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Islam 101 by Gregory M.

Davis
by Gregory M. Davis author, Religion of Peace? Islam's War Against the World producer/director, Islam: What the West Needs to Know -- An Examination of Islam, iolence, and the !ate of the Non-"#slim World Islam 101 is meant to help people become better educated about the fundamentals of Islam and to help the more kno ledgeable better convey the facts to others. !imilarly, my book and documentary are meant to serve as concise e"planations of the ma#or moving parts of Islam and their implications for $estern society. Islam 101 is a condensation of the book and documentary ith the aim of lending clarity to the public understanding of Islam and of e"posing the inade%uacy of prevailing vie s. &ll should feel free to distribute and/or reproduce it. 'able of (ontents 1) 'he *asics a) 'he +ive ,illars of Islam b) 'he -uran .. the *ook of &llah c) 'he !unnah .. the /$ay/ of the ,rophet Muhammad i. *attle of *adr ii. *attle of 0hud iii. *attle of Medina iv. (on%uest of Mecca d) !haria 1a 2) 3ihad and Dhimmitude a) $hat does /#ihad/ mean4 b) Muslim !cholar 5asan &l.*anna on #ihad c) Dar al.Islam and dar al.harb6 the 5ouse of Islam and the 5ouse of $ar i) 'a%iyya .. 7eligious Deception d) 3ihad 'hrough 5istory i) 'he +irst Ma#or $ave of 3ihad6 the &rabs, 822.9:0 &D ii) 'he !econd Ma#or $ave of 3ihad6 the 'urks, 1091.18;< &D e) 'he Dhimma f) 3ihad in the Modern =ra <) (onclusion >) +re%uently &sked -uestions 1

a) $hat about the (rusades4 b) If Islam is violent, hy are so many Muslims peaceful4 c) $hat about the violent passages in the *ible4 d) (ould an Islamic /7eformation/ pacify Islam4 e) $hat about the history of $estern colonialism in the Islamic orld4 f) 5o can a violent political ideology be the second.largest and fastest.gro ing religion on earth4 g) Is it fair to paint all Islamic schools of thought as violent4 h) $hat about the great achievements of Islamic civili?ation4 :) Glossary of 'erms 8) +urther 7esources 1. The Basics a. The Five Pillars of Islam 'he five pillars of Islam constitute the most basic tenets of the religion. 'hey are6 1. +aith @iman) in the oneness of &llah and the finality of the prophethood of Muhammad @indicated by the declaration Athe !hahadahB that, /'here is no God but &llah and Muhammad is the messenger of &llah/). 2. Ceeping of the five scheduled daily prayers @salah). <. &lmsgiving @?akat). >. +asting @sa m). :. ,ilgrimage @ha##) to Mecca for those ho are able. 'he five pillars in and of themselves do not tell us a lot about the faith or hat a Muslim is supposed to believe or ho he should act. 'he second through fifth pillars .. prayer, almsgiving, fasting, pilgrimage .. are aspects shared by many religions. 'he finality of the prophethood of Muhammad, ho ever, is uni%ue to Islam. 'o understand Islam and hat it means to be a Muslim, e must come to understand Muhammad as ell as the revelations given through him by &llah, hich make up the -uran. b. The Quran -- he Boo! of "llah &ccording to Islamic teaching, the -uran came do n as a series of revelations from &llah through the &rchangel Gabriel to the ,rophet Muhammad, ho then dictated it to his follo ers. MuhammadDs companions memori?ed fragments of the -uran and rote them do n on hatever as at hand, hich ere later compiled into book form under the rule of the third (aliph, 0thman, some years after MuhammadDs death. 'he -uran is about as long as the (hristian Ee 'estament. It comprises 11> suras @not to be confused ith the !ira, hich refers to the life of the ,rophet) of varying lengths, hich may be considered chapters. &ccording to Islamic doctrine, it as around 810 &D in a cave near the city of Mecca @no in south est !audi &rabia) that Muhammad received the first revelation from &llah by ay of the &rchangel Gabriel. 'he revelation merely commanded Muhammad to /recite/ or /read/ @!ura F8)G the 2

ords he as instructed to utter ere not his o n but &llahDs. Hver the ne"t t elve or so years in Mecca, other revelations came to Muhammad that constituted a message to the inhabitants of the city to forsake their pagan ays and turn in orship to the one &llah. $hile in Mecca, though he condemned paganism @for the most part), Muhammad sho ed great respect for the monotheism of the (hristian and 3e ish inhabitants. Indeed, the &llah of the -uran claimed to be the same God orshipped by 3e s and (hristians, ho no revealed himself to the &rab people through his chosen messenger, Muhammad. It is the -uranic revelations that came later in MuhammadDs career, after he and the first Muslims left Mecca for the city of Medina, that transformed Islam from a relatively benign form of monotheism into an e"pansionary, military.political ideology that persists to this day. Hrthodo" Islam does not accept that a rendering of the -uran into another language is a /translation/ in the ay that, say, the Cing 3ames *ible is a translation of the original 5ebre and Greek !criptures. & point often made by Islamic apologists to defang criticism is that only &rabic readers may understand the -uran. *ut &rabic is a language like any other and fully capable of translation. Indeed, most Muslims are not &rabic readers. In the belo analysis, e use a translation of the -uran by t o Muslim scholars, hich may be found here. &ll parenthetical e"planations in the te"t are those of the translators save for my inter#ections in braces, I J. 'hose $esterners ho manage to pick up a translation of the -uran are often left be ildered as to its meaning thanks to ignorance of a critically important principle of -uranic interpretation kno n as /abrogation./ 'he principle of abrogation .. al.naskh a al.mansukh @the abrogating and the abrogated) .. directs that verses revealed later in MuhammadDs career /abrogate/ .. i.e., cancel and replace .. earlier ones hose instructions they may contradict. 'hus, passages revealed later in MuhammadDs career, in Medina, overrule passages revealed earlier, in Mecca. 'he -uran itself lays out the principle of abrogation6 26108. $hatever a Kerse @revelation) do $e I&llahJ abrogate or cause to be forgotten, $e bring a better one or similar to it. Cno you not that &llah is able to do all things4 It seems that 26108 as revealed in response to skepticism directed at Muhammad that &llahDs revelations ere not entirely consistent over time. MuhammadDs rebuttal as that /&llah is able to do all things/ .. even change his mind. 'o confuse matters further, though the -uran as revealed to Muhammad se%uentially over some t enty yearsD time, it as not compiled in chronological order. $hen the -uran as finally collated into book form under (aliph 0thman, the suras ere ordered from longest to shortest ith no connection hatever to the order in hich they ere revealed or to their thematic content. In order to find out hat the -uran says on a given topic, it is necessary to e"amine the other Islamic sources that give clues as to hen in MuhammadDs lifetime the revelations occurred. 0pon such e"amination, one discovers that the Meccan suras, revealed at a time hen the Muslims ere vulnerable, are generally benignG the later Medinan suras, revealed after Muhammad had made himself the head of an army, are bellicose. 1et us take, for e"ample, :06>: and !ura 10F, both revealed in Mecca6 :06>:. $e kno of best hat they sayG and you @H Muhammad) are not a tyrant over them @to force them to *elief). *ut arn by the -urDan, him ho fears My 'hreat. 10F61. !ay @H Muhammad to these Mushrikun and Cafirun)6 /H &l.Cafirun @disbelievers in <

&ll. and in &l. It is 5e I&llahJ $ho has sent 5is Messenger @Muhammad) ith guidance and the religion of truth @Islam). the Kerse of the ! ord abrogates their peaceful in#unctions in accordance ith 26108. /Eor ill you orship that hich I orship. revealed to ard the end of MuhammadDs life6 F6:. *ut if they cease @ orshipping others besides &llah). 9th.e. F6<<. 10F6:.Cno er.5earer. &nd fight them until there is no more +itnah @disbelief and polytheism6 i. F62F. disbelievers in the Hneness of &llah) hate @it). .rophet that he should have prisoners of ar @and free them ith ransom) until he had made a great slaughter @among his enemies) in the land. in 5is Messengers.689.)L 10F62. in the Day of 7esurrection. and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed.!alat @I%amat..!eer of hat they do. in 5is Hneness.ath has become distinct from the rong path.e. the 7ight . !ura . 'hen hen the !acred Months @the 1st. nor forbid that hich has been forbidden by &llah and 5is Messenger and those ho ackno ledge not the religion of truth @i. $hoever disbelieves in 'aghut IidolatryJ and believes in &llah. /'o you be your religion. pagans. /&nd I shall not orship that hich you are orshipping. and prepare for them each and every ambush.e. /Eor ill you orship that hich I orship. and to me my religion @Islamic Monotheism).6<F. take F6:. in 5is *ooks. orshipping others besides &llah) and the religion @ orship) ill all be for &llah &lone Ain the hole of the orldB. and 262:8./ 'hen there is this passage revealed #ust after the Muslims reached Medina and ere still vulnerable6 262:8. 5aving been revealed later in Muhammad4s life than :06>:. 'he -uranDs commandments to Muslims to age ar in the name of &llah against non. then certainly. 'here is no compulsion in religion. reveals a similar theme6 . *ut if they repent and perform &s. revealed shortly before !ura F. etc. &ll. Kerily. idolaters. &llah is &ll.!alat Ithe Islamic ritual prayersJ).$ise. then kill the Mushrikun IunbelieversJ herever you find them.Mighty. and capture them and besiege them. Most Merciful. nor in the 1ast Day. &llah is Hft. In contrast. then leave their ay free. /I orship not that hich you orship.+orgiving. &nd &llah is &ll.&llah. but &llah desires @for you) the 5ereafter. the money of ransom for freeing the captives). in 5is &ngels. and give Makat IalmsJ. until they pay the 3i?ya ith illing submission. +ight against those ho believe not in &llah.as. 11th. to make it superior over all religions even though the Mushrikun @polytheists. &nd &llah is &ll. then he has grasped the most trust orthy handhold that ill never break. Islam) among the people of the !cripture @3e s and (hristians). 10F6<. It is not for a . 10F6>. and feel themselves subdued. Nou desire the good of this orld @i. Kerily.Muslims are > . 10F68.-adar Idivine foreordainment and sustaining of all thingsJ. 10F. commonly referred to as the /Kerse of the ! ord/.

nor is he orshipped @no image of Muhammad is permitted lest it encourage idolatry). *ukhari. 'he early Muslim scholars of hadith spent tremendous labor trying to determine hich hadiths ere authoritative and hich ere suspect. *ook . $ithout kno ledge of the principle of abrogation.>. are indispensable kno ledge for any faithful Muslim. it became obvious that many ere inauthentic.rophet rote the @marriage contract) ith &isha hile she as si" years old and consummated his marriage ith her hile she as nine years old and she remained ith him for nine years @i. +or each hadith. 5e ordered both of them to be stoned @to death). but the content is the same.unmistakable. Kolume F. book./ the !unnah . Eumber 9F:G Earrated &nas6 'he . some hundred years after MuhammadDs death. Different translations of hadiths can vary in their breakdo n of volume. his actions are not #udged according to an independent moral standard but rather establish hat the standard for Muslims properly is.2. $hen the hadiths ere first compiled in the eighth century &D. his non.rophet . 'he ne s of this event. reached Ibn D&bbas : . 'he hadiths here come e"clusively from the most reliable and authoritative collection.... hich make up the / ay of the .rophet. *ook 82. absolutely authoritative as they ere revealed late in the . some running to multiple pages.e. 'here are thousands upon thousands of hadiths. recogni?ed as sound by all schools of Islamic scholarship. *ecause Muhammad is himself the measuring stick of morality. some barely a fe lines in length.rophet a man and a oman from amongst them ho have committed @adultery) illegal se"ual intercourse. *ook 2<. they are nonetheless accepted as authoritative ithin an Islamic conte"t. *ook . $hile the absolute authenticity of even a sound hadith is hardly assured. that Muslims discern hat is a good and holy life. Kolume 9. 'hey are. Kolume 2. Muhammad is in no ay considered divine.G Earrated 0rsa6 'he .rophet cut off the hands and feet of the men belonging to the tribe of 0raina and did not cauterise @their bleeding limbs) till they died.. then the name of the originator of the hadith @generally someone ho kne Muhammad personally). furthermore. his personal habits . Cno ledge of the !unnah comes primarily from the hadiths @/reports/) about MuhammadDs life. Details about the .he $%ay$ of he Pro&he Muhamma' In Islam. Eumber :9G Earrated Ikrima6 !ome Manadi%a @atheists) ere brought to &li Ithe fourth (aliphJ and he burnt them. Eumber >1<G Earrated &bdullah bin 0mar6 'he 3e s Iof MedinaJ brought to the . Eumber . Muhammad is considered al-insan al-$amil @the /ideal man/).. near the place of offering the funeral prayers beside the mos%ue. the classifying information is listed first. 'he hadiths comprise the most important body of Islamic te"ts after the -uranG they are basically a collection of anecdotes about MuhammadDs life believed to have originated ith those ho kne him personally. $esterners ill continue to misread the -uran and misdiagnose Islam as a /religion of peace. and number. Kolume . !ahih &l. but he is the model par e"cellence for all Muslims in ho they should conduct themselves. It is through MuhammadDs personal teachings and actions . till his death).rophetDs career and so cancel and replace earlier instructions to act peaceably. hich ere passed do n orally until codified in the eighth century &D.. translated by a Muslim scholar and hich may be found here. hat he did. ho he lived. and then the content itself.-uranic utterances./ c. The #unnah -.

