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Studies in Islam Series Islam and Contemporary Economic Theories

by Dr. Mohammad Shawqi Al-Fan ari

Preface Stages of the Study Capitalism The General Theory of the New Capitalist System Principles of the New capitalist System Capitalism in the Field of Practical Application Communism The General Theory of Communist System The Principles of Communist System Communism and Reason Communism in the Field of Practical Application Islam Islam's General Theory of conomy Principles of Islamic conomy !ou"ts Conclusion

About This !oo"
The present contri"ution to the economic theory of Islam is timely# The material ci$ili%ation of The &est has "rought a"out' on the one hand' a state of chaos in international relations' and' on the other' a class( war within e$ery nation# The war in the social domain has di$ided The &est into two camps# &hile in most &estern countries capitalism has the upper hand and la"or is the $ictim of tyranny Russia has gone to the other e)treme' and only one class' that of the wor*ers' seems to "e dominant# Islam maintains the "alance "etween e)aggerated opposites and occupies intermediate position "etween the doctrines of "ourgeois capitalism and +olshe$ist communism#

The author of this "oo* has ta*en this $iew as a starting point and proceeded to gi$e a detailed assessment of "oth capitalism and communism# ,e has reached the conclusion that

Islam ta*es no side with a group against another# It directs each class of the community to the proper way "y which it secures good for itself and for the community as a whole#

Sta#es o$ The Study

CAPITA-IS./ Its origin# The general concept of the new Capitalist system# Principles of the new Capitalist# Capitalism in the field of practical application# C0..1NIS./ Its origin# The general concept of the communist system# Communism and reason# Communism in the field of practical application# IS-A./ 0rigin# The general theory of economics in Islam# Principles of Islamic economy# !ou"ts# C0NC-1SI0N

In urope in the fifth century A! after the decline of the western Roman mpire' feudalism came into "eing# This new system was supported "y the Christian church' which spo*e in the name of Allah# It did not' howe$er' ha$e any di$ine law or sound guiding principles of its own# Feudalism was a new de$elopment in urope and the church cooperated with it' co$ering it in a gar" of sacred and di$ine ordinances# +etween the fourteenth and the si)teenth centuries2 the traditional period which changed the history of urope from the middle ages to the modern era 2 all aspects of &estern life

"egan to ta*e shape and the centers of wealth' power and culture "egan to lea$e the pro$inces and feudal estates and to accumulate in "ig cities# At the head of this mo$ement were traders' usurers and "ourgeois craftsmen who "enefited from the prospects offered "y that de$elopment# These people used to li$e in towns and cities and go fre3uently a"road' they were the first to recei$e the rich which poured into their country from outside and which forced them to adapt themsel$es to the new dictates of change and de$elopment# +ut how was this possi"le while an insurmounta"le o"stacle in the form of the ecclesiastical rules which supported the feudalists stood in their way4 A hard tussle "etween the two parties ensued a total war which co$ered all fields of social life# The last round in that "out was won "y the new system which preached the principles of freedom' modernism' tolerance and "roader outloo* in all wal*s of life' whether it "e religion' philosophy' politics or economy# &ith the help of these principles' people wanted to remo$e all o"stacles from the path of the free and modern man# This led to two diametrically opposed parties ( the freedom preached "y the "ourgeoisie led in one direction' while the narrow(minded feudalist church led in another# ach of the two parties har"ored enmity towards the other and each of them had its self interest# 0ne of the two parties e)ploited the name of Allah' religion and ethics to defend their concocted "eliefs and ancient oppressi$e rights' while the other e)ploited the principles of freedom and tolerance to sha*e the truths which were inherent in religion and morality# They de$ised the concept which stated that there is no need to o"ser$e moral principles in furthering one's aims and interests# +esides the feudal church they fashioned the idols of pro$incialism or regionalism ( those harmful and accursed concepts which were responsi"le for the wars and strife of the time# For the first time' they esta"lished the idea of ta*ing interest which was unanimously considered as illegal "y the thin*ers of earlier times# It was for"idden and made illegal not only in the +i"le and the ,oly 5uran' "ut "y Aristotle and Plato also and it was prohi"ited "y Roman and Gree* law# In the name of freedom and tolerance the "ourgeoisie succeeded in snatching these rights from the feudal church# ,a$ing ta*en into their hands' they were o$er6oyed and considered themsel$es as sole proprietors of them# In the ecstasy of $ictory they forgot that there was an inferior class to themsel$es which had suffered hard ships at the hands of the feudalists and which had the right to get its share of the fruits of the new and free system# I do not *now why their li"eralism and tolerance faded away so 3uic*ly# &hen parliamentary go$ernment was set up in ngland' for instance' and real so$ereignty was transferred in the parliament from the no"les to the commoners' the "ourgeoisie' missionaries of freedom' tolerance and wide outloo*' assumed completed so$ereignty themsel$es# In denying the peoples their rights of franchise' the arguments and reasons "y which they had "enefited were forgotten# Following the industrial re$olution and the in$entor of the machine in the eighteenth century' the heat of the struggle "ecame intense' At that time' industrial production and raw materials were a$aila"le on a large scale# Similarly' the consumption of manufactured goods too* place to an unprecedented degree# ,ere' the "ourgeoisie who monopoli%ed industry' trade and wealth and dominated the fields of science and literature' sei%ed the opportunity and e)ploited the new scientific in$entions in e)panding their spheres of influence# This class pounced upon the opportunity and monopoli%ed the modern scientific in$entions which helped it to e)pand its sphere of influence and so$ereignty# There was a three(fold

o"stacle in its way consisting of the *ings of the nation states who claimed to "e gifted with di$ine authority' together with the rich feudal lords and the men of the national church# The result was a perpetual conflict and discord "etween the last two groups# -ater' the cult of freedom and modernism armed itself with a new weapon# Its followers called for full economic freedom and as*ed for the adoption of a repu"lican system in the political field together with the gi$ing of full ci$il li"erties to the indi$idual# They also wanted him to en6oy freedom in the social' cultural and moral fields# Furthermore' they called for the restriction of the go$ernment's political so$ereignty to the minimum and for granting indi$iduals the ma)imum of li"erty# The go$ernment' in their opinion' was nothing "ut an agency which was assigned the tas* of administering 6ustice amongst indi$iduals' pre$enting them from interfering with each other and safeguarding indi$idual li"erty# They also wanted social and economic life to "e in conformity with the acti$ities actions and ideas of indi$iduals# The go$ernment' they suggested' should not interfere in an indi$idual's affairs "ecause' in their opinion# It was not meant to play an acti$e role nor to assume leadership# Thus it was that these people e)aggerated and spent all of their efforts in glorifying freedom' tolerance and indi$idual nihilism# The economic system' "ased on the a"solute theory of free economy' was the last step in the de$elopment of that mo$ement' adopting as its name 7the new capitalist system8

The %eneral Theory o$ the &ew Capitalist System

The concept of the new capitalist system draws its origin from 9ohn -oc*e's theory a"out the :+irth of Society and the 0rigin of State8' and it may "e summari%ed as follows/ 7Neither the church' nor the state' nor society' is entitled to "ar the way of any indi$idual in his efforts towards "enefit and ad$ancement# Complete li"erty must "e easily a$aila"le to each indi$idual so as to ena"le him to utili%e his natural propensity' 3uality and competence according to his own leanings and proceed further according to his own a"ility# Society itself cannot render any real ser$ice unless e$ery"ody in it is gi$en the chance to en6oy unlimited li"erty in all spheres of life# ,e should also "e entirely free in doing the type of wor* he li*es; he should "e free from all types of official' religious' moral' legal and social restriction<# This theory lin*ed pri$ate ownership with li"erty' considering it as a "asic part and proof of it ( indeed' as its "astion# That is "ecause man was "orn' in a natural state with "asic rights ( namely the right to li$e' to "e free and to own property# The state' in that case' is nothing "ut a result of a contract signed "y the people in an attempt to find out agreed means to ser$e and protect those rights# Any authority which $iolates that contract has no foundation' e$ery indi$idual' in an attempt to defend his li"erties and "asic rights' should oppose and re$olt against such an authority#

they should not "e depri$ed of its "enefits' "ut they should "ear the losses also# They ha$e the right to accept or refuse the conditions and responsi"ilities which they ha$e to respect in their trade premises and factories as well as the rules and regulations imposed on them# They are free to e)pand their production' to sell at any price they fi) and to employ whate$er num"er of people they re3uire' either "y gi$ing wages or monthly salary# !ealings in the field of trade or industry "etween the seller and "uyer' employer and employee' ser$ant and master' should ta*e place in an atmosphere of full li"erty# $eryone should fulfill whate$er conditions he has agreed to o"ser$e# ?# Pri$ate interest offers incenti$e for wor* The capitalist system depends for the production of consumer ser$ices and their de$elopment on the indi$idual's *eenness in securing his self interest# This is a natural instinct which mo$es man to wor* and to increase his efforts for more production# Supporters of the capitalist system claim that in human life there is no incenti$e for wor* stronger than this# They e$en say that this is the only incenti$e2 the smaller the chances of securing self interest the less will "e the use of man's energies' acti$ities and efforts# If opportunity for securing pri$ate interest and personal ad$ancement are pro$ided to each indi$idual' it will ena"le him to ma*e gains according to his own efforts# Indi$iduals ma*e more and more effort to increase production and impro$e production standards' and in this way production continues to increase and more goods are consumed# In addition to this' the spheres of acti$ity of the producti$e machinery widens# Incenti$es to secure personal interest' in turn' safeguard the interests of the whole community# This ser$ice rendered to the community can not "e rendered otherwise# @# Ri$alry among indi$iduals# In the opinion of the supporters of the capitalist system the spirit of ri$alry pre$ents self interest' in a free economy' from trespassing "eyond the limits.'rinciples o$ the &ew Capitalist System In the light of this theory of society' and indi$iduals and their rights' capitalist economists drew up the new capitalist system which can "e summari%ed under the following points/ =# The indi$idual has the right of pri$ate ownership# This right co$ers e$erything 2 it treats e$erything which one utili%es and uses such as clothes. it is this spirit which maintains "alance and e3uili"rium# It is 3uite normal that in the free mar*et there are a num"er of people who produce one single commodity# If there are also num"ers of sellers and "uyers# It is ine$ita"le that a reasona"le price "e fi)ed' determined "y the dictates of competition# Personal interests should not go "eyond their limits and' similarly' such interests should not . furniture' ships and cattle# This list also includes the articles and the ser$ices which produce $arious goods for consumption' such as machines' instruments' land and raw materials# ># The indi$idual has the right to wor*# Indi$iduals ha$e the right to use all the means which they possess in all fields of la"or# The output of such wor* should "e theirs.

it is in the interest of proprietors and employers that they may ha$e to spend a little more in order to get much more# Naturally' they try to reduce wages' "ut it is true also that employees and wor*ers wish to o"tain their re3uirements and raise their standard of li$ing as easily as may "e# They are constantly loo*ing forward for an increase in their play# It is natural' then' that in achie$ing "oth goals a form of strife and struggle ta*es place "etween employers and employees# In the case of wages' they continue to "e decided "y a natural pressure accepted "y "oth parties# This same phenomenon happens regarding all matters of life# ># !ependence on natural reasons for de$elopment # It is said that as profit from trade and commerce are accumulated as a result of the reduction of capital and the increase of production' the trader's personal interest re3uires' in an attempt to increase his production' that he should apply the "est and the latest technical systems' loo* after his tools and machines' repairing and cleaning them from time to time and ac3uiring "ig 3uantities of raw materials at low princes# . these rewards or salaries are not increased or deceased e)cept according to the natural law of supply and demand which permits goods and commodities to increase or decrease in their mar*et $alue# If there are less employers and more employees desirous of getting wor* the wages decrease and if there is a scarcity of employees and a greater num"er of employers the wages increase# Naturally' the difference "etween the acti$e and the indolent wor*ers "ecomes o"$ious in these cases# Proprietors of $arious concerns will try to win the loyalty of wor*ers "y rewarding and promoting them# The higher the wage a wor*er gets' the "etter the product he produces.lag "ehind these limits unless in a"normal and temporary circumstances# +y $irtue of competition' employers and employees fi) for themsel$es reasona"le wages and salaries' pro$ided that such a competition is free from any *ind of monopoly# A# !ifference "etween the employer and employee under the capitalist system' personnel of each commercial concern are di$ided into two categories / a# The proprietors who founded the trade or industry and the managers who "ear all responsi"ilities for "enefit and loss# "# The employees who are not $ery much concerned with either "enefit or loss# They ha$e nothing to do "ut to spend time' energy and talents in their wor*' against the fi)ed pay they recei$e# !efenders of the system argue that this form of function re3uires that the "enefits o"tained from trade or industry 2according to dictates of 6ustice2 should "e collected only "y whoe$er "ears the loss and e)poses himself to danger mployees' undou"tedly' are entitled to ha$e their legitimate rewards' determined "y mar*et standards and in accordance with their a"ility and the 3uantity of their wor*# Such a reward should not "e increased on the grounds that a trade or industry "ears fruits or decreased in case of loss# mployees' under all circumstances' ha$e a right in o"taining their rewards.e should also ma*e up his mind in de$eloping and promoting his "usiness# This cannot "e achie$ed other than "y means of a free economy and under special circumstances which may "e free from e)ternal interference or contri$ed tric*s# Natural laws continue to utili%e .

