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In the first part, we will understand A 0 the application of negative feedback in designing amplifiers. In the second $( V A V V )for real amplifiers, A0 is in the 0 A 0= 01 In the above equations, A0 is open-loop gain; part, we will build an instrumentation amplifier. Vthe A0 V2 0 = 0 $ (V 12) = range 10 to 10 and hence V1V c feedback circuit is shown in the Figure 1unity s V2 . A 0 +A V $ (V V =A V $= AV)- V ) (V 0 1.2. It is easy to see that, 0 V 1- V 2 = V V102 = A0 V V as A0 "V1 V-V V0 " 3 =V A= A V s V A V motivation V A A 1.1 Brief theory and (1.3) V0 A0 0 = 0 =A A0 V =V 1+ 1+A = V 1 A s 0 + A = V 1 A s + 0 V V 1 as 1 as 3" 3 "A "A _1 + s ~d1i_1 + s ~d2i V 0 1.1.1 Unity Gain Amplifier V " V V0 " 1 as A 0 " 3 A A (1.4) V s " 1 as 1 A0 " 3 A=A= V s T = s1 ~ s1 ~ ~+ i_1 i_ _1 + _ +s + si ~ i An OP-Amp [8] can be used in negative feedback mode unity gain amplifiers, V0 =A0 $ (V V2+ ) 1 A A 1-1 1 to build 1 A0 0 A = T = While T= non-inverting amplifiers and inverting amplifiers. an ideal OP-Amp is assumed In OP-amps, closed loop gain A is frequency A= 1 + 11 A +1 A 1 s ~ _ d1i_1 + s ~d2i + 1+s ~d1i_1 + s ~d2i1 V 0 _ = to have infinite open-loop gain and infinite bandwidth, real OP-Amps1have dependent, as shown in the equation below, where 1 finite 2 V = = 1- V 2 = A A0 ~ 1 _1 of 0 + s A0 ~d1 + s A0 ~d2 + s 1 sto+ A understand s A s + A~ s some A+ s + As~ A ~ ~ ~i ~ iare called the dominant ~ ~ _1 A +1 +1 +A + numbers for these parameters. Therefore, it is_1 important and the OPA 0 poles+ 1 V T = $ V A V V ( 0 = 0transfer 12) T 1 (GB 1). Similarly, = limitations of real OP-Amps, such as finite Gain-Bandwidth Product amp. This function is typical OP-Amp that V 11+ 1 = = V0 V0 = A A ) 0 0 $ (1 -1 A 1V2A + =V s+ GB GB s equally A~ s A+ s GB s $~ GB $ ~ has ~ ij ij internal frequency _1 _s+ `1 amplifier +` + + = compensation . Please view the slew rate and saturation limits of an operational are important. 2 1 1+A VV 0 `1 + _ s GB + s A0 ~d2 + 0s GB = GB A= ~A~ 1 s GB $ ~d22ij the lecture [17] to get to know more about Given an OP-amp, how do we measure these parameters? Figure 1.2: = V1recorded V - V2 = 0 V1 - V2= AV =_ 00 A0 ~ s A0 ~d2 + s 2 A 1 ~ d1 + + +s frequency compensation. A Unity Gain System GB GB A0 A0 1 d1 A 1 A _1 0 + s A0 ~d1 + s A0 ~d2 + s 0~ + 00 ~ GB A A0 = 3 " 1 as " V0 A0 Vs 1 1 1 T= T= V0 GB A0 1 = 1 + s1 ~ Q~ Q+ ~s ~ +s +s Vs = 1 + A0 = A = 0 2 V 1 A s 1 s GB s A 0 + _ +V ` 1 1 A 0 ~d2 +s 2 GB $ ~d2ij + + = (1.5) Q=Q= 1 s GB s A s GB $ ~d2ij ~ _ ` 0 2 d + + + V 0 1 GB ~ ~ 1 GB _1 + s ~d1i_1 + s 1~d2i V 1 as A 3 " " + + V 0 0 T V = A [V -V ] ~ ~ GB GB GB A ~ A A $ V A V V ( ) = 0 1 d = = 1 as 3 " "d~ Vs 2 GB A00 s ~ 1 = V 1A ~02 0Q + s + Vs 1 GB $ ~ ~ =~ GB = $~ V T = -V V-V = A0+ 1 GB A 1 A T for aA Q Q Acan = now write the 01 GB We transfer function unity-gain amplifier as, Q = A = V A 1 s s ~ ~ 1 i i _ _ 1 2 d d + + 1 1 = 1 1 GB ~ 2 d p=p= V _1 + s ~d1i+ _11 1+A + s ~d2i 2Q 2 Q = 1 T = 2 2 d2 2 1 V " ~ GB A T = A s A s A0 ~d1 ~d2i 1 ~ ~ 1 _ ~ ~ 0 0 00 d1 + + +s 1 1 as A 3 " s ~ ~ 2 A 2 d2 + s 0Q + + T= V 1 1 s Q s ~ ~ 0 0 + + (1.6) T = A 1 1 + Figure 1.1: An ideal Dual-Input, Single-Output OP-Amp and its I-O characteristic ~ ~ ~ ~ A GB $ ~1 ~ 0+ 2 d = 1 A 1 1 A= 1 Q = s ~ ~ i_1 + Q i _1 + s= 1 d2 V V = GB ~ Q = 1 s GB s+ A01 s2 1 GB $ ~d2ij ~d2 + _ ` + + 1 1 GB ~ d2 2 V GB V GB $ 1 $ 1 T = = A s A s A s 1 ~ ~ 1 _ Since the frequency and transient response of an amplifier are impacted by these 0+ 0 0 A d1 + GB + d2 + ~d2A0 ~d1 ~d2i +1 + 1 A 2 A0 ~~ A0 ~d1 ~ _1 0+s A d1 + +1 A GB d2 s A0 ~d2 + s 121 GB = A0p ~ d1 1 1 parameters, we can measure the parameters if have the frequency and transient Qwe 2Q 1 = = 2 2 d2~ ~ 1 = response of the amplifier; you can obtain these response characteristics by applying s2A s~ ~ +$ ~0 i _1 + 1 A + s A~ (1.7) = QGB GB $2 ~ ~A 0+ d2 = p11 p11 = GB 1 s GB s A s GB $ ~ ~ 1 _ sinusoidal and square wave inputs respectively. We invite the reader to view the ` = 0 d2 + d2ij + +~ 2 Q 0 + _ s GB + s A0 ~d2 +s GB $ ~d2ij `1 ~ ~ A ~ +s GB $ ~ ij `1 + _ s GB + s Q recorded lecture [16]. 1 1 i4Q i Q _1 - 1 _1 4 GB A ~ 1 =GB0= AdT The term , also known as the bandwidth product of the operational ~= 1 GB A ~ ~ 0~ d1 gain 2 = 0 2 dV dV 1 p = 1 s s ~ ~ 0 in OP-Amp negative feedback 0Q + + An OP-Amp can be considered as a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS) with amplifier, is one of the most important parameters p = 2Q dt dt GB GB 2 GB V the voltage gain tending towards infinity. V For finite output voltage, the input circuit. The above transfer function can be rewritten as p 1Q V 1 ~ 0 Q T= = voltage is practically zero. This is the basic theory of OP-Amp in the negative ~ 0 1 + s ~1 Q+s ~ ~ 11 1GB d2 T= V feedback configuration. Figure 1.1 shows a differential-input, single-ended-output 2 p $ GB 2 + 1 T ~ ~ Q = = s ~0 Q + 1 s ~ 00 A + GB d2 2 ~ ~0 ~0 Q~ 1 GB ~ OP-Amp which uses dual supply !Vss for biasing. s ~02 + + A ~1 + s 1 GB 1 Qp 2 V $ ~d2 1 ~0$ ~ = GB Q = ~ = GB V p 2 Q = 1 GB ~ d2 System Lab Kit PRO page 18 Q Q 1 GB ~ + d2 1 Analog V GB $ p1 p 1 ~ GB A + 2 GB 1 V pd$ 1 GB A ~d2