MuhammadDs prophetic career is meaningfully divided into t o segments6 the first in Mecca. Eumber 2:G Earrated &bu 5uraira6 &llahDs &postle as asked. unalterable ords of &llah himself. hile in its early years./ Kolume 1. /Do not punish anybody ith &llahDs punishment @fire). /'o believe in &llah and 5is &postle @Muhammad). and the flight to Medina as precipitated by a probable attempt on MuhammadDs life. !hortly before Muhammad fled the hostility of Mecca. In Mecca.rophet. a ne batch of Muslim converts pledged their loyalty to him on a hill outside Mecca called &%aba. harassed and re#ected by those around himG later. Islam as a relatively tolerant creed that ould /endure insult and forgive the ignorant. 'hat MuhammadDs nascent religion under ent a significant change at this point is plain. /$hat is the best deed4/ 5e replied. 'he entire Islamic moral universe devolves solely from the life and teachings of Muhammad. 5e as accepted by the Medinan tribes as the leader of the Muslims and as arbiter of inter./ I ould have killed them according to the statement of &llahDs &postle. in Medina. then kill him. e see a %uasi. there is no /natural/ sense of morality or #ustice that transcends the specific e"amples and in#unctions outlined in the -uran and the !unnah. p20. &long ith the reliable hadiths.. /If I had been in his place. /$hoever changes his Islamic religion. In 822. as &llahDs &postle forbade it. e see an able commander and strategist ho systematically con%uered and killed those ho opposed him. some 200 miles to the north. composed by one of IslamDs great scholars. MuhammadDs ne monotheism had angered the pagan leaders of Mecca.tribal disputes. is considered more significant than the year of MuhammadDs birth or death or that of the first 8 ./ In Islam. a further source of accepted kno ledge about Muhammad comes from the !ira @life) of the . *ecause Muhammad is considered &llahDs final prophet and the -uran the eternal.. in the eighth century &D. /'o participate in 3ihad @religious fighting) in &llahDs (ause. there is also no evolving morality that permits the modification or integration of Islamic morality ith that from other sources. from Mecca to the oasis of Nathrib . /$hat is the ne"t @in goodness)4/ 5e replied. from 822 &D to his death in 8<2. It is the later years of MuhammadDs life. *ook 2. preaching repentance and charity. 'he scholarly Isha% clearly intends to impress on his @Muslim) readers that. 822 &D. saying. 'he year of the 5i#ra. he and his follo ers made the 5i#ra @emigration or flight). here he labored for fourteen years to make converts to IslamG and later in the city of Medina @'he (ity of the &postle of God). Isha% here conveys in the !ira the significance of this event6 !ira.rophet as better than fifty years old. Muhammad had sent emissaries to Medina to ensure his elcome. 'he %uestioner then asked. that are rarely broached in polite company. I ould not have burnt them.ho said. *iblical figure. Eo they IMuhammadDs follo ersJ bound themselves to ar against all and sundry for God and his &postle. here he became a po erful political and military leader./ 'he Islamic calendar testifies to the paramouncy of the 5i#ra by setting year one from the date of its occurrence. later renamed Medina . the second Ioath of allegiance atJ &%aba contained conditions involving ar hich ere not in the first act of fealty./ &llah soon re%uired Muslims /to ar against all and sundry for God and his &postle. hile he promised them for faithful service thus the re ard of paradise.6 $hen God gave permission to his &postle to fight. hen the . Muhammad bin Isha%.

Muhammad bin Maslama ent to him @i.-uranic revelation because Islam is first and foremost a political. Muhammad began a series of ra??ias @raids) on caravans of the Meccan -uraish tribe on the route to !yria. !o. & significant portion of the !ira is devoted to poetry composed by MuhammadDs follo ers and his enemies in rhetorical duels that mirrored those in the field. brother of the *ani &bduDl.rophet to Muhammad bin MaslamaJ. /'his person @i. 'here seems to have been an informal 9 . the . The Ba le of Ba'r 'he *attle of *adr as the first significant engagement fought by the . said./ 'he ./ 'hen &bu *akr took hold of him by the hand and said.e. H &postle of God. hich Muhammad granted. *ook :F.military enterprise. Muhammad admonished the resident 3e ish tribe of -aynu%a to accept Islam or face a similar fate as the -uraish @<612. /the ideal man/ set precedents for all time as to ho Muslims should deal ith detractors of their religion. /$ho is ready to kill Cab bin &l. /Do so if you can./ Muhammad said to him.rophetJ ans ered. /'his is sufficient for you. 'he years of the Islamic calendar @ hich employs lunar months) are designated in =nglish /&5/ or /&fter 5i#ra./ Cab replied.&shraf4/ Muhammad bin Maslama.rophet particularly seems to have disliked the many poets ho ridiculed his ne religion and his claim to prophethood . Eumber 2.e. 5e said.FG Earrated Ibn &bbas6 Hn the day of the battle of *adr. but &llah caused them @i. *ook :F. you ill get tired of him.rophet said.romise. +ollo ing the e"ile of the *ani -aynu%a. 'he -aynu%a agreed to leave Medina if they could retain their property. *ook :2. a theme evident today in the violent reactions of Muslims to any perceived mockery of Islam.&shhal. Eumber 2.rophet said. the . H &llahL If Nour $ill is that none should orship Nou @then give victory to the pagans)./ Kolume >. 'he .rophet came out saying.e./ /&ll that is incumbent upon you is that you should try/ Isaid the . /'heir multitude ill be put to flight and they ill sho their backs./ @:>6>:) 5aving returned to Medina after the battle. Muslims) to meet their enemy une"pectedly @ ith no previous intention). Eumber 290G Earrated 3abir bin D&bdullah6 'he .1<)../ i.rophet) has put us to task and asked us for charity. 'he &postle said6 /$ho ill rid me of Ibnul. In taking action against his opponents.military articulation. /!ay hat you like./ Muhammad bin Maslama ent on talking to him in this ay till he got the chance to kill him. /*y &llah. 0pon establishing himself in Medina follo ing the 5i#ra./ 5e said.&shraf ho has really hurt &llah and 5is &postle4/ Muhammad bin Maslama said. /I ill deal ith him for you. so e dislike to leave him till e see the end of his affair. Cab) and said. e shall have to tell lies. /H &llahL I appeal to Nou @to fulfill) Nour (ovenant and . /H &postle of God. I ill kill him. /$e have follo ed him./ 5e Ithe . Kolume :. Kolume :. Muhammad turned to individuals in Medina he considered to have acted treacherously. !ira.rophet. /H &llahDs &postleL Do you like me to kill him4/ 5e replied in the affirmative.&shrafJ composed amatory verses of an insulting nature about the Muslim omen.9G Earrated Cab bin Malik6 'he &postle had gone out to meet the caravans of -uraish. p<896 'hen he ICab bin al. It as only hen Muhammad left Mecca ith his paramilitary band that Islam achieved its proper political. for you are free in the matter.

ii./ 'he man thre a ay some dates he as carrying in his hand. Muhammad agreed to these terms save that they leave behind their armor.&shraf.rophet replied to them. the bootyL/ &bdullah bin 3ubair said. *ook :2.*ara6 hen e faced the enemy. Indeed. 'he Meccans ould have to attack from the north est in a valley bet een the flo s. even if that means plundering it from infidels. /$e are those ho have s orn allegiance to Muhammad for 3ihad @for ever) as long as e live. Muhammad as by no means van%uished.bangles. composed the follo ing6 !ira. Kolume :. ! ord in hand e cut him do n *y MuhammadDs order hen he sent secretly by night CabDs brother to go to Cab./ *ut his companions refused @to stay). Kolume >. Muhammad faced the greatest challenge to his ne community. *ook :F.rophet ordered the Muslims to prepare for ar against the *ani Eadir. .. Kolume :. here the ensuing battle took place. bold. lifting up their clothes from their legs. and they suffered seventy casualties. In an Islamic orldvie . and the .Eadir ere brought lo ). iii. 5e continued making raids that made being a Muslim not only virtuous in the eyes of &llah but lucrative as ell.rophet and said. Muhammad got ind of the Meccan force coming to attack him and encamped his forces on a small hillock north of Medina named 0hud. &s Muhammad had neutrali?ed the 3e ish tribe of *ani -aynu%a after *adr. 5e beguiled him and brought him do n ith guile Mahmud as trust orthy. /'he . @&llah) confused them so that they could not kno here to go. they took to their heel till I sa their omen running to ards the mountain. &llah arned Muhammad of an attempt to assassinate him. The Ba le of (hu' 'he Meccan -uraish regrouped for an attack on the Muslims at Medina.competition in aggrandi?ing oneself. and fought till he as martyred. protected as it as by lava flo s on three sides.rophet replied. Cab bin al. In that year. the -uraish of Mecca made their most determined attack on the Muslims at Medina itself. 'he Muslims started saying. po er. Muhammad thought it advisable not to engage them in a pitched battle as at 0hud but took shelter in Medina. there is no incompatibility bet een ealth. !o hen they refused @to stay there).aradise. The Ba le of Me'ina In 829 &D. revealing their leg. and it as there that Muhammad ordered a trench dug for the cityDs defense. &ccording to the !ira. /'he booty./ 'he .6 Cab bin Malik said6 Hf them Cab as left prostrate there @&fter his fall Ithe 3e ish tribe ofJ al. a man came to the . /In .G Earrated &nas6 Hn the day @of the battle) of the 'rench. he no turned to the *ani Eadir after 0hud. and holiness. Eumber <9:G Earrated &l. Eumber <99G Earrated 3abir bin &bdullah6 Hn the day of the battle of 0hud. 'he *ani Eadir agreed to go into e"ile if Muhammad permitted them to retain their movable property. and oneDs God hile ridiculing oneDs adversary in elo%uent and memorable ays. it is only logical that one should also en#oy the material bounty of &llah . oneDs tribe. 'hough deprived of victory at 0hud. /(an you tell me here I ill be if I should get martyred4/ 'he . Cab bin Malik. Eumber 20. p<8.rophet had taken a firm promise from me not to leave this place. /H . *ook :F. the &nsar Ine converts to IslamJ ere saying. one of the assassins of his brother. as a member of the true faith.

'here ere 800 or 900 in all./ @!ira./ &nd Earrated Mu#ashi6 My brother and I came to the . /+or hat ill you take the pledge of allegiance from us then4/ 5e said.rophet and I re%uested him to take the pledge of allegiance from us for migration. +ollo ing yet another of the MuslimsD raids.&llahL 'here is no life e"cept the life of the 5ereafter. 'hen the apostle ent out to the market of Medina and dug trenches in it. they turned back for Mecca.Eadir. &mong them as the enemy of &llah 5uyayy bin &khtab and Cab bin &sad their chief.>6 'hen they Ithe tribe of -urai?aJ surrendered. & 3e came to the &postle and said that he had seen Cinana going round a certain ruin every morning early. ten years after he and his follo ers had been forced to flee to Medina. and the apostle confined them in Medina in the %uarter of d. ho had the custody of the treasure of *ani al. though some put the figure as high as . @!ira. the fate of the *ani -urai?a ould be considerably more dire. this time on a place called Chaibar. Nes. 'he &postle gave orders that the ruin as to be e"cavated and some of the treasure as found. Muhammad turned to the third 3e ish tribe at Medina. /'orture him until you e"tract hat he has. p>8<.00 or F00. p::0) F . 'hen he sent for them and struck off their heads in those trenches as they ere brought out to him in batches. p:11) 'he raid at Chaibar had been against the *ani Eadir. 5e replied. /'he omen of Chaibar ere distributed among the Muslims/ as as usual practice.& am. iv. e"cept a small number ho ere to be killed even if they ere found beneath the curtains of the Caba. /$ill you never understand4 DonDt you see that the summoner never stops and those ho are taken a ay do not return4 *y &llah it is deathL/ 'his ent on until the &postle made an end of them. 'hus do e find the clear precedent that e"plains the peculiar penchant of Islamic terrorists to behead their victims6 it is merely another precedent besto ed by their . &fter several days./ 'he Meccans ere foiled by the trench and only able to send small raiding parties across it. 5e said. 'hen the &postle delivered him to Muhammad bin Maslama and he struck off his head. &s they ere being taken out in batches to the &postle they asked Cab hat he thought ould be done ith them. In that year. 5e denied that he kne here it as. !ira. $hen he asked him about the rest he refused to produce it. hom Muhammad had earlier e"iled from Medina. The )on*ues of Mecca MuhammadDs greatest victory came in 8<2 &D./ I asked. !ira./ so he kindled a fire ith flint and steel on his chest until he as nearly dead. +ollo ing his victory. in revenge for his brother Mahmud. a oman of *ani al. /Migration has passed a ay ith its people. p:1:6 Cinana bin al. $hile the *ani -aynu%a and *ani Eadir had suffered e"ile. the *ani -urai?a. /Do you kno that if e find you have it I shall kill you4/ he said. he assembled a force of some ten thousand Muslims and allied tribes and descended on Mecca. /'he &postle had instructed his commanders hen they entered Mecca only to fight those ho resisted them. /I ill take @the pledge) for Islam and 3ihad.Mubayr bin al.rophet. $hen the &postle said to Cinana. so the &postle gave orders to al. !o honor the &nsar and emigrants Ifrom MeccaJ ith Nour Generosity. as brought to the &postle ho asked him about it.Ea##ar. al.7abi.5arith.

