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Fisiologi Peredaran Darah

Tahun ajaran 2009-20010
Komponen Sistem Peredaran darah
1. Jantung
2. Pembuluh Darah
3 Sel sel Darah 3. Sel-sel Darah
The circulatory system keeps blood y y p
pumping despite gravity’s pull
– Muscle contractions help
bl d t l hill i th blood travel uphill in the
veins of a giraffe’s long
legs legs
– The wriggling of the corn
snake squeezes its veins snake squeezes its veins
and increases circulation
Fungsi SPD
– It transports O
2
and nutrients to cells
– It takes away CO
2
and other wastes
Kapiler merupakan bagian SPD yang berhubungan langsung p p g y g g g g
dengan jaringan tubuh
Capillary
Red
blood
cell
Keluar masuk substansi dari/ke jaringan yang jauh kapiler dibantu oleh
cairan interstisial cairan interstisial
Capillary
INTERSTITIAL
FLUID
Diffusion of
molecules
Tissue
cell
Sistem Peredaran Darah Sistem Peredaran Darah
Sistem Terbuka
Pores
Tubular heart
Sistem tertutup
Arteriole
Capillary beds
Artery
(O
2
-rich blood)
Venule
Vein
Atrium Atrium
Ventricle
Heart
Artery
(O
2
-poor blood)
Gill
capillaries
FISHES
AMPHIBIANS REPTILES (EXCEPT BIRDS) MAMMALS AND BIRDS ( )
Lung capillaries Lung capillaries Lung and skin capillaries Gill capillaries
P l t
P l
A t
Right
Pulmocutaneous
circuit
Pulmonary
circuit
Pulmonary
circuit
Atrium (A)
Heart:
ventricle (V)
Artery
Gill
circulation
A
V
V
V V V
A
A
A
A A
Left
Systemic
aorta
Right
systemic
aorta
Right
Left
Right Left
Right
Left
Systemic
circuit
Systemic
circuit
Systemic
circulation
Vein
V V V
Systemic capillaries Systemic capillaries
Systemic capillaries Systemic capillaries
Figure 42.4
7
Capillaries of
H d d
Superior
vena cava
Capillaries Capillaries
Head and arms
vena cava
Pulmonary
artery
Pulmonary
artery
Capillaries
of right lung
Capillaries
of left lung
6
Aorta
9
2
3 3
4
11
Pulmonary
vein
Pulmonary
i
RIGHT VENTRICLE
1
LEFT ATRIUM
5
LEFT VENTRICLE
10
RIGHT ATRIUM
vein
vein
Capillaries of
Inferior
vena cava
Aorta
8
Capillaries of
abdominal organs
and legs
SPD Manusia
Struktur Jantung
Pulmonary
artery
Superior
Aorta
Pulmonary
Superior
vena cava
RIGHT
ATRIUM
y
artery
LEFT
ATRIUM
Pulmonary
veins Pulmonary
veins
Semilunar
valve
Atrioventricular
Semilunar
valve
Atrioventricular
valve
Inferior
vena cava
Atrioventricular
valve
vena cava
RIGHT
VENTRICLE
LEFT
VENTRICLE
The cardiac cycle
Semilunar
valves
closed
Atrial systole;
ventricular
diastole
2
Semilunar
valves
open
0.1 sec
0.3 sec
AV valves
open
open
0.4 sec
AV valves
closed Atrial and
ventricular
1
ventricular
diastole
Ventricular systole;
atrial diastole
3
The control of heart rhythm
2 Signals are delayed
at AV node.
1 Pacemaker generates
wave of signals
3 Signals pass
to heart apex.
4
Signals spread
Throughout
to contract. ventricles.
SA node
AV node
Bundle
branches
(pacemaker)
Heart
apex
Purkinje
fibers
Figure 42.8
ECG
Ritmisitas Kontraksi-Relaksasi Jantung
Diastole
Blood flows from the veins into
the heart chambers
Heart is
relaxed.
AV valves
1
2
Atria
contract.
the heart chambers
AV valves
are open.
SYSTOLE
0.1 sec
• Systole
– The atria briefly
3
Ventricles
contract.
Semilunar
valves
are open.
0.4 sec
0.3 sec
y
contract and fill the
ventricles with blood
Th th t i l
p
DIASTOLE
– Then the ventricles
contract and propel
blood out
• Heart valves prevent backflow Heart valves prevent backflow
C di t t • Cardiac output
– The amount of blood pumped into the aorta by
th l ft t i l i t the left ventricle per minute
Blood pressure depends on
•cardiac output cardiac output
•resistance of vessels
The pacemaker sets the tempo of the heartbeat
The SA node (pacemaker) generates electrical signals that trigger the
contraction of the atria
The AV node then relays these signals to the ventricles
Pacemaker AV node
Specialized
l fib
Pacemaker
(SA node)
Right
atrium
AV node
muscle fibers
1 2 3 4
Right
ventricle
ECG
Blood pressure
Blood pressure
reading: 120/70
A typical blood pressure reading for a 20-year-old
is 120/70. The units for these numbers are mm of
mercury (Hg); a blood pressure of 120 is a force that
can support a column of mercury 120 mm high.
1
The cuff is loosened further until the blood flows freely
through the artery and the sounds below the cuff
disappear. The pressure at this point is the diastolic
pressure remaining in the artery when the heart is relaxed.
