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0 0 0 0 2 V02 i s ~0 s 2 Vi s 20$ H as k Vi = 1 a~ -s -0H02$ ~ k s s 2 V02 = V02 ++ b1 + 2l 2l V ~ 02 0 0 Vi = b1 + ~0sQ + ~ + + b l H $ 1 s 0 b l 2 Q ~ ~ 0 0 V 0 2 i C l s s = = Q ~ ~ 0 0 + ~ b1 + ~0 Q 2 0 V 1i + 04Vi +~ bV 2 2 s C 2s s 02 l s 2 ~02 = Q

~ s 2 s 0 1 1 + + + + b l b l s V i + s ~02 0 0 b1 + ~ b1 2 l $ Hs ~0 Q ~02 0Q b1 + ~02 l $ H0R s02 l $$ H + b1 ~ 0+ V04 2l V04 s2 ~ 1 0 + Q ~ 2 2 b ~ V 0 0 04 2 l H2 H $ 1 = = b + ~02 l s0 2 s R = V04 i s~0 s Vi s b1s+ b1 + ~02 l $ H0 s s 2 V04 = V04 + +1~ 2 l~02 l $ H0 Vi b1 2l R V 1 Vi = b1 + ~0sQ + ~ + + b s 1 ~ Q 2l ~ 0 04 0 0 V 0 i s s2 2 = = ~ ~ 0Q 0 2 b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l 2 Q 1 R + +~ b V V 2l i i s s s s2 Q ~ 0 + 1 1 1+ b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l b0 2l 1 H Q BPF ~0 1 1 0 ~ 0 Q ~ ~ 0 0 2 2 1~ 0 1 LPF 2 2Q 1HPF 2 Q ~0 1 - 2Q 2 1 ~ 1 0 1 10- 1 H0 Q 2Q H0 Q ~ 1 2- 1 2 ~0 2Q H0 Q 4Q 2 2Q 2 2Q H0 Q1 H 0Q 1 1 - 12 1 - dz2 H0 Q H0 Q 1- 1 2 4 Q 4 Q 4Q 1d~ 1- 1 2 1 1 R 4Q 2 dz 4Q dz 1 12 dz R ~ ~ 0 4Q = 4Q 2 z d dz ~ d d~ ~ d z z d d d~ 2Q d~ ~ ~ = ~0= ~0 Q•R ~ = ~0 d0~ d~ ~ ~ = ~0 ~ = ~0 - 2Q - 2Q ~0~ = ~0 ~ = ~0 2Q -BSF 2 ~ ~0 0Q - 2Q ~0 VI ~0 H0Q2Q ~0 - 2Q ~0 ~0 0

