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You need to find two numbers whose sum is 8 and whose product is 4 ⋅ -5 or -20. Make an organized list of the factors of -20, and look for the pair of factors whose sum is 8. Factors of -20 Sum of Factors -1, 20 19 1, -20 -19 -2, 10 8 The correct factors are –2 and 10. 2, -10 -8 -4, 5 1 4, -5 -1 Write the pattern. 4x 2 + 8x – 5 = 4x 2 + mx + nx – 5 = 4x 2 + -2x + 10x – 5 m = -2 and n = 10 2 = (4x + -2x) + (10x – 5) Group terms with common factors. = 2x(2x – 1) + 5(2x – 1) Factor the GCF from each grouping. = (2x – 1)(2x + 5) 2x – 1 is the common factor. Check: You can check this result by multiplying the two factors. F O I L 2 FOIL method (2x – 1)(2x + 5)= 4x + 10x – 2x – 5 2 = 4x + 8x – 5 Simplify. b. Factor 3x 2 + 11x + 10. In this trinomial, a = 3, b = 11 and c = 10. You need to find two numbers whose sum is 11 and whose product is 3 ⋅ 10 or 30. Make an organized list of the factors of 30, and look for the pair of factors whose sum is 11. Factors of 30 Sum of Factors 1, 30 31 2, 15 17 3, 10 13 5, 6 11 The correct factors are 5 and 6. 2 2 Write the pattern. 3x + 11x + 10 = 3x + mx + nx + 10 2 = 3x + 5x + 6x + 10 m = 5 and n = 6 2 Group terms with common factors. = (3x + 5x) + (6x + 10) = x(3x + 5) + 2(3x + 5) Factor the GCF from each grouping. = (3x + 5) (x + 2) Factor out the common factor 3x + 5.

Example 2 Factor when a, b, and c Have a Common Factor Factor 36x 2 + 6x – 12. Notice that the GCF of the terms 36x 2 , 6x, and –12 is 6. When the GCF of the terms of a trinomial is an integer other than 1, you should first factor out this GCF. Distributive Property 36x 2 + 6x – 12 = 6(6x 2 + x – 2) 2 Now factor 6x + x – 2. You need to find two numbers who sum is 1 and whose product is 6 ⋅ -2 or –12. Factors of –12 Sum of Factors -1, 12 11 1, -12 -11 -2, 6 4 2, -6 -4 -3, 4 1 The correct factors are -3 and 4. 3, -4 -1 6x 2 + x – 2 = 6x 2 + mx + nx – 2 Write the pattern. 2 m = -3 and n = 4 = 6x – 3x + 4x – 2 2 = (6x – 3x) + (4x – 2) Group terms with common factors. = 3x(2x – 1) + 2(2x – 1) Factor the GCF from each grouping. = (2x – 1)(3x + 2) Factor out the common factor 2x – 1. Thus the complete factorization is 36x 2 + 6x – 12 = 6(2x – 1)(3x + 2). Example 3 Determine Whether a Polynomial is Prime Factor 3x 2 – x + 1. In this trinomial, a = 3, b = -1 and c = 1. Since b is negative, m + n is negative. Since c is positive, mn is positive. So, m and n must be negative. Therefore, make a list of the factors of 3 ⋅ 1 or 3, where both factors are negative. Look for a pair of factors whose sum is –1. Factors of 3 Sum of Factors -1, -3 -4 There are no factors whose sum is -1. Therefore, 3x 2 – x + 1 cannot be factored using integers. Thus, 3x 2 – x + 1 is a prime polynomial.

Example 4 Solve Equations by Factoring Solve k 2 +

8 k = 1. Check your solutions. 3 8 k2 + k = 1 3 8 3(k 2 + k )= 3(1) 3

Original equation. Eliminate fractions by multiplying each side by 3. Distributive Property Rewrite so that one side equals 0. Factor the left side. Zero Product Property Solve each equation.

3k 2 + 8k = 3 3k 2 + 8k – 3 = 0 (3k – 1)(k + 3) = 0 3k – 1 = 0 or 3k = 1 k=

k+3=0 k = -3

1 3 1 }. 3 8 k=1 3 1 8 1 ? ( )2 + ( ) = 1 3 3 3 1 8 ? + =1 9 9

k2 + 1=1

The solution set is {-3, Check: k2 + (-3) 2 +

8 k=1 3

? 8 (-3) = 1 3 − 24 ? 9+ =1 3

1=1

Example 5 Solve Real-World Problems by Factoring A ball is thrown from the top of a building that is 34 feet above ground. How long until the ball is 10 feet above the ground? Use the model for vertical motion. Let s = 34, v = 40, and h = 10. h = -16t 2 + 40t + s 10 = -16t 2 + 40t + 34 0 = -16t 2 + 40t + 24 0 = -8(2t 2 - 5t + 3) 0 = (2t 2 - 5t + 3) 0 = (2t + 1)(t – 3) 2t + 1 = 0 or t – 3 = 0 2t = -1 t=3 t=Vertical motion model Substitute. Subtract 10 from each side. Factor out –8. Divide each side by –8. Factor 2t 2 - 5t + 3. Zero Product Property Solve each equation.

1 2 1 and 3 seconds. The only reasonable solution is the positive 3 seconds, therefore, the 2

The solutions are -

ball will reach a height of 10 feet after 3 seconds.

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