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Typography[edit source | editbeta

The Greek letter forms used in mathematics are often different from those used in Greek-language text: they are designed to be used in isolation, not connected to other letters, and some use variant forms which are not normally used in current Greek typography. The OpenType font format has the feature tag 'mgrk' "Mathematical Greek" to identify a glyph as representing a Greek letter to be used in mathematical (as opposed to Greek language) contexts. The table below shows a comparison of Greek letters rendered in TeX and HTML. The font used in the TeX rendering is an italic style. This is in line with the convention that variables should be italicized. As Greek letters are more often than not used as variables in mathematical formulas, a Greek letter appearing similar to the TeX rendering is more likely to be encountered in works involving mathematics.

Greek letters

Nam TeX e











Nam e





Digam ma


Kapp a

Κθ ϰ

Omicr on


Upsil on






Lamb da



Ππ ϖ


Φϕ θ

Gam ma







Ρξ ϱ






Θζ ϑ




΢ζ ο



Epsil on

Δ ϵ ε Iota






Ome ga


Concepts represented by a Greek letter[edit source | editbeta]
Αα (alpha)[edit source | editbeta]
 α represents:

where α represents the other the ratio of collector current to base current in a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in electronics (current gain)      the false negative rate in statistics ("Type II" error) the beta coefficient.    the second angle in a triangle. Iron Ferrite and numerous phases within materials science. the non-diversifiable risk. where kB is Boltzmann's constant and T is the absolute temperature. of an asset in mathematical finance the sideslip angle of an airplane the first-order effects of variations in Coriolis force with latitude in planetary dynamics a beta particle (e ) -1 . opposite the side A one root of a quadratic equation.             the first angle in a triangle. equal to (kBT) . where β represents the other the ratio of collector current to emitter current in a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in electronics the statistical significance of a result the false positive rate in statistics ("Type I" error) the reciprocal of the sacrifice ratio the fine structure constant in physics the angle of attack of an aircraft an alpha particle (He ) angular acceleration in physics the linear thermal expansion coefficient the thermal diffusivity the alpha carbon is the first carbon after the carbon that attaches to a functional group in organic chemistry 2+      the α-carbon is the backbone carbon next to the carbonyl carbon in amino acids right ascension in astrometry The brightest star in a constellation. the return in excess of the compensation for the risk borne in investment Ββ (beta)[edit source | editbeta]   Β represents the beta function β represents:  the thermodynamic beta. opposite the side B one root of a quadratic equation.

a continuous probability distribution defined using the gamma function second-order sensitivity to price in mathematical finance the Christoffel symbols of the second kind the neighbourhood of a vertex in a graph γ represents: the partial safety factors applied to loads and materials in structural engineering the specific weight of substances the lower incomplete gamma function the third angle in a triangle. a generalization of the factorial the upper incomplete gamma function the modular group. the confinement factor of an optical mode in a waveguide the gamma function. the group of fractional linear transformations the gamma distribution. opposite the side C the Euler–Mascheroni constant in mathematics gamma rays and the photon the heat capacity ratio in thermodynamics the Lorentz factor in special relativity the damping constant (kg/s) Γδ (delta)[edit source | editbeta]  Γ represents:      a finite difference a difference operator a symmetric difference the Laplace operator the angle that subtends the arc of a circular curve in surveying .     sound intensity velocity divided by the speed of light in special relativity the beta brain wave in brain or cognitive sciences ecliptic latitude in astrometry The ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure in plasma physics Γγ (gamma)[edit source | editbeta]  Γ represents:                    the reflection coefficient of a transmission or telecommunication line.

∆v means a difference or change in velocity sensitivity to price in mathematical finance distance to Earth. the empty string the Levi-Civita symbol in electromagnetics. see limit a random error in regression analysis in set theory. and δ+ represents a positive partial charge chemistry (See also: Solvation)      the Chemical shift of an an atomic nucleus declination in astrometry the Turner function in computational material science depreciation in macroeconomics noncentrality measure in statistics [3] [2] Δε (epsilon)[edit source | editbeta]  ε represents:       a small positive quantity. e.g. the limit ordinal of the sequence in computer science.                   the determinant of an inverse matrix [1] the maximum degree of any vertex in a given graph the difference or change in a given variable. measured in astronomical units heat in a chemical formula the discriminant in the quadratic formula which determines the nature of the roots the degrees of freedom in a non-pooled statistical hypothesis test of two population means δ represents: percent error a variation in the calculus of variations the Kronecker delta function the Feigenbaum constant the force of interest in mathematical finance the Dirac delta function the receptor which enkephalins have the highest affinity for in pharmacology the Skorokhod integral in Malliavin calculus. δ− represents a negative partial charge. dielectric permittivity . a subfield of stochastic analysis the minimum degree of any vertex in a given graph a partial charge.