those nations ho have submitted to &llah) and dar al.rophet said. 'o violate !haria or not to accept its authority is to commit rebellion against &llah. '. hich &llahDs faithful are re%uired to combat./ It is from such arlike pronouncements as these that Islamic scholarship divides the orld into dar al. and the stone behind hich a 3e ill be hiding ill say. *ook 2. i. hich translates appro"imately as / ay/ or /path. 'he precepts of !haria may be divided into t o parts6 1..e. Eumber 92G Earrated &nas bin Malik6 &llahDs &postle entered Mecca in the year of its (on%uest earing an &rabian helmet on his head and hen the . &cts of orship @al. 'hen as no . then they save their lives and property from me e"cept for Islamic la s and then their reckoning @accounts) ill be done by &llah./ +ollo ing the con%uest of Mecca. /Ibn Chatal is holding the covering of the Caba @taking refuge in the Caba). hich is the blueprint for the good Islamic society. 0nlike many religions./ 'he . $hile it is in theory possible for an Islamic society to have different out ard forms . a hereditary monarchy.rayers @!alah) +asts @!a m and 7amadan) 10 .e. Kolume >. so kill him. etc. Eumber 2>G Earrated Ibn 0mar6 &llahDs &postle said6 /I have been ordered @by &llah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be orshipped but &llah and that Muhammad is &llahDs &postle. those ho have not). *ook :2./ 'he precepts of !haria are derived from the commandments of the -uran and the !unnah @the teachings and precedents of Muhammad as found in the reliable hadiths and the !ira). It is this fact that puts !haria into conflict ith forms of government based on anything other than the -uran and the !unnah.ibadat). hich includes6 7itual . /'he 5our Iof the 1ast 3udgmentJ ill not be established until you fight ith the 3e s. it is not optional. 'here is no separation bet een the religious and the political in IslamG rather Islam and !haria constitute a comprehensive means of ordering society at every level.Kolume <.rophet took it off. Eumber 199G Earrated &bu 5uraira6 &llahDs &postle said. hatever the out ard structure of the government. and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity. Islam includes a mandatory and highly specific legal and political plan for society called !haria @pronounced /sha. Muhammad outlined the future of his religion.urification @$udu) . . so if they perform that.harb @the 5ouse of $ar. *ecause !haria originates ith the -uran and the !unnah.. !haria is the legal code ordained by &llah for all mankind. the -uran and the !unnah establish the dictates of !haria.. #haria +a.. a person came and said. Islam @the 5ouse of Islam. an elective system of government. /Cill him. /H MuslimL 'here is a 3e hiding behind me. *ook 2F. !haria is the prescribed content./ Kolume 1.rOPQe. 'ogether. i. It is this dispensation that the orld lived under in MuhammadDs time and that it lives under today. IslamDs message to the unbelieving orld is the same6 submit or be con%uered.uh/).

hich includes6 +inancial transactions =ndo ments 1a s of inheritance Marriage.(harity @Makat) . and all means of land and sea fighting.*anna cogently argues that Muslims must take up arms against unbelievers.iha' an' Dhimmi u'e a. it is apparent that any meaningful application of !haria is going to look very different from anything resembling a free or open society in the $estern sense. In 1F2. 'he stoning of adulterers. It seems fair then to classify Islam and its !haria code as a form of totalitarianism. b. the %uestion remains as to hat sort of /struggle/ is meant6 an inner. to the armed forces. %ihad. neglecting to give ?akat @alms). /'he verses of the -urDan and the !unnah summon people in general @ ith the most elo%uent e"pression and the clearest e"position) to #ihad. hich today is the most po erful organi?ation in =gypt after the government itself. divorce. and child care +ood and drink @including ritual slaughtering and hunting) . MuhammadDs impressive military career attests to the central role that military action plays in Islam. #ihad does not mean /holy ar/ as Muslim apologists often point out. Hnly those ho have acted similarly and ho have 11 .rearing to ta"ation to military policy fall under its dictates. +rom those sources @see above) it is evident that a Muslim is re%uired to struggle against a variety of things6 la?iness in prayer. or an out ard. *ut is it also plain that a Muslim is commanded to struggle in physical combat against the infidel as ell. &s he says. spiritual struggle against the passions. etc.*annaDs treatise.Islamic nations punctuated by regular arfare ill be the norm. -./ &ll Muslims Must Make 3ihad 3ihad is an obligation from &llah on every Muslim and cannot be ignored nor evaded.. 1asan "l-Banna on /iha' *elo are e"cerpts from 5asan &l. physical struggle. &llah has ascribed great importance to #ihad and has made the re ard of the martyrs and the fighters in 5is ay a splendid one. it affords some room for interpretation.enal punishments $ar and peace 3udicial matters @including itnesses and forms of evidence) &s one may see. 5uman interaction @al. there are fe aspects of life that !haria does not specifically govern. %ha 'oes $/iha'$ mean0 3ihad literally translates as /struggle./ !trictly speaking. e"ecution of apostates and blasphemers. In this treatise. &s in any case of trying to determine Islamic teaching on a particular matter. . *ut upon e"amination of the Islamic sources @see above). *ecause !haria is derivate of the -uran and the !unnah. one must look to the -uran and the !unnah. &l. repression of other religions.*anna founded the Muslim *rotherhood.ilgrimage to Mecca @5a##) 2. =verything from ashing oneDs hands to child. to arfare. &l. and a mandatory hostility to ard non.muamalat). 5o ever.

.*anna offers citations from the -uran and the reliable hadiths that demonstrate the necessity of combat for Muslims. to benefit them in this orld and the ne"t. and involves all possible efforts that are necessary to dismantle the po er of the enemies of Islam including beating them.&bharD. 'hose ho can only find e"cuses. to arfare.*05 I.modeled themselves upon the martyrs in their performance of #ihad can #oin them in this re ard. +rom this e ill come to realise ho far the ummah has deviated in its practice of Islam as can be seen from the consensus of its scholars on the %uestion of #ihad. destroying their places of orship and smashing their idols. 5e has reprimanded them for their co ardice and lack of spirit. hether religious or civil.&nhar fi !harh Multa%al. for they disbelieved after they have affirmed their belief). 'he citations are comparable to those included in Islam 101 section 1b and are here omitted. 5ere &l. 'he author of the DMa#maD al. 'he !cholars on 3ihad I have #ust presented to you some verses from the -urDan and the Eoble &hadith concerning the importance of #ihad.eace *e 0nto 5imJ) are overflo ing ith all these noble ideals and they summon people in general @ ith the most elo%uent e"pression and the clearest e"position) to #ihad. 'his means that #ihad is to strive to the utmost to ensure the strength of Islam by such means as fighting those ho fight you and the dhimmies Inon. It is fard @obligatory) on us to fight ith the enemies. plundering their ealth. and castigated them for their eakness and truancy. 'he Imam must send a military 12 . have been arned of e"tremely dreadful punishments and &llah has described them ith the most unfortunate of names. Islam is concerned ith the %uestion of #ihad and the drafting and the mobilisation of the entire 0mma Ithe global Muslim communityJ into one body to defend the right cause ith all its strength than any other ancient or modern system of living. Eo I ould like to present to you some of the opinions from #urisprudence of the Islamic !chools of 'hought including some latter day authorities regarding the rules of #ihad and the necessity for preparedness. 'he eaknesses of abstention and evasion of #ihad are regarded by &llah as one of the ma#or sins.Muslims living under Islamic ruleJ @if they violate any of the terms of the treaty) and the apostates @ ho are the orst of unbelievers. and one of the seven sins that guarantee failure. 'he verses of the -urDan and the !unnah of Muhammad @. 'heir pure blood is a symbol of victory in this orld and the mark of success and felicity in the orld to come. they ill be surrounded by dishonour and in the ne"t they ill be surrounded by the fire from hich they shall not escape though they may possess much ealth. &llah has specifically honoured the Mu#ahideen Ithose ho age #ihadJ ith certain e"ceptional %ualities. said6 D3ihad linguistically means to e"ert oneDs utmost effort in ord and actionG in the !hareeDah I!haria . in describing the rules of #ihad according to the 5anafi !chool. In this orld. to the armed forces. Islamic la J it is the fighting of the unbelievers. both spiritual and practical. +urthermore. ho ever. and all means of land and sea fighting.

Net still the Muslims fail to fulfill the responsibility of DaD ah that is on their shoulders. &bdullah ibn al Mubarak. 'his narration is not a saheeh @sound) tradition6 'he prominent muhaddith &l 5afi? ibn 5a#ar al. and then the closest after that etc. 'hey ere all al ays ready and prepared. 5e should prepare himself mentally and physically such that hen comes the decision of &llah. and to deter any offering of #ihad in &llahDs ay. a very learned and pious man./ 'his narration is used by some to lessen the importance of fighting. etc. +or e"ample. honour. respect. and the people must support him in this. &ssociated Matters (oncerning 3ihad Many Muslims today mistakenly believe that fighting the enemy is #ihad asghar @a lesser #ihad) and that fighting oneDs ego is #ihad akbar @a greater #ihad). Hur lands have been besieged. !ha%i% al *alkhi.Muslim orldJ every year at least once or t ice. to discourage any preparation for combat. throughout every period of their history @before the present period of oppression in hich their dignity has been lost) have never abandoned #ihad nor did they ever become negligent in its performance. the non.. as the same. craftsmen. 'he follo ing narration AatharB is %uoted as proof6 /$e have returned from the lesser #ihad to embark on the greater #ihad. and that #ihad is a fard Dayn if an enemy attacks Muslim lands. then the responsibility lies ith the closest ad#acent group. a sufi and a devout man. 'oday.&s%alani said in the 'asdid al.&hyaD6 1< . 5ence in this situation it becomes the duty of each and every Muslim to make #ihad. he ill be ready. the shaykh of the sufis encouraged his pupils to ards #ihad. and our hurrumaDat @personal possessions. and the rites of our din are under their #urisdiction. 'hey all agreed unanimously that #ihad is a fard kifayah imposed upon the Islamic ummah in order to spread the DaD ah of Islam..al. and D&bdul ahid bin Mayd. and as a saying of Ibrahim ibn D&bla. Hur enemies are overlooking our affairs. or the #ihad against oneDs ego. and if the fard kifayah cannot be fulfilled e"cept by all the people. I should not finish this discussion ithout mentioning to you that the Muslims. If this fard kifayah @communal obligation) cannot be fulfilled by that group. the Muslims as you kno are forced to be subservient before others and are ruled by disbelievers. my brother. as a volunteer in #ihad for most of his life.5arb I5ouse of $ar .D &l 5afi? &l Ira%i said in the 'akhri# &hadith al. mystics. not even their religious authorities. &nd in his time. the remainder are released from the obligation.e"pedition to the Dar. 'he scholarly people are of one opinion on this matter as should be evident and this is irrespective of hether these scholars ere Mu#tahideen or Mu%alideen and it is irrespective of hether these scholars ere salaf @early) or khalaf @late). dignity and privacy) violated. If some of the people fulfill the obligation. like prayer on everyone of the people. it then becomes a fard Dayn @individual obligation).-a s6 DIt is ell kno n and often repeated./ 'hey said6 /$hat is the greater #ihad4/ 5e said6 /'he #ihad of the heart.