experiment 1

Goal of the experiment

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0 0 0 1 d1 d2 d2 d2 1 2 A0 ~ sd A = _1 + 1 A0 + s A0 ~ 2 0 ~d1 ~d 2i d1 + s GB d2A + 1 0 1 = = 1 s GB s A$0~ $ ~d2ij ~ _~ `~ s A0 GB + +s GB ij 2 `1 + _ s GB 22 d2 dd +s+ + 1 = = 2 1 s GB s A s GB $ ~ ~ i _ ` j 0 2 2 d d + + + ~ ~ 0 1 s GB s A GB $ ~d2ij _ ` 2 2 0 ~d2 +s + + = GB 1 s _ s` GB GB A GB $ $ ~ ~ i `1 + _ s GB + s A0 ~d `21+ j 0 ~d2 +s 2ij GB GB d2s + + 2 d A ~ = GB A ~ 0 1 d = 0 $ 1 d2ij d~ = GB 10+ s GB + s A0 ~d2 +s GB = A ~d_ 2 1 GB A 0 ~d1 = 1 s GB s A GB $ ~ _ ` j 0 ~d2 +s d2i + + GB = A0 ~d1 GB A0 ~d1 A ~ Vp =GB GB = 0 d1 1 GB T =GB GB 1 GB = A0 ~d1 T= 1 + s ~0 Q + s 2 ~02 GB GB GB 2 21 1 1 s Q s ~ ~ 1 T 0 0 + + T = 2 1 = GB 1 2 ~02 2 V GB p $T = 1 1 s Q 1 s s ~ ~ 1 1 + 2 2 0 ~0 Q + s 0Q + = + T = A2 non-inverting amplifier with a gain of 2 is shown in Figure 1.5 (a). ~0 +s 1 T= T = T 1 + s ~0 Q 1s1 ~ GB ~d2 1 + ~02 2 2 0Q + s = 1 + s ~0 Q + s 2 ~02 1 + s 1 s ~0 Qs+~ ~ 0 + 1 2 11 2 Q s ~ 1 T 0 0 + + Q = ~ GB Q A = Figure 1.3: Magnitude and Phase response of Unity Gain System d2 = 2 a 2 Q 1 = Q = 1 s ~ 0Q + s 1 1 d2 1 + 1 Q GB ~d2 =~d2 + 1 GB 1 GB ~ Q= Q Q=2 1 ~0 GB ~ d2 ~0+ ~d2 ~d2A 1 =A GB Q~ + GB ~d2 GB = ~$dGB GB 2 1 1 GB 1= ~d2 d2 +A + 2 ~ GB A 2 d Q 1 GB ~ d2 + + ~d2 GB Q and ~ ~ GB A ~d2 GB GB GB A + A d 2 d2 d2 $ ~~ GB ~ GB $ ~d2 GB ~ 0 = d2 0 = ~d1 2 + ~0 1 = GB $ ~d2 A GB $ ~ ~ 0 = d2 p 1 ~ GB A 2 d GB $ ~GB ~0 = GB $ ~d2 ~0 = ~ d2 Q1 $ ~d2 $ ~d2 Q 0 = p= Q ~ 0 = GB $ ~d2 ~0 = GB 2QQ An inverting amplifier with a gain of 2 is shown in Figure 1.5 (b). Q Q 1 ~ p= 1 Q~1 0 Q p = 0 1 p = 2 Q 2 Q Q 1 1 p = 1 2 p= p = p 2Q 2Q ~ ~ =2 11 4 Qis i 2Q 2 Q ~00 is the Q is the quality factor _ and the factor, and natural 1 damping ~ 0 ~ Q 0 p= ~ 0 ~0 ~0 When 12Q response frequency of the system. is plotted Vp ~with ~0 magnitude ~ ~ ~ the frequency 0 0 d1 0 02 d 0 d2 0 d 21 d2 0