the mar*et itself reali%es the re3uirements of the society# It is' therefore not the "usiness of the started to interfere in the natural function of the de$elopment of wealth since it will un"alance it# The purpose of the state is to "ring a"out circumstances which will safeguard fully the indi$iduals' li"erties' ensure security' esta"lish order and administration' protect rights of ownership' fulfill its commitments "y the force of law and protect the country with all its trade and industry' from attac*s and outside dangers# It is the duty of the state to ensure 6ustice for e$ery"ody and to super$ise its affairs# +ut it is not its duty to "e itself the merchant' manufacturer or the owner of the land since it is not e)pected of it that it would do anything to arrogate to itself the wor* of merchants' manufacturers and owners of the land and pre$ent them from wor*ing as they wish# Interference "y the state in such affairs is not to "e accepted# Capitalism in the Field o$ 'ractical Application These points summari%es the principles of the theory of capitalism# Its followers ha$e made of them incomes ta"le principles which must not "e dou"ted' critici%ed or challenged# In doing so they ha$e e)aggerated and o$er( stated their case# $ents ha$e shown that many principles are open to criticism when they are transferred to the field of application# The following are some of the wea* points which are underlined in practical application # =# The natural laws which the "ourgeoisie still 3uote to support the theory of a free economy do not measure up to the e)aggerated claims made for them# Neither in word nor in deed is this so# Commenting on this' -ord Beynes says that the world is not go$erned "y a strong go$ernment' moti$ated "y moral and natural laws which achie$es a reconciliation of .the efforts of indi$iduals and separate groups in achie$ing de$elopment and securing welfare for all# These goals could not "e satisfactorily achie$ed "y social measures only. there is a natural process in$ol$ed of whose operation no one is aware# ?# Non(interference "y the state# It is also said that unless indi$iduals en6oy freedom in carrying out their wor*' without any pressure or restrictions' progress and social welfare' under the a"o$e(mentioned principles' could not satisfactorily he achie$ed# A natural process has imposed a harmony upon economic laws in that' should such laws wor* in agreement with each other and in a cooperati$e way' they pro$e useful for people whether as indi$iduals or groups# This happens e$en though the indi$idual wor*s and e)pends his energies for his own indi$idual profit# It is natural that the more the indi$idual e)pects from his efforts in terms of complete and unlimited "enefits' the more energy does he apply to ac3uiring wealth# This results in turn in the production of "etter and "igger amounts of manufactured articles# If general competition e)ists "etween merchants and manufacturers and supplies of raw materials in the free mar*et' prices "ecome reasona"le and "alanced and the standard of production impro$es.

personal and communal interests# It is not right to conclude from the principles of economy that an enlightened interest ensures progress and social prosperity# Similarly' to say that interest is always enlightened is incorrect# &e often notice that the people who try their hardest to secure "enefits for themsel$es and for their own purposes alone' are so e)cessi$ely wea* and foolish that they find themsel$es una"le to reali%e their aims as opposed to rendering essential and lasting ser$ices to the community# The actions of the "ourgeois capitalists testify to the fact that their interests were not enlightened# They came together in action against the interests of consumers' employees and the go$ernment which safeguards order and secure welfare# They conspired together in order to get for themsel$es whate$er "enefits and profits the Industrial Re$olution could yield# These conspiracies were of themsel$es a refutation of the greatest claim they ad$anced in support of the economy i#e# that e3uili"rium in securing "enefits "y e$ery"ody was the element pro$iding for a natural inter( reaction# This state of affairs led the well(*nown economist Adam Smith' the greatest of ad$ocates of free economy' to declare that seldom did merchants and craftsmen gather at a meeting which was wound up without a plot' or a decision ta*en to raise the prices of commodities# $en at pu"lic meetings they attend they commit such a gra$e crime# Thus' "ad results appear when the opportunity presents itself and the principles of free economy are applied' when this freedom "ecomes a murderous tool in the hands of powerful indi$iduals who conspire together against the many who are wea* in order to satisfy their own desires and indi$idual inclinations# ># !uring the Industrial Re$olution the mista*e made in an e)aggerated application of the principles of free economy "ecame clear# !uring that time' the means of production changed "asically and the machine replaced man and animal power# In this way' ten persons could produce the same amount of manufactured goods with thousands of people had produced pre$iously# This led to a situation where only a few could wor* while many others were left unemployed# &hen the un3ualified call for non(interference "y go$ernment in the wor* of indi$iduals is heard 2 that call which in$o*es the principles of pri$ate ownership and the freedom to wor* the error in its "asic assumptions "ecomes apparent# .ow can it "e that one single man' or a num"er of men' can set up a "ig automatic factory which floods the mar*et with its products simply "ecause he has in his hands the means to do that 4 At the same time' we o$erloo* the many thousands of others who could produce the same "y hand' or in their small factories' or in their homes# I do not mean "y this that machine production is not a good thing# I simply mean that it should "e organi%ed and that the usage of machines should not "e made permissi"le to all# It is the duty of the go$ernment to thin* first of the producers who will "e left without wor*# &here will they earn their li$ing and how 4 This 3uestion did not arise under capitalism and the result was unemployment on a large and unrestricted scale which "ecame an independent issue for society in a form which had ne$er "een seen "efore in the history of man*ind# 0ne cannot ignore the effects of unemployment on life. it is not a pri$ate 3uestion# It is the "asis of many of life's pro"lems and difficulties' ci$ic' moral' material and spiritual# At this point one .

3uestion presents itself / Can an indi$idual group of indi$iduals' dispose of their properties in a way which engenders num"erless pro"lems in social life4 . they ha$e no alternati$e "ut to li$e in narrow' dar* dwelling and their health suffers as does their character and mental outloo*# Selfishness depri$es the souls of such people of a sense of human $alues and the hearts of fathers' sons and "rothers "ecome "ereft of sympathy and affection# Not only that' "ut fathers feel the "urden of their sons and womenfol*# The result is that not e$en one wal* of life is left immune from the harmful effects of a mista*en and e)tremist free economy# @# The capitalists ha$e neglected natural ways of trade and industry which they pretend to "oast of# They fa"ricated another way which clashed with the common interest and which made prices go up unnaturally and slowed down production# They had many methods sometimes' they purchased all commodities a$aila"le in the mar*et' depending on their wealth' and stored them till the time came when these commodities completely disappeared from the mar*et and the demand for them "ecame pressing# In this way' they dominated and controlled the mar*et and caused prices to go up in an unnatural way# At other times' they used to "urn manufactured goods or throw them in the sea' lest "ig 3uantities of these same( goods flood the mar*ets causing drop in prices# At times' they mediated "etween the original producer and the consumer' with the result that commodities were e)changed amongst themsel$es one after another while relying on the money they had in hand .ow could anyone allowed to argue that such a cruel proposition is the right of a select group of people who continue to render ser$ices to the common interest and themsel$es perform a lasting ser$ice4 The idea that the national go$ernment should remain silent o$er the actions of indi$iduals which affect the entire nation' or close its eyes to the effect upon the whole nation of the actions of a few people' is without any foundation # ?# It has "ecome clear that whene$er capitalism de$elops into the stage of industrial re$olution' the more widespread does po$erty "ecome and the more stringent "ecomes the grip of financial crisis# This is in addition to the unemployment which forces thousands of people to hasten to the capitalists re3uesting of them 6o"s either against wages or monthly salary# At this point' the fifth capitalist principle is to "e applied which differentiates "etween the employer and employee and the wages of those su"6ect to the law of supply and demand decrease# Not only that' "ut such people often "ecome degraded and lose their human sensi"ility# They are o"liged to surrender to whate$er restrictions and regulations the capitalists impose on them# There is not one of them who thin*s of o"6ecting in any way' for the simple reason that there are thousands of unemployed who loo* at him grudgingly and yearn to replace him in his wor*# In such a case' he must feel far happier than many others# The "ourgeoisie are wrong when they indicate their support of the principle that fair and "alanced wages get ad6usted themsel$es in the general competition "y the interplay "etween the employer and employee# It "ecomes clear that this principle has already lost its generality and that it can only "e applied on one side "y the capitalist alone# The employee has to accept whate$er is offered to him' he has to accept wor* for longer periods of time and e$en for $ery small wages# Such people are treated li*e animals.

this is what happens in the 7Contracts )change8# Sometimes' they dedicate their energies and resources for the production of lu)uries# Though $arious media of propaganda and ad$ertisement' they pro$o*e the desire of people who might not yet ha$e ac3uired necessities and push into their imaginations the idea that such articles are indispensa"le# This action is ta*en "y them "ecause the production of lu)uries is $ery lucrati$e while the production of necessities offers less profit# At the pea* of such methods comes the domination of wea* countries for the sa*e of ser$ing the interests of the colonialists# The countries are di$ided into spheres of influence each one to "e e)ploited "y one particular power which turns the dominated people into machines ser$ing the colonialists# In order to safeguard their interests' the colonialists fostered trou"les in these countries in an attempt to di$ert the people's attention from the things which they too* away from them# &e' the gyptians' ha$e had that e)perience and' conse3uently' we *now all a"out it# A# The capitalists en6oyed li"erty to ta*e further steps in the same direction' de$iating from all other systems of different periods# They allowed indi$iduals to accumulate money and to in$est it through usury ( this method was condemned "y the thin*ers of ancient times# Centuries "efore The +i"le and The 5uran' Aristotle and Plato also attac*ed usury.e cared only for his money and his gains which were collected despite the ordeal of the de"tor who was totally destroyed# The greatest calamity was that the mischief had its effect upon go$ernments rather than indi$iduals# Go$ernments used to "orrow money to construct roads and railways and the li*e and were then o"liged to collect ta)es from their citi%ens in order to pay the de"ts# In this way' the malady remained inherent in the "ody of the whole nation' "oth go$ernment and the people' destroying e$erything# It is surprising that when a nation is in$ol$ed in a war' it does not pay any attention to those *illed or wounded or afflicted with calamities in their homes or those who lost their fathers or sons or hus"ands# These people are con$eniently left "y the state without any support or compensation# +ut those who lent money to the state' and were for this reason considered to "e its legitimate sons# continued to recei$e their interest from the Treasury' e$en for a period of hundreds of years# It is ironical that some of those who laid down their li$es in war ha$e to su"scri"e' along with others' to pay such . it was considered "y all the communities of the world as dishonora"le and mischie$ous# +ut the capitalists ignored all considerations of society and di$ine religion and disregarded all ideology so long as their own system would lead them to the accumulation of immense wealth# Such people are the sla$es of indi$idual gain and not the pioneers of social reform' as it is claimed# For this reason' usury "ecame the only legal form of trade and financial transaction# -ater' they enacted laws of the land which secured the interest of the capitalist rather than that of the de"tor# In this way' the happiest of men was he who could accumulate wealth "y hoo* or "y croo*# others' of course' "e they thin*ers' in$entors or legislators' were of no importance# ach one of them' "eing concerned with his personal concerns' was e)posed either to loss or gain' "ut the man who lent his money through usury sat at home 3uiet and happy' since his profit was assured and of his losses was secure' regardless of ideologies and humanitarian considerations# .and the facilities of 3uic* means of communications which they en6oyed# In this way again' prices go up since each one of them ma*es a profit without rendering any ser$ice in the field of production or impro$ement# They carried out such transactions without e$en transferring goods or commodities from one place to another.

they ha$e health and money and leisure# 0n the other hand' the destitute are always ready to accept the demands of the capitalist o$erlords# &hile the former wish to satisfy their sweeping desires' the latter are dri$en to flattery and hypocrisy# Thus does capitalism outline the "asis of society in which it e)ists# Such a society is completely corrupt.interest# In this way does a system which is founded on usury re$eal the in6ustice and wrong it does to the real wor*ers and producers in the state a wrong done to safeguard the interest of a few capitalists who ha$e no interest in the welfare of others# 1nder these circumstances society' "oth populace and go$ernment' "ecame the ser$ant of a "and of capitalist o$erlords who occupied their position "ecause of wealth and "ecause of the rights granted them "y law# C# Selfishness and deceit created characteristics in people which do not re3uire of a person that he forgi$es or succors someone else# &hat *ind of society is this in which $ery great differences e)ist among its mem"ers and in which the ties uniting $arious elements of the nation are lac*ing4 Such a society' with its dissident groups each one har"oring animosity against the other' cannot e)ist indefinitely# If such a thing happens' it will "e due to suppression and want' and it is ine$ita"le that one day society must $anish ta*ing with it its so( called sta"ility# D# The dar*ness of thought a"out the matter has "een so thic* that it has flooded the minds of the capitalists# &ithout reali%ing it' they produced stagnation "oth in themsel$es and their society "y saying that the indi$idual's attempt to secure pri$ate interests in a free economy in itself pa$es the way for the de$elopment of ways and means for increasing production# They try to forget that any society' with its millions either of unemployed or persons with small and limited earnings' cannot purchase the huge 3uantities of goods e)hi"ited in shops# 0n the contrary' these shops will suffer depression' which in turn will lead to the discontinuation of production "y factories' increase in unemployment and economic depression# As a result production either completely discontinues or e$ery"ody searches for a sphere of influence in one of the underde$eloped countries to use it as a mar*et for his products# This is the point which gi$es rise to differences and wars# E# The Capitalists sitting idle in their homes do not wor*' either physical or mental# They lac* nothing either physically or mentally. they attri"ute the causes to particular local reason and pay no attention to the true ones# They ne$er lin* pro"lems with their real sources which are the direct outcome of capitalism and the solution they reach is always unreal# In this way' they cause people to go round and . its wealthy mem"ers are simply e)ploiters and its poor mem"ers are sla$es# There can "e no spirit of co( operation or compassion in it each of its mem"ers see*s nothing "ut his personal interest# F# In addition to that' under the shadow of a free economy' though itself "ecomes confused# As has already "een demonstrated' society suffers from successi$e pro"lems which stem from the corruption en$eloping the system# For this reason' thin*ers are sought out in order to find a solution to the pro"lems' "ut they in turn distort the facts' either to please the capitalists or in fear of their $iolence# Such people do not try to find out the real causes for pro"lems.