2 N 2 N 20 = 1 RC ~ 20 = 1 RC ~ ~ 0 = 1 RC H 0 = 1 RC ~ H0 0 H 0 Goal of the experiment V03 +H H 0 V H0 03 = 0 + 2 V i s Low Pass Filter V H0+ s 03 = + 2 1 V + i b s s = V H0+ ~0 03 + 2l To understand the working of four types of second order filters, namely, Low 2 Q V i = b1 + ~0 s s 2l 2 Q+ Pass, High Pass, Band Pass, and Band Stop filters, and study their frequency Vi 1 + ~0 0 s s b 2l 2 ~ ~0 Qs+ b1 + 2 ~0 characteristics (phase and magnitude). ~00 $Qs 22 l~02 l bH 0$ ~ bH s0 V01 2l 2 H0 $ ~ s0 b V 01 = 2l 2 V H $ ~ i = 02 l s 2 b 0s ~ V High Pass Filter 01 1 V + + 0 i b sQ ~ s 22 l V 01 = V + i = b1 + ~0 s s0 2l 2 Q+ ~ Vi 1 + ~0 02 l s s b 4.1 Brief theory and motivation s ~02 l ~ 0Q + b1 + H N 0$ s ~ ak0 ~ 0Q V H 02 0$ ~ a k s0 N22 = V ~ N 02 H $ N 0 0 a ks 2 s N Second order filters (or biquard filters) are important since they are the building V i = s V H 02 0 $ ~0 k a N N N 1 V N 2 2 in the construction +0 ~ N 2 2of N order filters, for N 2 2 . When N is odd, the N order i = b + sQ ~ s2 V 02 2l Band Pass Filter 2 blocks V + i = b1 + ~0 s s0 N22 2l N 2 2 2 1 second -2 N Q ~ ~ V 1 0 0 filter can be realizedN using N N order filters When i + ~sQ b N2 2 2 N and one first order filter. 2 + s 2l 2 N 1 ~ s + + 0 0 b N 2l 2 Nis 1 even, we need N - 1 second order filters. Please H $ 1 Q ~ ~ N lecture 0 + 0s N - 1listen to the recorded 0 b l NN 2 2 1 for a detailed explanation N2 2 ~ N-1 b1 s0 V04 at [19] 2 l $ H0 2 N - 1of active filters. 2 2 ~ 1+ 02 l $ H0 + s b V N2 2 N-1 N 04 = N 1 RC ~ =2 V 1+s 2 ~02 l $ H i = s02 b+ V N 04 2 2 N 2 1 ~ V + 0 i b s s2 = V 04 2l N N Second order filter can used types of filters. 2 = 1 RC H 2 ~ 2 The transfer RC to construct four different ~ be =1 Q ~ ~ 1 V 0 0 + + 1 RC b l i ~ = s s Band Stop Filter = 2 2 types are shown in Table 4.1, where ~ = 1 2RC and ~ = 1 RCfor the different filter Q ~ ~ V 1 functions i + ~0 sQ + ~ s 02 b V ~ 1 RC +H 2l H H ~ = 1 RC = = H 1 + ~02 l 0 b +1 V of the transfer s s function. The filter names H is the low frequency gain H are often ~ 0Q 0 ~0 1 - 1 b1 V V H+ ~ Q + ~ lV +H + 2 HFilter), H Filter), H (Band Pass + = = 2 Q 1 ~ abbreviated as LPF (Low-pass HPF (High-pass Filter), BPF 0 1 = V H s V + 2 s s s V H + V s s ~0 1 - 2Q +~ b1 + b1 + lsHl we 12 V~ V = + ~ Q +a~ b1 describe l s l bH ~ sQ + Q+ ~ $+ and BSF (Band Stop Filter). In this experiment, will universal V = V active sH = = s ++ 1 ~0 H Q Q -2 ~ 0 Active b1 + l Table 4.1: Transfer functions of Filters V 1 2 + b l V V s s s s Q ~ provides ~ all the four = Q ~ s ~ s 2 Q H Q 1 1 0 + + + + b l b l filter, which filter functionalities. Figure 4.1 shows a second s V bH $ s~ bH $ ~ l l s Q Q ~ ~ ~ H $ b l s 1 H Q + + b l ~ 0 V 1 s ~ there are different ~ Qintegrators. b H $ ~filter l V realized ~ V order using two Note that = bH $ ~ l s 1H 0 Q1 2 V = universal s s V s s H $ ss l V = V b bH $ ~ l s s = 1 1 + + 4Q 1 b l + + b l = ~ 12 outputs of the circuit that realize LPF, HPF, BPF and BSF functions. V ~ Q aV H $ 1 k V + + b l s s Q ~ ~ ~ V s s = V V = ~ ~ Q ~ 4 Q 1 b1 + ~ Q + ~ l 12 1+ + bV l s s s s = s s ~ 1 4 Q z d Va- H $b1 + + + ~~ +~ l s s~ l b1Q s H $ a k k Q Q 1 ~ H $ + + b l a k s V ~~ Q ~ V 4Q 2 dz s ~ a- H $ ~ k V = = a- H $ k s s
th th th th th th th th 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 03 i 0 0 0 0 03 2 0 0 0 03 i 03 i i 0 2 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 03 i 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 2 0 03 i 0 03 0 01 i i 0 2 00 2 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 03 i 2 0 01 01 i i 2 0 2 0 2 01 i 2 0 0 2 0 2 2 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 01 i 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 02 i 01 0 i 2 00 2 0 2 01 i 2 0 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 01 i 2 2 0 0 0 02 0 02 0 2 2 0 0 02 2 0 2 0 2 0 0 2 0

