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# 0 0 0 0 2 V02 i s ~0 s 2 Vi s 20\$ H as k Vi = 1 a~ -s -0H02\$ ~ k s s 2 V02 = V02 ++ b1 + 2l 2l V ~ 02 0 0 Vi = b1 + ~0sQ + ~ + + b l H \$ 1 s 0 b l 2 Q ~ ~ 0 0 V 0 2 i C l s s = = Q ~ ~ 0 0 + ~ b1 + ~0 Q 2 0 V 1i + 04Vi +~ bV 2 2 s C 2s s 02 l s 2 ~02 = Q

~ s 2 s 0 1 1 + + + + b l b l s V i + s ~02 0 0 b1 + ~ b1 2 l \$ Hs ~0 Q ~02 0Q b1 + ~02 l \$ H0R s02 l \$\$ H + b1 ~ 0+ V04 2l V04 s2 ~ 1 0 + Q ~ 2 2 b ~ V 0 0 04 2 l H2 H \$ 1 = = b + ~02 l s0 2 s R = V04 i s~0 s Vi s b1s+ b1 + ~02 l \$ H0 s s 2 V04 = V04 + +1~ 2 l~02 l \$ H0 Vi b1 2l R V 1 Vi = b1 + ~0sQ + ~ + + b s 1 ~ Q 2l ~ 0 04 0 0 V 0 i s s2 2 = = ~ ~ 0Q 0 2 b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l 2 Q 1 R + +~ b V V 2l i i s s s s2 Q ~ 0 + 1 1 1+ b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l b0 2l 1 H Q BPF ~0 1 1 0 ~ 0 Q ~ ~ 0 0 2 2 1~ 0 1 LPF 2 2Q 1HPF 2 Q ~0 1 - 2Q 2 1 ~ 1 0 1 10- 1 H0 Q 2Q H0 Q ~ 1 2- 1 2 ~0 2Q H0 Q 4Q 2 2Q 2 2Q H0 Q1 H 0Q 1 1 - 12 1 - dz2 H0 Q H0 Q 1- 1 2 4 Q 4 Q 4Q 1d~ 1- 1 2 1 1 R 4Q 2 dz 4Q dz 1 12 dz R ~ ~ 0 4Q = 4Q 2 z d dz ~ d d~ ~ d z z d d d~ 2Q d~ ~ ~ = ~0= ~0 Q•R ~ = ~0 d0~ d~ ~ ~ = ~0 ~ = ~0 - 2Q - 2Q ~0~ = ~0 ~ = ~0 2Q -BSF 2 ~ ~0 0Q - 2Q ~0 VI ~0 H0Q2Q ~0 - 2Q ~0 ~0 0