1ife itself shall come searching after you./D I!ura <61:>J c./ !ay6 /=ven if you had remained in your homes. even if it ere a sound tradition./ 'hey hide ithin themselves hat they dare not reveal to you. and &llah is &ll. you should kno that one day you ill face death and this ominous event can only occur once. 5e sent do n security for you. 'herefore prepare for #ihad and be the lovers of death. Dar al-Islam an' 'ar al-harb2 he 1ouse of Islam an' he 1ouse of %ar 'he violent in#unctions of the -uran and the violent precedents set by Muhammad set the tone for the Islamic vie of politics and of orld history. /5ave e any part in the affair4/ !ay you @H Muhammad)6 /Indeed the affair belongs holly to &llah. e"ists in a state of rebellion or ar ith the ill of &llah. those for hom death as decreed ould certainly have gone forth to the place of their death6 but that &llah might test hat is in your heartsG and to purify that hich as in your hearts @sins). &nd remember brother that nothing can happen ithout the $ill of &llah6 ponder ell hat &llah. the 5ouse of Islam @dar al. the *lessed. it ould never arrant abandoning #ihad or preparing for it in order to rescue the territories of the Muslims and repel the attacks of the disbelievers.Islam to make ar upon dar al.rophet) and thought rongly of &llah . 'hey said. 1et it be kno n that this narration simply emphasises the importance of struggling against oneDs ego so that &llah ill be the sole purpose of everyone of our actions.D Eevertheless. the &lmighty.harb until such time that all nations submit to the 1> . hich has not accepted !haria la and so is not in a state of submission. 'he rest of the orld. ignoring the others and the . and so the 5ouse of Islam includes those nations that have submitted to Islamic rule.Cno er of hat is in @your) hearts. !lumber overtook a party of you. Islamic scholarship divides the orld into t o spheres of influence. =pilogue My brothersL 'he ummah that kno s ho to die a noble and honourable death is granted an e"alted life in this orld and eternal felicity in the ne"t. and &l Chatib transmitted it in his history on the authority of 3abir. It is incumbent on dar al. My brothers.D&l *ayha%i transmitted it ith a eak chain of narrators on the authority of 3abir.Islam) and the 5ouse of $ar @dar al. the thought of ignorance. saying6 /If e had anything to do ith the affair. Islam means submission./ *ut nothing compares to the honour of shahadah kubra @the supreme martyrdom) or the re ard that is aiting for the Mu#ahideen. Hther associated matters concerning #ihad include commanding the good and forbidding the evil. none of us ould have been killed here. hich is to say those nations ruled by !haria la . Degradation and dishonour are the results of the love of this orld and the fear of death.harb). It is said in the 5adeeth6 /Hne of the greatest forms of #ihad is to utter a ord of truth in the presence of a tyrannical ruler. it ill be to your benefit in this orld and your re ard in the ne"t. has said6 D'hen after the distress. hile another party as thinking about themselves @as to ho to save themselves. If you suffer on this occasion in the ay of &llah.

/ or that the origins of Muslim violence lie in the unbalanced psyches of particular individual /fanatics. *ut the lulls in the ongoing ar that the 5ouse of Islam has declared against the 5ouse of $ar do not indicate a forsaking of #ihad as a principle but reflect a change in strategic factors. IslamDs message to the non. 101. & telling point is that.harb . &ome to "ecca '#rn to Pra(. ho ever.!hiDa as ell. It is not hard to see that the implications of ta%iyya are insidious in the e"treme6 they essentially render negotiated settlement ./ 5istorically. harb. a ord the root meaning of hich is /to remain faithful/ but hich in effect means /dissimulation. they are nearly non./ It has full -uranic authority @<62. *ook :2. at times hen the infidel nations are too po erful for open arfare to make sense. hile in ardly /remaining faithful/ to hatever he conceives to be proper Islam. be surprising that a party to a ar should seek to mislead the other about its means and intentions.. or 7iyadh.Islam and dar al. systematic lying to the infidel. must be considered part and parcel of Islamic tactics.eace that true peace ould prevail in the orld #ust as soon as Islam had con%uered it.harb ere hen the Muslim orld as too eak or divided to make ar effectively. ho posited in his Islam and 0niversal .e"istent in dar al.Muslim orld is the same no as it as in the time of Muhammad and throughout history6 submit or be con%uered. impossible.harb that /Islam is a religion of peace. of deliberate dissimulation about religious matters that may 1: .e. 3ihad is not a collective suicide pact even hile /killing and being killed/ @!ura F6111) is encouraged on an individual level. but only insofar as they are ignorant of its true teachings. indeed. *ut that is changing. or Islamabad. ith its origins in !hiDa Islam but no practiced by non.. +or the past fe hundred years. the Muslim orld has been too politically fragmented and technologically inferior to pose a ma#or threat to the $est./ must be considered as disinformation intended to induce the infidel orld to let do n its guard. /'a%iyya/ is the religiously. Hf course.Islam as not actively at ar ith dar al.. a related form of deception. & Muslim apostate once suggested to me a litmus test for $esterners ho believe that Islam is a religion of /peace/ and /tolerance/6 try making that point on a street corner in 7amallah. i. e"amples of ta%iyya include permission to renounce Islam itself in order to save oneDs neck or ingratiate oneself ith an enemy. It should not.) Kolume >. or any here in the Muslim orld.sanctioned doctrine. /$ar is deceit.ill of &llah and accept !haria la .Islam and dar al. 'he parroting by Muslim organi?ations throughout dar al..rophet said. and 186108) and allo s the Muslim to conform out ardly to the re%uirements of unislamic or non.harb.3eligious Dece& ion Due to the state of ar bet een dar al. i. individual Muslims may genuinely regard their religion as /peaceful/ . It is acceptable for Muslim nations to declare hudna. or in the sense of the =gyptian theorist !ayyid -utb. I&J problem concerning la and order I ith respect to Muslims in dar al. @5iskett.Islamic government. hile Muslims ho present their religion as peaceful abound throughout dar al.Islam. reuses de guerre. Ta*iyya -. and. hile aiting for the tide to turn. all veracious communication bet een dar al. 'he only times since Muhammad hen dar al.. that of ta%iyya. 5e assured me you ouldnDt live five minutes. Eumber 28FG Earrated 3abir bin D&bdullah6 'he .harbJ arises from an ancient Islamic legal principle . 3ihad $atchDs o n 5ugh +it?gerald sums up ta%iyya and kitman. or truce.

In any case. in support of this doubtful proposition. /compulsion in religion/ for Muslims. and &li @kno n as /the four rightly. and al ays has been. Hne e"ample may suffice. is /kitman. The Firs Ma/or %ave of . it is only logical that the one true religion.respected muhaddithin as of doubtful authenticity.rophet intended IslamDs e"pansion to stop ith &rabia. Muhammad had e"tended his control in a series of raids and battles over most of southern &rabia./ &n e"ample of /'a%iyya/ ould be the insistence of a Muslim apologist that /of course/ there is freedom of conscience in Islam.iha'2 he "rabs4 5---670 "D Eear the end of his life.harb necessitates that the #ihad take an indirect approach. hich makes it easy to give the impression through selective %uotations and omissions that /Islam is a religion of peace.guided 18 . returning home from one of his many battles./ $hen he adduces. Digging only slightly deeper is sufficient to dispel the falsehood. 7evealing frankly the ultimate goal of dar al.iha' Through 1is ory In 822 &D @year one in the Islamic calendar. it consists in telling only a part of the truth./ &ny infidel ho ants to believe such fiction ill happily persist in his mistake having been cited a handful of Meccan verses and told that Muhammad as a man of great piety and charity. the natural attitude of a Muslim to the infidel orld must be one of deception and omission. that he had returned from /the 1esser 3ihad to the Greater 3ihad/ and does not add hat he also kno s to be true. hereby such an early verse as that about /no compulsion in religion/ has been cancelled out by later. ith /mental reservation/ #ustifying the omission of the rest. 'his dispels any notion that the .. & related term. that this is a / eak/ hadith. . and is practicing /kitman./ In times hen the greater strength of dar al. 0mar. /'here shall be no compulsion in religion. he is further practicing /kitman./ hich is defined as /mental reservation./ and fails to add that this definition is a recent one in Islam @little more than a century old). '. for there has been no mention of the Muslim doctrine of abrogation. and for non. i. Muhammad established a paramilitary organi?ation that ould spread his influence and that of his religion throughout &rabia. should have universal s ay./ but rather than outright dissimulation. or isnad). regarded by the most. and then %uoting that -urDanic verse .Muslims. /Citman/ is close to /ta%iyya. nor do they trouble themselves to find out hat Muhammad actually did and taught.be undertaken to protect Islam. is reported to have said @as kno n from a chain of transmitters. as Muhammad had fought and subdued the peoples of the &rabian peninsula. *y the time of his death in 8<2 &D. *ecause there has never been a separation of the political. &5 1). $hen a Muslim maintains that /#ihad/ really means /a spiritual struggle. or naskh. of broader application. he misleads by holding back.Islam to con%uer and plunder dar al. 0thman. revealed by the final and fullest prophet. this development as entirely natural by Islamic principles. +ortunately for the #ihadists. In Medina. the hadith in hich Muhammad.harb hen the latter holds the military trump cards ould be strategic idiocy./ I262:8J *ut the impression given ill be false.military and the religious in Islam. Muhammad sent letters to the great empires of the Middle =ast demanding their submission to his authority. most infidels do not understand ho one is to read the -uran. far more intolerant and malevolent verses. and the *elievers. Muhammad abandoned Mecca for the city of Medina @Nathrib) some 200 farther north in the &rabian peninsula. 'he con%uered populations of these areas either had to submit to Muslim rule and pay a protection ta" or convert to Islam. Indeed. history sho s that ithin Islam there is. 'hus. his successors &bu *akr.

and finally into +rance.aris. 4 $hen e reached the land of the enemy. the #ihad penetrated deep into (entral &sia. the representative of Chosrau I.(aliphs/) and other (aliphs fought and subdued the people of the Middle =ast. shall become your master.ersian po ers. Eumber <. martyred).rophet has informed us that our 1ord says6 /$hoever amongst us is killed @i.aradise to lead such a lu"urious life as he has never seen. and an interpreter got up saying. incomparably richer both materially and culturally than the desolate sands of &rabia .. not far from . 'he &rab Muslim armies charged into the 5oly 1and.ersia. In the east. .e. &sia. the Messenger of our 1ord. shall go to . 'he creaking *y?antine and ./ 0nleashing upon the orld the blit?krieg of its day. of their ealth 19 .. *ook :<. and $estern =urope in the decades after MuhammadDs death. having battled each other into mutual decline. &frica.oitiers/'ours. in 9<2 &D. tribute)G and our . 4 /Hur . 'he Muslim offensive as finally halted in the $est at the *attle of . Islam rapidly spread into the territories of *y?antium.e. Kolume >. &s Muhammad had plundered his foes. has ordered us to fight you till you orship &llah &lone or give 3i?ya @i. /1et one of you talk to meL/ &l. con%uered hat is no Ira% and Iran. then s ept est across Eorth &frica. offered little resistance to this unanticipated onslaught.thousand arriors.Mughira replied.ersiaJ came out ith forty. so his successors also stripped the con%uered areas .8G Earrated 3ubair bin 5aiya6 0mar Ithe second (aliphJ sent the Muslims to the great countries to fight the pagans. into !pain.rophet. and hoever amongst us remain alive. and =urope in the name of &llah.

&fter gathering up all the ealth of the to n. In 22< R2 December . and hich made forays as far as Earbonne and 3aranda . !he includes these documents in her orks on Islamic history and the plight of non.ersia. &bd ar. has provided an inestimable service through the compilation and translation of numerous primary source documents describing centuries of Islamic con%uest. &lmost overnight. the catastrophes those lands suffered ere very nearly complete. raping omen. 'he )ecline of Eastern *hristianit( #nder Islam. driving back the enemy ho fled in disorder.) 'his first ave of #ihad engulfed much of the *y?antine. and .<9S. +or several months he traversed this land in every direction. %uoted in *at NeDor. hich it besiegedG it sei?ed the booty that as found there. al 5akam.amplona.7ahman b. dragging behind him God alone kno s ho much booty.and manpo er.>:S. 'he )ecline of Eastern *hristianit( #nder Islam. killed the inhabitants and ithdre . burning and pillaging everything.7ahman advanced ith many troops and a large military apparatus against the region of . destroyed the alls and to ers of the to n and almost managed to sei?e it. 5isham. south through !pain. 'he 'aiyaye IMuslim &rabsJ led everyone into slavery . the slaughter of civilians.Gharat.&thir @1180.12<< &D). carrying off omen and children as captives.2. and the plundering of the countryside are commonplace. 5e returned safe and sound. and Iberia sa their agriculture. Mugith into enemy territory. they set to torturing the leaders to make them sho them things AtreasuresB that had been hidden.. . east 1. 'hey returned to their country re#oicing. Kisigothic. of ra??ias @raiding e"peditions) in Eorthern !pain and +rance in the eighth and ninth centuries &D. 5ere is Michael the !yrianDs account of the Muslim invasion of (appodocia @southern 'urkey) in 8:0 &D under (aliph 0mar6 . In 2>8 R29 March . !ave for a handful of alled cities that managed to negotiate conditional surrenders. including noncombatants.$ahid b. here he pillaged and so ed death. pushing for ard. prince of !pain. hen Mua iya Ithe Muslim commanderJ arrived Iin =uchaita in &rmeniaJ he ordered all the inhabitants to be put to the s ordG he placed guards so that no one escaped. &bd ar. &bd al. *at NeDor.) 'he follo ing description by the Muslim historian. Ibn al. @Michael the !yrian. @Ibn al. he trampled underfoot the land of the (erdagne Inear &ndorra in the .80S.. . %uoted in *at NeDor.yreneesJ. the leading scholar of IslamDs e"pansion and its treatment of non. Muhammad b. here it pillaged and massacred everyone. In the history of #ihad. sent a large army commanded by &bd al. and populations destroyed or plundered. native religions. +rankish. Malik b. 5e then marched on to Earbonne. the desecration of churches. 2. the more advanced civili?ations of the Middle =ast. Annals. ruined and ravaged this territory. 'his is one of the most famous e"peditions of the Muslims in !pain.. In 199 R19 &pril 9F<S. conveys nothing but satisfaction at the e"tent of the destruction rought upon the infidels. 'his general first attacked 3aranda here there as an elite +rank garrisonG he killed the bravest. destroying fortresses. a Muslim army advanced into Galicia on the territory of the infidels. 298. here he repeated the same actions.&thir.9.ersian =mpires and left the ne born Islamic =mpire controlling territory from !outhern +rance. Eorth &frica. In 2<1 R8 !eptember . then. killing arriors. sent an army against &lavaG it encamped near 5isn al.. 5e reduced. and they committed much debauchery in that unfortunate to n6 they ickedly committed immoralities inside churches.Muslims under Islamic rule.Muslims. sovereign of !pain. men and omen. boys and girls .1.