4
Rubber cuff
inflated
with air
120 120
Pressure
in cuff
above 120
Pressure
in cuff
below 120
Pressure
in cuff
below 70
70
Artery
Sounds
audible in
stethoscope
Sounds
stop
Artery
Artery
closed
A sphygmomanometer, an inflatable cuff attached to a
pressure gauge, measures blood pressure in an artery.
The cuff is wrapped around the upper arm and inflated
until the pressure closes the artery, so that no blood
2 A stethoscope is used to listen for sounds of blood flow
below the cuff. If the artery is closed, there is no pulse
below the cuff. The cuff is gradually deflated until blood
begins to flow into the forearm, and sounds from blood
3
Figure 42.12
flows past the cuff. When this occurs, the pressure
exerted by the cuff exceeds the pressure in the artery.
pulsing into the artery below the cuff can be heard with
the stethoscope. This occurs when the blood pressure
is greater than the pressure exerted by the cuff. The
pressure at this point is the systolic pressure.
Measuring blood pressure can reveal
cardiovascular problems p
Blood pressure is measured as systolic and diastolic pressures
Blood pressure
120 systolic
80 diastolic 80 diastolic
(to be
measured)
Rubber
cuff
Pressure
in cuff
below
120
Pressure
in cuff
below 80
Pressure
in cuff
above
120
inflated
with air
S d
Artery
Sounds
audible in
stethoscope
Sounds
stop
Artery
closed
1
2 3 4
Epithelium
Epithelium Basement
membrane
Valve
Smooth
muscle
Connective
CAPILLARY
Epithelium
Smooth
muscle
Connective
tissue
ARTERY
Connective
tissue
VEIN
ARTERIOLE
VENULE
Pressure is highest in
Systolic
g
the arteries
Diastolic
pressure
y
pressure
– It drops to
zero by the
Relative sizes and
numbers
of blood
zero by the
time the
blood
vessels
blood
reaches the
veins
Three factors keep blood moving back to the heart
– muscle contractions
– breathing
– one-way valves y
Direction of
blood flow
in vein
Valve (closed)
Skeletal muscle
Valve (open)
Hypertension is persistent systolic pressure higher than 140 mm Hg
and/or diastolic pressure higher than 90 mm Hg
– It is a serious cardiovascular problem
e.g Heart Attack
What is a heart attack ?
A heart attack is damage that occurs when a coronary feeding the
heart is blocked
Aorta
Right
coronary
artery
Aorta
L ft
artery
Left
coronary
artery
Blockage
Dead muscle tissue
Blood vessel blockage is usually due to blood clots
(see case of heart disease)
Connective
tissue
Smooth
muscle
Epithelium Plaque
Smooth muscle controls the distribution of blood
Muscular constriction of arterioles and precapillary sphincters
controls the flow through capillaries g p
Precapillary sphincters Thoroughfare
channel
Thoroughfare
channel
Capillaries
Arteriole Venule Arteriole
Venule
1 Sphincters relaxed
2 Sphincters contracted
The transfer of materials between the blood and interstitial fluid can
occur by occur by
– leakage through clefts in the capillary walls g g p y
– diffusion through the wall
– blood pressure blood pressure
– osmotic pressure
Tissue cells
Arterial
end of
ill
Tissue cells
Osmotic
pressure
Osmotic
pressure
Venous
end of
ill capillary
Blood
pressure
Blood
pressure
capillary
INTERSTITIAL
FLUID NET PRESSURE
OUT
NET PRESSURE
IN
Withdraw
blood
Place in tube
PLASMA 55%
CONSTITUENT MAJOR FUNCTIONS
Centrifuge
CELLULAR ELEMENTS 45%
Water
Solvent for
carrying other
substances
Salts
CELL TYPE NUMBER
(per mm
3
of blood)
FUNCTIONS
Erythrocytes
(red blood cells) 5–6 million Transport of
oxygen
Osmotic balance,
pH buffering, and
regulation of
membrane
permeability
Sodium
Potassium
Calcium
Magnesium
Chloride
Bicarbonate
oxygen
(and carbon
dioxide)
Leukocytes
(white blood cells)
5,000–10,000
Defense and
immunity
Plasma proteins
Osmotic balance,
pH buffering
Clotting
Immunity
Albumin
Fibrinogen
Immunoglobins
(antibodies)
, , immunity
Basophil
Eosinophil
Lymphocyte
( )
Substances transported by blood
Nutrients (e.g., glucose, fatty acids, vitamins)
Waste products of metabolism
Respiratory gases (O
2
and CO
2
)
Hormones
Eosinophil
Neutrophil
Monocyte
Platelets
250,000–
400 000
Blood clotting
400,000
• Red blood cells contain
hemoglobin
White blood cells function both
inside and outside the circulatory
system
g
– Hemoglobin enables the
transport of O
2
y
They fight infections and
cancer
Basophil Eosinophil
Monocyte
Neutrophil Lymphocyte
When a blood vessel is
damaged platelets respond damaged, platelets respond
They help trigger the formation
of an insoluble fibrin clot that
plugs the leak
Injury to lining of blood
vessel exposes connective
tissue; platelets adhere
1 2 3
Platelet plug forms Fibrin clot traps
blood cells
Connective
tissue
Platelet releases chemicals
that make nearby platelets sticky
Platelet
plug
Clotting factors from: g
Platelets
Damaged cells
Calcium and
other factors
in blood plasma
Prothrombin Thrombin
Fibrinogen Fibrin Fibrinogen Fibrin
All blood cells develop from stem
cells in bone marrow cells in bone marrow
Such cells may prove valuable for
treating certain blood disorders
Peran Darah sebagai Immun system