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Experiment #8- Band-pass and Band-stop Filters using R, L and C Venue : Electronic & Instrumentation Lab Aims ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Analyze the operation of band-pass and band-stop filters using series RLC Analyze the operation of band-pass and band-stop filters using parallel RLC Show how a band-pass and a band-stop filters are implemented using low-pass and high–pass filters for series RLC Identify a band-pass and a band-stop filters using parallel RLC Discuss dB measurement, selectivity and filter quality factor Define and determine resonant frequency, bandwidth, and output voltage of bandpass and bandstop using series RLC Define and determine resonant frequency, bandwidth, and output voltage of bandpass and bandstop using parallel RLC

Introduction Series and parallel resonant circuits can be used to construct the band-pass and band-stop filter circuits. Figure 7 and Figure 8-2 can be used to design both band-pass and band-stop purposes by taking output voltages from different connections.

C10

Figure 8-1

Figure 8-2

1

**ECE 2312 Sem 2 0506
**

V o u t 5.0V (23.208K,5.0000) (16.588K,3.5369) 2.5V (10.000K,1.7044) (5.0038K,765.694m) (32.471K,3.5403) (50.038K,1.8782) (70.009K,1.2407) (23.208K,4.5959m) 0V 1.0KHz 3.0KHz V(R23:2,R23:1) V(C10:1,L9:2)

10KHz Frequency

30KHz

100KHz

Figure 8-3 : Output voltages curves for series RLC bandpass and bandstop filter

Materials Required

**♦ Circuit 3 ♦ Series RLC band-pass and band-stop filters : R23 = 10kΩ, L9 = 100mH,
**

C10 = 470pF (additional R for step 8; R19 = 10kΩ, R20 = 100kΩ)

**♦ Parallel RLC band-pass and band-stop filters : R23 = 10kΩ, L9 = 100mH,
**

C9 = 240pF

**♦ 2 Digital multimeters (handheld & desktop) ♦ Frequency generator ♦ Connectors
**

Procedure Bandpass and bandstop filter using series RLC

1.

Verify that the switches of the circuit in position “1” (normal) so as to avoid any faults (if it is in position 2). Remove all leads or links connected to the boards to avoid possible short circuits.

2.

Construct the series RLC circuit as simplified in Figure 8.1 by connecting the points 3.1-3.5, 3.16-3.17, 3.18-3.26, 3.22-3.23. 1 2Π LC

3.

Calculate resonant frequency theoretically fr = values to estimate where it will lie.

using nominal

4.

Connect a supply of 5Vrms with frequency close to calculated fr. Ensure scope calibrations. With scope connected accordingly to monitor Vs and I (VR), vary the frequency close to fr calculated earlier. Resonance occurs

2

= _____. record the minimum and maximum output voltages for bandstop and bandpass filter respectively at resonance in Table 8.25 and 3. Record down the measured values in Table 8. Verify the calculated Rw by measuring it with DMM connected across inductor. 6. At resonance the reactances are cancelled out and resistance solely caused by resistance of series resistor and winding resistance. Find out the center frequency (fc). Rw (dc resistance) of the inductor. Using DMM. By 3 . Utilise 10x magnifier and XY display. 5. Open the inductor.17-3.ECE 2312 Sem 2 0506 when both waveforms are in phase. With a constant voltage supply of 5Vrms. Disconnect the path 3. plot the output voltages (Vout) vs. Frequency Hz (Vin=5Vrms) 5000 10000 fr(exp)=________ 50000 70000 Band-pass VR (V) Experimental Band-pass VR (V) Theoretical % relative error Band-stop VLC (V) Experimental Band-stop VLC (V) Theoretical % relative error Table 8-1 : Output voltages of a bandpass and a bandstop filter for series RLC 7. the lower cut-off frequency (fL). Measure the total current IT at resonance with Vs = 5Vrms. measure VR and VLC by connecting a voltmeter across points 3. Using PSpice and utilising measured values. the upper cut-off frequency (fu) and the bandwidth (BW) for each plotted graph. frequency in a semi-log scale as illustrated in Figure 8-3. = _____. Disconnect the oscilloscope.1-3. Rwcalc. Calculate the actual value of ZT using measured values of Vs and IT. Find the error.5 and replace it with an ammeter. Disconnect the ammeter and reconnect the path.1 below.1. Calculate the winding resistance using measured value of IT and Vs.23-3. Rwmeas. ITmax = _____. Acquire the experimental fr using oscilloscope.28 respectively over the given frequency range.