GB = A= 0 ~d1 Vs 1 + A0 GB V0 " 1 as A0 " 3 Vs 1 V =A $ (V - V ) T= 2 2 A 0 where called slew rate. It can therefore be determined by applying a square wave of Vp at 1 s ~0 Q + s V ~ 0 $ (V - V + $ (V - V ) VV AV )= =A A V$ (V - V ) V = A= = V = A A $ (V - V ) certain high frequency and increasing the magnitude of the input. $ (V A V =A $ (V - V ) V =A V V ) 1 s s ~ ~ 1 i i _ _ V 1 2 d d + + V V - V1 ) = $ (V V = V V -A V =A $ (V - V ) V - V = A Q= V-V A V =1VV= A V AV = A V V-V = V V -VV + = 1 GB d2 1 V V~ = A A V A V A 2R R V T = A AV+ VV " = A V1A = 1 GB V 1= AA Vd2= 1 + A as 3 +" V A V VVA AA ~ = A 1 1 +A + V = = V 1 A + V V V 1+A 1V A 1V A A V " 1 as A " 3 += V " 1 as A " R R + "3 A as " 1 GB A= V3 V VA= V 1 A 1s" ~ $ ~" ~ + V " 1 as A " 3 V V 0 = d2 1 as 1 A " 3 V 1V as " A= 3 " 1 s ~ i i _ _ V + + V V 1V as A " 3 V V A A 2 A As =1 = A0 ~d1A+ as1 A " " V d2i As A3 s A s~ A0 ~d1 ~ ~ 11 _ 0+ 0~ 2 d + + AV = Q V A A 1 s 1 i i _ _ A 1 s s ~ ~ 1 + + i i _ _ = + + T = A= A = A _1 + s ~ i_A 1+s ~ i 1 + 1 A_1 + s ~ i_1 + s ~ i = 1+ s _1 ~ ~ i sA~ i _1 + s ~ i_1 + s ~ _i _ + si_1 1 1 1T= A = s1 ~ i= + + 1 T 1 1 T= ~+i1 A _1 + s ~ i_1 + s 1 1= 1 11 +1 A = T 1= + 11 A T= T ==T = p 2+ A 1 1 A s A s A 1 ~ 1 _ + + + A 1 +1 A 1 +2 1Q 1 _ s GB1+ s A0 ~d2 +s GB 1 $ ~d2i 1 ` j 1 ~ 1+ s A ~ ~ i A+ 1+ T1 = = = 1 = Figure 1.5: (a) Non-inverting 1 +1 A 1 1 A s A A ~ ~ i amplifier of gain 2, (b) Inverting amplifier of gain 2 1 ~ 1 _ A s A s A s 1 ~ ~~~ ~ 1 + + + + is _ = + + sA A A ~ ~ _1 i+ _1 + 1 A + s A ~ + s 1A ~ ++ s= + = = AA s A A~ 1s +~ + s $~ = 1+ GB s GB ij + s A ~ ~ i _s 1 +~ + 1A ~ ` GB A ~ A A s s A A s A s 1_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0+ ~ 0 1~ d+ i i _1 + 1 A + s A ~ _1s+ = + + + 1 A~ ~ i 1 A + s A1 ~ +s 1 += =A ~ +s =

0 0 1 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 1 2 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 2 0 1 2 1 2 0 1 0 02 0 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 s 1 2 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 1 02 0 0 s 0 0 s 0 0 0 s 0 0 s s 0 0 00 0 0 s 0 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0 0 0 s 0 s 0 0 s 0 0 s s 0 s s 0 0 0 0 s 0 0 0 0

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1.1.2 Non-inverting Amplifier

1.1.3 Inverting Amplifier

~0 ~ ~0 vs ~ ~0 and phase vs ~ ~0, ~ it appears as shown in Figure 1.3.Vp $ GB 2Q Vp 1 Vp Vp ~0 ~ ~0 dt Vp Vp Vp Vp1 $ GB 1 Vp $ GB 1 Q 2 Vp~0 V p $ GB 1 V V p p to the unity gain amplifier, and if If one voltage 2 Vp $ GB 1 slew Vp $ applies GB 1 a step of peak Vp $ GB 1$ GB 1 1 1 p1 V p 1 Q 2 Q 2 1 rate, then the output appears as shown in Figure 2.4 if or . 2 1 Vp 0 $ GB 1 ~2 1~ Q 2 2 1 1 Q 2 Q2 Q2 Q2 2 0 1 2 2112 p~ 1 p11 p Q21 p 1 2 1 1 1 4 Q V 2 _ i Q is equal the step response and papproximately p to 11 1 the 1 p total p number of visible peaks ~0 ~in 1 1 0 ~ 0 p 1 1 ~2 0 dV 2 0 the frequency of ringing is ~0 . ~0 1 1 4 Q _ i 1 1 4 Q _ i 2 ~ 1 40Q i _1 dt _1 1 4Q 2i V 2 $ GB 1 Qp _1 - 1 4Q 2i _1 - 1 _4 i 2 ~0 dV0 dV0 1 dV 0 - 1 4Q i V p 2 1 - 1 4Q i _rate dt dV0 dt dV0 dV0maximum Slew-rate is known as the dt dV0 dt 1 dt V V p dV p 0is at which the output ofdt theVOP-Amps Q2 p dt Vp dt Vp Vp 2 Vp capable of rising; in other words, slew Vp rate is the maximum value that dVo/dt p11 can attain. In this experiment, as we go ~0 on increasing the amplitude of the step input, at some amplitude the rate at 4Q 2i _1 - 1 which the output starts rising remains dV0 with Figure 1.4: Time Response of an constant and no longer increases dt the peak voltage of input; this rate is Amplifier for a step input of size Vp

