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4x 2 + 12x + 9 1. Is the first term a perfect square? Yes, 4x 2 = (2x) 2 . 2. Is the last term a perfect square? Yes, 9 = (3) 2 . 3. Is the middle term equal to 2(2x)(3)? Yes, 12x = 2(2x)(3). 2 4x + 12x + 9 is a perfect square trinomial. 4x 2 + 12x + 9 = (2x) 2 + 2(2x)(3) + (3) = (2x + 3) 2

2

Write as a 2 + 2ab + b 2 . Factor using pattern.

b. 4a 2 - 8a + 16 1. Is the first term a perfect square? 2. Is the last term a perfect square? 3. Is the middle term equal to 2(2a)(4)? 4a 2 - 8a + 16 is not a perfect square trinomial.

Yes, 4a 2 = (2a) 2 . Yes, 16 = (4) 2 . No, 8a ≠ 2(2a)(4).

Example 2 Factor Completely Factor each polynomial. a. 3x 2 – 12x + 12 This polynomial has a GCF of 3. First, factor out the GCF and you are left with 3(x 2 – 4x + 4). The resulting trinomial has the first term as a perfect square x 2 = (x) 2 , the last term is also a perfect square 4 = 2 2 , and the middle term is equal to 2(x)(2) or 4x. Therefore, the polynomial is a perfect square trinomial. 3x 2 – 12x + 12 = 3(x 2 – 4x + 4) 3 is the GCF. 2 2 = 3[(x) – 2(x)(2) + (2) ] Write as a 2 – 2ab + b 2 . = 3(x – 2) 2 a = x and b = 2. b. 2x 3 – x 2 - 15x This polynomial has three terms that have a GCF of x. The resulting trinomial is then in the form ax 2 + bx + c. Are there two numbers m and n whose product is 2 ⋅ -15 or -30 and whose sum is -1? Yes, the product of 5 and -6 is -30 and their sum is -1. 2x 3 – x 2 - 15x = x (2x 2 - x – 15) = x(2x 2 + mx + nx – 15) = x(2x 2 + 5x + -6x – 15) = x[(2x 2 + 5x) + (-6x – 15)] = x[x(2x + 5) + -3(2x + 5)] = x(2x + 5)(x – 3)

x is the GCF. Write the pattern. m = 5 and n = -6 Group terms with common factors. Factor out the GCF from each grouping. 2x + 5 is the common factor.

Example 3 Solve Equations with Repeated Factors Solve 16x 2 + 8x + 1 = 0. 16x 2 + 8x + 1 = 0 Original equation 2 2 Recognize 16x 2 – 8x + 1 as a perfect square trinomial. (4x) + 2(4x)(1) + (1) = 0 (4x + 1) 2 = 0 Factor the perfect square trinomial. 4x + 1 = 0 Set repeated factor equal to zero. 4x = -1 Solve for x. x=Thus, the solution set is {-

1 4

1 }. Check this solution in the original equation. 4

Example 4 Use the Square Root Property to Solve Equations Solve each equation. Check your solutions. a. (x – 2) 2 =

4 9 4 9

Original equation

(x – 2) 2 = x–2= ± x–2= ±

4 9

2 3

Square Root Property

4 2 2 = ⋅ 9 3 3

2 Add 2 to each side. 3 2 2 x=2+ or x = 2 – Separate into two equations. 3 3 8 4 = = Simplify. 3 3 4 8 The solution set is { , }. Check each solution in the original equation. 3 3

x=2 ±

b. x 2 +

1 1 x+ = 36 2 16 1 1 x2 + x + = 36 2 16 1 1 (x) 2 + 2(x)( ) + ( ) 2 = 36 4 4

Original equation Recognize perfect square trinomial.

1 Factor perfect square trinomial. (x + ) 2 = 36 4 1 x + = ± 36 Square Root Property 4 1 36 = 6 ⋅ 6 x+ = ±6 4 1 1 x=- ±6 Subtract from each side. 4 2 1 1 x = - +6 or x = - – 6 Separate into two equations. 4 4 23 −25 = =Simplify. 4 4 −25 23 The solution set is { , }. Check each solution in the original equation. 4 4

c. (x + 1) (x + 1)

2 2

= 10 = 10

Original equation Square Root Property Subtract 1 from each side.

x+1= ±

10 x = -1 ± 10

Since 10 is not a perfect square, the solution set is {-1 ±

10 }. Using a calculator, the approximate

solutions are -1 + 10 or about 2.16 and -1 - 10 or about –4.16. Check: You can check your answer using a graphing calculator. Graph y = (x + 1) 2 and y = 10. Using the INTERSECT feature of your graphing calculator, find where (x + 1) 2 = 10. The check of 2.16 as one of the approximate solutions is shown at the right.

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