experiment 4

z d~ z d~ d~ ~ 0 =~ d~ ~ ~0 = ~ 0 = Q~ -2 ~ ~0 = 2 Q -~ 20Q -~ 20Q -~ ~0 0 ~~ 0 0 ~ 0 H 0Q ~ H0 Q
0

H0 0Q kHz ~ =1 H 0Q ~0 1 kHz = ~ 1 kHz =1 Q0 ~ 1 kHz =1 Q0= =

H0 Q H0 Q ~0 = 1 kHz ~0 = 1 kHz Q=1 Q=1 ~0 = 10 kHz ~ 0 = 10 kHz page 32 Q = 10 Q = 10 f = 1 kHz

~0

H0 Q

H0 Q QH 1 =0 Q ~0 = 1 kHz H0 Q ~0 = 1 kHz ~0 = 1 kHz kHz 10 0 = Figure 4.1: A Second-order Universal Active Filter Q= 1 ~ kHz ~ ~ 1 0 = 0 = 1 kHz Q=1 Q=1 QkHz 10 = ~0 = 10 Q=1 Q=1 ~0 = 10 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz 1 kHz Q = 10 f = ~0 = 10 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz Q = 10 f = 10 kHz f = 1 kHz Q = 10

R/H 0 ~ 0 ~0 = 1 kHz ~0

~0

H0 Q

~0

~0 ~0

= 10 Q =1 f kHz = Q 10 = Figure 4.2: Magnitude and Phase response of LPF, BPF, BSF, and HPF filters f= kHz 1 f kHz 1 f= kHz 10 kHz =1 f Analog kHz 10 System Lab Kit PRO f= 10 = 4 $10 Vp kHz f= kHz