Rt=10k Theo. Note the given output voltages for the cases of using nominal values. previous links + additional link 22-8. Rt=Rtotal VR (V). increase circuit impedance by adding resistor R19 and R20 in series one at a time. measure the output voltages between (1) and (2) for entire frequency range and complete Table 8-2. Freq. VR100k + VR10k. In Figure 8-1. VR (V). Calculate the quality factor Q for each cases. Use PSPice to plot three set (inclusive of R23) of Vout/f curves on a same graph as shown in Figure 8-4. % relative error VR (V). Rt=110k Theo. Rt=10k Exp. VR (V). Column 8. Rt=20k Theo. Refer to the accompanying notes for calculation. For each value of R.ECE 2312 Sem 2 0506 treating the values from the extrapolated curves as theoretical ones find percentage of relative error of output voltages for both type of filters and fill in Table 8-1. Rt=20k Exp. % relative error VR (V). keeping L and C constant values. 8. % relative error Table 8-2 : Output voltages for a bandpass filter with increasing Rt PARAMETERS: Resistance = 10k 5Vac V1 470pF C10 L9 100mH R23 V+ {Resistance} 1 2 V- 0 Figure 8-4 : 4 . VR (V). Hz Vac=5V 5000 10000 fr 50000 70000 Note : Column 5. Determine the increasing value of bandwidth with increased value of R. Rt=110k Exp. VR10k + VR10k. links 1-17 20-26 23-12 22-7.

3 below. find fr by monitoring output voltages across resistor and parallel inductor and capacitor using DMM.5. Use the previous value of winding resistance.203.16-3.2 by connecting the points 3.19 respectively over the given frequency range. 3.1-3. Use PSpice to plot the curves in finding theoretical values for output voltages thus ascertaining the relative error.ECE 2312 Sem 2 0506 Figure 8-4a : Bandwidth increases with increased value of Rt Bandpass and bandstop filter using parallel RLC 9.23-3. 5 .17. Figure 8-5 is exemplary. Calculate the error of the center frequency. 3.12-3. Minimum and maximum output voltages will be obtained for bandstop and bandpass filter respectively at resonance.22 and 3. Repeat step 3. Construct the parallel RLC circuit as simplified in Figure 8. 3. With a constant voltage supply of 5Vrms.25 and 3. Connect a supply of 5Vrms with frequency close to calculated fr.23-3. 12. Record down the measured values in Table 8. 11.17-3. Vary frequency and thus. From PSpice simulation find the theoretical values for bandwidth and quality factor for bandpass and bandstop filter. measure VR and VLC by connecting a voltmeter across points 3.28 10. Rw.13. Refer to the accompanying notes for calculation.

5V 0V 1.17 and 3.5 and break the circuit at 3.0V 2.16-3.ECE 2312 Sem 2 0506 V o u t 5. Measure VLC at fr. 6 . Disconnect the ammeter and reconnect the path. IC . VLC = ____. Calculate the actual value of ZT using measured values of Vs and IT Reconnect 3.IL = _____. IT = ICL = IC . Measure the total current IT at resonance with Vs = 5Vrms.5 and replace it with an ammeter.13 to measure IC and IL respectively maintaining the supply.1-3.12-3.13.R23:1) 10KHz Frequency 30KHz 100KHz Figure 8-5 : Output voltages curves for parallel RLC bandpass and bandstop filter Frequency Hz (Vin=5Vrms) 5000 10000 fr(exp)=________ 50000 80000 Band-pass VLC (V) Experimental Band-pass VLC (V) Theoretical % relative error Band-stop VR (V) Experimental Band-stop VR (V) Theoretical % relative error Table 8-3 : Output voltages of a bandpass and a bandstop filter for parallel RLC 13. IC and IL effectively substract.C10:1) V(V1:+. Your discussion and conclusion should include but not limited to elaborating each point of the aims. Disconnect the path 3.IL.0KHz 3.0KHz V(C10:2. IT = ____.

39b (5 x 0.) Total points : 10 2. 16. Q5.) Total points : 20 7 . Q12 & Q13 (2pts.5pts.) Schematic to produce corresponding output of Figure 16. 16. 16.36.5pt + 5 x 1.39a. Assignment #8 Schematics to produce corresponding plots of 16.42 (10pts. Q11.ECE 2312 Sem 2 0506 Marking scheme 1. Report 3 tabulated results and 3 combined plots (6 x 1pt. = 10pts.32. Q4.) Discussion and conclusion (2 pts. 16.34b. = 6pts. ) Answers to questions – Q3.

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