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ABSTRACT
Cryogenic grinding permits heat-sensitive, thermoplastic, and elastic materials to be economically ground to very small particle sizes. The cryogenic process actually embrittle a material prior to size reduction and controls heat buildup in the grinding equipment. The result is high product quality and system productivity. Cryogenic grinding involves cooling a material below its embitterment temperature with a cryogenic fluid, typically liquid nitrogen or, in certain applications, carbon dioxide. After cooling, the material is fed into an impact mill where it is reduced in size primarily by brittle fracture Cryogenic grinding is used for grinding spices, thermoplastics, lastomers, color concentrates, and similar materials. !t is also used to recover a variety of scrap materials, such as factory scrap rubber and scrap tires, and to separate the components in composite materials.

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CONTENTS
". !ntroduction #. Application of Cryogenics $. Cryogenic %rinding &rocess '. Cryogenic %rinding Technology (. Advantages of Cryogenics ). Application of Cryogenic %rinding *. &roblems with Conventional %rinding +. Advantages of Cryogrinding with ,iquid -itrogen .. /or0ing of Cryogrinding &lant "1.2esults of experimental studies with &epper "".3uture &rospects "#.4ibliography

As prices for energy and raw materials rise and concern for the environment ma0es safe waste disposal difficult and Costly. >owever. -ormal grinding processes which do not use a cooling system can reach up to #11=3. The heart of this technology is the C289-%2!-: . The cryogenic process also has a unique capability for recycling difficult to separate composite materials. A finer particle also helps in melting of rubber and plastics for molding. . rather than freeze-dried herbs. attrition mills. many materials are either very soft or very tough at room . The cryogenic grinding process starts with air-dried herbs.8. This process does not damage or alter the chemical composition of the plant in any way.olid materials are ground or pulverized by way of hammer mills.$ Chapter I INTRODUCTION The term 5Cryogenics6 originates from %ree0 word which means creation or production by means of cold. Cryogenic grinding technology can efficiently grind most tough materials and can also facilitate Cryogenic recycling of tough composite materials and multi component scrap.T <. granulators or other equipment. resource recovery becomes a vital matter for today7s business. Cryogenic grinding is a method of powdering herbs at sub-zero temperatures ranging from 1 to minus *1=3. The herbs are frozen with liquid nitrogen as they are being ground. These high temperatures can reduce volatile components and heat-sensitive constituents in herbs. as in mixing with other materials. A smaller particle size is usually needed to enhance the further processing of the solid. !t employs a cryogenic process to embrittle and grind materials to achieve consistent particle size for a wide range of products.

"? increase in total phenolic content in the cryogenically ground root. these may be embrittled and easily fractured into small particles. comparing cryogenic grinding methods with normal grinding methods.*? to #". A scientifically controlled study using four herbs was conducted at 3rontier >erbs in the 3all of ".astly. %oldenseal root showed a ").+?.'? increase in berberine and "1. .+? higher levels of parthenolide. indicating that some herbs are affected more than others by the temperatures at which theyCre ground.' temperatures. 4y cooling to cryogenic temperatures with liquid nitrogen.).*? increase in valerenic acid when cryogenically ground. the primary active constituent. 3everfew herb showed the greatest difference. @alerian root showed an "+. Cryogenic grinding was shown to significantly affect active constituent levels in herbs.. . goldenseal.C Ahigh performance liquid chromatographyB methods. Test results were obtained by >&. The herbs tested included feverfew. !n all cases the cryogenically ground herb contained greater amounts of the constituents tested. with the cryogenically ground herb containing #". valerian and echinacea.*? increase in hydrastine. Test results showed an average increase of "(.)? in constituents tested in four medicinal herbs when they were ground cryogenically. chinacea purpurea root showed a "#. The range was "1.