'hey raped. Ee"t.across Eorth &frica to India. and north to 7ussia. 2:8. they ere definitively e"pelled @the 7econ%uista). In the $est. ere rounded up and taken a ay as slaves. though their progress into =urope as significantly slo ed. here the 'urks annihilated a multinational army under the !erbian Cing. ho had survived. +ifty thousand of the inhabitants. 'he head as later embalmed and sent around the chief cities of the Httoman empire for the delectation of the citi?ens.aul +regosi in his book 3ihad describes the scene follo ing the final assault on (onstantinople6 !everal thousand of the survivors had taken refuge in the cathedral6 nobles. In =astern =urope. slaves ere the cheapest commodity in the markets of 'urkey. &fter numerous attempts dating back to the seventh century. Muslim commandersJ high. prayed. ii. Mahomet ordered the Grand Duke Eotaras. finally fell in 1>:< to the armies of !ultan Mahomet II.F. in 1091. 1a?ar.five years before the first (rusading army set out from central =urope for the 5oly 1and. be brought before him. . asked him for the names and addresses of all the leading nobles. 'his second ave of #ihad as temporarily held up by the invading 1atin &rmies during the (rusades @see Islam 101 +&-s). 'he sultan ordered his head to be cut off and placed bet een the horseDs legs under the e%uestrian bron?e statue of the emperor 3ustinian. of course. ho ever.. 5e had them all arrested and decapitated.iha'2 he Tur!s4 1061-1589 "D !ome t enty. +or months after ard. ordinary citi?ens. the (hristian forces suffered a disastrous defeat. and aited. !t. their ives and children. @+regosi. in 1>F2. The #econ' Ma/or %ave of . Hne of the most significant engagements bet een the invading Muslims and the indigenous peoples of the region as the *attle of Cosovo in 1<. and slaughtered. 7oman (atholic armies ere bit by bit forcing Muslim forces do n the Iberian peninsula. I(aliphJ Mahomet IIIJ had given the troops free %uarter. Mahomet asked that the body of the dead emperor be brought to him. (onstantinople. &t least four thousand ere killed before Mahomet stopped the massacre at noon. priests and nuns. It has remained a mos%ue ever since. 5e ordered a mue??in Ione ho issues the call to prayerJ to climb into the pulpit of !t. but. the nuns being the first victims. by the beginning of the 1>th century. &t the battle of Man?ikert. !ophia and dedicate the building to &llah. the 'urkish @Httoman) armies began an assault on the (hristian *y?antine =mpire. the Mongol invasion from the east greatly eakened the Islamic =mpire and ended &rab predominance therein. more than half the population. 'hey locked the huge doors. officials. the #e el of =astern (hristendom. the 'urks ere threatening (onstantinople and =urope itself.) 1F . for the pleasure of having them beheaded in front of him. hich Eotaras gave him. the 'urks sho ed they ere fully capable of living up to the principles of the -uran and the !unnah. servants. until. Islam continued in the ascendant. 5e sadistically bought from their o ners Ii. and citi?ens.e. !ome 'urkish soldiers found it in a pile of corpses and recogni?ed (onstantine ITIJ by the golden eagles embroidered on his boots. =arly in the second millennium &D. hich had ruled hat is no 'urkey since the 7oman =mpireDs capital as moved to (onstantinople in <2: &D.ranking prisoners ho had been enslaved.9. 1est one ascribe the atrocities of the first ave of #ihad to the /&rabness/ of its perpetrators. %ihad. hich left much of &natolia @'urkey) open to invasion.

Maghili. Dhimmi u'e IslamDs persecution of non. the dhimmi . Muslim land. hich has generally meant for as long as the sub#ect non.borne ra??ias into (hristian territory continued. *ut the #i?ya is not merely economic in its functionG it e"ists also to humiliate the dhimmi and impress on him the superiority of Islam.. (hristians. 3e s. e"plains6 Hn the day of payment Iof the #i?yaJ they Ithe dhimmiJ shall be assembled in a public place like the su% Iplace of commerceJ. e.'his second. and (hristians ere being abducted into slavery from as far a ay as Ireland into the 1Fth century. 'he dhimma provides that the life and property of the infidel are e"empted from #ihad for as long as the Muslim rulers permit. and Moroastrians. even hile the imperial #ihad faltered.olish Cing..ta"G !ura F62F). hich is the most conspicuous means by hich the Muslim overlords e"ploit the dhimmi. !till. and sea. or head. 3ohn !obieski. 'hey should be standing there aiting in the 20 . 'urkish ave of #ihad reached its farthest e"tent at the failed sieges of Kienna in 1:2F and 18. a fifteenth century Muslim theologian. here in the latter instance the Muslim army under Cara Mustapha as thro n back by the 7oman (atholics under the command of the . &fter the #ihad concludes in a given area ith the con%uest of infidel territory. the Httomans ere driven back do n through the *alkans. or treaty of protection.Muslims .<.Muslim orld.eople of the *ook/ . the dhimma. though they ere never e#ected from the =uropean continent entirely.. may be granted to the con%uered /. 'he -uran spells out the payment of the #i?ya @poll.Muslims is in no ay limited to #ihad. historically. even though that is the basic relationship bet een the Muslim and non. In the decades that follo ed. prove economically useful to the Islamic state. &l.

@&l. socially humiliated. and the arms sei?ed. . in many places to the point of e"tinction.&?har 0niversity in (airo..lo est and dirtiest place. !everal hundred years of Islamic thought on the right treatment of dhimmi peoples is summed up by &l. 'he )ecline of Eastern *hristianit( #nder Islam. +orbidden to construct houses of orship or repair e"tant ones. dhimmi peoples rose above their sub#ected status. mainly 3e s. %uoted in *at NeDor. $hat e are not told. 'he generally misunderstood decline of Islamic civili?ation over the past several centuries is easily e"plained by the demographic decline of the dhimmi populations.. then the #ihad resumes.2. !hould they do anything of the sort. in hich 3e s and (hristians ere permitted by the Islamic government to rise through the ranks of learning and government administration. ho ever. and generally kept in a permanent state of eakness and vulnerability by the Muslim overlords. 'hey must not assist an unbeliever against a Muslim .) Islamic la codifies various other restrictions on the dhimmi. in vie of his o n distress and poverty.. 'hey ill reali?e that e are doing them a favor in accepting from them the #i?ya and letting them go free. they must be punished..Damanhuri. raise the cross in an Islamic assemblage . that our ob#ect is to degrade them by pretending to take their possessions. or lu"ury garb.. hich is not true if he sees them in po er. !hould the dhimmi violate the conditions of the dhimma . economically crippled by the #i?ya.Damanhuri..) 'he (hristian. and this as often the occasion for violent reprisals by Muslim populations ho believed them to have violated the terms of the dhimma. +or if he sees them humbled... <...<. is that this rela"ation of the disabilities resulted in idespread rioting on the part of the Muslim populace that killed hundreds of dhimmis. Net esteem for the unbeliever is unbelief. the most prestigious center for learning in the Muslim orld6 . 'he (ompanions Aof the . 'he acting officials representing the 1a shall be placed above them and shall adopt a threatening attitude so that it seems to them. as ell as to others. display banners on their o n holidaysG bear arms . all of hich derive from the -uran and the !unnah. hich as in need of capable manpo er). 'he status of these dhimmi peoples is comparable in many ays to that of former slaves in the post. f. @&l. it should not be surprising that their numbers d indled. he ill not be inclined to ard their belief. other things also are prohibited to them. . pride. Eorth &frica. Medieval &ndalusia @Moorish !pain) is often pointed out by Muslim apologists as a kind of multicultural onderland. 'he )ecline of Eastern *hristianit( #nder Islam. legally discriminated against.iha' in he Mo'ern :ra +ollo ing its defeat at the alls of Kienna in 18. *y refusing to convert to Islam and straying from the traditional constraints of the dhimma @even at the behest of the Islamic government. hich had provided the principle engines of technical and administrative competence.bellum &merican !outh. perhaps through practicing his o n religion indiscreetly or failing to sho ade%uate deference to a Muslim . a seventeenth century head of &l. <81. &t various times in Islamic history. and Moroastrian peoples of the Middle =ast. the dhimmi had implicitly chosen the only other option permitted by the -uran6 death.. as all this urges him to esteem them and incline to ard them. Islam entered a period of strategic decline in hich 21 . or keep them in their homes. #ust as the dhimmis are prohibited from building churches. %uoted in *at NeDor. Maghili.. and much of =urope suffered under the oppressive strictures of the dhimma for centuries.rophetB agreed upon these points in order to demonstrate the abasement of the infidel and to protect the eak believerDs faith. 3e ish.

Muslim groups seeking independence.F8 ith the slaughter of some 2:0. . the first modern genocide. from 1. documents the hole horrific story.it as increasingly dominated by the rising =uropean colonial po ers. *y the late 1Fth century. dar al. &ll Mohammedans./ one pamphlet read. +ollo ing $estern intervention that resulted in *ulgarian independence. but it also fomented resentment by orthodo" Muslims ho sa this as a violation of the !haria and their &llah. shall be re arded by God.Islam. /Hh Moslems. as reduced to fending of the increasingly predatory =uropean po ers. /5e ho kills even one unbeliever.(hristian #ihad culminated in 1F22 at !myrna. 'he *urning 'igris. in his book. tensions among the =uropean sub#ects of the =mpire broke out into the open hen the Httoman government massacred <0.(hristian #ihad as proclaimed. gather no around the Imperial throne. some 2.eter *alakian. In 1F1>.98 for allegedly rebelling against Httoman rule. omen. here 1:0. 'his provided hitherto unkno n opportunities for social and personal improvement by the former dhimmis. an official anti. If e do it. on the Mediterranean coast.: million (hristians ere killed. hich has committed the unpardonable sin of rebuilding dar al. *ut the massacres of the 1. no longer protected as they ere by the dhimma. young and old.Muslim sub#ects labored. /of those ho rule over us.F8./ @%uoted in *alakian./ . then ruled by the Httoman 'urks. harb on land formerly a part of dar al. various #ihads have been fought around the globe by the independent Muslim nations and sub. the Muslim &lbanians against the !erbs in Cosovo. &ll in. . men. 3ihads 22 .90.1F2<. the sheikh.scale military campaigns into infidel territory./ In the Ikdam. and the (hechens against the 7ussians in the (aucasus. the deliverance of the sub#ected Mohammedan kingdoms is assured.000 *ulgarians in 1. /Ne ho are smitten ith happiness and are on the verge of sacrificing your life and your good for the cause of right. there is no mistaking that the massacres ere nothing other than a #ihad aged against the &rmenians.given superiority over unbelievers. In 1.) 'he anti.state #ihadist groups.IslamDs Ithe most senior religious leader in the Httoman =mpireJ published proclamation summoned the Muslim orld to arise and massacre its (hristian oppressors. hich claimed some 1. the idea of #ihad as underscored6 /'he deeds of our enemies have brought do n the rath of God.: million lives.000 Greek (hristians ere massacred by the 'urkish army under the indifferent eye of &llied arships. 'he Islamic =mpire. $estern pressure compelled the Httoman government to suspend the dhimma under hich the =mpireDs non. and children must fulfill their duty.Islam as unable to prosecute large.ul.. $hile various factors contributed to the slaughter. hether he does it secretly or openly. the Httoman government and its Muslim sub#ects ere increasingly nervous about other non..U. the Muslim *osnians against the !erbs in the former Nugoslavia. Due to its material eakness vis. Hther prominent #ihads include that fought against the !oviets in &fghanistan. !ince the breakup of the Islamic =mpire follo ing $orld $ar I. as the Httoman =mpire entered $orld $ar I on the side of the central po ers.F0s ere only the prelude to the much larger holocaust of 1F1:.:8. hich to this day is denied by the 'urkish government..vis the $est.000 &rmenians./ the document read. 18F. 'he +#rning 'igris. *oth civilians and military personnel took place in the massacres. 'he most sustained effort has been directed against Israel. and of braving perils. the 'urkish ne spaper that had #ust passed into German o nership.. It as in this atmosphere that the first stage of the &rmenian genocide took place in 1. 'o promote the idea of #ihad. & gleam of hope has appeared.