"oys had to *a$e their hair grow long while the girls had to cut theirs short# This mo$ement loo*ed at ancient traditions' such as religion' family' pri$ate ownership' central administration and the li*e as o"stacles which had to "e completely remo$ed# arly in the nineteenth century' a num"er of preachers of communism' such as Ro"ert 0wen and Saint Simon' "egan their campaigns' "ut they failed as others had done# In =E@D' Barl .e%de* appeared called the :Nihilist .round in empty circles in an attempt to find the two ends of the pro"lems# This state of affairs creates dou"ts amongst the nation and restlessness and other social sic*nesses pre$ail# +earing all this in mind' how can a community ensure the ser$ices of its mem"ers if they are left a"solutely free to secure their pri$ate interests4 The capitalists ha$e pro$ed that un"ridled selfishness seldom pro$es to ha$e regard for 6ustice' particularly if it gets into its hands economic and political power and if it is assigned the tas* of legislation# In such case' capitalism tries only to secure the ma)imum of pri$ate interests# No "etter description of capitalist society could "e found than that gi$en "y the 1nited States President' 6ohn Bennedy' in the "oo* 7The Strategy of Peace8 which contains a num"er of the speeches and statements made "y him a"out certain American and International pro"lems# 9ohn Bennedy says 7Nearly one out of e$ery two young American men is re6ected "y Selecti$e Ser$ice today as mentally' physically' or morally unfit for any *ind of military ser$ice# Still more are screened out after induction<# :The Na$y releases statistics showing more men in na$al prisons than the entire Norwegian and !anish na$ies com"ined 2 and showing enough men "randed deserters to supply a full crew for an aircraft carrier# &hat has happened to us as a nation4 Profits are up ( our standard of li$ing is up ( "ut so is our crime rate# So is the rate of di$orce and 6u$enile delin3uency and mental illness# &e are' I am afraid' in danger of losing something solid at the core# &e are losing that pilgrim and pioneer spirit of initiati$e and independence ( that old(fashioned Spartan de$otion to 7duty' honor and country8# &e thin* that we don't need that spirit now# Communism Origin This system is not an offshoot of the present age' since it dominated the minds of ancient philosophers too# In a"out @GG +#C# Plato introduced to the world his idea of a city which he "ased upon the 6oint ownership of wealth and women# In the third century A#!# .ar) pu"lished a "oo* in which he repeated the old theme "ut with some additions' claiming that his "oo* had a sound and scientific "asis# It is easy for any scholar to reali%e that this idea which dominated the minds of many peoples at many times' and which reappeared continuously after disappearing' contained .o$ement<# Its doctrine was that a new pattern of youth were to de$iate from recogni%ed customs and "eliefs and moc* all inherited traditions# They had to change e$en the smallest aspect of common life.e%de* also called for the sharing of wealth and women in Persia# There were differences in detail in each case' "ut these do not concern us here# -ater' others did the same' important among them "eing the Garmathians who went further and preached that anyone who wanted to 6oin their cult was to lea$e his wife free to "e ta*en "y anyone who wished# The appeal spread to the Hnorth of Iran and south of the Caucasus where a group of people had re$olted against the rulers' wearing red clothes as a sym"ol of challenge and resistance# In Russia' a mo$ement similar to that of .

the only difference "etween the two "eing that while religion admitted this fact communism went on to pretend' o"stinately and persistently' that its fundamental principles were supported "y science and sure *nowledge# It claimed that its ideals were "ased on agreed scientific theories# No dou"t that was nothing "ut $aunting claim' "ut the fact remains that these principles are still $iewed as contro$ersial su"6ects "y scholars and those concerned with research# The %eneral Theory o$ Communist System . ta*en together they helped in the ad$ancement of communism# The di$ergence of opinion among different classes of people was the main factor in "ringing them together' on one platform# After the death of .certain hidden secrets which were responsi"le for gi$ing it a new life# I "elie$e that are "asic parallels "etween the reasons for its appearance "efore Christ and reappearance in the third century A#!# and in modern times# .arch' =F=D# The date mar*ed the termination of the Tsarist dictatorship# It was followed "y another dictatorship which was wrongly descri"ed as the wor*ers' dictatorship# In fact' it was a dictatorship of a select class which sei%ed power on "ehalf of the wor*ers# .e%de* did not preach this idea in the third century A#!# without ha$ing first o"ser$ed the une3ual distri"ution in matters of ownership among indi$iduals# &hile there were people who had a great deal' others had nothing at all# Reali%ing this' he e)pounded his idea in the hope that money would "e a$aila"le to all# .ar)' in the middle of the nineteenth century' made the appeal which was to achie$e such great success# There is no room for surprise at this' for it did not stem from the idea itself "ut from circumstances which were temporary and due to particular factors# The moment these factors disappeared' the success also $anished# The new appeal followed capitalism's $ictory o$er feudalism# The wea*ened feudalism had "een in no mood to plunge into a prolonged war with a new appeal and hastened to surrender# In its fight for supremacy' capitalism was generous in ma*ing new promises to wor*ers and la"orers# The moment it gained ground' it completely forgot all promises made and "ecame more oppressi$e than its predecessor feudalism# In addition to this' communism contained a num"er of concepts which filled the $acuum created "y the religious decline resulting from the emphasis upon secular matters during the last three centuries# People were decei$ed "y the outward aspect of the new life and were attracted "y the fresh fields of *nowledge which were accessi"le to them# All these factors com"ined were responsi"le for the de$elopment of the communist system.oreo$er' the $ictims of the dictatorship were the same wor*ers in whone name it pretended to spea*# From this date' .ar)ism flourished and ad$anced as an international doctrine# &ith long strides' it proceeded to sei%e power and introduce communism in more and more areas# It occupied in the minds of its "elie$ers in the place of religion# They thought that communism could offer them a complete interpretation' "ringing to life a limitless perception# They "elie$ed it would pro$ide a new spirit for the fulfillment of man's goals and hopes# This was' in fact' what religion aimed at# It is not our concern here to e)plain why communists feel so distur"ed when parallel is drawn "etween communism and religion# This feeling of theirs is an un3uestioned fact# Religion demands "elief in unseen matters which are "eyond the human mind# This "elief was to "e the "asis of each su"se3uent logical issue# Communism did the same' -enin too* the lead# Around him mustered some of Russia's youth who formed the nucleus of the Russian Communist Party in =FGA# In =F=D' e)ploiting the distur"ances in the country' this party staged a re$olution which swept the entire country against the Tsar' who was forced to a"dicate in .e was followed "y other thin*ers whose efforts came to nothing until Barl .

ar) disco$ered an e$olutionary law in relation to human history# ngels went on to say :.elped "y .e referred to this dictatorship of the wor*ers as functioning only in the interim period# It was not to "e regarded in the same light as despotic rules "y an indi$idual# It is understood that the new class will simply ta*e o$er the administration from the pre$ious rulers and for that reason the dictatorship of the wor*ers must disappear after completing its mission and destroying capitalism for e$er# .ar) e)plains that the history of all present day societies is the history of conflicts "etween classes# 0ne of the manifestations of this conflict was the struggle which too* place in ancient time "etween the free and the sla$es' "etween the lords and the commoners and later "etween leaders and foremen in party organi%ation# The same thing occurred in recent history "etween the "ourgeoisie and the wor*ers during the French Re$olution# At that time' the "ourgeoisie were those who directed the economy and had possession of wealth and political power' whilst other classes were left to do the manual la"or' despite the fact that the latter had the "iggest and the most important part to play in production# It was o"$ious that the predestined result of such a conflict was the e)tinction of capitalism# In this connection .oreo$er' the socialist system reaches its clima) when all means of production' along with its components' are concentrated in the hands of a powerful go$ernment organi%ed "y the wor*ers' authority' or in the hands of a wor*ers' authority ta*ing the shape of a go$ernment# In such a case' the conflicts "etween classes and their moti$es would .e "elie$es that distri"ution systems differ according to different circumstances which e)ist in any society when it reaches a certain stage in its historical ad$ancement and this ma*es all the difference in the manner of distri"ution within a state# For this reason' .anifestoI .ar) says that the coming into e)istence of the communist system was the last stage in any historical de$elopment and the final step class conflict in the a"olition of ownership and destruction of class "arriers' communism does not pro$ide for competition or conflicts "etween different social groups# In .The "asis of Barl .ar) was of the opinion that a "ig part of the funds are to "e reser$ed for stepping up production' the financing of economic' cultural and de$elopment schemes' for financing social colla"oration and cooperation and for insurance against illness and old age# The remaining amount' . collecti$ely endea$or to smash other classes# .ar)'s ideology was that the history of each society was no more than the history of conflicts "etween classes' "etween wor*ers and employers' sla$es and masters# In his opinion' e$ery society has to "e di$ided into two opposite classes' the capitalists and the wor*ers# The wor*ers and the poor' the has disco$ered a simple fact which was hidden "y a plethora of intellectual theories# +efore da""ling in politics' religion' science' men ha$e to eat' drin* and find shelter and clothing# Accordingly' the production of the means of su"sistence and the le$el of economic de$elopment of any people in a specified period "ecome the two factors which determine the "asis on which the system legislature' art and e$en the religious "eliefs of the state stand# It is in this light that these things must "e e)plained and not in any other' as was the case up to our time8# In his "oo* IThe Communist .ar)'s $iew' wealth is not to "e e3ually distri"uted to the mem"ers of a certain society# .ar) thin*s' is to "e distri"uted to wor*ers' each according to the $olume and 3uality of the wor* he performs# &hen a society reaches the highest stages of the communist organi%ation' namely' when conflicts "etween intellectual and manual wor* disappear' and as indi$idual 3ualities de$elop' the producti$e forces wor* together for the increase of the resources of socialist wealth' and wor* itself "ecomes the goal of life and not merely a cheap means of li$ing# In such case the motto of e$ery"ody will "e :from each one according to his potentialities' and for each according to his needs<# As the wor*ers were to "e initially the ruling class' .ar) they form an engulfing re$olution to destroy all other classes and eradicate the traditions' customs and religions of society# In his $iew' such a re$olution was the sole means for setting up a communist society# In this respect' says ngels' much as !arwin disco$ered the law of e$olution in organic nature' so had .

disappear and not one of the many classes is to ha$e the chance of dominating another class# In this way' any citi%en will "e permitted to achie$e progress freely "y himself' either in the intellectual or social field# . it is the monopoly of the state# After re$iewing the factors which demolish capitalism ngels states that there is no solution other than practical Precognition of the character of the new forces of .ar) says of religion that it is the e)pectoration of the oppressed creature of his feelings towards a cruel socialism aims at the creation of a society in which each mem"er can reali%e' as a political end' free and total progress# The 'rinciples o$ Communist System The principles gathered "y .ar)ists from his ideas on which the communist system was set up and on which the communist go$ernment is founded can "e summari%ed in the following points/ =# There is no god and life is material# In the $iew of the proletariat law' moral $alues and religion are nothing more than deep(rooted "ourgeois conceptions "ehind which "ourgeoisie interest lur*# There are as many interest as there are concepts# The mission of the proletariat is to destroy religion and its ad$ocates# In his thesis on . it is the opium gi$en to peoples# lsewhere' tal*ing a"out the war "etween classes in France' he says that religion is the opium with which peoples are anaestheti%ed to "e easily ro""ed# Religion' he adds' was used for spiritual su"6ugation as the state was used for economic e)ploitation# -enin' his successor' says in this respect that religionist the opium gi$en to people to pacify them# It is' he adds' a *ind of alcohol of the spirit in which the sla$es of capitalism "ury their human characteristic and their sense of a dignified human life# ># A"olition of pri$ate ownership' nationali%ation of pro6ects and esta"lishments and the placing of the wealth of the whole nation in the hands of the go$ernment which will "e directed "y the proletariat from outside if they are not represented from within# In this conte)t' ngels states that the proletariat ta*e o$er political power and transfer the means of social production to pu"lic ownership in an attempt to escape control "y the "ourgeoisie# +y such action' they eliminate de$ices such as capital and allow de$ices of a social character the freedom to gain round# Social production is to "e reorgani%ed according to a set plan and the de$elopment of production ma*es the e)istence of classes a matter of the past# It remo$es the general authority of the state and chaotic social production# The people finally control mutual cooperation and "ecome the masters of nature and of themsel$es that is' they "ecome free# ?# The putting an end to internal trade and the adoption of a ration system which allows indi$iduals to o"tain their necessities against a card# Indi$iduals are not allowed to themsel$es engage in e)ternal trade.egel' .

ar) wanted to do# The only connection which e)isted "etween them was that which was measured "y the e)tent of the need for li"erty and the recognition of the rights of e3uality# .ar) and his colleagues were "rought up in countries which e)isted "etween feudalism and the great industrial age# They ad$ocated socialist systems' yet the ad$ocates of the Russian re$olution li$ed in lands which had not yet emerged from feudalism# These countries possessed no "ig industries' "ut in other countries li*e ngland .ar) succeeds in misleading the nineteenth century which was the first in the history of urope to pro$e the influence of psychological factors on mo$ements of reforms' re$olutions and coups# In point of fact' the nineteenth century was full of serious grie$ances which no reformer or historian dared to ignore' nor could he disregard those who felt these grie$ances# The truth is that those reformers and historians attached great importance to them in a manner unprecedented in any of the pre$ious centuries# At that time' many theories of reform came to light in a way pre$iously un*nown# This was not "ecause other periods were free from such serious grie$ances' "ut "ecause the uropean citi%en of the nineteenth century was more conscious of his rights' and felt the pri$ations more deeply than his predecessors# This "eing so' it "ecomes unsound to lin* reform and re$olutions with industrial de$elopment' as .ar) states that legal relations and political forms cannot "e e)plained through the alleged de$elopment of man's mind since their roots go deep in material conditions of social life# In materialistic life the shape of production determines the characteristics of social intellectual and political life as a whole# It is not the awa*ening of the man which decides and limits his e)istence# 0n the contrary it is his social "eing which determines his awa*ening# In reply to his theory we say that facts and sound thin*ing ha$e pro$ed that material factors do not change the condition of human "eings unless they "ecome metamorphosis to psychological factors which they feel# The poor man who *nows well that he is poor does not thin* of changing his condition either consciously or unconsciously# Again the poor man who *nows $ery well that he is poor and pays no heed to the fact ne$er ta*es the trou"le to thin* of changing his condition# It is surprising that .production namely' the reconciling of the means of production' ownership and e)change and the character of the means of social production# This goal' he continues' cannot "e achie$ed unless the means of production' greatly increased and controlled "y man himself' are sei%ed in entirely# @# The application of wages system# The theory that something has to "e ta*en from e$ery"ody according to his potentiality and gi$en to others according to their needs should not "e determined according to the $olume of wor* an indi$idual produces# Instead' it should "e determined "y the $alue of necessities re3uired "y the wor*er# Social wealth is nothing "ut the sum total from which an indi$idual consumes whate$er satisfies his re3uirements and not whate$er corresponds with his ser$ices and wor*# Communism and (eason In his introduction to the "oo* 7Criticism of Political conomy8 .