2 N 2 N 20 = 1 RC ~ 20 = 1 RC ~ ~ 0 = 1 RC H 0 = 1 RC ~ H0 0 H 0 Goal of the experiment V03 +H H 0 V H0 03 = 0 + 2 V i s Low Pass Filter V H0+ s 03 = + 2 1 V + i b s s = V H0+ ~0 03 + 2l To understand the working of four types of second order filters, namely, Low 2 Q V i = b1 + ~0 s s 2l 2 Q+ Pass, High Pass, Band Pass, and Band Stop filters, and study their frequency Vi 1 + ~0 0 s s b 2l 2 ~ ~0 Qs+ b1 + 2 ~0 characteristics (phase and magnitude). ~00 \$Qs 22 l~02 l bH 0\$ ~ bH s0 V01 2l 2 H0 \$ ~ s0 b V 01 = 2l 2 V H \$ ~ i = 02 l s 2 b 0s ~ V High Pass Filter 01 1 V + + 0 i b sQ ~ s 22 l V 01 = V + i = b1 + ~0 s s0 2l 2 Q+ ~ Vi 1 + ~0 02 l s s b 4.1 Brief theory and motivation s ~02 l ~ 0Q + b1 + H N 0\$ s ~ ak0 ~ 0Q V H 02 0\$ ~ a k s0 N22 = V ~ N 02 H \$ N 0 0 a ks 2 s N Second order filters (or biquard filters) are important since they are the building V i = s V H 02 0 \$ ~0 k a N N N 1 V N 2 2 in the construction +0 ~ N 2 2of N order filters, for N 2 2 . When N is odd, the N order i = b + sQ ~ s2 V 02 2l Band Pass Filter 2 blocks V + i = b1 + ~0 s s0 N22 2l N 2 2 2 1 second -2 N Q ~ ~ V 1 0 0 filter can be realizedN using N N order filters When i + ~sQ b N2 2 2 N and one first order filter. 2 + s 2l 2 N 1 ~ s + + 0 0 b N 2l 2 Nis 1 even, we need N - 1 second order filters. Please H \$ 1 Q ~ ~ N lecture 0 + 0s N - 1listen to the recorded 0 b l NN 2 2 1 for a detailed explanation N2 2 ~ N-1 b1 s0 V04 at [19] 2 l \$ H0 2 N - 1of active filters. 2 2 ~ 1+ 02 l \$ H0 + s b V N2 2 N-1 N 04 = N 1 RC ~ =2 V 1+s 2 ~02 l \$ H i = s02 b+ V N 04 2 2 N 2 1 ~ V + 0 i b s s2 = V 04 2l N N Second order filter can used types of filters. 2 = 1 RC H 2 ~ 2 The transfer RC to construct four different ~ be =1 Q ~ ~ 1 V 0 0 + + 1 RC b l i ~ = s s Band Stop Filter = 2 2 types are shown in Table 4.1, where ~ = 1 2RC and ~ = 1 RCfor the different filter Q ~ ~ V 1 functions i + ~0 sQ + ~ s 02 b V ~ 1 RC +H 2l H H ~ = 1 RC = = H 1 + ~02 l 0 b +1 V of the transfer s s function. The filter names H is the low frequency gain H are often ~ 0Q 0 ~0 1 - 1 b1 V V H+ ~ Q + ~ lV +H + 2 HFilter), H Filter), H (Band Pass + = = 2 Q 1 ~ abbreviated as LPF (Low-pass HPF (High-pass Filter), BPF 0 1 = V H s V + 2 s s s V H + V s s ~0 1 - 2Q +~ b1 + b1 + lsHl we 12 V~ V = + ~ Q +a~ b1 describe l s l bH ~ sQ + Q+ ~ \$+ and BSF (Band Stop Filter). In this experiment, will universal V = V active sH = = s ++ 1 ~0 H Q Q -2 ~ 0 Active b1 + l Table 4.1: Transfer functions of Filters V 1 2 + b l V V s s s s Q ~ provides ~ all the four = Q ~ s ~ s 2 Q H Q 1 1 0 + + + + b l b l filter, which filter functionalities. Figure 4.1 shows a second s V bH \$ s~ bH \$ ~ l l s Q Q ~ ~ ~ H \$ b l s 1 H Q + + b l ~ 0 V 1 s ~ there are different ~ Qintegrators. b H \$ ~filter l V realized ~ V order using two Note that = bH \$ ~ l s 1H 0 Q1 2 V = universal s s V s s H \$ ss l V = V b bH \$ ~ l s s = 1 1 + + 4Q 1 b l + + b l = ~ 12 outputs of the circuit that realize LPF, HPF, BPF and BSF functions. V ~ Q aV H \$ 1 k V + + b l s s Q ~ ~ ~ V s s = V V = ~ ~ Q ~ 4 Q 1 b1 + ~ Q + ~ l 12 1+ + bV l s s s s = s s ~ 1 4 Q z d Va- H \$b1 + + + ~~ +~ l s s~ l b1Q s H \$ a k k Q Q 1 ~ H \$ + + b l a k s V ~~ Q ~ V 4Q 2 dz s ~ a- H \$ ~ k V = = a- H \$ k s s
th th th th th th th th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 i 0 0 0 0 03 2 0 0 0 03 i 03 i i 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 03 i 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 03 i 0 03 0 01 i i 0 2 00 2 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 03 i 2 0 01 01 i i 2 0 2 0 2 01 i 2 0 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 01 i 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 02 i 01 0 i 2 00 2 0 2 01 i 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 01 i 2 2 0 0 0 02 0 02 0 2 2 0 0 02 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 0

experiment 4

z d~ z d~ d~ ~ 0 =~ d~ ~ ~0 = ~ 0 = Q~ -2 ~ ~0 = 2 Q -~ 20Q -~ 20Q -~ ~0 0 ~~ 0 0 ~ 0 H 0Q ~ H0 Q
0