Muslim orld is because they can. including.com. Cashmir. 'hailand./ but Islam proper. the Muslim orld increasingly possesses the freedom and means to support #ihad around the globe./ /fanaticism. glaring truth that is staring the orld today in the face .fascism/ is holly redundant6 Islam itself is a kind of fascism that achieves its full and proper form only hen it assumes the po ers of the state.hilippines. and. In addition./ it should be obvious. succeeds in doing so . 'he Islamic holy te"ts outline a social. @+or a more comprehensive list of Muslim attacks./ /Islamo. 1et us take. visit . & halt to terrorism ould simply mean a change in IslamDs tactics .vaunted / ar on terror. $ith the collapse of !oviet hegemony over much of the Muslim orld. and a host of other places throughout the orld. perhaps. Islam still poses a mortal danger to the $est.term approach that ould allo Muslim immigration and 2< . the reason that Muslims are once again aging ar against the non. Islam in its orthodo" form as it has been understood and practiced by right.. 'he misbegotten term /Islamo.. and economic system for all mankind.Muslims is a central and indispensable principle to Islam. coupled ith the burgeoning ealth of the Muslim oil.producing countries. even if no ma#or terrorist attack ever occurs on $estern soil again. but hich it seems fe today are illing to contemplate. the much. contrary to the idespread insistence that true Islam is pacific even if a handful of its adherents are violent. and this logically re%uires an understanding of Islam. /'errorism. to start ith. 'he spectacular acts of Islamic terrorism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries are but the most recent manifestation of a global ar of con%uest that Islam has been aging since the days of the .. is sloppy language. In short./ /e"tremism.. It is important to reali?e that e have been talking about Islam . 9. Islam is making a comeback.have also been aged throughout northern &frica./ 'he / ar on terror/ implies that it is perfectly fine if the enemy seeks to destroy us . not Islamic /fundamentalism. that. as long as he does not employ /terror/ in the process./ or /Islamism.fascism. the phrase / ar on terror/ makes as much sense as a ar on /blit?krieg./ or /strategic bombing.rophet Muhammad in the 9th (entury &D and that continues apace today. the over helming ma#ority of terrorist attacks around the orld have been committed by Muslims.. from outright fear . the percentage of conflicts in the orld today that do not include Islam is pretty small. and hich has stared it in the face numerous times in the past .) 'he fact is. the Islamic sources make clear that engaging in violence against non. indeed. ho ever. 'he mounting episodes of Islamic terrorism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries are due largely to the geostrategic changes follo ing the end of the (old $ar and the gro ing technical options available to terrorists./ 0pon scrutiny. 'his is the simple. 'hose cultures and individuals ho do not submit to Islamic governance e"ist in an ipso facto state of rebellion ith &llah and must be forcibly brought into submission. )onclusion 'he chief barrier today to a better understanding of Islam ..thereligionofpeace./ /bullets. apart. and 9/9/0: @0C). </11/0> @!pain).Islamic civili?ations. the . of course... governmental. perhaps indicating a longer. Islam is less a personal faith than a political ideology that e"ists in a fundamental and permanent state of ar ith non. the spectacular attacks of F/11/01 @0!&). and individuals. cultures.believing Muslims from the time of Muhammad to the present. &s e have seen. is a tactic or stratagem used to advance a goalG it is the goal of Islamic terrorism that e must come to understand. It is paramount to note.

*ut e cannot e"pect 5im to pull the trigger as ell simply because e are faint. . $hile the (rusades ere certainly bloody. in his /+uture of the Islamic Movement/ @1F. and so I deal ith some of them here. so that !atanic rulers are brought do n and put to death.guided (aliph. *ut that day must be hastened through our 3ihad. %ha abou he )rusa'es0 'he obvious response to this %uestion is. Muhammad 'a%i .class manager all in one. hat about them4/ Kiolence committed in the name of other religions is logically unconnected to the %uestion of hether Islam is violent. .. 'hroughout the latter half of the 11th century.) It is IslamDs self. the symbol of Muhammad. a practice hich proved lucrative for the Muslim state. through our readiness to offer our lives and to shed the unclean blood of those ho do not see the light brought from the 5eavens by Muhammad in his miDra# I/nocturnal voyages to the DcourtD of &llah/J.artovi !am?evari. the 'urks aged ar against the (hristian *y?antine =mpire and pushed it back from its strongholds in &ntioch and &natolia @no 'urkey). an administrator.. &fter the initial bloody #ihad. . due to civil ar in the Islamic =mpire. (hristian and 3e ish life there as tolerated ithin the strictures of the dhimma and the Muslim &rabs generally permitted (hristians abroad to continue to make pilgrimage to their holy sites. as a general. a. 'hese %uestions for the most part are misleading or irrelevant and do not contest the actual evidence or arguments that violence is inherent to Islam. In the -urDanDs historic vision &llahDs support and the revolutionary struggle of the people must come together. not any foreign interpretation of it.higher birth rates to bring Islam closer to victory before the ne"t round of violence. In 1091. most modern $estern scholarship of Islam is hardly /critical/ in any meaningful sense. /$ell.interpretation that necessitates and glorifies violence.rophet . It must be emphasi?ed that all of the analysis provided here derives from the Islamic sources themselves and is not the product of critical $estern scholarship. 'he &lmighty has promised us that the day ill come hen the hole of mankind ill live united under the banner of Islam. sums up the Islamic orldvie .8).. a statesman. @Indeed. It is &llah ho puts the gun in our hand. In both the $estern academia and media as ell as in the Islamic orld.. by mentioning the (rusades.hearted. they have proven rhetorically effective in deflecting serious scrutiny from Islam. In the 11th century. ill be supreme every here.minded (hristians against peaceful Muslims.. Eonetheless. Muslim rule in the 5oly 1and began in the second half of the 9th century during the &rab ave of #ihad ith the con%uests of Damascus and 3erusalem by the second /rightly. Fre*uen ly "s!e' Ques ions 'here are a handful of %uestions that invariably arise hen the point is made that Islam is violent.. *y?antine forces suffered a crushing 2> . & people that is not prepared to kill and to die in order to create a #ust society cannot e"pect any support from &llah./ 0mar. the hope of the Islamic apologist is to dra attention a ay from Islamic violence and paint religions in general as morally e%uivalent. the relatively benign &rab administration of the 5oly 1and as replaced ith that of !el#uk 'urks... a #urist and a first. Hur o n . the (rusades are vie ed as ars of aggression fought by bloody. *ut. . they are more accurately understood as a belated $estern response to centuries of #ihad than as an unprovoked. an economist. hen the sign of the (rescent. unilateral attack.. It cannot be overemphasi?ed that Muslim terrorism is a symptom of Islam that may increase or decrease in intensity hile Islam proper remains permanently hostile.

ope. 3ust as it is often easier for a (hristian to hit back. and forgiveness.e. =specially in the $est. intolerant. the (rusades can be vie ed as an attempt by the $est to forestall its o n destruction at the hands of Islamic #ihad by carrying the fight to the enemy. If Islam is violen 4 . Eo longer having to divert forces to subdue the (hristian beachhead on the =astern Mediterranean.long #ihad against !outhern and =astern =urope. the populations of &sia Minor. so it is often easier for a Muslim to stay at home rather than embark on #ihad. It orth noting that the most ardent (rusaders. In geostrategic terms. slo ly succumbed to superior Muslim po er. though ruled by Muslims. 0rban II. and vindictive4/ 'he ans er in both cases is obvious6 in any religion or ideology there ill be many ho profess. and culture had been devastated by centuries of #ihad and dhimmitude. the (hurch of the 5oly !epulchre in 3erusalem. tolerance. (on%uering territory for God in the mode of #ihad as an alien idea to (hristianity and it should not be surprising that it eventually died out in the $est and never gained ascendancy in the =ast. Muslims here are more likely to be attracted by 2: . enslaving. a (hristian /holy ar. even ith reinforcing (rusades aged from =urope. It as in this conte"t of a rene ed #ihad in the Middle =ast that the 7oman . &ntioch. hile the $est has for some time no lamented the (rusades as mistaken.apacy after the Great !chism ith =astern (hristianity in 10:>). 'he 'urks resumed the #ihad in the 5oly 1and. play holier. Hver time. i.thou. hich t ice reached as far as Kienna before it as halted. and killing (hristians there and throughout &sia Minor. !yria. &t the time of the +irst (rusade. there are also people ho do not really understand their o n faith and so act outside of its prescribed boundaries. !ignificantly. It orked for a hile. issued a call in 10F: for $estern (hristians to come to the aid of their =astern cousins @and seems to have harbored the hope of claiming 3erusalem for the . hose population. sa series of ars./ in hich numerous civilians as ell as soldiers took part. the Muslims regrouped for a >00. rebuilt under *y?antine ste ardship after it as destroyed by (aliph &l. the Muslim and (hristian forces fought a see. strung out on precarious lines of communication. &ntioch./ developed years later ith the rise of such organi?ations as the Cnights 'emplar that made /crusading/ a ay of life. hy are so many (hristians arrogant.than. +urthermore. there are likely many Muslims ho do not really understand their religion thanks to the importance of reciting the -uran in &rabic but not having to understand it. there has never been any mention from any serious Islamic authority of regret for the centuries and centuries of #ihad and dhimmitude perpetrated against other societies. robbing.&mr &llah in 100F. In 1291.. 5ypocrites are every here. +ollo ing the very bloody capture of 3erusalem in 10FF by the 1atin armies and the establishment of the (rusader !tates in =dessa. In Islam. or disdain others.defeat at the *attle of Man?ikert in hat is no =astern 'urkey. the last (hristian citadel. b. and 3erusalem. and . lands. religious violence is ritten into IslamDs DE&. ere still over helmingly (hristian. ere e"actly those ho had faced #ihad and ra??ias for centuries along the +ranco. abusing.year. the (rusader !tates. 'hey threatened to cut off (hristendom from its holiest site. 'he idea of a /crusade/ as e no understand that term. the +ranks. 'he /(rusading/ campaigns of the $estern (hristian armies ere #ustified at the time as a ar liberating the =astern (hristians. fell to the Muslims. 'his /armed pilgrimage.alestine. in hich both parties ere guilty of the usual gamut of artime immorality.5akim bi. /If (hristianity teaches humility.!panish border and kne better than most the horrors to hich Muslims sub#ected (hristians. ould eventually become kno n years later as the +irst (rusade.hy are so many Muslims &eaceful0 'his %uestion is a bit like asking. It is the ords and sounds of the -uran that attract &llahDs merciful attention rather than -uranic kno ledge on the part of the supplicant. but do not practice. *ut this is hardly surprising6 hile religious violence contradicts the fundamentals of (hristianity. its tenets.

the greater the likelihood that some number of its adherents ill take its violent precepts seriously. $hile many of the practices of the $estern imperial po ers in the governance of their colonies ere clearly un#ust. )oul' an Islamic $3eforma ion$ &acify Islam0 &s should be plain to anyone ho has e"amined the Islamic sources. . Indeed. Muslims of the !alafi @/early generations/) school are doing e"actly that in focusing on the life of Muhammad and his early successors. violent *iblical passages are irrelevant to the %uestion of hether Islam is violent. Dra ing their inspiration from Muhammad and the -uran./ etc. !outh &frica. increasing numbers of follo ers..akistan. namely. comes e"clusively from one source6 Muhammad. c. 'he $estern (hristian 7eformation. %ha abou he violen &assages in he Bible0 +irst. In other ords. 'he unhappy fact is that Islam today is hat it has been fourteen centuries6 violent. IslamDs violent nature must be accepted as givenG only then ill e be able to come up ith appropriate policy responses that can improve our chances of survival. on the other hand. as it often is . 18.< by . the e"ample and teachings of (hrist and the &postles. came to e"ist in the first place. in the course of a fe years or decades. and e"pansionary. %ha abou he his ory of %es ern colonialism in he Islamic . 'hese reformers are kno n to their detractors by the derogative term $ahhabi. intolerant. as an attempt @successful or not) to recover the essence of (hristianity. so it is through the e"ample of the arlord and despot Muhammad that Muslims understand the -uran. Much of dar al. 'oday. Israel.orl'0 +ollo ing the defeat of the Httoman army outside Kienna on !eptember 11. '. Mimbab e. to pacify Islam ould re%uire its transformation into something that it is not. the *ible is a huge collection of documents ritten by different people at different times in different conte"ts. in any given social conte"t. are going to be able to change the basic orld outlook of a foreign civili?ation. 'rying to get back to the e"ample of Muhammad ould have very different conse%uences. 5o ever./ that (hristianity interprets its scriptures. &s it is through the e"ample of (hrist. the construction of more mos%ues and /cultural centers. 0nlike the -uran. that is often used as an e"ample. as Islam takes greater root .rince of . etc.states such as India. the violent passages in the *ible certainly do no amount to a standing order to commit violence against the rest of the orld. Islam ent into a period of strategic decline in hich it as over helmingly dominated by the =uropean po ers. hich allo s for much greater interpretative freedom.olish forces.. to take the violence out of Islam ould re%uire it to #ettison t o things6 the -uran as the ord of &llah and Muhammad as &llahDs prophet. as the -uran itself says. 'he -uran. It is through the life of Muhammad that the -uran must be understood. these areas ould 28 .. 5is ars and killings both reflect and inform the meaning of the -uran.. one may say that Islam is today going through its /7eformation/ ith the increasing #ihadist activity around the globe.eace. as an endemic criminal enterprise that is the basis of modern resentment against the $est. +urthermore. It as only due to the assertive role of the $estern po ers that modern nation. they are invariably disposed to violence. 'his is the problem that the $est faces today. $ithout $estern organi?ation. the strict literalism of the -uran means that there is no room for interpretation hen it comes to its violent in#unctions.$estern ays @ hich e"plains hy they are here) and less likely to act violently against the society to hich they may have fled from an Islamic tyranny abroad. e. the /. .Islam as coloni?ed by the =uropean po ers ho employed their superior technology and e"ploited the rivalries ithin the Muslim orld to establish colonial rule. !econd. it is utterly un arranted to regard $estern imperialism . It is folly to think that e.