e also stated that' in the face of their enemies' they were o"liged to put stress on the original principle of their appeal' which their ad$ersaries had denied# They had insufficient time' he continued' to "ring out other elements which were responsi"le for the action and reaction of $arious factors# In such simple terms he had admitted that "oth .ar) were partly responsi"le for attaching more importance to economic elements than they deser$ed# .with large and de$eloping industries' re"ellious mo$ements were few and appeals for reform were made through constitutional means# &hen .ar) and he had ignored the psychological or human elements incited "y the opponents and critics of their doctrine# &inning o$er their enemies "y defying or challenging them was to the .ar)ism aimed at sa$ing humanity# At this point one can as* &here was that humanity which could "e 6ettisoned while trying to gain $ictories o$er their ad$ersaries "y deception4 on the assumption that $ictory did not result in neglect of duty' would these 3ualities "efit such thin*ers and reformers' who fought for a cause which they did not rely upon and whose efforts did not produce anything "ut enmity and hatred in the souls of the wea*4 From ngels' letter it can "e gathered that they continued all along to interpret e$ents wrongly# It is clear that such a misinterpretation cannot "e relied upon' in turn' in interpreting the momentous conse3uences resulting from it ( that is' communism falls short in its representation not only of the conditions of its own time "ut also of the conditions which are to follow later# It is neither a true picture of social grie$ances nor a true representation of the means of treating them# Communism in the Field o$ 'ractical Application &e ha$e already discussed the merit of communism and the 6udgment which reason passes on it# &e ha$e also reali%ed that it tries to pre$ent reason from "eing effecti$e "y using it in the ser$ice of something already "elie$ed in# After it had "ecome apparent to them that they had not "een acti$e in pursuit of reason they did their utmost to find the truth# +ut they failed to reach their goal' either "ecause they lost their way or "ecause the truth itself lay on a path other than theirs# They were misguided and misled and their intentions "linded them to the right path# This they admitted later on# They cannot "e e)cused the conse3uences simply "y pretending that' due to the power of their ad$ersaries' they were o"liged to "e so o"durate and e)tra$agant in their attempt to achie$e $ictory "y means of falsehoods# This state of affairs has depri$ed them of the 3ualities of true research wor*ers' within the meaning of the term' who are worthy of a position of technical and intellectual leadership# .ar)ists more worth while than caring for the human $alues# They had repeatedly stated that .ar)ists reali%ed that it was impossi"le to ignore the effect of human factors and ideas on history' they found themsel$es in greater need when mustering proof to con$ince others# In =EFG' a student as*ed ngels to elucidate this issue# In reply' ngels admitted that he and .

it is neither e)tremely short nor e)tremely long# It is not *nown whether it is e)tension in time or in place# ># In an attempt to ma*e communism something sacred to matter' it denied laws' morals and religions on the prete)t that all of these are nothing "ut "ourgeois notions with which the proletariat were decei$ed and into)icated# The historical facts pro$e otherwise# when sla$ery was practiced' morality re3uired condemnation of sla$ery and re$olt against the practice# !uring feudalism' morality re3uired glorifying the high"orn and despis ing the lowly and to the capitalists it meant the e)cessi$e glorifying of wealth and despising of want and po$erty# All these definitions of morality were 3uite understanda"le# +ut the 3uestion which is "eyond comprehension is that if morals were the creation of the "ourgeoisie "ow did they come to e)ercise influence and so$ereignty in themsel$es# ?# According to this' communisms ascri"es to material conditions the responsi"ility for interpreting all historical e$ents and theories' "ut while doing so it does not gi$e e$en one e)ample of one *nown e$ent which did not depend more or less on 7feelings8# Ta*e for e)ample the immigration of people into America after its disco$ery# They either escaped from po$erty or were una"le to en6oy the freedom of "elief in their homeland# 0ne would li*e to *now why some of them had left their countries while some others remained4 &as the factor of securing material profit the aim of all4 .. they did not reali%e the foolishness of their theory# People who are well( $ersed in such su"6ects *now today that the 3uestion of spirit was not so difficult a 3uestion for the mind to interpret as the 3uestion of matter# &hat is matter4 Is it a color or a "ody4 !oes it ha$e a weight4 Is it an e)tension4 No' it is not color' for color is a passing attri"ute resulting from light and $ision it changes according to illumination and sight# +odies on the other hand are atoms which split and change into $i"rations in the ether# $en the term ether is "eyond finite *nowledge ( it has no color' taste or motion# Those who ha$e *nowledge of the su"6ect find no difference in the definition of :ether< and that of :space<# It is a fact that "eyond the gra$ity "arrier e$erything loses weight# )tension is something understanda"le.a$ing ascertained that' we find oursel$es in no need to discuss their theories from an intellectual point of $iew# 0ur goal is to find out the truth which has to "e accepted "y the contumacious and fanatical# It is now necessary to discuss that theory from the point of $iew of practical application# Its ad$ocates pretend that it is the "asis of conduct and "eha$ior and not merely a theory# In this study we will deal with its fundamental principles and their position in practical life' after they had the opportunity to go$ern' for nearly half a century' a $ast e)pense of land inha"ited "y two hundred million persons# =# Communism denies the e)istence of anything else e)cept that which can "e felt and seen# It denies the e)istence of Allah' soul and $irtues' etc# Although it attri"utes e$erything to matter' it does not interpret one thing# The communists ne$er tried to discuss or interpret matter itself ( the only thing they did was to tread o$er it and shout 7This is the matter in which we "elie$e and within which we li$e8# +y so doing' they were influenced "y some impulse which made them spea* hurriedly and without thin*ing.

ost of the schemes which were underta*en "y middlemen failed "ecause no indi$iduals interested in their success .itler and Russia' he admired that Russia had made a mista*e in the past and that it had to correct that mista*e and allow the practice of religions and recognition of Allah# At that time' the Russian "roadcasts "egan a new to praise religion which had to recreate in the people a spiritual power which was inherent in orthodo) Russia# In this way' Stalin aimed at "ringing a"out a "alance "etween the Jatican's power and that of the 0rthodo) Church ta*ing into consideration that the +al*an States had' at that time' a"out forty million mem"ers of the 0rthodo) Church# In Septem"er =F@?' Stalin also re$i$ed the 7Sacred Con$ention8 after its final closure "y the +olshe$i*s# .uslims a theory# In =F@?' Stalin' who pre$iously declared that religion was the opium which was gi$en to peoples to into)icate them' stated that religion sows in the hearts the seeds of sacrifice' courage and $elour# &hen war "ro*e out "etween .ar)ism incriminated religion in its practical application' although at the same time' communist leaders relin3uished some of their materialist arrogance# Though narrowly limited in e)tent' this was a sign of defeat and a proof of the falseness of that important principle of the .There is no dou"t that the whole 3uestion turns' more or less' on the difference of peoples' feelings towards po$erty and the suppression of li"erty of "elief# @# In sanctifying matter communism denies the e)istence of religion# Not only that it fights it $igorously# $ents ha$e shown us how .e appointed for The .ufti8 and for the Christians a Patriarch and sent his loyal su"ordinates of the Communist Party to $illages and pro$inces to as* people to "elie$e and ha$e faith in Allah# All o$er the world' in the ast and in the &est' it was widely said that Russia has restored religion# Sultan off one of the mem"ers of the Russian diplomatic mission in gypt' em"raced Islam# A# .ar)ism pro$ed the truth of this $iew# -enin a"olished the class of small owners# -ater' in =F=D' the first year of his rule' Stalin did the same' "ut' in =F>=' he was o"liged to allow pri$ate ownership to reappear# In =F>C' he again a"olished it and in =F?> he re$i$ed it# A"olition and then restoration se$eral times' clearly show how difficult it was to apply the system# C# The .ar)ist state controls the entire economy of the country# This results in economic disad$antages can "e pro$ed "y statistics# In his "oo* :The Spirit of Socialism< Gusta$ -o"on says that the estimate of e)penditure on pure manufactured articles made "y companies and e)penditure on manufactured articles made "y go$ernment' are matters of paramount importance# stimates' collected o$er a long period' pro$ed that the cost of goods manufactured "y the go$ernment itself was higher than those manufactured "y indi$iduals "y >AK# There were many reasons for the high cost of go$ernment manufactured goods' among which there was a psychological reason which added to the complications created "y the go$ernment routine wor*# It refers to man's carelessness concerning pro6ects in which he has no personal interest# .ar)ism has declared pri$ate ownership to "e illegal since it was responsi"le for the e)istence of classes# In the $iew of the psychologists each system which is "ased on opposition to the original instincts of man can no longer sur$i$e# The practical application of .

ere' one may as* .ow can acti$ities differ without affecting the wages4 The communist system says that all wor*ers are people who should get e3ual wages# This is wrong' "ecause in determining e3ual wages for all wor*ers they also determine that all of them are e3ual in strength' wea*ness' intelligence and creati$e a"ility# This statement is denied "oth "y thin*ers and "y e$ents# +y what right does a wor*er ma*ing shoes or te)tiles "e e3ual to a scientist such as ddison who spent all his life in research wor* in$ention4 Such an e3uality will surely result in slac*ening of effort# Since e3uality in terms of wages is guaranteed' there will "e no need for increasing or impro$ing production# Some measures would ha$e to "e ta*en to a$oid such a situation# Super$isors may "e appointed to incite wor*ers to increase production# The super$isor may succeed in his mission in certain fields' "ut it is impossi"le for him to carry out his mission successfully on the farms# If such a principle is to "e applied' can we set "eside each farmer one super$isor who has to control his wor*4 And can this "e done in $ast lands where farmers and culti$ators are scattered here and there4 To sol$e this pro"lem they are forced to send spies e$erywhere to terrori%e people and threaten them "y using agents of the secret police# People may also "e threatened with death should they lag in their wor*# Another solution of the pro"lem may "e in laying down a minimum le$el for production without which no wor*er can get a wage# +ut this is complete foolishness for how can we draw a le$el for minimum production whilst there are people who ha$e physical and mental powers which ena"le them to produce more than the . wages are the same either of those who do manual wor* of those who do intellectual wor* and the principle is that from e$ery"ody according to his potentiality' to e$ery"ody according to his need# .too* o$er their change# Another result of this is the di$ersity of management# D# The declaring of pri$ate ownership to "e illegal was followed "y declaring inheritance illegal too# Inheritance is one type of ownership and ownership' they say' is the source of all calamities# In saying this' they forget that inheritance is one of the most important and sound means for "rea*ing up holdings and is a practical means for destroying capitalism# To a"olish inheritance is li*e contradicting human nature itself which en6oins that sons should inherit their fathers' characteristics' of health power' illness' wea*ness' intelligence' stupidity and so on# 0n the other hand' declaring inheritance to "e illegal remo$es hopes and incenti$es from "oth indi$iduals and groups of people# If this is to "e the case that would moti$ate the wor*er to spend more and more of his energy to "uild up rewards of which he and his sons will "e depri$ed# The communist system could not stic* to that principle for $ery long# In =F@C' it recogni%ed the right of a testator to lea$e his "e3uest' through a will' to any"ody he selected in case of the a"sence of near relati$e# Article =G of the new Russian Constitution stipulates that the right of ownership of the incomes and sa$ings of citi%ens' accumulated through wor*' and the right of ownership of homes' domestic articles and e3uipments and articles of personal effect and comfort' together with the right of the inheritance of pri$ate possessions' is a right safeguarded "y law# E# Then comes the 3uestion of the wor*er's wage in the communist system# All the people are considered as wor*ers.

is Story "efore Stalin' .ar)ist society as a structure composed of production at a lower stage and another higher' and intellectual one' with no grades and stages "etween them# In fact' the principle of e3uality of wages was nothing "ut a "luff which lured the wor*ers who suffered from unemployment under capitalism# +ut it was a "luff which did not li$e long# In =F?=' Stalin re$ealed to a conference of financiers and economists who were super$ising production in the 1SSR that progress had "een handicapped due to negligence and carelessness on the part of wor*ers# At that meeting' he held economists responsi"le for that start of affairs and as*ed them to admit that the new conditions re3uired new ways and to adopt' in a "id to increase production' a new system of differing wages# +y doing so' .ar)ism distorted many aspects of life# when they applied their system in the practical field it "ecame easy for e$eryone to see for himself how they tried to decei$e and into)icate the people "y their call for the a"olishing of "arriers "etween classes# 0n April >Eth' =FE@' the wee*ly :A*hir Sa'a< reproduced a statement released "y the So$iet News Agency TASS which reads as follows / :The Stalin Award for music amounting to one hundred thousand ru"les was granted in =FD@ to 9oseph Butta for his song :The Song of Stalin< and the Stalin Award for photography amounting to one hundred thousand ru"les was granted to -ara*ali Towidt% for his picture 7Stalin Spea*s at the >@th Anni$ersary of the 0cto"er Re$olution8# The third pri%e' amounting to fifty thousand ru"les' was awarded to painter Par*rafetshin*o for his painting 7Gor*i Reads .ar)ism is a war waged against classes' "ecause one class is the end of the whole history of man# +ut to stress this meaning' .ar)ism ignored one of its original principles which stipulated that something was to "e ta*en from each person as much as he could afford' and something should "e gi$en to someone else to satisfy his needs# Article => of the new So$iet constitution stipulates a new system for wages# It stages that wages are to "e gi$en according to the capacity and type of wor* done "y a wor*er# F# .r# Bamel A"del Rehim' e)(minister plenipotentiary for gypt in .oloto$ and Jorochilo$8# The Stalin Award for sculpture' amounting to one hundred thousand ru"les' was gi$en to Nicolai Tomos*i for his statue 7Stalin8# Second and third pri%es were also gi$en to musicians' painters and sculptors for their musical compositions and statues of Stalin# The total of pri%es granted "y the State 7the state of the communists and the paradise of the poor and needy8 in the name of Stalin' and for pictures and statues amount to a"out forty thousand pounds# They were granted "y the So$iet Council' presided o$er "y Stalin8# In a thesis a"out the new So$iet Constitution prepared "y .oscow for his .oscow# The thesis stated that the monthly pay of the Russian peasant was ?GG ru"les 7each ru"le e3ualed a"out A gyptian piastres8 from which =AG ru"les were ta*en "y the go$ernment to strengthen industries# !ramatists' dancers' men of literature and writers' the thesis continued' were called the intellectual class and drew high salaries amounting to .#A# degree' the following information appeared# The e)amination "oard at that time included .r# Foad Shi"i' the e)( press(attachL' at the gyptian -egation in .3uantity prescri"ed4 And again' how can this happen while there are other people who are incapacitated "y wea*ness and' accordingly' are una"le to produce4 In such a case' society will "e depri$ed of the e)tra production which could "e "rought a"out "y a"le men# It is natural that people wish to ta*e it easy' especially if wor* is to "e done without getting a reward# In applying such a principle' the wea* will "e condemned to death "y star$ation since they will "e una"le to produce as re3uired# This led Boestler to descri"e the .