H0 0Q kHz ~ =1 H 0Q ~0 1 kHz = ~ 1 kHz =1 Q0 ~ 1 kHz =1 Q0= =

H0 Q H0 Q ~0 = 1 kHz ~0 = 1 kHz Q=1 Q=1 ~0 = 10 kHz ~ 0 = 10 kHz page 32 Q = 10 Q = 10 f = 1 kHz

~0

H0 Q

H0 Q QH 1 =0 Q ~0 = 1 kHz H0 Q ~0 = 1 kHz ~0 = 1 kHz kHz 10 0 = Figure 4.1: A Second-order Universal Active Filter Q= 1 ~ kHz ~ ~ 1 0 = 0 = 1 kHz Q=1 Q=1 QkHz 10 = ~0 = 10 Q=1 Q=1 ~0 = 10 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz 1 kHz Q = 10 f = ~0 = 10 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz Q = 10 f = 10 kHz f = 1 kHz Q = 10

R/H 0 ~ 0 ~0 = 1 kHz ~0

~0

H0 Q

~0

~0 ~0

= 10 Q =1 f kHz = Q 10 = Figure 4.2: Magnitude and Phase response of LPF, BPF, BSF, and HPF filters f= kHz 1 f kHz 1 f= kHz 10 kHz =1 f Analog kHz 10 System Lab Kit PRO f= 10 = 4 \$10 Vp kHz f= kHz

Q0= ~ 10 kHz =1 Q0= 1 ~ 10 kHz = ~ 0 = 10 kHz Q0= 10 ~ 10 kHz Q =10

4.2 Specification

4.3 Measurements to be taken

experiment 4

Frequency Response of Filters

4.4 What you should submit

experiment 4

4.5 Exercise Set 4
1

2

Q=1 H0 Q Q=1 ~0 = 10 kHz ~0 = 1 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz Q = 10 Q=1 Q = 10 f = 1 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz f = 1 kHz f = 10 kHz Q = 10 Higher order filters are normally f = 10 kHz 4 \$ Vp designed by cascading second order filters f = 1 kHz \$ Q Design a third order Butterworth Lowpass r \$ H0 and, ifp needed, one first- order filter. 4\$V f= kHz 10 V p Q \$H \$ r Filter using FilterPro and obtain the frequency response as well as the 0 4 Vp 4 \$ Vp response of the ~ rad/s \$ r \$ 10 0 = 2The transient filter. specifications are bandwidth of the filter r \$ H0 \$ Q ~0 = 2 \$ r \$ 10 4 rad/s and H0 = 10. Vp H0 = 10 y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i ~0 = 2 \$ r \$ 10 4 rad/s Design a notch filter (band-stop _ i t t sin 100 0.1 sin y r i+ _ _200rt i filter) to eliminate the 50Hz power = H0 = frequency. 10 life In order to test this circuit, synthesize a waveform y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i Volts and use it as the input to the filter. What output did you obtain?

~0 ~0 = 1 kHz

H0 Q

~0 = 1 kHz

Related Circuits
The circuit described in Figure 4.1 is a universal active filter circuit. While this circuit can be built with OP-Amps, a specialized IC called UAF42 from Texas Instruments provides the functionality of the Universal Active Filter. We encourage you to use this circuit and understand its function. Datasheet of UAF42 is available from http://www.ti.com. Also refer to the application notes [7], [11], and [12].

Notes on Experiment 4:

page 34

Analog System Lab Kit PRO