+urthermore. all agree that there is a collective obligation on Muslims to make ar on the rest of the orld.have likely remained chaotic and tribal as they had e"isted for centuries. %ha abou he grea achievemen s of Islamic civili<a ion hrough his ory0 Islamic achievements in the fields of art. . !uch an ideology ill naturally dra to it violent.Muslims living ithin the Islamic =mpire or of recent converts to Islam. 'he attractive po er of fascist ideas has been proven through history.. and the !outh &merican nations clearly outshine their Muslim. *ecause something is popular hardly makes it benign. in no ay refute the fact that Islam is intrinsically violent. etc. Islam combines the interior comfort provided by religious faith ith the out ard po er of a orld.term +abian strategy against dar al. 7oman and Greek civili?ations produced many great achievements in these fields as ell.rotestant (hristians differ on many aspects of (hristianity. 7ome as also a home to gladiatorial combat. 1o.Islamic @Greek) philosophy and his preference for $estern modes of thought. f. &verroes.transforming political ideology. the different schools disagree on such %uestions as hether infidels must first be asked to convert to Islam before hostilities may begin @Hsama bin 1aden asked &merica to convert before &l. have been largely denuded of their religious and cultural heritage. the achievements of Islamic civili?ation are pretty modest given its 1<00 year history hen compared to $estern. harb is preferable to an all. science. . but. $hen one looks at the post. but also cultivated po erful traditions of violence. etc. !hafiDi. !o it is ith Islam. *angladesh. 5indu.akistan. +urthermore. #ihad offers an altruistic #ustification for aging death and destruction.violent to take up arms themselves or support violence indirectly. hich leaves Islam as the only vibrant ideology available to those in search of meaning. 3ust as Hrthodo". agree on the necessity of #ihad. 7oman (atholic.-aedaDs attacks)G ho plunder should be distributed among victorious #ihadistsG hether a long. $hen it comes to matters of #ihad. Hnce the dhimmi populations of 29 . hile there are differences. the areas in hich Islam is gro ing most rapidly.colonial nations have a common attribute6 they are not Muslim. such as $estern =urope. Indonesia. and. at times. literature. 5ong Cong. ran afoul of Islamic orthodo"y through his study of non. g. or (onfucian civili?ations.. there are also common elements. including !ufism and the 3afari @!hia) school. even the schools of thought outside !unni orthodo"y.ing religion on ear h0 It should not be surprising that a violent political ideology is proving so attractive to much of the orld. $hile giving the orld the brilliance of Kirgil and 5orace. and 5anbali . India. medicine. by #ust about any standard. it is apparent that the most successful post. Hne of the common elements to all Islamic schools of thought is #ihad. 5anafi. Ira%.out frontal attackG etc. Maliki. Israel. +urthermore. 'hat is true. 'he 0nited !tates. &ustralia. 1ike the revolutionary violence of (ommunism. and .colonial counterparts . &lgeria. Hne of the greatest Islamic thinkers. Many Islamic achievements ere in fact the result of non. the slaughter of (hristians. h. understood as the obligation of the 0mmah to con%uer and subdue the orld in the name of &llah and rule it under !haria la ..colonial orld. Is i fair o &ain all Islamic schools of hough as violen 0 Islamic apologists often point out that Islam is not a monolith and that there are differences of opinion among the different Islamic schools of thought. 'he four !unni Madhhabs @schools of fi%h AIslamic religious #urisprudenceB) .ma#ority post.. can a violen &oli ical i'eology be he secon'-larges an' fas es -gro. still they accept important common elements. rampant militarism.minded people hile encouraging the non.

/ #i?ya6 the poll or head ta" prescribed by !ura F62F of the -uran to be paid by (hristians and 3e s in Muslim. hich permitted them to remain nominally free under Muslim rule. Glossary of Terms &llah6 /God/G &rabic (hristians also orship /&llah./ but an &llah of a very different sort.est)/G term of praiseG ar cry of Muslims./ 7.Islam6 /5ouse @7ealm) of Islam/G Islamic territory ruled by !haria la dar al. (aliph6 title of the ruler or leader of the 0mma @global Muslim community)G the head of the former Islamic =mpireG the title as abolished by Cemal &ttaturk in 1F2> follo ing the breakup of the Httoman =mpire and the founding of modern 'urkey. 2. 5i#ra6 /emigration/G MuhammadDs flight from Mecca to Medina @Nathrib) in &D 822. &nsar6 /aiders/ or /helpers/G &rabian tribesmen allied ith Muhammad and the early Muslims. (hristians. dar al.slave /. *adr6 first significant battle fought by Muhammad and the Muslims against the -uraish tribe of Mecca.harb6 /5ouse @7ealm) of $ar/6 territory ruled by infidels dar al. e are in &5 1>2.held territory. &56 /after 5i#ra/G the Islamic calendar4s system of datingG employs lunar rather than solar yearsG as of 3anuary 2009.sulh6 /5ouse @7ealm) of 'ruce/6 territory ruled by infidels but allied ith IslamG territory ruled by Muslims but not under !haria la Dhimma6 the pact of protection e"tended to non.eople of the *ook/. dhimmitude6 ord coined by historian *at NeDor to describe the status of dhimmi peoples hadith6 /report/G any of thousands of episodes from the life of Muhammad transmitted orally until ritten do n in the eighth century &DG sahih @reliable or sound) hadiths are second only to the -uran in authority.. Islam began its social and cultural /decline. and Moroastrians. usually 3e s. . dhimmi6 /protected/G people under the protection of the dhimma. &llahu &khbar6 /God is Great @.the =mpire d indled to ard the middle of the second millennium &D. Islam6 /submission/ or /surrender.

and e"ample./ short for /city of the . e. -uran @Curan. succeeded &bu *akrG con%uered the 5oly 1and. Ishmael @not Isaac). hich is still the most venerated ob#ect in IslamG the CabaDs cornerstone. 0hud6 second ma#or battle fought by Muhammad against the -uraish tribe of Mecca. Nathrib6 city to hich Muhammad made the 5i#ra @emigration) in &D 822/&5 1G renamed Medina. traditions.. 2F .g. or /1ife of the . Mecca6 holiest city of IslamG place of MuhammadDs birth in &D :90G its Great Mos%ue contains the Caba stoneG early period in MuhammadDs life here more peaceful verses of the -uran ere revealedG site of MuhammadDs victory over the -uraish in &D 8<0./ Muslim6 one ho submits. succeeded 0marG compiled the -uran in book form. Muhammad6 /the praised one.. !unnah6 the /$ay/ of the .rophet Muhammad ritten in the eighth century by Ibn Isha% and later edited by Ibn 5ishamG modern translation by &lfred Guillaume. 0mma @ummah)6 the global Muslim communityG the body of Muslim faithful.)6 /recitation/G according to Islam.. !ura6 a chapter of the -uranG -uranic passages are cited as !ura number6verse number.rophet MuhammadG includes his teachings. -uran. hich is believed to have fallen from heaven. 0thman6 third /rightly.:8. ra??ia6 /raid/G acts of piracy on land or sea by Muslims against infidels !ira6 /life/G abbreviation of !irat 7asul &llah.>>. Medina6 /city.rophet of God/G the canonical biography of the .guided/ (aliphG ruled &D 8<>. the compiled verbatim ords of &llah as dictated by Muhammad. is the stone on hich &braham as to sacrifice his son. F6:.Caba6 /cube/G the Meccan temple in hich numerous pagan idols ere housed before MuhammadDs con%uest of Mecca in &D 8<2. 0mar6 second /rightly. etc.rophet/G second holiest city of IslamG destination of MuhammadDs 5i#ra @emigration) in &D 822G later period in MuhammadDs life here more violent verses of the -uran ere revealedG site of third ma#or battle fought by Muhammad against the -uraish tribe from MeccaG formerly called Nathrib.guided/ (aliphG ruled &D 8>>.

(anadian Muslim ebsite ith various ritings on Islamic doctrine and events in the Muslim orld.( %ames ". after all. all the time4 'he elites have heard disturbing reports coming out of the Islamic orld.Arlandson. 'hey have heard the critics of shariah and believe the critics e"aggerate. 3ihad $atch . so it deserves respect. government bureaucrats. Islam6 $hat the $est Eeeds to Cno homepage. Fur her 3esources Hnline (enter for the !tudy of . #ournalists. 'his <0 . Ph-)'his series of articles about Islamic shariah la is intended for educators. #udges.%ha Is #hariah0 Its Two Main Foundations: the Quran and Hadith . (an they be all rong.olitical Islam (hronicles Maga?ine Dhimmi. and everyone else ho occupies the Vcheck pointsW in societyG they initiate the national dialogue and even shape the flo of the conversation X they are the decision and policy makers. 0!(Ds Muslim !tudents &ssociationDs ebsite ith multiple searchable translations of the -uran and hadiths. legislators.org +aith+reedom.5.ames M. Net the elites may also have gna ing doubt that the critics are at least partially accurate. 'K and radio talk sho hosts. 'he intellectual elites may even believe the critics are VIslamophobes.org 5istoryof3ihad. think tank fello s. Defenders of shariah post articles online seeking to allay the secret doubts of the intellectuals. "rlan'son2 %ha is #hariah0 .W Islam is a orld religion. and even in their o n orld.com 0 MichiganDs searchable online version of the -uran translated by !hakir. city council members.

rophet Muhammad.xford )ictionar( of Islam says the -uran is6 .series %uotes e"tensively from the defenders. Table of )on en s2 T1: Q(3"= 1"DIT1 #1"3I"1 >)+"##I)"+? "G: )@=)+(#I@= T1: Q(3"= Islam flo s out of the life. 'he revelations he got from his deity ere mainly recited on the mos%ue pulpit in Medina. it is applicable to any society today and in the future. like the Cabah shrine here the black stone is housed. messenger. &s to the purpose of this present article. $e begin ith the -uran and hadith. 'he -uran serves as both record and guide for the Muslim community. It is cross. 822. 'he term means Vrecitation. have grounded their programs in the -uran and use it as support. if they interpret it correctly. the t o main sources or foundations of shariah.D. It is binding on all Muslims. 5e recited them in various places like the marketplace. or in the marketplace. . and in the mos%ue itself. and then move on to shariah itself. or apostle. on his travels. sent from &llah. hether of radical reform or of moderate change.W 'he -uran is believed to be the ord of God transmitted through the . !ome of the earlier ones ere cited in various places in Mecca. the -uran is sacred and inspired. 'he -uran proclaims GodYs e"istence and ill and is the ultimate source of religious kno ledge for Muslims. transcending time and space. 'he second feature in the <1 . 'hey ere ritten do n in the -uran several decades after he died. !ince they came directly from &llah. ords. Muslims have dedicated their best minds and talents to the e"egesis and recitation of the -uran because the -uran is the criterion by hich everything else is to be #udgedG all movements. 'he book of Islamic revelationG scripture. 'he apologists seem to have one main goal in mind6 to communicate the message that there is nothing rong ith shariah. because the Meccans ere going to kill him. the Islamic prophet. 'he .A1B $hat is so striking about that e"cerpt is that the -uran transcends time and place. it defines the terms and identifies the ma#or legal scholars. *ut the revelations did not stop. . 'hen he moved to Medina in &.cultural and ahistoricalG that is. e"ample and revelations of Muhammad. hether originating at the center or at the periphery of the Islamic orld.