!n electronics F both semiconductor and superconductor electronics for better signal to noise ratio speed etc *. . !n miscellaneous applications such as cryogenic grinding . The value is approximately (11 for cryogenic fuels whereas it is about #(1 for alcohol oxygen mixture. !n this way is a weight reduction of )(? and space reduction of +(?. !n space research F as roc0et propellant and for space simulation. the difference in the boiling points of the constituents of air is used to separate them out. <agneto Cardio %raphy A<C%B.B. '. etc +.. refrigeration and separation. The most important advantage of cryogenic fuels is that these have very high specific impulse when compared to other fuels Aspecific impulse is 0gs of thrust produced per 0g of propellant per secB. the breathing oxygen needed for the pilots of the fighter aircraft is supplied by vaporizing liquid oxygen on board. !n medicine F <agnetic 2esonance !maging. <etal fabrication .pectroscopy A<2.( Chapter II APPLICATION OF CRYOGENICS The maDor areas in which cryogenics find its applications are E ". etc. (. <agnetic 2esonance . !n the separation column. shrin0 fitting. !n nuclear and high F energy physics "1. freezing pipelines for repairs. $. !n food industry F for food handling and processing ). #. The volume of production of nitrogen and 9xygen by cryogenic separation of air is the important of the separation of air. !n biology F for preservation and in treatment of diseases. fire fighting. 3or example. As the source of gas. %as !ndustry F in air separation.

have low melting points..1.. have low combustion temperatures and are sensitive to oxygen.4. contain volatile or oily substances. and does not form any compound under normal temperatures and pressure.. non toxic and inert gas which ma0es up *+.ince almost all materials embrittle when exposed to cold temperatures. except at highly elevated temperatures. are ideal candidates for cryogenic size reduction. &hysical properties of liquid nitrogen is produced by the separation of air into its components in an air separation plant and is distributed in vacuum insulated transport vessels to the end user where it is stored in a vacuum insulated storage vessel till it is used. :rawn from the liquid phase.+ ? with a dew point less than F "11 deg 3 and is very dry. -itrogen is anon-flammable. All materials which due to their specific properties at ambient temperatures are elastic. . At atmospheric pressure liquid nitrogen is at a temperature of F$#1 deg 3 and possesses a latent energy content of . embrittle and inert materials prior to and or during the grinding process..) 4TGH.4 resulting in a total cooling energy content of "*. nitrogen generally has a purity of .' 4TGH..? of the air we breathe. !t has the characteristics of an inert gas. cryogenic size reduction utilizes the cold energy available from liquid nitrogen to cool.) Chapter III CRYOGENIC GRINDING PROCESS .

The most brittle components will undergo greater size reduction. /hen C289%2!-: system is used to recycle composite or multi component materials. . . two separate phenomena occur. -atural 2ubber Thermoplastics &G.& <AT 2A .) I is used to embrittle a material prior to size reduction. since each component generally would have a different coefficient of thermal contraction.iquid -itrogen at **. which further enhances separation effectiveness. because each component material embrittles at different temperatures.* 2ubber lastomers .. cleaner separation and recovery of individual components are achieved. 3irst. -ylon && &owder Coating &@C Colour Concentrate Thermo sets polyester epoxy 3iner particle size 2apid embritlement of tough materials . Through careful control of thermal stress and embritlement with operating temperature. T9G %>. high thermal stresses are created at the interface between the components due to rapid cryogenic cooling. it allows selective embritlement.econd.ilicon. 9nce brittle the material is much easier to grind.

mill operating parameters and pressure control are critical to the evaluation of cryogenic grinding and cryogenic grinding systems. Cryogenic Grinding Sy te! . measurable and repeatable results are obtained for lab or productions calculations. /ith our cryogenic grinding unit an understanding develops with interaction of equipment components and operating parameters. <ills range in size from *-"H# >& to #11 >&.+ Cryogenic Grinding Sy te! /hen using the system. 3actors such as consistent feed rate. precise temperature measurement.