Q0= ~ 10 kHz =1 Q0= 1 ~ 10 kHz = ~ 0 = 10 kHz Q0= 10 ~ 10 kHz Q =10

00$ 0 b1 + ~0+ l 02 = + b1s+ l a- H k0 Q ~ Q 02~ 00 00 = Q ~ ~ ~ 1~ 2 + ~sN l N V02 Q 2 ~ s 2 ~02 02 Vi Vi b1 s + s Vi = ~0 Q N s ~ N22 N th ~ 0Q 0 s0 2 2 2 N 1$ + + b 1 H + + s s 2l 0 l V H 2l b l + 2 03 = 0 + 2 s b1 + 2 2 s $ V H 0 k 03 0 + V s i = 2 a- H Q ~ s s ~ s 0 0 2 Q H $ ~ ~ 0 a k 0 ~ 0 H $ 1 ~ 00Q V 0 0 + b l 01 H $ V 0 2 l ~ b l 1 N 2 = 02 2 0 s H $ 1 2 0 a k H $ 1 + + b 2 0 + l ~ V02 b Vi = 2 0 04 s s0 ~0~0 = N N22 Vi V02 s0 $1s 2s V01 0N ~ 2V b ls Q+~ 0 RC ~02 s 22 b10 + sH 10 ~ 2= Vi =~ 2Vi V01 sQ s 22 l V04 = + = b ~ = 0 $ H + 11 RC ~1 22 ~ 0b = 2 l2 Vi = s 1 0 + Hs l20lQ 2 + ~02 l + b10 + 2 0$ 2V ii b l ss ss 22~ V ~ b1 + ~ V 0s 2 i s = 1 V s + + i b l s s 2 Q N-1 2 ~ N Q ~ ~ 0 2 ~ 0 0 1 V 0 ~0 Q2 ~00 + V 04 V01b1 + ~0+ 1+ N 2$ H +~ l H b l i2 s 2l b1 + 2 + l 02 bb1+ sl 2~ 00Q 00 = = ~0 Q Q 1s RC ~ Q +~ ~ ~ 0 = Q ~ ~02 s 0 2 0 + + b1 l 2 0 2 V04 H0 b H0~ 2 $ V H i 0 Q~0 Q s s V 2 ~0 s i s 2 2l H $ s 0 b l ~ 0 2 N-1 2 s + a01 k+ ~ ~l 1H 0 $ H0 +0 $ ~Q b V 2 ++ 01 = b1 l 2 b1 + s 1 H0 $ Vs 0l s V V H i sH V03 02 02 k b1 0 N ~ 1 2l$ 000 b H 0 0 l $ H0 ~~ ~ 0Q V H ~02 + + ~ 03= 1~ RC ~ 0 0 1 - a-2 1 s V 2 l 0 =1 + 04 = b1 + 2 = 2 = 0 2 1 ~ V 2 04 V 2 i = ~ s s 20 V 1 02 = H a iV 20 $ s k s s ~0 s s 2 Vi 0 022 VV 04 sQ 2 l 0Q + ~ s s 2 0 Q2 1i + ~ = 2Q bV i 4 Vi 1 2 + 0 l s0 +~ +~ b1 l = 1Q + 2H b1 + ++ N b0s l Vi = 2 2 s0$ s V s V 2 Q + ~ 03+ 0 + s 0 Vs a- H ki2 l 0 Q1 1 1~0= H b ~ b1 + 1 2l Vi0 0 2s 0 s 2 Q ~ ~ 2l ~~ ~02 H 0 0Q V02 + ~ = ~0 2H 0 = 1 RC + + b l Q ~ V ~ 0 Q b1 + 0 2 Q 0 i 2d s s 2 z ~ ~ 0Q 0 1 + ~2 l b l s 2 ~0 Q ~02 ~0 1 i + s s2 ~0 Q ~0 b1 + s 2 V 2 s2 +s ~02 0Q 1 and Vi = 1 H s BPF, s 2 Q + ~2l 0 $ and ak phase b0 V03 H0~shown ~ The magnitude response of LPF, BSF, HPF filters are in 0Q H 0$ + s 1 H Q a k 0+ 2 ~ d 1 1 H $ 1 H 0 H 1 + V 1 RC ~ ~ b l Q ~ b l 0 + + 02 0 00 $ = b l 0 2 0 = si V 1~0 Q ~02 4Q1 V V02 1 0 $ ~0 l 2 bH 1V ~0 = 2 ~02 s ~02 1 2 04 $H ~ 01 s~ s2 0 0 41 2 b + peaks = ~02 21 Q 2 Simulate the circuits and obtain the Steady-State response and Frequency 2l V 2 011 2 Q ~ Vi H0 Q Figure 4.2. Note that the low-pass filter frequency response at 0+ 1 = 0 s s = = 1 s ~ 2 2 Q + V b l 0 i H s s $ 1 V 2 2 0 + 2 2 04 b l = 1 2 V03 1i + H0 z = + H0 Vi V042 + s 2 l sdz bV s2 b1 s d Q ~V ~ b H0s$22l 0 0 s2Q + + ~ 2l 0 iQ s 4 ~ 0 Q1 0Q 0 + H $V + + b12 l ~ + ~~ b1 Q V 20 H0 Q b1 + ~02 l d 2l 0 2 1H i0 01+~ s s 1 +~ b l0 response. = Vi = Q ~s 2 s s2 2 Q H ~ 02 0 ~ 0 Q~ 0Q 0 V = 1 04 2 + + 4Q b l ~ V ~ 0Q 0 i 2 s s 2 