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Basic concepts of electrical technology covering basic rules like resistance and capacitance, and other error correcting codes

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**Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
**

Basic Circuit Elements and Laws

Topics To Cover

Concepts

– Charge, Current, Voltage, Power, Energy

**Basic circuit elements and device laws
**

– Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor

**Circuit concepts and definitions
**

– Nodes, branches, and loops

**Basic circuit laws
**

– Kirchhoff’s laws

**Basic circuit analysis Reference
**

– Alexander and Sadiku, Chapters 1, 2 and 6.

ELE 1110B Lecture 01 - 2

Introduction – an electric circuit

**A circuit = the path of flow for charge carriers
**

– To communicate from one point to another – To transfer energy from one point to another

**Charge carriers are
**

– electrons in a conductor – ions in an battery Switch Light bulb (device)

Battery (source)

ELE 1110B

Lecture 01 - 3

An electric circuit A circuit consists of source (energy) and/or drain (device) elements A circuit has constant “flow” of charges when it is closed The polarity of an electric circuit segment defines the flow direction Switch Light bulb (device) Battery (source) ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .4 .

only transferred – The algebraic sum of the electric charges in a closed system does not change with time Electric current t dq i= q = i (τ )dτ to dt – dc: direct current.6 x 10-19 C Conservation of Charges: – charges can neither be created nor destroyed.5 .Charge and Current Charge: coulombs (C) 1 C = 6. remains constant with time – ac: alternating current. varies (sinusoidally) with time ∫ ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .24 x 1018 electrons Single electron has –1.

g. ions in battery) Passive sign convention Power p = vi Vab (= -Vba ) -I ELE 1110B +ve: consumption -ve: generation -ve charges (electrons) b Lecture 01 .Voltage / potential difference It is the energy required to move one unit charge through an element Vab = dE dq Polarity of a circuit segment indicates the flow direction of charges +I a + +ve charges (e.6 .

or time-varying voltage) i + v Independent voltage source (constant voltage) i + v ↑ Independent current source i + v ± Dependent voltage source i + v ↑ Dependent current source ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .Power – supply and absorption i + v ± Independent voltage source (const.7 .

e. Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS). It is completely independent of other circuit variables. – Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS). – Current source Ideal Dependent (Controlled) Sources – An active element in which the source quantity is controlled by another voltage or current. An active element provides a specific current with its infinite resistance. e. It is completely independent of other circuit variables.8 . current through it.g. Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS).Ideal Sources Ideal Independent Sources – Voltage source An active element (which provides energy) provides a specific voltage with its zero internal resistance.g. Currentcontrolled current source (CCCS) ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .voltage across the source.

Energy and Power v(t) instantaneous voltage instantaneous current i(t) p (t ) = p(t) dE dE dq = = v(t ) ⋅ i (t ) dt dq dt time-varying.9 . by wattmeter ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .g. so called instantaneous power Energy E (t ) = ∫ p (τ )dτ = ∫ v(τ ) ⋅ i (τ )dτ t0 t0 t t Average power paverage 1 = T ∫ t o +T to p (t )dt – More convenient to measure than instantaneous power. e.

2I) = 8(-0.2 x 5) = -8W (supplied power) p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 = 0 (Energy Conservation Law: Σp = 0) ELE 1110B Lecture 01 . p1 = 20(-5) = -100W (supplied power) p2 = 12(5) = 60W (absorbed power) p3 = 8(6) = 48W (absorbed power) p4 = 8(-0.2I By passive sign convention.10 .1 Example: Calculate the power supplied or absorbed by each element: I = 5A p2 + 12 V 20 V 6A p3 + 8V p4 ± p1 ↑ 0.Example 1.

Circuit Element – resistor Ohm’s Law v = iR i + v 1 R= G Short circuit: R=0 Open circuit: R=∞ 2 v p = vi = i 2 R = R resistance i2 p = vi = v G = G 2 conductance ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .11 .

12 ...RN = ∑ Rn n =1 N Note: R1 v1 = v R1 + R2 v2 = ELE 1110B R2 v R1 + R2 Known as voltage divider Lecture 01 .Resistors – in series v = ∑ vn n =1 N N = ∑ iRn n =1 ⎛ N ⎞ = i ⋅ ⎜ ∑ Rn ⎟ ⎝ n =1 ⎠ Req = R1 + R2 + .