maller size particles <inimal loss of volatile components . Cryogenic grinding involves cooling a material below its embrittlement temperature with a cryogenic fluid. requiring long cycle times and high energy consumption. the throughput for a given mill is substantially increased and less power is used per pound of material ground. This process has several benefitsE • • • • • • Ability to process relatively JsoftJ or elastic materials that cannot otherwise be ground !ncreased throughput 2educed power consumption . carbon dioxide. . Chapter I" CRYOGENIC GRINDING TEC#NOLOGY 3or pulverizing many materials. cryogenic grinding technology increases productivity and lowers power costs. 4ecause embrittled material grinds easily.ower capital investment &robably the greatest benefit provided by cryogenic grinding is the ability to grind JsoftJ or elastic materials that otherwise could not be ground. After cooling. or could be ground only with long cycle times and high energy use. <any elastic or JsoftJ materials are very difficult to pulverize. the material is fed into an impact mill where it is reduced in size primarily by brittle fracture. in certain applications. typically liquid nitrogen or. fine powder or crumb can be obtained easily and with a minimum expenditure of energy.. This combination decreased productivity and increased costs unnecessarily. 4y embrittling the material.

The dry. elastomers. and similar materials. inert atmosphere in which the grinding occurs minimizes reaction with the material and reduces the loss of volatile components. . such as factory scrap rubber and scrap tires. cryogenic grinding usually ma0es it easy to separate the various materials. color concentrates. cold. and to separate the components in composite materials. thermoplastics. !t is also used to recover a variety of scrap materials. Cryogenic grinding is used for grinding spices."1 Cryogenic grinding also reduces the material to particle sizes difficult or impossible to attain with ambient temperature grinding. /hen processing composite materials.

"" Chapter " AD"ANTAGES OF CRYOGRINDING ".ower grinding cost ). -o heat generation which is good while grinding spices. . 3iner particle size '.ower energy consumption $. <ore uniform particle distribution (. pharmaceuticals and scrap plastics *. . >igher production rate #. &rovides an inert atmosphere thus eliminating the possibility of oxidation .

resins and plastics sintering and molding. This elevated temperature level under large cutting stresses accelerates plastic deformation and wear of cutting edges leading to increased cutting forces and premature tool failure. a variety of applications such as adhesives. fillers. the liquid nitrogen from a reservoir under air pressure comes out a Det from a nozzle to the spot where cooling is desired. !n the case of cryogenic grinding. The amount of temperature reduction due to cryocooling will increase the grinding depth. The Det impinges on the wor0 surface at the grinding point from a suitable distance and angle. 4ecause of the extreme cooling action. powdered coatings. &@C. and polypropylene belong are commonly used in powdered form. for but not limited to."# Chapter "I APPLICATIONS OF CRYOGENIC GRINDING $%& CryoGrinding o' tee( The large amount of thermal energy generated during machining and grinding at high speed and feed rate raises the temperature at the cutting zones excessively. Cooling with conventional cutting fluids in the form of Det or mist is unable to solve the problem. !n such cases cryogenic cooling by agents li0e liquid nitrogen will improve the situation. the life of the grinding wheelKs will be increased. &olyethylene. $%) Ther!op(a tic To which -ylon. These powders generally can only be produced in high production rates and fine particle sizes utilizing cryogenic size reduction. .

along with the cold gas generated by the evaporation of the liquid . increasing energy requirement and eventually shutting down the size reduction process. $%$ E/p(o i.a/e These materials at ambient temperature are generally pliable and stic0y and when ground would form excessive deposits in the mill building up heat. is achieved. $%+ Adhe i. Cryogenic size reduction performs two tas0s when grinding explosivesL it reduces the temperature of the material well below its ignition temperature and removes the oxygen from the system thereby eliminating the possibility of combustion. be recycled.e xplosives explode when their ignition temperature."$ $%* Ther!o et To which natural and synthetic rubbers belong are important recyclable materials.e . Gnder cryogenic temperatures these products become brittle and can be pulverized with much less energy and without forming deposits. !n the cryogenic pre-cooler liquid nitrogen is inDected and combines with the product thereby cooling and embrittling the product.. Gnder cryogenic size reduction these materials can economically and at high production rates be ground into fine powders. in the presence of oxygen. The product is then transported. used as filler. The product to be ground is filled into the volumetric screw feeder where it is metered at a specific rate into the cryogenic pre-cooler.