set membership symbol ∈ is based on ε Ϝϝ (digamma)[edit source | editbeta]  Ϝ is sometimes used to represent the digamma function. the molar extinction coefficient of a chromophore. though the Latin letter F (which is nearly identical) is usually substituted.         emissivity strain in continuum mechanics permittivity the Earth's axial tilt in astrometry elasticity in economics expected value in probability theory and statistics electromotive force in chemistry. Εδ (zeta)[edit source | editbeta]  δ represents:     the Riemann zeta function and other zeta functions in mathematics the coefficient of viscous friction in polymer dynamics the damping ratio relative vertical vorticity in fluid dynamics Ζε (eta)[edit source | editbeta]  ε represents:             the Minkowski metric tensor in relativity noise in communication system models the intrinsic impedance of medium (usually free space) the partial regression coefficient in statistics elasticities in economics the absolute vertical vorticity (relative vertical vorticity + Coriolis effect) in fluid dynamics an index of refraction a type of meson viscosity efficiency (statistics) efficiency (physics and engineering) .

often used in handwriting the first Chebyshev function in number theory Ηη (iota)[edit source | editbeta]  η represents:   the index generator function in APL (in the form ⍳) the orbital inclination with respect to the line of sight. Κθ (kappa)[edit source | editbeta]  θ represents:           the Von Kármán constant the kappa curve the condition number of a matrix in numerical analysis the connectivity of a graph in graph theory curvature dielectric constant thermal conductivity (usually a lowercase Latin k) thermal diffusivity a spring constant (usually a lowercase Latin k) the heat capacity ratio in thermodynamics (usually γ) .Θζ (theta)[edit source | editbeta]  Θ represents:               an asymptotically tight bound related to big O notation. cursive form of theta. sensitivity to the passage of time in mathematical finance Θ (set theory). a certain ordinal number ζ represents: a plane angle in geometry the angle to the x axis in the xy-plane in spherical or cylindrical coordinates (mathematics) the angle to the z axis in spherical coordinates (physics) potential temperature in thermodynamics the mean time between failure in reliability engineering soil water contents in soil science Debye temperature theta functions sometimes also ϑ ("script theta"). used when describing gravitational wave sources.

physics. and engineering)     the failure rate in reliability engineering the mean or average value (probability and statistics) the latent heat of fusion the lagrange multiplier in the mathematical optimization method. the receptor which dynorphins have the highest affinity for in pharmacology [2] Λ ι (lambda)[edit source | editbeta]  Λ represents:               the von Mangoldt function in number theory the set of logical axioms in the axiomatic method of logical deduction in first-order logic the cosmological constant a type of baryon a diagonal matrix of eigenvalues in linear algebra the permeance of a material in electromagnetism ι represents: one wavelength of electromagnetic radiation the decay constant in radioactivity function expressions in the lambda calculus a general eigenvalue in linear algebra the expected number of occurrences in a Poisson distribution in probability the arrival rate in queueing theory the average lifetime or rate parameter in an exponential distribution (commonly used across statistics. known as the shadow price in economics         the Lebesgue measure denotes the volume or measure of a Lebesgue measurable set longitude in geodesy linear density ecliptic longitude in astrometry the Liouville function in number theory the Carmichael function in number theory a unit of measure of volume equal to one microlitre (1 κL) or one cubic millimetre (1 mm³) the empty string in formal grammar Μκ (mu)[edit source | editbeta]  κ represents: .

              the Möbius function in number theory the ring representation of a representation module the population mean or expected value in probability and statistics a measure in measure theory micro-. an SI prefix denoting 10 −6 (one millionth) the coefficient of friction in physics the service rate in queueing theory the dynamic viscosity in physics magnetic permeability in electromagnetics a muon reduced mass chemical potential in condensed matter physics the receptor which endorphins have the highest affinity for in pharmacology the ion mobility in plasma physics [2] Νλ (nu)[edit source | editbeta]  λ represents:        frequency in physics in hertz (Hz) Degrees of freedom in statistics Poisson's ratio in material science a neutrino kinematic viscosity of liquids stoichiometric coefficient in chemistry dimension of nullspace in mathematics Ξ μ (xi)[edit source | editbeta]  Ξ represents:         the grand canonical ensemble found in statistical mechanics a type of baryon μ represents: the Riemann Xi function a random variable the extent of a chemical reaction coherence length the damping ratio .

cylindrical. in fluid dynamics (angular frequency is usually represented by but this may be confused with vorticity in a fluid dynamics context)   longitude of pericenter. represents project ϖ (a graphic variant. expressed as a constant with respect to time the state distribution of a Markov chain a type of covalent bond in chemistry (pi bond) a pion (pi meson) in particle physics in electronics. in cosmology [5] [4] Ρξ (rho)[edit source | editbeta]  Ρ represents:   one of the Gegenbauer functions in analytic number theory. the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter the prime-counting function profit in microeconomics and game theory inflation in macroeconomics. universal set Ον (omicron)[edit source | editbeta]   Ο represents:   big O notation (may be represented by an uppercase Latin O as well) o represents: small o notation (may be represented by a lowercase Latin o as well) Π π (pi)[edit source | editbeta]  Π represents:               the product operator in mathematics a plane π represents: Archimedes' constant. the Dickman-de Bruijn function the radius in a polar. in celestial mechanics comoving distance. or spherical coordinate system . a special type of small signal model is referred to as a hybrid-pi model in relational algebra for databases. see pomega) represents: angular frequency of a wave. ξ represents:    one of the Gegenbauer functions in analytic number theory.