1 ~ d V H 2 + + ~2l z d 03 0 + b s 1 V H = i + s l s s ~ 0$ ~ l 0Q 0 b 1 2 + 2 b 1 ~ Q = ~ 0 0 0 2 H $ 1 . The phase is 1 maximum at and hasb a value equal s to 10 + l H 1 i1 ~~ s ~ s +$ ~ ~0 sensitivity b H0Q + ~ 2 l 0 0Q =l +~ V01~0 d1 b1 1 z d04 Vi s s2 2 ~ 0$ ak~ =V 0 4 Q 2 ~02 V 2 +~ b1 0 H002$l s 0 k = ~ 2 2~ 4 Q+ 1 1 04 2 1 - 2 a+ + b V ~ s ~ 02 0 2l 0V = ~ 4 Q 2 Q V 0Q 0 ~ V 02 0 i s s 2 Take the plots of the Steady-State response and Frequency response from the ~2 = 0 ~0 Q ~0 b H0 $ 2 l ~ d 1 = 22 s V i s 2 z d Q 1 - 2Q 2 ~ = 0 1 =1~ + ~ 2 l ss a- s V b i 2$ z V ~ 0 + 2d Q ~0 s s V01s 2 1i + bs H V +~ 0l k b0 i z b s2 Q d H Q0 ~ 2l 0 0H 1 + + 1Q 2 Q 21 Q0 + +~ ~ V and is given . This information phase variation can be used ~ =~ ~0 2 l~0 02+ 0 oscilloscope and compare it with simulation results. 1 0 by ~ + 0 about b l d~ 1 Q ~ ~ 2 0 0 H Q H $i = 2 ~0 Q 0 0V ~ 0 b d~ 0 = s s2 2l Q ~ ~ -2 0Q 0 s 2 2 Q ~ d 1 ~0 b1 + H Vi 1 V01 0Q s s + ~2l H $ kHz 2 a desired frequency ~0 . This is demonstrated 0 in a k 1 filter s 1to tune to the next ~ ~ = 2 th 0 = Q~ 2 1 1 -02 = ~ 1 + + ~ 0Q 0 b l ~ ~ 0 ~ =H V ~ 0 0 02 2 2 10 0 ~ s - the N 0Q 1~01 ~= ~0 Vi 1~0 Q ~0 s s 2 = 1 4Q 2Q 2 b1 + ~02 l $ H0 + b 21 2 l $ H0 2 Q 1 s 4Q 2 Vi d +input + b Frequency Response Apply a sine wave input and vary its frequency experiment. s s 2l ~ H ~ 0 0Q 0Q 2 2 20Q V04 = V 3 1 04 -~ th = z H $ 1 Q ~ ~ 0 a k H Q 0 0 2Q 0 4Q + b1 + ~ N2 2 N = H0 Q 2 V02 H Q~02 l s b1 + ss2 2 l $ H Vi 0Q ~~ s s 2 -~1 - 4Q 2 dz Q 0 0 0 0V i to obtain the phase and magnitude error. Use Table 4.2 and 4.3 to= note your ~0 2 s d~dH ~2 b1 + ~0 Q + ~ 0 0l ~0 = 1 kHz Q V z0~ 2l 04+ 1 + b 0 = 10 2 V ~0kHz H 1 s s ~ 0i $ a k 00 = 1 kHz 1 N N 2 2 = ~ d s ~0 0Q ~ ~0 b1 + - 4Q + 02 d H0 Qthe 2 01 10 Vi0 2 ~by ~ H 1 ~ The nature of graphs should be as shown V above. For bandpass filter, the magnitude response peaks at ~ = and is given 0 + s2 0z b l $4 ~ d~ 2 = ~0 Q ~02 l ~ 2 Q 1 Q 1 b1 + s + readings. kHz 1~ = 0Q = 0 1 10 V = ~ ~ 04 2l 0 = V i s s Q 1 = N - 1 + 2l s2 N d~ ~0 Q ~0 1~ 0 = H ~ ~ 0Q b1 + 2 0 The bandstop response .s0 1 kHz ~ dz 0 =. 1 2 2 Q= ~d H0 Q a null magnitude 2Q 2 filter shows Vi at ~ H 0 Q s 2Q ~ 2 0 Q ~0b1 + ~02 l $ H0 Q 1z 02 = = f= kHz 1 1+ ~ 10 ~ Q10 kHz + 0 = b 1 kHz ~ 2l 0 = 1 N V ~ ~ d 04 0 2 Q ~ ~ 1H0 Q ~ 0 d~ ~ 1 kHz 00 2 Q =1 Q0= 2 s H Q 0 ~0 = 1 kHz N ~kHz 0 kHz = 1 kHz 2Q b1 + ~ l $ H0 Q~ Vi02 = 2 10 =0 10 0f s s2 = 10 2Q ~0 ~ ~ = ~0 Q 10 ~ = ~ ~ 0 = 1 1 0 1 = V04 2 b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l Q0= ~0 1 H ~0 kHz 10 1 ~ 0Q - 4Q 2 =1 Q~ 2 1 = =0 1 N 2 2 Q 1 2Q f = 1 kHz Q 10 Vi 0 = s 1 RC s 4 VQ $2 p = 4Q H0 ~ Q ~0 = - 2Q f = 1 kHz 1 + ~2l 1 2 b1 + kHz 10 ~ 0= = ~ H0 Q Q~ 10 H0 Q 1kHz dz ~ ~~ - 4Q 2 00 = 10 kHz 0Q 0 $H $ 0Q r1 0 1 z d 0 0 10 ~ = ~ f kHz 10 0 H Q f kHz = 0 = ~0 = 1 kHz H0 Stop - 2Q 2 ~0 = 1 RC Band f = 10 kHz Band Pass d~ 1 Q 10 1 V =1 p H Q ~ kHz ~ 1 ~ d f0 kHz 0 0 = = Q = 10 ~ 0Q 1dz H0 Q + H0 = 10 4 $ Vp kHz ~4 f kHz 10 01 =2 1 Q= Q V03 H0 ~0 1 - 2 Q2 ~ = ~0 4 $ Vp ~2 ~d 0 = = Phase Magnitude f0 kHz $r ~0 H $ 10 ~ 4 rad/s S.No. Input Frequency Phase Magnitude = = kHz ~ 1 H Q1 Q kHz 10 0 = = H Q $ $ r f kHz 1 01 1s Q = 0 V i s2 dz r $ H0 $ Q H0 Q 41 $V p f = 1 kHz kHz 10 ~0 Q V03 == +4~ + H0 1 b12Q 2Q ~ = ~0 Q02Q + ~02 l V p 0 = 10 kHz d~ = f kHz 10 H 10 = 0~ = Q 1 kHz ~ 1 ~ 4 V $ 2 = 0 = p V H Q $ $ r p f kHz 10 0 kHz 1 1 = Design ~ a0 Band Pass and a Band Stop filter. For the BPF, assume and Vi f= 10 kHz 1 = kHz ~0 = 100 ~ 2 1+ - 4s 0 z ds 2 b1 4 Q = 10 $H r4 2Q rt i 0.1 sin _200rt i 0$ Q Q 4 0p =~ rad 2 $ .r $ 10~ /s V 0 = = 10 Q + ~02 l b H0 $ s 2 l ~0 p For kHz 10 ~4 Q 1.~ Q 0 i= =$ V t~ sin 100 y_ Q the BSF, assume and _ =4 + rad 2= /s ~ ~0 = r $ $V 0 1 p $ 10 0 ~ d ~ V $ p~ 0 Vs Q1 10 012 = 0 V p $ H0 $ Q f= kHz dz r 4 = H010 $Q r H 10 20 r $= r $ 10 =1 Q$10 ~0 = 10 f0= kHz - 2Q ~0 =~ Qrad/s $H b H0 $ V l = ~0 s = 0 $kHz H0 = H0 kHz Q i 2~ s2 2 ~ 0 H 0 Q 10 ~ d ~ 0 Vp0 = 2 1 V f kHz 1 + + 01 = b $ r $ 10 4 rad/s ~ ~f 2l 0 = 10 kHz Vp = Q ~ ~ V 0 0 p200rt i 2 H0.1 10 0 = sin ti y rt i + _100 _ = _sin f= 1 kHz Q = 10 f_= kHz 10 = sin Vi ~ = ~0 s 2 Q ~ s 0 = 1 kHz Q 10 4 _ i 200 t t t 100 0.1 sin y r r _ i i = H + 0Q kHz ~ 1 0 = ~ 0 4 rad s 2 10 / $ ~ r $ b1 + ~ Q + ~ H0 0 = 10 4f $= Vp 10 kHz 4 ~0 = 2 $ r $ 10 rad/s H $ s ~2 l rad 2$r 10 /s _ ~ 0 = 3 if 200rt i sin sin y0_$tQ rt$1 _100 i = + 0.1 f = 10 kHz f = 1 kHz 4 $ Vp Q=1 - 2Q 0 V02 s= 00 a- 0 ~0 k kHz 11 = kHz ~0 = r$H Q = H 0Q H_ 10 0t 4 V = $ p ~ i= 200 t sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _H y r 0 i 10 0 = r $ H0 $ Q $i k 1 ~0 a- H0 V s s2 H0 = 10 V 4 $ Vp f = 10 p r $ H0 $fQ V02 ~kHz ~0 b + + ~2l 0 = 10 kHz kHz 10 = Q 1 = kHz 10 ~ 0 = kHz ~ 1 0 = = Q ~ 200 t isin _100rt iV y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _ r 0 0 p 0.1 sin _200rt i Hs 2 0Q 4 _t y = + H $i r 0$ Q Vi ~0 s _ t4i p 2 $ r $y = sin rad 10 /s _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i ~0 V 4 $ VQ = p = 10 b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l 4 $V p ~0 = 10 kHz s2 $ H 4 = 1 Q 10 = Q V ~ p 0 = 2 $ r $ 10 rad/s 1 kHz ~ 