(ompilers ere careful to record hadith e"actly as received from recogni?ed transmission specialists.W V'he prophet ruled that this or that action should be punished or forgiven. VI remember hat &llahYs messenger said in this situation. collectors and editors rote them do n in their books.xford )ictionar( of Islam says6 5adith6 7eport of the ords and deeds of Muhammad and other early MuslimsG considered an authoritative source of revelation. Eonetheless. T1: 1"DIT1 5o ever. 'he -uran as ritten in a time @the seventh century) and a place @&rabia. hich may be defined briefly as the reports and narrations and traditions of MuhammadYs deeds and ords that take on a sacredness and a binding force. 'hey serve as a source of biographical material for Muhammad. !oon after his death they loved to tell stories about him.. often to Muhammad himself. In any case. because a devout and reliable Muslim of authority ould never frivolously pass on a tradition that he believed ould embarrass his prophet. some conscientious Muslim scholars observed that the traditions may have been distorted and gre to be unreliable and unsound or ere never reliable or sound in the first place. most hadith ere re#ected if they contradicted the -uran. !ometimes they report on the ords and deeds of his closest companions ho carry their o n special authority. to say the least. not everything Muhammad did or said made it in the sacred book. and taught orally for t o centuries after MuhammadDs death and then began to be collected in ritten form and codified. In fact.A2B 'he -uran is a very conservative book. =ventually. conte"tuali?ation of -uranic revelations. 'o believe that every verse can be brought for ard and applied to the modern orld means that the reform of Islam is very difficult. (hains of authority and transmission ere verified as far back as possible. & list of authoritative transmitters is usually included in collections.rophet). Hne e"ample is the hadith of stoning the adulterers hich takes priority over the verse of the -uran hich demands flogging. 'he science of hadith criticism as developed to determine authenticity and preserve the corpus from alteration or fabrication. most of hat he did or said did not make it in. letYs find a more official one. transmitted. 5adith @pl. handed do n from one generation to the ne"t.. and this body of riting is called the hadith. Net there still are some passages hich contradict statements of the -uranG occasionally hadith are even abrogating the -uran. <2 .e"cerpt is that the -uran #udges all movements of change and reform.W Hr V e ere ith &llahYs apostle hen e fought the pagans at such. 'he scholars sifted them by re%uiring a chain of narrators to be of utmost integrity and honesty. (hains of transmission ere assessed by the number and credibility of the transmitters and the continuity of the chains @isnad). *ut he had close companions and others ho remembered his ords and deeds.such battle. 'he . Did the traditions contradict clear verses in the -uran4 'hen they ere re#ected. second only to the -uran @sometimes referred to as sayings of the . so the transmitter believed it as true. and specifically the 5e#a? or estern &rabia). and Islamic la . Ee"t. ere the various passages embarrassing4 'hey ere suspect X too bad since embarrassing ones may have the chance of being the most reliable. ahadithG hadith is used as a singular or a collective term in =nglish) ere collected. In addition to that brief definition of the hadith.W 'hese are the oral traditions. religiously speaking.and.

.[ and its verb form can mean.'he nature of the te"t as also e"amined. but criticism of the matn Ate"t of the hadithB ould be e%uivalent to dogmatic discussions of Islam itself X thus analysis discussions turned around the isnad. is Islamic la derived from the -uran and the hadith. If in the isnad there ere persons hose integrity could be doubted for any reason. & areness of fabrication and false teaching has long e"isted but became a ma#or issue in academic circles in the t entieth century due to early reliance on oral. $e begin ith the ord VshariahW in the -uran. $e also occasionally use &bu Da udA. *ukhariA8B @d. a Divine la . . another authentic collector and editor.fearing men to lie about matters hich they held sacredG each human link in the chain vouchsafed the others.G >:61.9:) are considered the most reliable. that of an authoritative isnad.A10B $ith these t o sources it is no onder that many Muslim #urists. a Muslim. 'he collections of *ukhari and Muslim ere scrupulously compiled in the first t o and a half centuries of Islam. the body of authentic hadith reports is considered to embody the !unnah of the . Vto lay do n la . e need to formally define it. ho ever small. rather than ritten.A>B 'hen GlassZ says that great care as taken by reliable hadith editors and collectors to get the traditions right. a right ay . *ut before e go too far do n the path to ard the purpose of shariah. transmission.A<B In the New Enc(clo/edia of Islam (yril GlassZ. e"aggerated. to enact @a la )W @-uran >261<. 7eports that ere illogical.r.!hafiDi Asee belo B.). among other things. indeed the average Muslim.AFB #1"3I"1 !hariah.B @d. 21). to ordain. an accessW @-uran :6>. It must be implemented. 'he method as based on the assumption that it as unthinkable for God. then it must be the foundation of Islamic nations and herever Islam becomes dominant. or chain of transmission. believe that shariah is divine.A:B &s noted. 'heir authenticity as assured by the criterion hich the people of the time found most valid. 'he three. It then became inevitable that as Islam unfolded in 5istory. . one of verisimilitude in the eyes of a developed and sophisticated religious community.rophet Muhammad. the need for the tangible support hich 5adith could provide for intellectual and cultural developments called forth the /missing/ or /unspoken/ 5adith that ere no re%uired. Eaturally. fantastic. *iographical study also served to establish the plausibility of the transmissions. If in the first centuries the standard by hich 5adith ere measured as that of an impeccable isnad. ith *ukhari carrying the most eight. A11B In its t o noun forms @shariah and shirah) it can mean Van open ay.Islamic and constitutionally if it is. fabricated 5adith also had fabricated isnad. the authenticity of the 5adith as to that e"tent eakened. a clear ay. but often as euphemism for a discussion of the contents. 'raditionally. gradually if a nation is non. or repulsive or that contradicted the -uran ere considered suspect. &nd if it is divine.A12B << . .letter root of shariah is sh.90) and MuslimA9B @d. the gro ing needs of an e"panding Islam of later times added de facto another. . sometimes spelled sharia or even shareeah. says that the hadith traditions form the foundation of Islamic la and there as the need to rite them do n so the community could refer to them6 'he 5adith ere accorded the role of basis of la in Islamic #urisprudence by the universally accepted methodology of ash.9:).

la or institution prescribed by GodG right ay or mode of action . Hne must not look in it for causes in our sense. Ibn 5anbal @d. !hariah refers to GodDs divine la as contained in the -uran and the sayings and doings of Muhammad @hadith). four main !unni schools of fi2h emerged.. !i2h refers to the scholarly efforts of #urists @f#2aha) to elaborate the details of shariah through investigation and debate. if they are not Vdetrimental to Islam. the *oncise Enc(clo/edia of Islam continues6 & modest en%uiry into the meaning of the divine la s so far as &llah himself has indicated the path of en%uiry is. . the canon la of Islam. Instead. nor for principlesG it is based on the ill of &llah hich is bound by no principles. any more than it is on account of its sub#ect matter. !hafiYi @d. 989).A19B Despite shariahYs divine origins and its intention to s allo up all aspects of life and society.WA1<B 'he )ictionar( of the 0ol( 1#ran adds that the verb and noun forms signify. as isdom into hich it is impossible to en%uire. i. but it is found in historical conte"ts. 8<2..A18B 5o ever. .. ="panding on shariahYs literal definitions. ho ever. *ut one must al ays guard against placing too much stress on such theoretical considerations. in order to find the most suitable ruling and interpretation. It comprises. done by %ualified #udges and legal scholars.e. ith its apparent inconsistencies and its incomprehensible decrees. the AshariahB is not /la / in the modern sense of the ord. fi2h is the science of applying and interpreting shariah. 'he *oncise Enc(clo/edia of Islam says6 &llahDs la is not to be penetrated by the intelligence .D. man has to accept it ithout criticism.::). Muslim la hich has come into being in the course of time through the inter orking of many factors. even many <> . comprises all areas of life and society. so to speak. e find that the *oncise Enc(clo/edia of Islam define shariah as Vthe road to the atering place. including tolerated faiths. Islamic la . as an infallible doctrine of duties the hole of the religious..W In that light. Muslims understand shariah to be an unchanging revelation.Moving on to other sources. and as a matter of fact human logic or system has little share in it. as e #ust observed in the )ictionar( of the 0ol( 1#ran. but despite the human interaction ith Islamic la in history.WA1>B 'hese definitions imply that shariah is a hole ay of life. Vestablish a la . not prohibited. domestic and private life of those ho profess Islam.. of a la . and the activities of the tolerated members of other faiths so far as they may not be detrimental to Islam. has al ays been considered by its follo ers as something elevated. there is iggle room. it is divine and absolute. led by these scholars6 Malik @d. as a technical term. 'here is therefore fre%uent reference to the deeper meaning and suitability . reinterpretation. Hver the first t o centuries after MuhammadYs death in &. though having a divine origin.. Net Islamic scholars must not put too much stress on theory. 'hey in turn had students ho added their o n opinions to those of their teachers. therefore evasions are considered as a permissible use of means put at oneDs disposal by &llah himself. +or this very reason. &s noted. hile fi2h. 9F:). the . social. and change.xford )ictionar( of Islam says6 ' o terms are used to refer to la in Islam6 shariah and fi2h.. as a human endeavor. is open to debate. high above human isdom. shariah. political. Islamic la comes from &llah.A1:B Ee"t.20). the clear path to be follo ed. can be e"plored. hich can hardly be e"actly appreciated. &bu 5anifah @d. ithout restriction.. system of divine la G ay of belief and practice. appoint a religion .

the decree is indeed binding. 'he New Enc(clo/edia of Islam. =EDEH'=! A1B 'he H"ford Dictionary of Islam. A:B Ibid. and it is not necessarily binding outside of a court of la . 1FF9). ed. they may click on my t o studies6 5o (hrist +ulfills the Hld 'estament and 5o (hristians *enefit from the Hld 'estament. 180.xford )ictionar( of Islam. the volume in the nine. T1: >)+"##I)"+? "G: & %uick note before e begin the series in earnest6 the designation V(lassicalW is used in the articles. 2:8. Muhammad Muhsin Chan @7iyadh6 Darussalam. especially the interrelations bet een the Hld and Ee 'estaments. 200<).generations after the founding #urists lived..W )@=)+(#I@= !hariah is divine Islamic la that has its roots in the -uran and the traditions @hadith) about Muhammad. 1FF1). !o. 3onathan =sposito @Ee Nork6 H"ford 0. but can be changed and reinterpreted. and Muhammad lived the perfect life in conformity to the -uran. trans. A<B 'he . *ut readers may be curious about it. like death or imprisonment for apostates.volume set.02. 181. $e donYt need a complicated definition. It is this consensus in various rulings. hich implies that e should not take this V iggle roomW too far. this edition is used throughout this series of articles. and the hadith number. and the ninth century hen the oral traditions ere gathered. If so. ed. 'he time before &liYs death ill be kno n in this series as Voriginal Islam. shariah is believed to have a divine origin. A2B 'he series does not e"plain the *ible and ho to interpret it properly. Maybe it is here that e can hold out hope that Islam can evolve and fit into the modern age. 989). interpreting shariah is not divine. 881 and goes into the fourteenth century hen the la books and commentaries ere still flourishing. $hen a shariah #udge rules in his courtroom. rev. la and grace. but mainly e ill observe the remarkable unanimity on ho to implement divine Islamic la . la ) in &. *ut it ill be very difficult to reinterpret shariah la s that are based s%uarely on clear -uranic la s. for <: . (ited as *ukhari.in. no kno n collectively as the hadith. hich are placed se%uentially. 5o ever. @Ee Nork6 7o man and 1ittlefield. =specially note orthy is the eight century hen the earliest e"tant biography of Muhammad as ritten by Ibn Isha% @d. and maybe not even in our lifetime. A>B (yril GlassZ. and ritten do n into various volumes. A8B *ukhari. 'here are hermeneutical @interpretive) principles that guide (hristians. F vols. fi2h is open to interpretation. !ince &llah inspired the -uran.D. &ahih +#$ari. $e ill reference it by the book title. 101. In other ords. +or our purposes it begins ith the death of &li @the fourth caliph and MuhammadYs cousin and son. edited. (hristianity does not bring every verse in the Hld 'estament for ard to the orld today. In this series of articles e keep track of a fe differences bet een the various schools. !o e should not be naOve or overly optimistic about the reform of IslamG it certainly ill not happen overnight..

. < vols. and then the same standard referencing system applies6 book title. 2.7.. trans. A19B Ibid. trans. 1>. 1F. :2:. .B &bu Da ud. .. under the aegis of the 0niversity of !outhern (alifornia. A11B 5annah =. A1:B .called sahih @sound) hadith collectors6 the three named in this article and &bu Isa Muhammad at.&. 1:F).:20> means the *ook on Marriage. Cramer.3e ish =ngagement.<). rev. AFB 'here are si" so. A10B 'he other t o sources. and the same standard referencing system applies6 book or section title. . *oncise Enc(clo/edia.akistan6 !h. but sometimes e ill note the consensus of the Muslim legal scholars. 200<). AEe Nork6 7o man and 1ittlefield. take us too far afield and into needless complications for our purposes. 200>). 'he hadith are searchable online at the (enter for Muslim. vol. ith a fe mechanical ad#ustments.. &bdul 5amid !iddi%i @1ahore. A9B Muslim. > vols. F1:)G and Ibn Ma#a @d. @1eiden6 *rill.8) @(yril GlassZ. *lass.e"ample.akistan6 !h. & (oncordance of the -uran. :2>.0e has recentl( com/leted a series on 'he &word in Earl( *hristianit( and Islam- <8 . throughout this series of articles cited as Muslim. like lo er case letters instead of upper case or punctuation. *oncise Enc(clo/edia of Islam. Cassis. 9. 'he New Enc(clo/edia of Islam. volume number. 5. 1F:<). A18B Gibb and Cramer. . throughout this series cited as &bu Da ud.# )aw#d. 11>2. A12B Ibid. 1FF1B. A1>B &bdul Mannan Hmar.oo$: Women. and ed. &#nan A. 1F. volume number.>. A. consensus and analogical reasoning. Muhammad &shraf. and &ociet( in Earl( *hristianit(. 9. &ahih "#slim. Muhammad &shraf. and hadith number. Marriage. )ictionar( of the 0ol( 1#ran @5ockessin6 Eoor +oundation. hadith no.'irmidhi @kno n as 'irmidhi) @d. 1os &ngeles6 0(. A1<B 5. :20>. ed. %ames ".9... and hadith number. Gibb and 3.Arlandson has written a .F2 or F1:)G an Easai @d.xford )ictionar(. &hmed 5asan @1ahore. 1FF2).