+ Req R1 R2 RN Lecture 01 .13 ..Resistors – in parallel i = ∑ in n =1 N N =∑ n =1 v Rn ⎛ N 1 ⎞ = v ⋅⎜ ⎜∑ R ⎟ ⎟ = 1 n n ⎠ ⎝ Note: i1 = R2 i R1 + R2 Known as current divider ELE 1110B R1 i2 = i R1 + R2 1 1 1 1 = + + ..

2 Calculate the equivalent resistance Rab in the circuit a Rab b a Rab b 10 Ω 2Ω 10 Ω 2Ω c 1Ω d 3Ω 6Ω b c b d 3Ω b Lecture 01 .2 Ω b b ELE 1110B .Example 1.14 a 11.

3 Calculate the equivalent resistance Rab in the circuit a Rab b 10 Ω c 1Ω d 1Ω 6Ω 3Ω 12 Ω b b 4Ω 5Ω a Rab b 10 Ω 2Ω c 1Ω d 3Ω 6Ω b ELE 1110B b Lecture 01 .Example 1.15 .

16 .∆-to-Y transformation a Rc Rb R2 b Ra c b a R1 R3 c Ra = Rb = R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 R1 R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 R2 R1 = R2 = Rb Rc Ra + Rb + Rc Rc Ra Ra + Rb + Rc R1 R2 + R2 R3 + R3 R1 Rc = R3 ELE 1110B Ra Rb R3 = Ra + Rb + Rc Lecture 01 .

the amount of charge stored q = Cv For parallel-plate capacitor. When a voltage source v is applied to a capacitor. εA C= For electrolyte capacitors. d – High capacitance – Can endure high voltage – Polarity is prearranged and not allowed to be interchanged ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .17 . but real capacitor has a leakage resistance in parallel combined with the ideal capacitive part.Circuit Element – capacitor Open circuit to dc signal An ideal capacitor can store (in its electric field) and deliver energy without dissipation.

v const. → i = 0 → open circuit 2.Capacitor – device laws i C 1 t v(t ) = ∫ idτ + v(to ) C to E (t ) = = E (t ) dv p = v ⋅i = C ⋅v dt + v dq dv i= =C dt dt ∫ t to t p (τ )dτ + E (t o ) o ∫ v(τ ) ⋅ i(τ )dτ + E (t ) to 1 Q2 2 = C ⋅v = 2 2C if E(to) = 0 1.18 . v cannot change instantaneously because i = ∞ is needed ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .

..19 .Capacitors – in series v(t ) = ∑ vn (t ) n =1 N N ⎡1 t ⎤ = ∑ ⎢ ∫ idτ + vn (to )⎥ t n =1 ⎣ C n o ⎦ N ⎛ N 1 ⎞ t =⎜ ⎜∑ C ⎟ ⎟ ⋅ ∫to idτ + ∑ vn (to ) n =1 ⎝ n =1 n ⎠ 1 = Ceq ∫ idτ + v to t eq (to ) 1 1 1 1 = + + . + Ceq C1 C2 CN ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .

.20 ..C N = ∑ Cn n =1 N ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .Capacitors – in parallel i = ∑ in (t ) n =1 N N dv = ∑ Cn dt n =1 ⎛ N ⎞ dv = ⎜ ∑ Cn ⎟ ⋅ ⎝ n =1 ⎠ dt dv = Ceq dt Ceq = C1 + C2 + .

ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .21 . but a real inductor has a winding resistance in series combined with the ideal inductive part. it is found that v=L di dt N 2 µA The proportional constant L is called inductance and L = l An ideal inductor can store (in its magnetic field) and deliver energy without dissipation.Circuit Element – inductor air-core iron-core Short circuit to dc signal If current is allowed to pass through an inductor.

i const.Inductor – device laws E (t ) di 1 i (t ) = ∫ v(τ )dτ + i (to ) v=L L to dt t = ∫ p (τ )dτ −∞ t t = ∫ v(τ ) ⋅ i (τ )dτ −∞ t ⎛ di ⎞ p = v ⋅ i = ⎜ L ⎟i ⎝ dt ⎠ = ∫ Lidi −∞ E (t ) = 1 L ⋅ i2 2 If i(-∞) = 0 1. i cannot change by a finite amount in zero time because v = ∞ is needed ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .22 .(dc current) → v = 0 → short circuit 2.

.LN = ∑ Ln n =1 N ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .Inductors – in series Leq = L1 + L2 + ..23 .

. + Leq L1 L2 LN ELE 1110B Lecture 01 ..24 .Inductors – in parallel 1 1 1 1 = + + .