The cold gas from the mill is recycled through the filter or bag-house and ma0eup air bac0 into the mill."' nitrogen. .IT# CON"ENTION GRINDING . Chapter "II PROBLE1S .. $%0 Spice . xcessive cold gas is vented out.1 oC. cinnamon. preventing the possibility of dust explosions and buildup of product. to the grinding mill where it is pulverized. have a characteristic taste and aroma. These qualities exist in them due to the presence of etheric oils within. Cumin seed. The pulverized product then goes through a classifier where it is separated into various particle sizes and pac0aged. chilly. :uring conventional grinding. !n addition the cold dry nitrogen gas 0eeps both the classifier and bag-house free of moisture and inert. These characteristic qualities are essential in them to have their value as Mspice7.hould oversize material exist this can be fed bac0 into the volumetric feeder and recycled into the system.pices li0e &epper. %love etc. -utmeg. %inger. where by most of the etheric oils oil off resulting in inferior quality of the ground product. The etheric oils have their boiling points ranging down to (1oC. due to the heat produced by friction. the temperature of ground spices shoots up to about . This inferior quality is evident by the reduced taste and aroma.

chilli. etc. contain high level of fat while capsicum. accelerates the process of oxidation."( 0%& Lo o' etheric oi( The applied energy gets dissipated in the form of heat AN. contain high moisture content. This results in the inferior quality of the ground product. 0%) C(ogging and g2!!ing o' the !i(( . etc. aromatic substances in materials oxidize and become rancid.. Chapter "III .?B and hence the temperature in the grinding zone rises to more than . 0%* O/idation and re(ated degradation3 :ue to intimate cyclone effect of the air in the vicinity of grinding zone. clove. cinnamon. >igh moisture content materials often stic0 to the parts of the mill.1oC resulting in loss of etheric oils whose boiling point vary from (1oC to $#1oC. These cause clogging and gumming of mill thus affecting the throughput and quality of the ground product..pices li0e nutmeg.. !n addition the formation of fresh and exposed surfaces due to grinding.

5%) Pre. 5%+ Finer partic(e i7e . with the improved value as Mspice7. Thus cooling with liquid nitrogen increases the throughput due to reduction in specific energy requirement. an inexpensive.ing :ue to usage of liquid nitrogen. This in turn 0eeps the oil and moisture content in the crystallized condition during grinding and avoids clogging. At the same time when the material is brittle.") AD"ANTAGES OF CRYOGRINDING . 5%* Increa ed thro2ghp2t and po6er a. dry and inert atmosphere for storage and pac0age of ground product is created. the raw material becomes brittle. These vapours expel any air in the mill and produce an inert atmosphere during grinding. less power is required to crush.IT# LI4UID NITROGEN 5%& #igher retention o' etheric oi( :ue to lower operating temperatures. This eliminates the possibility of oxidation. the etheric oils will be retained in the product almost to the original level. >ence the ground product will obviously be better in taste and aroma. To add to this.ention o' o/idation and rancidity The heat developed during grinding will be absorbed by liquid nitrogen which in turn will be converted to vapour.

Thus. Chapter I9 . Cryo%rinding can be employed for grinding green spices li0e chilies with no pre-drying and also with the retention of its original colour. This eliminates spec0ling problems and reduces the settling rate of spice powders in liquid preparation. 5%$ Red2ction in !icro8ia( (oad 4y cooling with liquid nitrogen. >igh oil content spices li0e nutmeg can be ground easily. the raw materials become brittle which causes fibers to shatter. 5%0 Po i8i(ity o' 'ine grinding o' di''ic2(t pice 4y use of low temperatures. some bacteria7s which some others may become dormant. Thus fibrous spices li0e ginger can be ground easily to finer particle size."* Cryo%rinding results in finer particle sizes of the ground spices. when the ground product is warmed to the room temperature Ain the inert atmosphere of nitrogenB one expects considerable reduction in microbial load.