ere are some of the facts which show communism's stand $is(M($is the wor*er# 0n 0cto"er ==th' =F?G' a decree was issued to the effect that a wor*er had to accept any 6o" assigned to him in any toward in any place# 0n >@th Septem"er =F?G' Fth 0cto"er =F?G and =Gth August =F@G' other decrees were issued prohi"iting any wor*er from lea$ing the wor* assigned to him on his own accord' otherwise he would "e considered as a deserter and would "e su"6ect to ten years imprisonment in forced wor* camps# The decrees of =Cth !ecem"er =F?> and >Cth 9une =F@G' pro$ided that if the wor*er a"sented himself for one day' or if he came to his wor* late three times in one month' such a wor*er would "e dismissed and depri$ed of the union card which indicated his profession and ga$e him the right of lodging and food# .e would also "e su"6ect to imprisonment for a period ranging from si) to twel$e months# The two decrees issued on =st 9une =F?> and >nd 9une =F@>' stipulate that wor*ers are financially responsi"le for any damage suffered "y factories or e3uipment and as sessed "y the manager only# The cut in the wor*er's pay' in such a case amount to ten times the $alue of the damages or loss# The Supreme So$iet -aw issued on >Cth 9une =F@G' gi$es the manager the right to pass sentence for imprisonment on any wor*er for a period of four months without standing trial or in$estigation# All such things occur under a go$ernment which pretends that it wor*s for the welfare of wor*ers# In the early years of its rule' .ar)ism was esta"lished to remo$e ha$e "ecome permissi"le# when the war "ro*e out' religion and nationalism were recogni%ed and the atheist leaders soon "ecame aware of the importance and influence' of religion and nationalism# After remo$ing e)ploitation which was e)ercised "y the capitalists' the ruling class which they fought to destroy and for whose cause they committed e$ery crime' remained untouched# 0n the contrary many other classes ha$e "een created and standards of li$ing differed accordingly# .>G'GGG ru"les per month# The cultured class' which was a"out D(EK of the population' drew a"out @?K of the wages# The sons of that class were admitted to uni$ersities' either free of charge or with charges' "ut the sons of peasants were depri$ed of that concession# This is how the communist state fights the e)istence of classes in conformity with Barl .ar)ism had not ta*en that turn' it would not ha$e made any progress in industry or in agriculture# The success of .ar)ism passed from one defeat to another# It continually forsoo* its principles one after the other# Near after year it a"andoned' without e)ception' all the doctrines and "eliefs on which its system had "een esta"lished# If .ar)'s principle# =G# Communism pretends that it would sa$e wor*ers from the humility and oppression they suffer under capitalism# This claim pro$ed to "e a "luff "y which they distorted facts and lured the people' especially the wor*ing class# .ar)ist e)perience in a "ig communist country is due more to forsa*ing original communist doctrines than to adopting them# All that which now e)ists in the communist state' forty years after its inception' pro$es that the for"idden things which .

istorical materialism is a doctrine in which theories and life's facts are found far distant from each other<# :&e were gi$en life to li$e and not to use it as a means of implementing the words of idealists<# :.e was a"out to stand trial "ut was sa$ed after he refused to accept the pri%e and apologi%ed to his go$ernment# Pasterna* says / :The di$ine wisdom creates soul and spirit "y which sal$ation or destruction comes a"out# It is not its function to gi$e preference to a group of people o$er another<# :. it also left the field after changing its fundamental principles and forgetting the elements of communism# This theory was an e)tension of the other materialist mo$ements *nown in ancient periods of history# All of these mo$ements arc identical in their goals' means and principles' and e$en in the nature of the people who preached their ideologies# The proper definition which may "e gi$en to such mo$ements is that they were an unhealthy manifestation which appeared as a result of an unhealthy society and at the hand of an unhealthy group# These people "elie$ed that framing constitutions "ased on science and enforcing laws deri$ed from reason were sufficient to recreate the world# 0nly through coercion could they dominate a re"ellious people who could hardly ascertain the facts since they were still in the throes of re$olt against Tsars# +ut soon the facts were re$ealed and the people tried to raise their $oice' e$en though mu%%led' to warn their human "rethren of the dangers they themsel$es were facing# In his "oo* :!r# Ohi$ago<' the Russian poet Pasterna* critici%es materialism in general and .ar)ism was gi$en sufficient opportunities to pro$e its practical power in the field of application# It was allowed to e)ercise its power during a period of forty years and two hundred million people were put at its disposal and a space dou"le that of the whole of urope ( a"out si)th of the whole world ( was also allotted to it# Notwithstanding' it incurred hea$y de"ts..any are the theories which lure peoples' "ut as soon as they are in practical use they unco$er themsel$es and re$eal painful facts<# .ar)ism in particular# That "oo* was the direct cause of hastening the poet's death# The "oo* earned him the No"el Pri%e for -iterature in =FAE' "ut was not welcomed "y the Bremlin' with the result that he was soon dismissed from the &riters 1nion# .istory is a ghost which is created "y the imagination of man to represent a chain of e$ents# It is not its concern to dri$e peoples from the past to the future in an attempt to ma*e them forget the present<# :Jitality is the "asis of all art and consciousness# It is the fountain which springs from inside# It could not "e influenced "y any e)ternal moti$e<# President Gamal A"dul Nasser says in the introduction of the "oo* :Truth a"out Communism<# / :&hen communism "ecame a system adopted "y a go$ernment it changed into something which was not anticipated "y its ad$ocates# .

ani was followed "y .The only "enefit the communists o"tained from their communism was that they "ecame machines in the general system of production' after they had "een human "eings with their own will# They denied religion "ecause they "elie$ed it to "e nothing "ut a legend# They denied the e)istence of the indi$idual "ecause they had faith only in the state and not in the indi$idual# They also denied freedom "ecause it was a proof of the indi$idual's confidence in himself# .oly 5uran# This study cannot co$er the detail and circumstances which proceeded and accompanied the ad$ent of Islam# The only thing we can do is to gi$e a "rief sur$ey of some aspects of life in tile important countries of that time# It is easy for the o"ser$er of the history of humanity shortly "efore the mission of .ani in the third century A# !# .im8 and the ad$ent of Islam to reali%e that the world' from end to end' was filled with grie$ances that the groans were heard e$erywhere# In Persia' where the Chosroes were a"solute rulers and fire was deified and worshipped' $arious grie$ances resulted in the emergence of .e called for celi"acy and outlawed marriage as a means of hastening the e)tinction of the human race and' "y cutting out posterity to ena"le light to o$ercome dar*ness# . it was the Sassanian political principles that e$ery"ody had to "e satisfied with the position he inherited from his forefathers and not to loo* forward to anything mo$e# No"ody was permitted to adopt a profession other than that' for which he was fit. no person of hum"le origin was allowed "y the Thanian *ings to hold positions close to them# $en the commoners had different status and each class had its own specific position in society# In the Roman mpire there were the same grie$ances which wea*ened its position# The afflictions of its citi%ens were many. ta)es and duties were dou"led to the point that' e$ery"ody was angry with the go$ernment# They hated it deeply and were happy to ha$e any other foreign go$ernment to replace it# In A?> A#!#' thirty thousand people died in the capital "ecause of the re$olutions and distur"ances which too* place# 9ustice' as Sealle says' was mar*eted and "argained for and "ri"ery and treason were encouraged "y the nation# Gi""on also states that at the end of the si)th century' the state reached the final stage of decay# Pre$iously' it was li*e a "ig tree in the shade of which the .uhammad 7Peace "e upon .e%de* who declared that people are "orn e3ual' with no difference "etween them' and that they should ha$e e3ual shares in life# +ecause the accumulation of wealth and women were the chief am"ition of men' he according to Sha"rastani's :Creeds and Cults<' declared women a common property and allowed people to possess wealth in e3ual shares as in the case of water' fire and fodder# In this conte)t' Professor Arthersil says that the Iranian society was "ased on classes on the lines of lineage and profession# +etween the different classes there was a wide and un"ridged gap# The go$ernment for"ade commoners to purchase the properties of the princes or' in the communist system' has neither "eing nor will# They did not "elie$e in e3uality within the framewor* of the state' "ecause in the constitution of communism the state is a pyramidical structure at the top of which sits only one man' and at the "ottom there are millions of people# Islam IThis +oo*' there is no dou"t in it' is a guide to those who *eep their duty#I The .

nations of the world too* shelter# -ater' nothing remained of that tree e)cept' the trun* which was withering away# The same point is' mentioned "y +utler who says that the Romans used to collect tolls from e$ery indi$idual in gypt along with other ta)es# According to him the ta)es collected "y the Romans were "eyond the paying capacity of the people# They were also collected in an unfair manner' "ut although the populace was annoyed "y in6ustice they found themsel$es una"le to escape it since they li$ed under ruthless control# Nor could they reach their goal "y any other e)ternal means# In an attempt to e)press their displeasure they in$ol$ed themsel$es in contro$ersial arguments and sterile metaphorical discussions# A mon* of that time descri"es how contro$ersies were to "e found e$erywhere' in the mar*ets' at the cloth merchants' the money changers and food dealers# If someone wanted to e)change a gold coin' he had to enter into an argument as to what was created and what was not# Again' if some"ody wanted to en3uire a"out the price of greed' he would get as an answer that the Almighty Allah came from the son and the son was o"edient to him# If he as*ed whether his "ath had warm water the attendant would reply saying that the son was created from nothingness# The same was also true of China' for the people there distur"ed "y many ideas to which no solution could "e offered' whilst the complicated pro"lems increasing day after day# There were three religions in China' Taoism' Confucianism and +uddhism# They either fell short of ser$ing man's purposes or were themsel$es too wea*# They soon disappeared and the Chinese were left without any religious message "y means of which they could sol$e the pro"lems of the world# In the Ara"ian peninsula we find paganism dominant# Gam"ling was something to "e proud of and usury the order of the day# &omen were considered as o"6ects of en6oyment and were depri$ed of their right to li$e in a dignified manner. the new("orn girl was sometimes *illed immediately# &ars would "rea* out for any tri$ial reason and there were many symptoms of decadence# Al(Ta"ari says in his commentary upon The .oly 5uran that in pre(Islamic days man used to gam"le away his family and wealth# If he lost the game he sat sad and loo*ed at his money "eing transferred to some"ody else's hands and this' in turn' engendered enmity and hatred# It could "e said that' as a whole' the world had not e$en one $irtuous nation' or a single society founded on morals# There were no go$ernments "ased on 6ustice and righteousness' no leadership esta"lished on science and wisdom' nor a religion re$ealed to a prophet to lead man*ind to prosperity and safety# These grie$ances' despite their different causes' prompted all peoples to loo* for a sa$ior who would remo$e in6ustice and oppression and who would inculcate a new spirit into their souls# This was not a reason for the ad$ent of Islam ( these grie$ances could ha$e "een treated "y the re$i$al of past messages and the need was not so $ery pressing for a new prophet and a new religion# +ut the need for Islam stemmed from another direction which made it $ery necessary for humanity to ha$e a new religion which would' through the amalgamation of the spiritual with the material' "e a"le to reali%e for humanity its purposes and o"6ecti$es# The need for such a religion was urgent and its function was to lead the people to an effecti$e and no"le life which would recogni%e earthly needs and su"lime $irtues# For all these reasons' Islam came to ma*e the world happier and the peoples safe from tyrants# IThat is the right religion ( "ut most people *now notI# .

oses8 was called from the right side of the $alley in the "lessed spot of the "usy# Allah says what means/ I0 .an's mind and logic did not reali%e that it was Allah who created e$erything and that Allah was Right and 0mnipotent# To pro$e this we need not go "ac* to the days of past prophets and see how they tried to con$ince their peoples# &e will simply re$iew some of the e$ents which occurred some twenty(fi$e centuries ago# when Allah sent . surely thou art of those who are secure# Insert thy hand unto thy "osom' it will come forth white without e$il' and remain calm in fear# These two are two arguments from Nour .oly 5uran8# This shows how the miracle had de$eloped according to the de$elopment of man's mind# From ha$ing "een concerned with mere matter' it "ecame matter which resulted from heart and feeling# In 9esus' preaching' the call for considering the sentiments of pity' forgi$eness and affection was mingled with another call which had no support of logic# This was the call to "elie$e in the !i$inity of Allah and' again' it pro$es that up to that time the mind was in so mature as to "e a"le to reali%e the supreme truth a"out Allah and .oses to his people# .ary' remem"er . thou spo*est to people in the cradle and in old age' and when I taught thee the +oo* and the &isdom and the Torah and the Gospel' and when thou didst deterni"le out of clay a thing li*e the form of a "ird "y .oses' surely I am Allah' the .oly 5uran8# These miracles clearly pro$e the supremacy of mind's logic and show how materialist conception o$ercomes the spiritual one# Fi$e or si) centuries later' 9esus was sent to his people to as* them to "elie$e in Allah# As a proof of his ha$ing the support of Allah and that he was inspired "y .iracles were matters which suited the immature nature and mentality of peoples to whom the prophets were assigned and' for this reason' these miracles were material phenomena which had to "e "elie$ed in "y the "eholders and which ga$e the people the impression that the messengers had the support of a supernatural power# .e ga$e him 3ualities which could not "e denied# .y permission' then thou didst "reathe into it and it "ecame a "ird "y . and when I withheld the Children of Israel from thee when thou camest to them with clear arguments ## "ut those of them who dis"elie$ed said/ This is nothing "ut clear enchantment# 7The .Allah has honored man and gi$en him a mind and made him superior to all others# .im he treated the sic* and re$i$ed the dead# when Allah will say what means / I 0 9esus' son of .y fa$or to thee and' to thy mother' when I strengthened thee with the .e "egets not' nor is "egotten and who has no e3ual# .aster to Pharaoh and his chiefs# Surely they are a transgressing people# 7The . and thou didst heal the "lind and the leprous "y .oses' come forward and fear not.y permission.aster of the worlds / And cast down thy rod So when he saw it in motion as if it were a serpent' he turned away retreating' and loo*ed not "ac*# 0 .y permission.oly Spirit.y's mind has de$eloped since Adam' the father of all man*ind and yet during the course of time' the mind of man "ecame wea*ened and in need of aid to help it ahead# To promote the faculties of the mind' Allah sent consecuti$e messages with a num"er of messengers# ach one of those messengers tried to gain the confidence of his people# . and when thou didst raise the dead "y .e 7.e was 0ne' on &hoa all depend and that .