25 .4 i(t) i(t) ↑ + vR (t ) = i (t ) ⋅ R vR(t) i(t) ↑ + vC(t) 1 t v (t ) = ∫ i (τ )dτ + v(to ) .Example 1.C C to vL(t) + i(t) ↑ ELE 1110B di (t ) vL (t ) = L dt Lecture 01 .

Example 1.26 .5 i(t) i(t) ↑ + vR (t ) = i (t ) ⋅ R vR(t) i(t) ↑ + vC(t) 1 t vC (t ) = ∫ i (τ )dτ + v(to ) C to vL(t) impulse + i(t) ↑ ELE 1110B di (t ) vL (t ) = L dt Lecture 01 .

i V.27 .Symbol and units Symbol Charge Current Voltage Power Energy Resistance Conductance Capacitance Inductance Unit Q I. v p E R G C L coulomb (C) ampere (A) volt (V) watt (W) joule (J) ohm (Ω) siemens (S) or mho ( ) farad (F) henry (H) ELE 1110B prefixes: 1012 109 106 103 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 10-15 tera (T) giga (G) mega (M) kilo (k) centi (c) milli (m) micro (µ) nano (n) pico (p) femto (f) Lecture 01 .

e. c.28 . consists of one circuit element) Essential Branch – connects between two essential nodes ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .g. f. b. b. g) Essential node – a node where three or more circuit elements join (e.g a. c. d. g) Branch – connects between two nodes (i. e.e.Circuit concept and definition R a 1 b v1 c v2 f ± ± R2 d R3 R5 e R6 g R7 ↑ I R4 Node – a point where two or more circuit elements join (e.

R4 .R1 .V2 I .R2 V2 .R4 R5 .29 .R6 R7 .R1 .I .R1 .Loop a v1 c v2 f R1 b R5 e R6 g V1 .R7 .Circuit concept and definition .R6 .R4 .R1 .R4 .V2 V1 .R5 .V2 V1 .R5 .R2 .R7 .I ± ± R2 d R3 R7 ↑ I R4 Path – a trace of adjoining elements with no element included more than once Loop – a closed path with no node passed more than once(there are 8+ loops) Mesh – a loop that does not enclose any other loop – 4 meshes ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .R5 .R6 .R6 V1 .R3 .R3 .

and in the above case the direction of entering the node ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .30 .Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) i2 i1 i3 ∑i … i4 iN N n =0 Note: Assume one direction to be +ve.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) + .v2 + + v4 - v1 + ∑v N n =0 + v5 - - …… + vn Note: Assume one direction in the loop to be +ve.v3 .31 . and in the above case the anti-clockwise direction ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .

b + Vo c Loop “A” −500 + i∆ (5) + io (20) = 0 ⇒ ± ↑ i∆ + 4io = 100 .32 Put (2) into (1): Total power generated = P500V + P5i∆ = 500(4) + 480(5)(4) = 11600W Total power dissipated = P + P 5Ω 20 Ω = 20(4) + 480(24) = 11600W ELE 1110B ..6 a + V∆ 5Ω i∆ 500V 20Ω io By KVL around loop “A”. i∆ − io + 5i∆ = 0 ⇒ io = 6i∆ ..(2) i∆ + 4(6i∆ ) = 100 ⇒ ∴ i∆ = 4 A io = 24 A V∆ = 4(5) = 20V Vo = 24(20) = 480V Lecture 01 .Example 1..(1) 5i∆ By KCL at node “b”..

7(a) Find io 2.Example 1.2Ω ± b ± R2 b 46Ω d R1 R3 c 9Ω 20(30) = 6Ω 20 + 30 + 50 20(50) = 10Ω R2 = 20 + 30 + 50 30(50) R3 = = 15Ω 20 + 30 + 50 R1 = ELE 1110B Lecture 01 .2Ω 20Ω 500V a 30Ω 50Ω 46Ω io d 9Ω 500V c a 2.33 .

Example 1.2 + 6 = 8.46Ω 9Ω d 56 // 24 (500) = 336V 8.2Ω a 6Ω 500V 2.2 + 56 // 24 46 V2 = (336) = 276V R2 + 46 V1 = V3 = io = 9 (336) = 126V R3 + 9 V2 − V3 = 3A 50 Lecture 01 .7(b) 2.34 ELE 1110B .2Ω ± 500V + 10 + 46 = 56Ω V1 15 + 9 = 24Ω ± 10Ω b 15Ω c + + V2 V3 .

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