0 H Q + b l 0 = 0 2 4 r $ H0 $ Q H $Q r$ $r ~0 2 /s $ 010 0 = 204 H0 ~ 10 = f = 1 kHz Q rad sV Steady State Response -2 Apply a4 rad square wave ~ input (Try and = 10 f = 1 kHz = kHz 0 = 10 /s $ r $ 10 ~0 = V1 H p 0 = 10 $ H= 11 Table 4-2: Frequency Response of a BPF with ~0 = ,Q kHz 0 1 + b V V s s2 p 2il H ~0 0 = 10 V04 b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l i t t= 100 0.1 sin _200rt i y _10 r _ i+ f = 10 kHz to both BPF and BSF circuits and observe the outputs. = sin f kHz 1 4 f kHz 10 = = Q = 4 2 H0 = 10 ~0 = 2 $ r $ 10 rad/s 10 kHz sin y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 rt _200 Vi Q = 1 s ~0 2$r 10 rad/s ~ $i 0 = s= 100 0.1 sin _200rt i y _ t i = sin rt10 i+ b1 + ~0 Q + ~02 l 1 4 $ Vp kHz Vpf = f= kHz H 4 $_10 1 1 ~ 0 H0 = 10 Q 10 _ i 200 t t t sin 100 0.1 sin y r r kHz _ i _ i 10 ~ = = + 0 = 0 = 2Q 2 r $ H0 $ Q Band Pass output will output the fundamental frequency  of the $ H0 $ Q4 r 1 $V p f kHz 10 = 1 ~ 0 H Q1 kHz f0 Vpsin _100r t i + 0.1 sin _200 Q =2 y_ t i = rt i 10 = _pt i = r sin V _100 square wave multiplied by the gain at the centre y frequency. The Q2 $H $ Qrt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i 0 1 kHz 4 H Q f f kHz ~0 = 2 $ ramplitude $ 10 4 rad/s at this frequency is given by 4 $ Vp , where 1 0 = = 1 is therad/s V$p r - 410 ~0 = 2 $ 10 Q2 r $ H0 $ Q Band Pass Band Stop 110 kHz 4 $ Vp H0 = 10 peak amplitude of the input square wave. Vp f= 1~0 = 2 $ r $ 10 4 rad/s H0 = 10 dz 4Q 2 S.No. Input Frequency Phase Magnitude Phase Magnitude  ~ r $ H0 $ Q d 4 4 V $ p y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i H 10 0 = dz /s ~0 = 2 $ r $ 10 i= sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i y _ trad Vp H $ r 0 $ Q ~ = ~0 The Band Stop filter’s output will carry all the harmonics of the  d~ 1 t i + 0.1 sin _200rt i y _ t i = sin _100r H0 = 10 4 p square wave, other than fundamental. This illustrates the application Q0 = 2 $ r $ 10 rad/s ~=V ~ - 2~ 0 y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i ~0H40 rad /s = 10 of BSF as a distortion analyzer. - 2Q~0 = 2 $ r $ 10 2 ~ 0 ~0 H0 = 10 y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 si H0 Q ~0 2 Frequency Response - Apply the sine wave input and obtain the magnitude y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i 3 and the phase response. ~0 = 1 kHz H0 Q ~0 = 1 kHz Q = 1 4 ~0 = 10 kHz Q=1 Table 4-3: Frequency Response of a BSF with ~0 = 10 kHz , Q = 10 f = 1 kHz Q = 10 Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 33 f = 10 kHz f = 1 kHz 4 $ Vp f = 10 kHz