oly +oo* which was re$ealed to him' containing positi$e power corresponding with humanity in its clima) of de$elopment# It deals with all human necessities' lea$ing nothing on earth without careful study# It safeguards for all peoples' and all generations' progress' prosperity and sta"ility# Allah says what means/ I This day ha$e I perfected for you your religion and completed .uhammad i"n A"dllah' Peace "e upon .y fa$or to you and chosen for you Islam as a religion# 7The .oly 5uran8# Islam)s %eneral Theory o$ Economy It is erroneous to assume that Islam has only one conomic theory which has no relation to other economic theories# .e has created men# There is no altering Allah's creation# That is the right religion ( "ut most people *now not#I 7The .uhammad's miracle was represented in that .im# .oly 5uran8# Since religion lay at the pinnacle of mental maturity' it had to include solutions for all the pro"lems of man# &ith Islam man*ind will "e in no need of another religion# To achie$e all these goals' the tenets of Islam are to correspond with the nature and aspirations of man# They see* his welfare e$en in the case when man' for some reason' has no affiliation to them# Allah says what means / ISo set thy face for religion' "eing upright the nature made "y Allah in which .uhammad's message called for righteousness and reasoning supported "y sentimental and spiritual considerations# Allah says what means/ IIn the creation of the hea$ens and the earth' and the alternation of night and day' and the ships that in the sea with that which profits men' and the water that Allah sends down from the s*y' then gi$es life therewith to the earth after his death and spreads in it all 7*inds of8 animals' and the changing of the winds and the clouds made su"ser$ient "etween hea$en and earth' there are surely signs for a people who understand# Allah says what means/ In this creation of the hea$ens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day there are surely signs for men of understanding# Those who remem"er Allah standing and sitting and 7lying8 on their sides' and reflect on the creation of the hea$ens and the earth# Allah' Thou has not created this in $ain# Glory "e to thee# Sa$e us from the chastisement of the Fire# 7The .At the time of .oses and 9esus' gypt's sciences' philosophy and law passed to Greece and Rome where they con3uered the minds of peoples# It is from them that the Gree* philosophy and literature too* the "est# when the mind de$eloped' together with its capacity for logic' it noted that material miracles could not "e ta*en as mental or logical proofs# Allah has ordained that logic a mind was the crowning 3uality of human life' pro$ided that logic should not "e $oid of sentiment and spiritual considerations# .ind should compromise "etween logic' reason' the sentiment and the spirit' all com"ined together# In this way' it can disco$er the ma)imum 3ualities of humanity and could also disco$er the secrets of the uni$erse# This was em"odied in Islam' the message of which was assigned to Islam's Prophet .oly 5uran8# &ith that call man can dispense with any other appeal since it would "e purposeless# For this reason' .

then' on this "asis' it constructs the principles of "eha$ior and morality which deri$e from it' together with an economic system' for it is not possi"le to sacrifice these principles in pursuit of an economic organi%ation# Islam does not deny man's indi$idual personality' nor his right of ownership# Nor does it ignore the $arious instincts which moti$ate him# 0n the other hand' it denies the right of the community to safeguard indi$iduality to the e)tent that the strong "ecome more powerful' and the wea* wea*er' a process which threatens to eradicate the no"le aspects of human conscience and sentiment on which the structure of the family and the whole community is founded# To achie$e perfection' humanity must safeguard man's right to personal acti$ities and the reward he may get from them# At the same time' it has to pre$ent him from e)ercising pressure on others and from pre$enting any"ody else from en6oying the rewards of his acti$ities# Islam has reali%ed all this# It recogni%es ownership and inheritance and respects the family' considering them as the fundamental "asis of social life# Reali%ing what may result from the .Islam' "eing the religion of monotheism' loo*s at man*ind with its grie$ances as a consolidated unit# Since Islam aims at leading humanity to progress and ci$ili%ation it has to offer e$erything which secures the reali%ation of all those goals# In this scrutiny of man in society Islam reali%es that e$ery indi$idual is influenced "y two different elements / =# The internal one which controls a man's "eha$ior' dominates his thoughts and shapes his indi$iduality# It is this element which is represented in man's instincts and sentiments# ># The second element stems from the circumstances of the indi$idual in relation to his en$ironment# This attempts to depri$e the first element of its power' and ha$ing molded the indi$idual' to force him into the community without any sense of his own indi$iduality# This element is represented in man's relations with others' whether son' wife' parents' "rothers' relati$es or friends# Islam admits that man' "y his nature cannot dispense with either of those two elements# They are inter complementary and upon them the entire human edifice is constructed# It was with this in mind that Islam de$eloped its theory# It outlines for man the way to a happy life' where the indi$idual is not ac3uisiti$e at the e)pense of the interests of the community and the community does not impose upon the indi$idual# It secures' under the shelter of human 6ustice' the good of "oth indi$idual and the community# This good cannot "e reached other than "y considering man's indi$iduality and the e)istence of the community' not only from the materialist point of $iew' "ut as has already "een said' from all points of $iew# Islam demands from man that he "e a stone in the whole structure of society' and to reali%e "efore anything else his relation to e)istence and his position in it# It stresses this point and underlines it within itself until it reaches the le$el of faith# .is faith calls upon a man to continue with the purification of his soul and to the de$elopment of sound principles within his heart and mind# 0n that "asis man organi%es his economic and social life and all other aspects of human acti$ity# Islam purifies the spirit and leads towards what is good.

Developing man's mind : The Relation "etween man's mind and the economy is a powerful one' since the human mind is a sound measurement which man has to e)ploit not lea$e idle Allah says what means / I In the creation of the hea$ens and the earth' and the alternation of night and day' and the ships that run in the sea with that which profits men' and the water that Allah sends down from the s*y' then gi$es therewith to the earth after its death and spreads in it all 7*inds of8 .e)istence of "ig holdings and the in6ustice which may "e done "y the rich' together with the e)istence of a feeling of unfair treatment due to the disparity of the material rewards to "e won "y the poor' Islam pre$ents the e)istence of "ig holdings on a "asis other than personal effort# Accordingly' it prohi"ited usury and made inheritance an effecti$e means of splitting "ig holdings# In this way' no society will ha$e mem"ers har"oring the hatred and ill(feeling which arise from an un6ust disparity in earnings# Islam has put man' whether as an indi$idual or mem"er of a community' inside a frame which safeguards the relations of indi$idual with the community# -ater' it ga$e man the li"erty to reform himself and his e)istence within the limits prescri"ed# 'rinciples o$ Islamic Economy Islam did not introduce independent economic principles which were di$orced from other aspects of life' in the manner of positi$e concepts# Islam has a realistic $iew towards life# In its opinion' all aspects of life are inter(dependent and its materialist side has to rely on its spiritual side# For this reason' Islam's economic principles are mi)ed with others which may "e material' social or educational# Nor does Islam' treat economics superficially' it ma*es a deep study of it' and in all other matters' it tries to find out the secrets of each pro"lem# In The .oly +oo* and The Sunna these sound principles' "ased on a natural and realistic footing' are to "e found e$erywhere# They are mentioned in these two sources in a way which follows the latest principles of education# This ma*es them directi$es for good "eha$ior which can "e easily assimilated and not 6ust set principles which cannot reach the heart and which are difficult to apply e)cept through $iolence and authority# Islam allows ownership and gi$es this right to e$ery"ody' pro$ided no harm is to "e done to indi$iduals or groups of indi$iduals# It left to society the regulari%ing of its affairs within these limits according to en$ironment and circumstances related to time and space# If the application of these principles is carried out properly and precisely' Islam is confident of their good results# It is easy for e$eryone studying The .oly +oo* and The Sunna to reali%e how Islam deals with economy# Islam's way of approaching this can "e summari%ed under the following points/ 1 .

an must recogni%e and admit this principle# Allah says what means/ I &ho ma*e the earth a resting place for you and the hea$ens a structure' and sends down rain from the clouds then "rings forth with it fruits for your is for"idden from using force in o"taining .is . so do not set up ri$als to Allah while you *now# And ma*e not o$er your property' which Allah has made a 7mean of8 support for you' to the wea* of understanding' and maintain them out of it' and clothe them and gi$e them a good education# 7The .Faith in Allah is essential for man : If man thin*s deeply he will soon ha$e faith in Allah# if such a man continues contemplation and thought' endea$oring to *now a"out time and space and whate$er num"erless and changing worlds they include' he will feel that he is an atom in these worlds' which are ordered "y sound and steady laws and which aim at certain o"6ecti$es *nown to none e)cept Allah# Su"missi$ely and 3uietly' he recogni%ed only Allah and fears neither po$erty nor harm# Allah says what means / Those who "elie$e and whose hearts find rest in the remem"rance of Allah# Now surely in Allah's remem"rance do hearts find rest# Those who "elie$e and do good a good final state is theirs and goodly return And might "elongs to Allah and .oly 5uran8 7iii8 !elineation of the means for ac3uiring possessions / To ha$e money is not a goal in itself' "ut a means "y which life "ecomes sta"le and prosperous# In this respect' the fundamental principle of ownership that man can own anything without resorting to $iolence' should "e ta*en into account# .oly 5uran8 3.oly 5uran8 The $erses of The .oly 5uran8 The 5uran repeats this meaning many times and in many chapters# It teaches man how to contemplate' and then how to order his relation with his world' in order that he may start on his own from the "eginning' without any distur"ance or distortion# 2.animals and the changing of the winds and the clouds made su"ser$ient "etween hea$en and earth' there are surely signs for a people who understanding# 7The .essenger and the "elie$ers' "ut the hypocrites *now not# 7The .Recognition of Private Ownership: 7i8 .oly 5uran which deal with this point are numerous and there is insufficient space to deal with them here# 7ii8 Com"ating of di$ergent opportunities regarding ownership / There should not "e discrimination regarding' ownership due to "irth' race' color or wealth# persons' are e3ual and only "y the merit and worth of wor* can a man "e superior# Allah says what means/ IAnd that man can ha$e nothing "ut what he stri$es for# 0 people' *eep your duty to Allah' &ho created you from a single "eing and created its mate of the same 7*ind8' and spread from these two many men and women# And *eep your duty to Allah' "y &hom you demand one of another 7your rights8' and 7to8 the ties of relationship# Surely Allah is e$er a &atcher o$er you# 0 man*ind' surely &e ha$e created you from a male and a female' and made you tri"es and families that you may *now each other# Surely the no"lest of you with Allah is the most dutiful of you# Surely Allah is Bnowing' Aware# 7The .

e has sent down no authority' and that you say of Allah what you *now not# 7The .erciful to you# Those who swallow the property of the orphans un6ustly they swallow only fire into their "ellies# And they will "urn in "la%ing fire# Surely Allah commands you to ma*e o$er trusts to those worthy of them' and that when you 6udge "etween people you 6udge with 6ustice# Surely Allah admonishes you with what is e)cellent# Surely Allah is e$er .oly 5uran8 7iii8 Islam pre$ents the accumulation of wealth "y plundering and e)ploiting the wea*ness of others# Allah says what means/ I And swallow not up your property surely Allah is e$er Aware of what you do among yoursel$es "y false means' nor see* to gain access there"y to the 6udges' so that you may swallow up a part of the property of men wrongfully while you luiow# 0 you who "elie$e' de$our not your property among yoursel$es "y illegal methods e)cept that it "e trading "y your mutual consent# And *ill not your people# Surely Allah is e$er .ownership# +eyond this man is free to own anything# Allah says what means / Say / The "ad and the good are not e3ual' though the a"undance of the "ad may please thee# So *eep your duty to Allah' 0 men of understanding' that you may succeed# Say Allah for"ids only indecencies' such of them as are apparent and such as are concealed' and sin and un6ust re"ellion' and that you associate with Allah that for which . so shun it that you may succeed# The de$il desires only to create enmity and hatred among you "y means of into)icants and games of chance' and to *eep you "ac* from the remem"rance of Allah and from prayer# will you then *eep "ac*4 7The .oly 5uran8 To achie$e that goal' Islam ordains the following/ 7i8 Indi$iduals are for"idden to ac3uire money through gam"ling "ecause to gam"le is to usurp another's money without reward and "ecause it constitutes an infringement of the rights of society' as opposed to the indi$idual# It ma*es a mem"er of particular society una"le to perform his duties towards the community he li$es in# Society re3uires from e$ery mem"er the offering of producti$e wor*# Allah says what means / I0 you who "elie$e' into)icants and games of chance and 7sacrificing to8 stones set up and 7di$iding "y8 arrows are only an uncleanness' the de$il's wor*.earing# Seeing# 0 you who "elie$e' "e maintainers of 6ustice' "earers of witness for Allah' e$en though it "e . and whate$er you gi$e in charity' desiring Allah's pleasure' these will get manifold# 7The .oly 5uran8 7ii8 People are for"idden from colleting money through usury# 1sury increases the $alue of capital and encourages people with money not to wor*# In addition to that' it har"ors hatred in the souls of the needy# In such a ease' the community cannot "e sta"ili%ed and indi$iduals feel no safety# Allah says what means/ I Those e)cept as he arises who swallow usury cannot arises whom the de$il prostrates "y 7his8 touch# That is "ecause they say' Trading is only li*e usury# And Allah has allowed trading and for"idden usury# To whomsoe$er then the admonition has come from Allah' and he desists' he shall ha$e what has already passed# And his affair is in the hands of Allah# And whoe$er returns 7to it8 ( these are the companions of the Fire / therein they will allude ( Allah will "lot out usury' and lie causes charity to prosper# And Allah lo$es not any ungrateful sinner# And whate$er you lay out at usury' so that it may increase in the property of man it increases not with Allah.