the rotational force in mechanics the elementary tau lepton in particle physics . a measure of spread in probability and statistics a type of covalent bond in chemistry (sigma bond) the selection operator in relational algebra stress in mechanics electrical conductivity area density nuclear cross section uncertainty utilization in operations management surface charge density for microparticles ζ represents: Ση (tau)[edit source | editbeta]  η (lower-case) represents:     an interval of time a mean lifetime torque.       the correlation coefficient in statistics the sensitivity to interest rate in mathematical finance density (mass or charge per unit volume) resistivity the shape and reshape operators in APL (in the form ⍴) the utilization in queueing theory the rank of a matrix ΢ζ (sigma)[edit source | editbeta]  ΢ represents:                   the summation operator the covariance matrix the set of terminal symbols in a formal grammar Stefan–Boltzmann constant in blackbody radiation the divisor function in number theory the real part of the complex variable s = ζ + i t in analytic number theory the sign of a permutation in the theory of finite groups the population standard deviation.

a given topology a proposed name for the mathematical constant of a circle's circumference to radius ratio. a measure of opacity. (although θ (phi) is more common) Ramanujan's tau function in number theory in astronomy. Τυ (upsilon)[edit source | editbeta]  Τ represents:   an elementary particle π represents:  frequency in physics textbooks Φθ (phi)[edit source | editbeta]  Φ represents:  the work function in physics. with value 2π (6.. via the Bayer stellar designation system an internal system step in transition systems a type variable in type theories. the energy required by a photon to remove an electron from the surface of a metal      magnetic flux the cumulative distribution function of the normal distribution in statistics phenyl functional group the reciprocal of the golden ratio (represented by θ.).283. such as an RC circuit proper time in relativity Kendall tau rank correlation coefficient.. such as the simply typed lambda calculus path tortuosity in reservoir engineering in Topology. also represented as 1/θ the value of the integration of information in a system (based on Integrated Information Theory) ..618. a measure of rank correlation in statistics the golden ratio 1. or how much sunlight cannot penetrate the atmosphere the intertwining operator in representation theory the tau in biochemistry. below)..                 the lifetime of a spontaneous emission process the time constant of any device. a protein associated to microtubules shear stress in continuum mechanics the number of divisors of highly composite numbers (sequence A000005 in OEIS) the prefix of many stars.

and architecture Euler's totient function in number theory a holomorphic map on an analytic space the argument of a complex number in mathematics the value of a plane angle in physics and mathematics the angle to the z axis in spherical coordinates (mathematics) the angle to the x axis in the xy-plane in spherical or cylindrical coordinates (physics) latitude in geodesy a scalar field radiant flux electric potential the probability density function of the normal distribution in statistics a feature of a syntactic node giving that node characteristics such as gender. especially a Dirichlet character in number theory the Sigma vectors in the unscented transform used in the unscented Kalman filter sometimes the mole fraction a characteristic or indicator function in mathematics Φψ (psi)[edit source | editbeta]  Φ represents:   water potential a quaternary combinator in combinatory logic . art. resembles Φ but is not Φ θ represents: the golden ratio 1.. number and person in syntax Υχ (chi)[edit source | editbeta]  ρ represents:            the chi distribution in statistics (χ is the more frequently encountered chi-squared distribution) the chromatic number of a graph in graph theory the Euler characteristic in algebraic topology electronegativity in the periodic table the Rabi frequency the spinor of a fundamental particle the Fourier transform of a linear response function a character in mathematics. in mathematics.               note: a symbol for the empty set.618.. .

 ς represents:       the wave function in the Schrödinger equation of quantum mechanics the stream function in fluid dynamics yaw angle in vehicle dynamics the angle between the x-axis and the tangent to the curve in the intrinsic coordinates system the second Chebyshev function in number theory the polygamma function in mathematics Χ ω (omega)[edit source | editbeta]  Χ represents:              the Omega constant an asymptotic lower bound related to big O notation in probability theory and statistical mechanics.e. the set of possible distinct system states the SI unit measure of electric resistance. particularly a planet. a possible outcome of an experiment angular velocity / radian frequency a complex cube root of unity — the other is σ² — (used to describe various ways of calculating the discrete Fourier transform)  vertical velocity in pressure-based coordinate systems (commonly used in atmospheric dynamics)   a meson the arithmetic function counting a number's distinct prime factors or N is more common in other areas of ) for functions that are infintely differentiable because they . are complex analytic  the set of natural numbers in set theory (although mathematics)     an asymptotically dominant quantity related to big O notation in probability theory. in dynamics a solid angle a baryon the arithmetic function counting a number's prime factors the right ascension of the ascending node in celestial mechanics the density parameter in cosmology σ represents: the first infinite ordinal the differentiability class (i. the ohm the rotation rate of an object.

is sometimes construed as omega with a bar over it. on an analytic space) the argument of periapsis in celestial mechanics the symbol ϖ. see π . a graphic variant of π.   a differential form (esp.