4.2 Specification

4.3 Measurements to be taken

experiment 4

Frequency Response of Filters

4.4 What you should submit

experiment 4

4.5 Exercise Set 4
1

2

Q=1 H0 Q Q=1 ~0 = 10 kHz ~0 = 1 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz Q = 10 Q=1 Q = 10 f = 1 kHz ~0 = 10 kHz f = 1 kHz f = 10 kHz Q = 10 Higher order filters are normally f = 10 kHz 4 $ Vp designed by cascading second order filters f = 1 kHz $ Q Design a third order Butterworth Lowpass r $ H0 and, ifp needed, one first- order filter. 4$V f= kHz 10 V p Q $H $ r Filter using FilterPro and obtain the frequency response as well as the 0 4 Vp 4 $ Vp response of the ~ rad/s $ r $ 10 0 = 2The transient filter. specifications are bandwidth of the filter r $ H0 $ Q ~0 = 2 $ r $ 10 4 rad/s and H0 = 10. Vp H0 = 10 y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i ~0 = 2 $ r $ 10 4 rad/s Design a notch filter (band-stop _ i t t sin 100 0.1 sin y r i+ _ _200rt i filter) to eliminate the 50Hz power = H0 = frequency. 10 life In order to test this circuit, synthesize a waveform y _ t i = sin _100rt i + 0.1 sin _200rt i Volts and use it as the input to the filter. What output did you obtain?

~0 ~0 = 1 kHz

H0 Q

~0 = 1 kHz

Related Circuits
The circuit described in Figure 4.1 is a universal active filter circuit. While this circuit can be built with OP-Amps, a specialized IC called UAF42 from Texas Instruments provides the functionality of the Universal Active Filter. We encourage you to use this circuit and understand its function. Datasheet of UAF42 is available from http://www.ti.com. Also refer to the application notes [7], [11], and [12].

Notes on Experiment 4:

page 34

Analog System Lab Kit PRO