oly 5uran8 7i$8 The organi%ation of relations "etween employees and employers# Islam ordains that such relations must "e founded on a "asis of the mutual e)change of ser$ices and e3uality "etween all# Allah says what means / I !o they apportion the mercy of Allah4 &e portion out among them their li$e hood in the life of this world' and &e e)alt some of them a"o$e others in ran* that some of them may ta*e others in ser$ice# And the mercy of thy -ord is "etter than that which they amassI# 7The .uslim he should not do in6ustice to his "rother nor lea$e him to the mercy of others8# +y adopting this principle' the morale of the wor*er rises and the employer's attitude towards him "ecomes free from any sense of e)ploitation or monopoly# $ery"ody has to offer something in order to o"tain for himself whate$er he is a"le or needs to o"tain# Relations "etween "oth parties are to "e "ased on colla"oration' following the Prophet's words IThere should "e no harm for anyoneI# 7$8 Islam com"ats man's e)cessi$e desire for ownership which may o"lige one to resort to o"6ectiona"le means or spend "eyond his capacity in order to ac3uire something he does not need# 0wnership is not an aim "ut a means for achie$ing cooperation "etween peoples in an attempt to secure happiness and welfare# The .uhammad' peace "e upon him' says on this point 7The .oly 5uran8# 7$i8 Islam defines the ways in which a man may en6oy whate$er he possesses# In doing so' it ne$er restricts man's li"erty' "ut it sets up a "arrier "etween man and e)cess in en6oying himself lest he should forget the others who li$e with him in the same community' or tends to usurp their rights# In this conte)t Islam introduced some prohi"itions and imposed restriction# Allah says what means/ .uslim is the "rother of the .against your own sel$es or 7your8 parents or near relati$es ( whether he "e rich or poor' Allah has a "etter right o$er them "oth# So follow not 7your8 low desires' lest you de$iate# And if you distort or turn away from 7truth8' surely Allah is e$er Aware of what you do# 7The .oly 5uran8 The Prophet .oly 5uran has a num"er of $erses which e)plain that wealth and riches' li*e anything else' are determined "y Allah and no power other than Allah's can increase or decrease what .is sustenance4 Nay' they persist in disdain and a$ersion# Is he who goes prone upon his face "etter guided or he who wal*s upright on a straight path4 7The .e decides for each human "eing# Allah says what means/ I 0r who is it that will gi$e you sustenance if he should withhold .oly 5uran8 The Prophet also warns people against going to e)tremes# As a practical religion' Islam guarantees for people their necessities# In case man should "ecome una"le to meet his re3uirements through his personal effort' the society in which he li$es has to loo* after him# In such a case' Islam allows such a man to o"tain money from the state treasury 7+eit al .al8# Allah says what means/I Alms are only for the poor and the needy' and those employed to administer it' for those whose hearts are to "e propitiated' for the capti$es for those in de"t and in the way of Allah and for the wayfarer ( an ordinance from Allah# And Allah is Bnowing' &ise# 7The .

e has created8 some for "urden and some for slaughter# at of that which Allah has gi$en you and follow not the footsteps of the de$il# Surely he is your open enemy# ight in pairs of the sheep two and of the goats two# Say .oly 5uran8 The 5uran not only as*s people to "e reasona"le in en6oying themsel$es' "ut warns those who de$iate from the right path and tells them that they will go astray# Allah says what means / IThey are losers indeed who *ill their children foolishly without *nowledge' and for"id that which Allah has pro$ided for them' forging a he against Allah# They indeed go astray' and are not guided# And .e for"idden the males or the two females or that which the wom"s of the two females contain4 0r were you witnesses when Allah en6oined you this4 &ho is then more un6ust and he who forges a lie against Allah to lead men astray without *nowledge4 Surely Allah guides not the ini3uitous people# 7The .is .e lo$es not the prodigals# And of the cattle .ighty' &ise# 7The . and of the camels two and of the cows two# Say / .essenger and stri$e to ma*e mischief in the land is that they should "e murdered' or crucified' or their hands and their feet should "e cut off on opposite sides' or they should "e imprisoned# This shall "e a disgrace for them in this world' and in the .ereafter they shall ha$e a grie$ous chastisement# And 7as for8 the man and the woman addicted to theft' cut off their hands as a punishment for what they ha$e earned' an e)emplary punishment from Allah# And Allah is .as .e for"idden the two males or the two females or that which the wom"s of the two females contain4 Inform me with *nowledge' if you are truthful.e it is who produces gardens' trellised and untrellised' and palms and seed ( produce of which the fruits are of $arious sorts' and oli$e and pomegranates' li*e and unli*e# at of its fruit when it "ears fruit' and pay the due of it on the day of its reaping' and "e not prodigal# Surely .oly 5uran8 .oly 5uran8 7$ii8 Islam de$elops in man the spirit of Cooperation with others# It ordains that e$ery man should gi$e the needy a specified proportion of his wealth# +y doing this' hatred against the wealthy people cannot "e har"ored "y the poor# This is in accordance with Islam's aim which en6oins the achie$ement of security and order# Allah says what means/ IAnd *eep up prayer and pay the poor(rate and "ow down with those who "ow down# 0nly Allah is your Friend and .earing' Bnowing# 7The .essenger and those who "elie$e' those who *eep up prayer and pay the poor rate' and they "ow down# Ta*e alms out of their property thou wouldst cleanse them and purify them there"y ( and pray for them# Surely thy prayer is a relief to them# And Allah is .I 0 'men' eat the lawful and good things from what is in the earth' and follow not the footsteps of the de$il' Surely he is an open enemy to you# 0 you who "elie$e' for"id not the good things which Allah has made lawful for you and e)ceed not the limits Surely Allah lo$es not those who e)ceed the limits# And eat of the lawful and good 7things8 that Allah has gi$en you' and *eep your duty to Allah' in &hom you "elie$e# 7The .oly 5uran8 7$iii8 Islam safe and protects man's property# This is done in the following ways 7a8 It protects peoples' properties from "eing stolen or pillaged "y deterrent punishments# Allah says what means / IThe only punishment of those who wage war against Allah and .is .

oly 5uran8 .oly 5uran8 7c8 Islam prohi"its man from wastefully spending money' e$en for charity# Allah says what means/ I 0 men' eat the lawful and good things from what is in the earth' and follow not the footsteps of the de$il# Surely he is an open enemy to you# And gi$e to the near of *in his due and 7to8 the needy and s3uander not wastefully# Surely the s3uanderers are the de$il's "rethren# And the de$il is e$er ungrateful to his Allah# And if thou turn away from them to see* mercy from Allah which thou hopest for' spea* to them a gentle word# And ma*e not thy hand to "e sha*ied to thy nec*' nor stretch it forth to the utmost 7limit8 of his stretching forth' lest thou sit down "lamed' stripped off# And they who' when they spend are neither e)tra$agant nor parsimonious' and the 6ust means is e$er "etween these# 7The .7"8 Islam also protects people against fraud "y for"idding any"ody from using the property of another without any legal claim# Allah says what means IAnd swallow not up your property among yoursel$es "y false means' nor see* to gain access there"y to the 6udges' so that you may swallow up a part of The property of men wrongfully while you *now# 7The .oly 5uran8 7i)8 Islam creates the incenti$es to ownership since the a"sence of these incenti$es may lead to disinterestedness and frustration with the rigors of life# An indi$idual is to lea$e his property to his relati$es and this property ser$es also as a further incenti$e which re3uires from man not to gi$e up an acti$e life "ecause he has reached the stage of self(sufficiency# To achie$e this goals' Islam pro$ided the inheritance laws# Allah says what means / IFor men is a share of what the parents and the near relati$es lea$e' and for women a share of what the parents and the near relati$es lea$e' whether it "e little or much ( an appointed share# And when relati$es and the orphans and the needy are present at the di$ision gi$e them out of it and spea* to them *ind words# 7The .

oly 5uran8 The resti$eness of either the indi$idual or the family and their de$iation from the proper way is due to the dominance of the lo$e of money' which they concei$e of as a goal and not a means# Islam' in more than one of the $erses of The .is way' then wait till Allah "rings .oly 5uran8 +y these decrees the . surely Allah lo$es not the e)ultant# And see* .is grace# And &e ha$e prepared for the dis"elie$ers an a"asing chastisement# And mothers shall suc*le their children for two whole years' for him who desires to complete the time of suc*ling# And their maintenance and their clothing must "e "orne "y the father according to usage# No soul shall "e "urdened "eyond its capacity# Neither shall a mother "e made to suffer harm on account of her child' nor a father on account of his child' and the similar duty de$ol$ed on the 7father's8 heir# And Allah has decreed that you ser$e none "ut .oses' "ut he oppressed them' and we ga$e him treasures' so much so that his hoards of wealth would weigh down a "ody of strong men# &hen his people said to him )ult not.oly 5uran' e)plains that wealth is not the means for securing sta"ility and order(this is a fact which e)perience endorses# Allah says what means / I-et not then their wealth nor their children e)cite thine admiration# Allah only wishes to chastise them there with in this world's life and 7that8 their souls may de part while they are dis"elie$ers# 5uran was surely of the people of ..oly 5uran decrees that "ig holdings "e di$ided in a way which protects society against economic inflation and the accumulation of wealth "y one single family' since it will harm society "oth in relation to its indi$idual mem"ers in its general character and structure# 7ii8 Selfishness dominating the mem"ers of society# Selfishness remo$es the element of harmony and cohesion in a society# Allah says what means / IIf your fathers and your "rethren and your wi$es and your *insfol* and the wealth you ha$e ac3uired' and trade whose dullness you fear' and dwellings you lo$e' are dearer to you than Allah and .oly 5uran not only aims at the protection of the family' which is the "asis of the society "ut it also protects the society against the following 7i8 The accumulation of wealth# +y the law of inheritance The .im' and do good to parents If either or "oth of them reach old age with thee' say not 7Fie8to them' nor chide them' and spea* to them a generous word And lower to them the wing of humility out of mercy' and say Allah' ha$e mercy on them' as they "rought me up 7when I was8 little# 7The .im' and "e good to the parents and to the near of *in and the orphans and the needy and the neigh"or of 7your8 *in and the alien neigh"or' and the companion in a 6ourney and the wayfarer and those whom your right hands possess# Surely Allah lo$es not such as are proud' "oastful' who are niggardly and "id people to "e niggardly and hide that which Allah has gi$en them out of .essenger and stri$ing in .is .is command to pass# And Allah guides not the transgressing people# Go forth' light and hea$y' and stri$e hard in Allah's way without your wealth and your li$es# This is "etter for you' if you *now# 7The .Respect for the comm!nit": Islam en6oins strengthening of family relations "etween its mem"ers since it "elie$es that the family is the "asis on which the society is founded# It also re3uires all mem"ers of e$ery family to respect the rights and o"ligations towards the family and to consider the duties of rearing' protecting and loo*ing after children# Allah says what means / IAnd ser$e Allah' and associate naught with .

it does not determine the economic relation e)isting among peoples on earth# &ith this theory' Islam puts the issue of ownership in a general conceptual frame and this is $ery different from the capitalist's concept of his natural right to control what he possesses# Allah' in Islam' represents a"solute righteousness and complete .Doubts Although Islamic legal system clarifies these truths and ma*es them easier to attain' the Islamic economy does not remain immune from ill(informed attac*s either "y the ignorant or the pre6udiced# Such people do not ta*e the trou"le of a careful study# .oly 5uran clearly state that all things are owned "y Allah and that there is no pri$ate ownership# The opposite is true does not The .oti$ated "y enmity they decry the Islamic economic system as well as other Islamic ordinances concerning the indi$idual' the community and life# In order to ma*e our study of this su"6ect complete' it is imperati$e that we refer to some of those maledictory changes "y means of which they try to attac* Islam# The po$erty and foolishness of this falsification shows itself immediately/ =# They decry the Islamic economic system as "eing dependent on hidden and spiritual factors which are then ta*en as its foundation# They say that "y introducing these theories# Islam' as well as other religions' anaestheti%e the wor*ing classes# A fact which allows no contro$ersy is that Islam has ne$er "een at any stage an anaestheti%ing agent# It was' and still is' a re$olutionary system aiming at the good of peoples# It is easy for anyone who studies its principles to recogni%e the power and fer$or in them and the considerations spiritual and material which they inculcate in the souls of their followers# +y following Islamic principles' an e3uili"rium missed "y other systems is esta"li shed# There is no such $acuum as is created "y the preference for one o$er the other# This can "e easily seen in our present(day world where many nations are o"liged to ta*e irregular measures' lea$ing other perple)ed and agitated# This state of affairs can "e seen in the capitalist as well as in the communist world# It is a fact that the day any nation ta*es religion as its law' it will ne$er lose its dignity and pride# In this conte)t' the philosopher +entham says that when a nation resorts to a system of law' criminals will ha$e less hope of escaping punishment# This is true and constitute a psychological rule which legislators and those concerned with the psychology of people are well aware of# ># They say that the $erses of the .oly 5uran say what means And Allah's is the *ingdom of the hea$ens and the earth# And Allah is Possessor of power o$er all things# There are many similar $erses in the 5uran# It is true that we cannot deny Allah's ownership of e$erything' "ut to conclude that Islam does not allow pri$ate ownership is erroneous# Islam and all other di$inely inspired religions share the $iew that the entire uni$erse' and e$erything in it' is owned "y Allah# This is a philosophical concept which cannot possi"ly "e interpreted as meaning the a"olition of pri$ate ownership of land# This theory e)plains the truth a"out the uni$erse and determines its relation with Allah.