A censor monitors the temperature of the ground spice and the liquid nitrogen spray is optimized using automatic feed bac0 control. is lifted to the storage container by the >apman >elix conveyor. the spice gets crushed between the studs and comes out through an optional sieve as a ground product.$* I/ motor.OR:ING OF CRYOGRINDING PLANT The spice to be ground is cleaned manually and fed in to the hopper. $ F phase. The rotary valve has + compartments mounted radially in the same plane. a rotary valve is mounted which is driven by a 1. The spice to be ground gets loc0ed between the studs of the rotating disc and studs of the stationary disc. !nside the mill.$* I/ motor. The helical screw conveyor has a total length of a metre where the fed material travels horizontally to the grinding mill.( I/. The time of stay of spice in the conveyor can be adDusted by varying the speed of the drives. This is driven by a 1. which comes out of the rotary valve.iquid nitrogen from a storage container is sprayed into the screw conveyor. /hen the mill is running. The mill is connected with the motor by a flat belt between the motor pulley and the mill pulley. The bottom of this tapering collecting bin. 3rom the outlet of the hopper the spice enters in to the vibratory feeder. stud disc is mounted on the shaft. .*( I/ drive with reduction gear and inverter control."+ . which is positioned with a small inclination towards the entry of the helical screw conveyor.(1 >z motor. The vibratory feeder has a provision to control the feed rate. To the bottom of the mill a collecting bin is housed where the ground product gets collected. The vaporized nitrogen from the . The grinding mill is driven by a (. The product. The screw conveyor is driven by a 1. The circularly proDecting studs fit between the similar proDecting studs from the rear of the front door.

Chapter 9 . mill is suc0ed by a centrifugal blower and through the filter assembly if fed bac0 to the mill.".

"( 3lavour compounds Arelative $.11 <oisture "$.)" ".IT# PEPPER E/peri!enta( t2die 6ere carried o2t on the a!p(e 2nder di''erent condition 3 .imonene ". ".11 #. !n Cryo%rinding higher percentage of oils and flavor components are retained when compared with conventionally ground products. Components Cryoground A?B Conventional %round A?B ""."+ .or co!ponent The pepper contains the oil-bearing cells mainly in the s0in and towards the tip of the cortex.#. The comparison is shown below.#1 RESULTS OF E9PERI1ENTAL STUDIES .%& "o(ati(e oi( content and '(a. concentrationB α-&ining . .'1 +.%) Thro2ghp2t o' the 1i(( . -o.l. /hen the pepper is ground these cells are bro0en and volatile oils and flavour components evaporate causing aroma.$1 1. ". @olatile 9il #.

Chapter 9I . which was #.#( times than that of conventional grinding producing a throughput of ## IgHhour. This analysis clearly illustrates a throughput of ##( 0gHhour Aagainst the rated throughput of "11 0gHhour by conventional method at room temperatureB could be easily be attained by Cryo%rinding by suitable modification of the screw cooler and by vibratory feeder. the throughput of the mill by Cryo%rinding was (1 IgHhour Aat-(1oCB.#" 3or a constant current of )A.

## FUTURE PROSPECTS As the cost of raw materials and energy is increasing day by day. The technique can be easily extended to processing of &@C and industrial waste plastics in view of recycling of non-biodegradable materials. 4y using this we can also recycle tough and composite materials. . This also leads to value addition to the product. 4y adopting Cryo%rinding technology the leading spice industries of our country will earn considerable foreign exchange by exporting more value added processed spices. !t has many significant advantages over conventional grinding. 4y using Cryo%rinding technology these aspects can be met efficiently. if liquid nitrogen costs are not formidable. it is very necessary to use optimum quantity and at the same time getting the required quality. in place of exporting whole spices. Cryo%rinding is economically viable.

-arosa &ublishing >ouseB • 666%c a%'na(%go. -arayan0hedhar.hort-term programme on contribution to technology 'or development from space research • <c %raw >ill @9.%.-' • &roceeding of the "+th !nternational Cryogenic ngineering Conference A dited by I. ncyclopedia of science P technologyE *th dition . Cold 3acts AThe =2arter(y !aga7ine o' the Cryogenic Society o' A!ericaB.#$ BIBLIOGRAP#Y • A short term O!& course on cryogenic technology ACenter contin2ing ed2cation IIS Banga(ore< • A!CT -!.T .