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Then classify each number as prime or composite. a. 31 The only whole numbers that can be multiplied to get 31 are 1 and 31. Therefore, the factors of 31 are 1 and 31. Since the only factors of 31 are 1 and itself, 31 is a prime number. b. 54 To find the factors of 54, list all pairs of whole numbers whose product is 54. 3 × 18 6×9 1 × 54 2 × 27 Therefore, the factors of 54, in increasing order, are 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 18, 27, and 54. Since 54 has more than two factors, it is a composite number. Example 2 Prime Factorization of a Positive Integer Find the prime factorization of 72. Method 1 72 = 2 ⋅ 36 The least prime factor of 72 is 2. = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 18 The least prime factor of 36 is 2. =2⋅2⋅2⋅9 The least prime factor of 18 is 2. =2⋅2⋅2⋅3⋅3 The least prime factor of 9 is 3. All of the factors in the last row are prime. Thus, the prime factorization of 72 is 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3. Method 2 Use a factor tree. 72 72 = 4 ⋅ 18 2 2 2 9 4 = 2 ⋅ 2 and 18 = 2 ⋅ 9 3 3 9=3⋅3 All of the factors in the last branch of the factor tree are prime. Thus, the prime factorization of 72 is 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 3 or 2 3 ⋅ 3 2 . 4 18 Example 3 Prime Factorization of a Negative Integer Find the prime factorization of –96. -96 = -1 ⋅ 96 Express –96 as –1 times 96. = -1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 48 96 = 2 ⋅ 48 = -1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 24 48 = 2 ⋅ 24 = -1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 12 24 = 2 ⋅ 12 = -1 ⋅2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 6 12 = 2 ⋅ 6 = -1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 6=2⋅3 Thus, the prime factorization of –96 is -1 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 or -1 ⋅ 2 5 ⋅ 3. Example 4 Prime Factorization of a Monomial Factor each monomial completely. a. –21xy 4 –21xy 4 = -1 ⋅ 21 ⋅ x ⋅ y ⋅ y ⋅ y ⋅ y Express –21 as –1 times 21 and y 4 = y ⋅ y ⋅ y ⋅ y = -1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 7 ⋅ x ⋅ y ⋅ y ⋅ y ⋅ y 21 = 3 ⋅ 7 4 Thus, -21xy in factored form is -1 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 7 ⋅ x ⋅ y ⋅ y ⋅ y ⋅ y.

b. 26rs 2 t 26 = 2 ⋅ 13 26rs 2 t = 2 ⋅ 13 ⋅ r ⋅ s ⋅ s ⋅ t Thus, 26rs 2 t in factored form is 2 ⋅ 13 ⋅ r ⋅ s ⋅ s ⋅ t. Example 5 GCF of a Set of Monomials Find the GCF of each set of monomials. a. 12 and 24 12 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 Factor each number. 24 = 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 Circle the common prime factors, if any. The GCF of 12 and 24 is 2 ⋅ 2 ⋅ 3 or 12. b. 25ab 2 c and 45ab Factor each number. 25ab 2 c = 5 ⋅ 5 ⋅ a ⋅ b ⋅ b ⋅ c 45ab = 3 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 5 ⋅ a ⋅ b Circle the common prime factors. The GCF of 25ab 2 c and 45ab is 5 ⋅ a ⋅ b or 5ab. Example 6 Use Factors A company sells pencils packaged in boxes of 24 or 64. Within the boxes, the pencils are packaged into smaller boxes. The smaller boxes contain the same number of pencils before they are placed in the larger boxes. What number of pencils should be placed in the smaller boxes to make the least number of smaller boxes? Find the factors of 24 and 64. The factors of 24 are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24. The factors of 64 are 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64. To find the number of pencils that will make the least number of boxes, we will find the largest factor that will go into both numbers. The largest number that will go into both 24 and 64 is 8. Therefore, the company should put 8 pencils into each smaller box. The box of 24 would then have 3 smaller boxes and the box of 64 would have 8 smaller boxes.

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