0

~ = dV0~ p

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Unity gain

Non-inverting amp R2 R1 R3 VF2 U2

Inverting amplifier R4

VG1 + U1

VF1

VF3 U3

Figure 1.6: Negative Feedback Amplifiers

Figure 1.6 shows all the three negative feedback amplifier configurations. Figure 1.7 illustrates the frequency response (magnitude and phase) of the three different negative feedback amplifier topologies. Figure 1.8 shows the output of the three types of amplifiers for a square-wave input, illustrating the limitations due to slew-rate. page 19

Vp

Analog System Lab Kit PRO

experiment 1

experiment 1

1.2 Exercise Set 1

1

Design the following amplifiers - (a) a unity gain amplifier, (b) a non-inverting amplifier with a gain of 2 (Figure 1.5(a)) and an inverting amplifier with the gain of 2.2 (Figure 1.5(b)). Design an instrumentation amplifier using three OP-Amps with a controllable differential-mode gain of 3. Refer to Figure 1.9(a) for the circuit diagram. Assume that the resistors have 1% tolerance and determine the Common Mode Rejection Ratio (CMRR) of the setup and estimate its bandwidth. We invite the reader to view the recorded lecture [18]. Design an instrumentation amplifier using two OP-Amps with a controllable differential-mode gain of 5. Refer to Figure 1.9 for the circuit diagrams of the instrumentation amplifiers and determine the values of the resistors. Assume that the resistors have 1% tolerance and determine the CMRR of the setup and estimate its bandwidth.

1.3 Measurements to be taken

1 2

Transient response - Apply a square wave of fixed magnitude and study the effect of slew rate on unity gain, inverting and non-inverting amplifiers. Frequency Response - Obtain the gain bandwidth product of the unity gain amplifier, the inverting amplifier and the non-inverting amplifier from the frequency response. DC Transfer Characteristics - Study the saturation limits for an OP-Amp.

2

3

3

Figure 1.8: Outputs VF1, VF2 and VF3 of Negative Feedback Amplifiers of Figure 1.6 for Square-wave Input VG1

4

Determine the second pole of an OP-Amp and develop the macromodel for the given OP-Amp IC TL082. See Appendix B for an introduction to the topic of analog macromodels.

Figure 1.7: Frequency Response of Negative Feedback Amplifiers page 20

Analog System Lab Kit PRO

1 2

Submit the simulation results for Transient response, Frequency response and DC transfer characteristics. Take the plots of Transient response, Frequency response and DC transfer characteristics from the oscilloscope and compare it with your simulation results. Apply square wave of amplitude 1V at the input. Change the input frequency and study the peak to peak amplitude of the output. Take the readings in Table 1.1 and compute the slew-rate.

nR R R nR VO R R R R V1 R

Specific ICs from Texas Instruments which can be used as instrumentation Amplifiers are INA114, INA118 and INA128. Additional ICs from Texas Instruments which can be used as general purpose OP-Amps are OPA703, OPA357, etc. See CHAPTER 2, EXPERIMENT 1.

3

S. No. 1 2

Input Frequency

Magnitude Variation

Phase Variation

V1

3

R R V2 VO

4 Table 1.2: Plot of Magnitude and Phase variation w.r.t. Input Frequency

R

V2

S. No. 1 2 3 4

DC Input Voltage

DC Output Voltage

Phase Variation

Figure 1.9: Instrumentation Amplifiers with (a) three and (b) two operational amplifiers S. No. 1 2 3 4 Table 1.1: Plot of Peak to Peak amplitude of output Vpp w.r.t. Input frequency Input Frequency Peak to Peak Amplitude of output (Vpp)

Table 1.3: Plot of DC output voltage and phase variation w.r.t. DC input voltage

Further Reading

Datasheets of all these ICs are available at http://www.ti.com. An excellent reference about operational amplifiers is the “Handbook of Operational Amplifier Applications” by Carter and Brown [5].

4 5

Frequency Response - Apply sine wave input to the system and study the magnitude and phase response. Take your readings in Table 1.2. DC transfer Characteristics - Vary the DC input voltage and study its effect on the output voltage. Take your readings in Table 1.3.

Analog System Lab Kit PRO

page 21

experiment 1

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