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You need to find two numbers whose sum is 16 and whose product is 63. Make an organized list of the factors of 63, and look for the pair of factors whose sum is 16. Factors of 63 Sum of Factors 1, 63 64 3, 21 24 7, 9 16 The correct factors are 7 and 9. 2 x + 16x + 63 = (x + m)(x + n) Write the pattern. = (x + 7)(x + 9) m = 7 and n = 9 Check: You can check this result by multiplying the two factors. F O I L 2 FOIL method (x + 7)(x + 9) = x + 9x + 7x + 63 2 = x + 16x + 63 Simplify. Example 2 b Is Negative and c Is Positive Factor x 2 - 11x + 24. In this trinomial, b = -11 and c = 24. This means that m + n is negative and mn is positive. So m and n must both be negative. Therefore, make a list of the negative factors of 24, and look for the pair of factors whose sum is –11. Factors of 24 Sum of Factors -1, -24 -25 -2, -12 -14 -3, -8 -11 The correct factors are –3 and –8. -4, -6 -10 Write the pattern. x 2 - 11x + 24 = (x + m)(x + n) = (x - 3)(x - 8) m = -3 and n = -8 Check: You can check this result by using a graphing calculator. Graph y = x 2 - 11x + 24 and y = (x - 3)(x - 8) on the same screen. Since only one graph appears, the two graphs must coincide. Therefore, the trinomial has been factored correctly.

Example 3 b Is Positive and c Is Negative Factor x 2 + 2x – 15. In this trinomial, b = 2 and c = -15. This means that m + n is positive and mn is negative. So either m or n is negative, but not both. Therefore, make a list of the factors of –15, where one factor of each pair is negative. Look for the pair of factors whose sum is 2. Factors of –15 Sum of Factors -1, 15 14 1, -15 -14 -3, 5 2 The correct factors are –3 and 5. 3, -5 -2 Write the pattern. x 2 + 2x - 15 = (x + m)(x + n) = (x - 3)(x + 5) m = -3 and n = 5 Example 4 b Is Negative and c Is Negative Factor x 2 – 4x – 21. Since b = -4 and c = -21, m + n is negative and mn is negative. So either m or n is negative, but not both. Factors of –21 Sum of Factors -1, 21 20 1, -21 -20 -3, 7 4 3, -7 -4 The correct factors are 3 and –7. 2 Write the pattern. x – 4x – 21 = (x + m)(x + n) = (x + 3)(x – 7) m = 3 and n = -7 Example 5 Solve an Equation by Factoring Solve x 2 – 8x + 7 = 0. Check you solutions. x 2 – 8x + 7 = 0 Original equation (x – 1)(x – 7) = 0 Factor. x – 1 = 0 or x–7=0 Zero Product Property x=1 x=7 Solve each equation. The solution set is {1, 7}. Check: Substitute 1 and 7 for x in the original equation. x 2 – 8x + 7 = 0 x 2 – 8x + 7 = 0 (7) 2 – 8(7) + 7 =? 0 (1) 2 – 8(1) + 7 =? 0 0=0 Example 6 Solve a Real-World Problem by Factoring Find 2 consecutive integers whose product is 56. Explore Plan You are to find two consecutive integers that have a product of 56. Let x = the first consecutive integer. Then x + 1 = the next consecutive integer. first integer times consecutive integer equals 56 x ⋅ (x + 1) = 56 0=0

Solve

x (x + 1) = 56 x 2 + x = 56 x 2 + x – 56 = 0 (x + 8)(x – 7) = 0 x + 8 = 0 or x – 7 = 0 x = -8 x=7

Write the equation. Multiply. Subtract 56 from each side. Factor. Zero Product Property Solve each equation.

Examine

One possible set of consecutive integers is -8 and -8 + 1 or -7. The other is 7 and 7 + 1 or 8.

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