Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez 17

e#ual 9

:, collo#uial 9

:%

&ut, loo5 at the follo$ing e-amples $hen H$C is not pronounced6 2rec5 9 :, $ring9 :, $rench 9 :, s$ord 9 :, ans$er9 :, boats$ain 9 :, ?ar$ich 9 :, &er$ic5 9 :, /reen$ich 9 :3 9 $ho 9 :, $hom 9 :, $hole 9 l:, $hose9 :, $hoop 9 :, $hore9 :, %%%

: &JT, Eps$ich 9

:,

3@3 This semi(vo$el is called HyotC% This sound is very close to 3i63% .ery #uic5ly move your tongue to ma5e the ne-t sound% )o not touch the roof of your mouth $ith your tongue% 2e tend to pronounce it very close to 3d 3% ,emember that the tongue position for this sound is initially the same as 3i63%

Image 19

Spelling6 This sound is usually $ritten $ith the letters HyC or HuC6 Oes 9 :, you 9 :, yello$ 9 :, year 9 :, young 9 2, yesterday9 :% Ausic 9 :, student 9 :, pupil 9 :, Banuary 9 :, usually9 :% 0e$ 9 : Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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En the middle of a $ord it is fre#uently $ritten HiC or HeC6 behaviour 9 hideous 9 tedious 9 :, companion 9 :, simultaneous%9 :, :, but : Ddious 9

:,

3@3 is not used after6 3t 3 e%g% che$ 9 :! 3d3 e%g% @e$el 9 :, @uice 9 :, Bune 9 ! 3r3 e%g% rude 9 :, rule 9 :, crude9 :, gre$ 9 true9 : 3l3 preceded by a consonant6 blue 9blu6:, fle$ 9 :, clue9 :, plural9 Sometimes 3@3 is used in front of 3u63, $ords $ritten $ith6 u, ue, ui, e$, eu%

:, :%

Phonetics. 1st Year. Summary of Consonants. Julio Torrecillas Ramírez

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