it is .an is allowed to en6oy e$erything in life e)cept those things which lead him to destruction# +y legislation' Islam wishes to pre$ent the man from committing such actions# For this reason' Islamic ordinances are gi$en in a general form# Their details and interpretations are to "e left to en$ironment and time to determine and decide' according to life's necessities and in conformity with those general rules# They are ne$er at odds' either with nature or with intellect' nor do they stand in the way of progress and ad$ancement# Islam "elie$es in de$elopment' ad$ancement and progress# @# 0thers say that a system' which remained unchanged after the death of its pioneer e)cept for a short period' cannot "e considered a permanent system on which people can rely# These are fine and powerful words indeed' "ut the truth is otherwise# .6ustice.e created for him# .e ga$e us sufficient proof of the fact that the energy inherent in Islam was one which was suited to "e utili%ed at all times' and what 0mar i"n HA"d al(A%i% did yesterday we can do today# This was remar*ed upon "y Professor Gi"" in his "oo* :&hither Islam<# In this "oo* Professor Gi"" admits that Islam is still a"le to offer to humanity a no"le and su"lime ser$ice# No religion other than Islam can succeed so gloriously in "ringing different human races close to each other and forming out of them a unit founded on e3uality# The "ig .uslim communities' he adds' li$ing in Africa' India and Indonesia' and e$en the small Islamic community li$ing in China and in 9apan' are nothing if not a proof that Islam still en6oys the power to dominate all these different elements composing many races and classes# Professor Gi"" adds that if the differences "etween the ast and the &est are to "e studied and sol$ed' recourse must "e had to Islam in the settling of the dispute# .uslims o"tained a real Caliph with true Islamic understanding and spirit' Islam "egan to pro$e its worth once again# After "eing separated from the world "y its own egotism# The Islamic go$ernment "ecame once more a $ital force pulsating with life# The Caliph was 0mar i"n HA"d al(A%i%' and although he did not sur$i$e long he was a"le completely to infuse# the true Islamic traditions into the structure of the state# .e &ho dominates the whole uni$erse and directs it# If this is the case' it is inconcei$a"le that Islam should gi$e any owner of land a free hand in dealing with his property in a way which may do harm to others# Islam with its comprehensi$e theory a"out the uni$erse had connected' "oth conceptually and implicitly' the issue of ownership with a supreme and moral law# Regarding the uni$erse' Islam claims that there is a force for 6ustice and good "ehind the world# If this theory does not deny the right of ownership or regulari%e the details of its system' it does at least from the theoretical point of $iew' outline general pro$isions for disposition of ownership# ?# They also hold that in legislation Islam is unwor*a"le' since its ordinances come in a general form without gi$ing details or limits# This should not "e ta*en as a defect' "ut as something Islam can "e proud of# It is a pointer to the uni3ueness of Islam and without it' Islam would not "e a structure fitted for all times and for all places# Allah has ne$er created man in order to place him in fetters as these legislators thin*' nor did .istory stresses that as soon as The .e lay down principles and theories to "e *ept in museums# 0n the contrary Allah has created man to en6oy the life which .

uslim world of the time achie$ing for it a place in the $an of the great powers who competed together in the furthering world ci$ili%ation# !uring that period of Islam' no such defects in the Islamic structure can "e found# The prohi"ition of dealings in interest is a system which is difficult to reconcile with the new world which the material ci$ili%ation of the &est has "rought into "eing# +ut the system laid down "y Islam was a practical one during the early centuries of Islam# The interest on capital' without which transactions cannot "e underta*en' differs somewhat from normal de"ts# In such a case' la"or capital wor* together and this partnership is not prohi"ited "y Islam# The Islamic social system stipulates that capital and la"or should share gains and losses# The payment of fi)ed interest means that capital earns fi)ed profits' e$en in cases where la"or fails to earn anything# 0"6ection is made often to the participation of la"or and capital in gains and losses# It is said that that system is unpractical as it always re3uires "oo*(*eeping# There is no need to mention that "oo*(*eeping is a necessity in trade and's natural tendency . important pu"lic pro6ects came into "eing all o$er the $ast .A# The "iggest defect in Islamic economic system' as seen "y capitalists' is the prescri"ing of usury and the prohi"ition of dealings in interest in their opinion' the a"olition of interest hinders the progress of "usiness and trade transactions as well as the implementation of import and natural schemes# Assuming for the sa*e of argument# that it does hinder "oth' Islam pro$ides the finest possi"le recompense in that it pre$ents the wars which are caused "y loans and de"ts and which cause humanity so much unhappiness and misery# In the early days of Islam' trade was practiced normally and commerce e)tended e$erywhere. we fear it merely "ecause in dealing with money only uropean methods are applied# . to *eep such "oo*s is necessary in deciding ta)es and imposing duties# All limited companies' wor*ing on a large scale' *eep "oo*s and ledgers# To do this is more "eneficial to the common interest than to adopt the system of adding interest to capital' which adds in turn to the e$ils of capitalism# +y doing so' in6ustice is done to la"or# -oans floated "y go$ernments or companies for the implementation of large schemes' such as the construction of railroads and canals and the li*e' may "e made on these lines# If the general system of "an*s is set up on cooperati$e "asis' as appro$ed "y the social system of Islam' it would "e a great "lessing for humanity# Supposing that a state enforces legislation a"olishing interest on capital in "an*s' companies' pro6ects and personal loans' what would happen then4 The capitalists' in their attempt to increase their funds' would find no alternati$e to the following two general courses of action/ a# To in$est their money of their own accord in in dustry trade or agriculture' or "# To in$est their money' through cooperation' in limi ted companies 7whose shares may gain or lose# +oth ways are appro$ed "y Islam and "y adopting either way' the economy loses nothing# The only fear is that capitalists may refrain from depositing their money in "an*s which occasionally finance "ig schemes# +ut this is an imaginary danger.

to accumulate wealth should "e ta*en into consideration# .oney cannot "e increased e)cept "y in$esting it in one way or another# This natural tendency does not allow capital to remain unutili%ed# If we are eager to implement "ig schemes to "ring a"out what is called :large( scale production<' legislation for some form of hea$y industry must "e enforced which will permit people with the minimum of capital to launch schemes# This "eing so' capital will "e 6ointly contri"uted and e)posed to either gain or loss# There will "e no need for issuing "an*s and if other "an*s wish to get profits' they ha$e to su"scri"e their own and their depositors' funds which will "e in$ested' with their appro$al' in schemes which may gain or lose# To guarantee interests is simply usury# This will not pre$ent the flow of capital either national or foreign' since most capital is not deposited in "an*s "ut utili%ed in commercial schemes# Insurance companies can "e considered as Islamic concerns in that the funds deposited in them "ecome lia"le to gain or loss' increase or decrease# They can in$est their deposits in profita"le pro6ects which will "e' in turn' lia"le to gain or loss# Insurance companies ha$e to pay e$ery person who insures with them an amount which may "e "igger or smaller than that which he paid# They ha$e to deduct from depositors the amount of money the company loses in proportion to each one's deposit# In this way' those who ta*e out insurance themsel$es from a cooperati$e group which e)tends help to the needy and security in case of need# This is applica"le to sa$ing accounts and the li*e# All these organi%ations can "e transferred to cooperati$e esta"lishments which ha$e to utili%e their funds in producti$e pro6ects lia"le to gain and loss# They should not yield fi)ed interest# In this way' our economic system will not "e "randed with the disgraceful mar* of usury and capital will see* producti$e la"or ensuring "oth earnings and de$elopment# Conclusion From the "rief study we ha$e made it is possi"le to reali%e to what e)tent capitalism as an economic system' has failed to meet the re3uirements of a whole society and pre$ent the supremacy of one class o$er another# In spite of its assumption that it is "eneficial' this study shows us how capitalism has failed to create the good capitalist who will sacrifice e$erything for the sa*e of applying capitalist principles properly# 0n the contrary capitalism *indles the fire of selfishness in men's souls and it was due to this system that selfishness de$eloped and "ecame protected "y rules and regulations and the security and tran3uility of the people changes to fear and agitation# This led some people who felt the "itterness of life under capitalism to introduce to humanity a counter system which attac*ed systems associated with capitalism and "y a natural process this led to re$olutions# Communism and the ideas which stem from it' howe$er de$iated from the correct path and it has fallen into the same mista*es which threaten to destroy capitalism# Communism has condemned the entire structure of capitalism "ut as has already "een mentioned' in presenting an alternati$e system communism introduced the oretical system rather than a practical one# &hen communism had the opportunity to apply its own system' it was faced "y e$ents for .

the mind of that which is created cannot reach the le$el of the mind of The Creator# Islam deals carefully and clearly with economics# It includes principles whose application results in securing the welfare and good of communities# It ta*es no sides with a group against another' nor does it har"or a grudge against the rich so as to depri$e them of rights pre$iously gi$en to them# .which it was not prepared# In its attempt to e)tricate itself from them it was o"liged to ha$e recourse to capitalism and 3uietly to "orrow from it# The progress and de$elopment which were achie$ed "y "oth parties are not to "e accounted for "y the e)treme economic system they "elie$ed in unless economics were themsel$es the goal and not the means for securing the welfare of peoples# Such a goal cannot "e achie$ed under such "lind and materialist e)tremist# Any system' whether capitalist or communist' which sets up life on a "asis of economics and erects morality on such a foundation without paying any attention to faith in pu"lic life' can ne$er pa$e the way for humanity to the state of happiness which is its goal# Such a system pro$ides for man the e$ils and difficulties from which he suffers today# It ma*es the attempts to pre$ent wars and to sta"ili%e world peace futile# As long as indi$idual and social relations are go$erned "y "read to "e eaten' money to "e spent and power to "e imposed' each indi$idual will go on falling upon the other and each community will sei%e e$ery opportunity to usurp another's possessions or to completely destroy it# 1nder such a system' e$eryone will treat e$ery one else as enemies and not as "rothers and the moral "asis of the soul will continue to "e that of the "east though this may remain hidden till the occasion arri$es# $ents in the present(day world are a good e)ample of this# Ri$alry' competition and conflict are the order of the day and show themsel$es in the capitalist on the one side and the communist on the other# 1nder the system of indi$idualism a wor*er' "ecomes the ri$al of the wor*er and the capitalist competes with the capitalist and "oth the wor*er and the capitalist "ecome in turn opponents to each other# It is surprising that the followers of this system "elie$e that ri$alry and struggle lead man to goodness' happiness and progress# The communist system "elie$es that struggle "etween classes is something which destroys all of them' lea$ing the field to the wor*ers and claim that this state of affairs is demanded and imposed "y nature# +oth systems pro$ide for humanity an un3uiet life' with no sta"ility or safety# The people of this age ha$e gone "ac* to the life of the forest where fears dominated and peace was "eyond reali%ation# ( 1nder such conditions security is something to "e hoped for "ut which remains a mirage# Islam' with its principles' stands in the middle road# Regarding economics' it does not ta*e hasty action nor is it a $iew point moti$ated "y wic*edness or selfishness# Islam's theories a"out economics were those re$ealed "y Allah' Creator of The 1ni$erse# Islam is a philosophy which cannot "e matched "y the minds of philosophers.oreo$er' its pity for the poor does not reach a le$el where the "alance of things is upset# Islam consists of practical theories "ased on a sound foundation which aim at securing the interest of e$eryone# Islam is the light which illuminates the road for all classes of all nations# It directs each class of the community to the proper way "y which it secures good for itself and for the community as a whole# Islam in culcates into the souls of all peoples the meanings of goodness and happiness# Allah says what means / IAnd who is "etter than Allah to 6udge for a people who are sure4I From this "rief account of the economic theory of Islam it can "e seen that it is the only .

ar)ist materialism retreats# They "elie$e that the forthcoming conflict will "e "etween what they call .uslims# Communism' he goes on to say' in$ites the enmity of Islam "ecause it fears its ri$alry in organi%ing society according to its precepts and ordinances# Communism's enmity towards Islam resem"les that of the Russian ruler towards his su"6ects whom he wanted to depri$e of the wealth and freedom# Another reason for this is communism's feeling that nothing "ut "an*ruptcy will result from the failure of the .ar)ist ideology and Islamic ideology# !emocracy will not "e in$ol$ed in such a conflict as it is not a religion which opposes communism.uslims are ma*ing progress and learning how to apply the principles of social reform with necessary ad6ustment to meet material demands' spiritual considerations and the re3uirements of modern science# &ill !urant' in the :Story of Ci$ili%ation<' refers to the same su"6ect# .ar)ist e)periments' one after the other during recent years# The state was o"liged under the communist system to recogni%e the right of ownership and inheritance# It also admitted the differential in wages and in standards of li$ing# It accepted the principle of the separation of "oth se)es in educational institutions# It recogni%ed the e)istence of the family' its relations and of nationalism' with its effecti$e power' which defends the nation and responds to its national am"itions# The communists' Faul*er continues' see today how Islam wins and .system which leads nations to progress and prosperity# Allah says what means / IThat is the right religion ( And most people *now not#I Similarly' Islam is seen to "e a consolidated and perfect unit.essenger gi$es you' accept it' and whate$er he for"ids you' a"stain 7there from8# In short' these are simple' ordered' truths' "oth theoretical and practical' which stress the need for applying Islam and its economic system to the critical pro"lems facing our present( day world ( Allah says what means/ I And &e re$eal of the 5uran that which is a healing and a mercy to the "elie$ers# +esides these scientific facts there are the natural laws which demand that Islam super$ise the affairs of the present(day world# It is true that capitalism has succeeded in spreading its influence' "ut people lost faith in it when they disco$ered the truth a"out it# At that moment' communism welcomed the multitudes who opposed capitalism' tried to satisfy their desires and so destroyed itself# In unco$ering the communists false paradise' people were 3uic*er than in disco$ering the falsehoods of capitalism# &illiam Faul*ner says that one day capitalism and communism will disappear and humanity will sur$i$e# The communists themsel$es ha$e this feeling' and "ecause of this they ta*e a suspicious and hostile stand $is a $is Islam and The .e admits that the . democracy is only a negati$e appeal which pre$ents the misuse of rule' restriction on li"erties and the oppressi$e restrictions imposed on the di$ision of la"or and earnings# The positi$e side of the issue has ne$er "een the concern of democracy at any time# Communism' in this case' finds itself facing a powerful opponent in Islam and one not easily to "e defeated# No one can argue that positi$e application is not ordained "y Islam' especially in our time when The . the system must "e ta*en as a whole and not in part# Allah says what means/ IAnd whate$er the .

uslims ha$e more spiritual and intellectual power than the communists# It is a war of life or death for which the communists mo"ili%e all their potentialities# This will not "e the first war waged against Islam# Islam was in$ol$ed in many such wars and it sur$i$ed while the many enemies who wages those wars against it for hundreds of years are dead and gone# Islam will sur$i$e till the last day when Allah will inherit the earth and all that it contains whilst Communism along with other systems will "e no more# After studying other systems and detecting the one which is good' people will "egin to ta*e shelter under one or other of them# Facts and natural laws declare it to "e Islam which is to play this role ( Allah says what means/ I That was the way Allah concerning those who ha$e gone "efore and thou wilt find no( change in the way of Allah# .gap e)isting "etween "asic theories and factual e$ents is narrower in Islam than in any other religion# The conflict which the communists are sure will ta*e place and for which they ma*e preparations is neither negligi"le nor of an ordinary nature# Among the nations of The Asian ast' The .uslims are most hated and disli*ed "y the communists for they *now that The .