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# A = GB s

experiment 3

Goal of the experiment
The goal of the experiment is to understand the advantages and disadvantages of using integrators or differentiators as a building block in solving N th order differential equations or building an N th order filter.

- 1 V 0 sCR 3.1.2 Differentiators Vi = a1 + 1 + s k GB \$ RC GB A differentiator circuit that uses an OP-Amp is shown in Figure 3.2. C V0 Vi = - sRC s s 2 \$ RC 2 b1 + GB + GB l - sRC = s s2 b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l

N th

A = GB s - 1 V0 sCR = s Vi a1 + GB 1 \$ RC + GB k

A = GB s - 1 V0 sCR = s Vi a1 + GB 1 \$ RC + GB k

3.1 Brief theory and motivation

C C V0 V0 sRC - sRC = = differentiators Integrators V and can for sfilters. 2 2 be used as a building Vi block i s 2 \$ Filters RC 2 s s RC \$ 1 + signal b l + b1 + l + form the essential block in analog signal processing to improve to noise GB GB GB GB sRC sRC ratio. An OP-Amp can be used to construct an integrator or a differentiator. This = = 2 s s s s 2 advantage of integrators as building experiment is to understand blocks instead +~ b1 + ~ b1 + ~0 Q + the l 2l ~02 0Q 0 of differentiators. Differentiators are rejected because of their poor high-frequency ~0 ~0 noise response. ~ GB ~ GB Vpp Vpp Vp Vp Vpp = Vp \$ T 2 \$ RC T =1 f VI f
C R

- sRC ~0 = s s2 b1 + ~0 Q + ~0 The output of the differentiator remains at input offset (approximately 0). However, ~at GB any sudden disturbance the input causes it to ring at natural frequency ~0 .

C (3.2) V0 - sRC = 2 Vi s \$ b1 + GB + s GB

A = GB s (3.1) - 1 V0 sCR = Vi a1 + GB 1 \$ RC +

Vpp Vp
C
I

~ GB
R

Vpp Vp Vpp = Vp \$ T 2 \$ RC T =1 f f

Vpp = Vp \$ T 2 \$ RC T =1 f f I/SCR VO = -V

Vp \$ T V V pp = 2 \$ RC T =1 f f

VO = -SCRVI

Figure 3.2: Differentiator Figure 3.1: Integrator

3.2 Specifications
Fix the RC time constant of the integrator or differentiator so that the phase shift and magnitude variation of the ideal block remains unaffected by the active device parameters.

3.1.1 Integrators
N circuit that uses an OP-Amp is shown in Figure 3.1. An integrator Assuming A = GB s , A = GB s
th

N th

- 1 V0 sCR = - 1 s N th Vi V a1 + GB 1 k 0 + sCR \$ RC =GB A= Vi 1 + s CGB s 1+ 1 GB \$ RC GB V0 sRC V0 Vi = - sCR 2 2 s s RC \$ = b1 + 1 l + s Vi GBC GB a1 + k practice. The output goes to saturation For making it work a high valued resistance GB \$ RC + GBin - sRC in order to bring the OP-Amp to the active region where it across C must =be added 2 V - sRC s 0 s 1 + sRC + b = 2l can act V as an integrator. 0 - ~0 Q 0 V i ~2 s s 2 \$ RC 2 2 Vi = ~0b1 + s + s \$ RC l 1 + + GB GB GB GB page 28 ~ GB - sRC = - sRC Vpp 1 s s2 + 2 l= b + 2

3.3 Measurements to be taken
1
Transient Response - Apply the step input and square wave input to the integrator and study the output response. Apply the triangular and square input to the differentiator and study the output response. Frequency Response - Apply the sine wave input and study the phase error and magnitude error for integrator and differentiator.

a

k

b

l

2

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1 2

Simulate the integrator and differentiator and obtain the transient response and phase response. Take the plots of transient response and phase response on an oscilloscope and compare it with simulation results. S. No. 1 2 3 4 5 Table 3.1: Plot of Magnitude and Phase w.r.t. Input Frequency S. No. 1 2 3 4 Input Frequency Magnitude Phase Input Frequency Magnitude Phase

4

N th A = GB s

Figure 3.3: Frequency Response of integrator and differentiator

3

- 1 V0 sCR = s Vi a1 + GB 1 \$ RC + GB k 5 C Table 3.2: Plot of Magnitude and Input Frequency V0 Phase w.r.t. - sRC 2 Vi = s \$ RC 2 b1 + GB + s GB l Frequency Response - Apply a sine wave to the integrator (similarly to the - sRC = to obtain 2 differentiator) and vary the input frequency phase and magnitude 1 + s + s 2l b Q ~ error. Prepare a Table of the form 3.1. Figure 3.3 ~ shows the typical frequency 0 0 ~0 response for integrators and differentiators. For an integrator, the plot shows a phase lag which is proportional to ~ GB . The magnitude decreases with increasing frequency. For the differentiator, the phase will change rapidly at Vpp natural frequency in direct proportion V to quality factor. The magnitude peaks p at natural frequency and is directly proportional to the quality factor. Vpp = Vp \$ T 2 \$ RC

S. No. 1 2 3 4

Peak Value of input Vp

Peak to Peak value of output

Table 3.3: Variation of Peak to Peak value of output w.r.t. Peak value of Input page 29

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T =1 f f

experiment 3

3.4 What should you submit

b1 + GB + GB l - sRC C - sRC2 = V0 - sRC 2 s s2 s s RC \$ 2 - sRC b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l b1 + l Vi = s \$R V0 GB + GB sRC = 2 1 b + GB + s GB s s 2 2 Vi = 1 s s RC \$ + + b l ~l 0 - sRC b1 + GB ~0 Q ~02 + = - sRC s s 2 ~0 GB ~ GB = b1 + ~0 Q + ~ l s s2 2 0 sRC b1 + ~0 Q + ~0 = 2 s s V GB ~ ~0 b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l pp ~0 Vp Vpp ~ GB ~0 ~ GB Transient response - Apply the wave Vpas \$ T an input to integrator, vary Vp square Vpp V pp = GB ~ Vpp value the peak amplitude of the square wave and the peak to peak RC 2 \$obtain Vp \$ T Vp pp = T f 1 = of output wave. Vpp is directlyVproportional to peak voltage of input Vp and is 2 \$ RC \$pT , where T = 1 f , f being the input frequency. given by Vpp = VpV 2 \$ RC Vpp = Vp \$ T 2 \$ RC V T \$ f p T = 1 f Vpp = T 1 = RC \$ 2 Figure 3.4 shows sample output waveforms obtained through simulation. f f T =1 f f f
V0 Vi =

C1 R1 + U1 VF1 C2

R2

VF2 U2

3.5 Exercise Set 3 - Grounded Capacitor Topologies of Integrator and Differentiator
Determine the function of the circuits shown in Figure 3.5. What are the advantages and disadvantages of these circuits when compared to their conventional counterparts?
C R R R R VO = 2VI/SCR C VI R R R VO = sCRVI/2 R

experiment 3

VI

Figure 3.5: Circuit for Exercise 3

Notes on Experiment 3:

Figure 3.4: Outputs of integrator and differentiator for square-wave and triangular-wave inputs page 30

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