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GENDER STATISTICS REPORT

2010 Published by Information and Research Branch, Gender Unit Central Statistical Office, P. O. Box 31908, Lusaka, Zambia. Tel: 251377/253468 Fax: 253468 E-mail: info@zamstats.gov.zm Website: www.zamstats.gov.zm July, 2012 COPYRIGHT RESERVED Extracts may be published if sources are duly acknowledged. Mission Statement

“To coordinate and Provide Timely, Quality and Credible Official Statistics for use by Stakeholders and Clients for Sustainable Development”

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Table of Contents
Foreword Chapter 1: Demographic Characteristics 1.0 - Introduction 1.1 - Population Size 1.2 - Household Headship 1.3 - Life Expectancy at Birth 1.4 - Median Age at First Marriage Chapter 2: Education 2.0 - Introduction 2.1 - Literacy Rates 2.3 - Enrolment in Basic Schools 2.4 - Enrolment in High Schools 2.5 - Net School Attendance Rates 2.6 - Drop-out Rates 2.8 - Reasons for Leaving School 2.9 - Number of Teachers 2.10 - Completion Rates 2.11 - Re-admissions in Schools 2.12 - University Enrolment 2.13 - Graduates from University of Zambia (UNZA) 2.14 - Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVET) Institutions, Student Enrolment Chapter 3: Work and the Economy 3.0 - Introduction 3.1 - Labour Force Participation Rates 3.2 - Currently Employed Persons 3.2.1 - Currently Employed Persons by Occupation 3.2.2 - Currently Employed Persons by Industry 3.2.3 - Formal and Informal employment 3.3 - Current Unemployed Population 3.6 - Current Unemployed Population by Age Group 3.7 - Average Number of Hours of Work by Formal and Informal employment

Gender Statistics Report - Zambia, 2010

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Chapter 4: Maternal and Child Health 4.0 - Introduction 4.1 - Access to Antenatal Care 4.2 - Maternal Mortality 4.3 - HIV and AIDS 4.4 - Condom Use 4.5 - Adult Mortality Rate 4.6 - Child and Infant Mortality Rates 4.7 - Disability Chapter 5: Participation in Decision-making 5.1 - Introduction 5.2 - Political Positions 5.3 - Representation in Selected Positions in the Civil Service 5.4 - Representation in Senior Management in the Public Service Chapter 6: Gender-Based Violence 6.0 - Introduction 6.1 - Domestic Violence 6.2 - Violence against Females 6.4 - Property Grabbing 6.5 - Reasons for Dispossession 6.6 - Forced Sex 6.7 - Gender Based Crimes Reported to Police Chapter 7: Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) 7.0 - Introduction 7.1 - Orphan Hood 7.2 - Sex before Age 15

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Gender Statistics Report - Zambia, 2010

statistics from Zambia Police. Presentation of statistics with a gender perspective helps highlight the gender gaps in demographic structures and population dynamics and also shows the extent to which gender equity and equality is being achieved.Foreword G ender issues are concerned with promoting equality between the sexes and improvement in the status of both women and men in society. It is well understood that social and economic development can only be attained when there is equal participation of both men and women in the development process.Zambia. Ministry of Finance. John Kalumbi Director of Census & Statistics July. such as the Southern African Development Community Declaration on Gender and Development (SADCGD-1997) and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to which Zambia is a signatory. A vital tool in determining the progress made in development policies is statistics of males and females. National Assembly of Zambia and Technical Vocational and Entrepreneur Training Authority (TEVETA). It is my sincere hope that the statistics presented in this report will play a critical role in the creation of mechanisms for gender mainstreaming and most of all help the government in monitoring the attainment of its goal of reducing gender imbalances and attain gender equity in Zambia. The Policy is well aligned with United Nations (UN) Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The information presented in this report includes statistics from censuses and surveys conducted by Central Statistical Office (CSO). 2010 iii . In this regard. the government adopted the National Gender Policy in 2000 which addresses the need to build and strengthen national capacity for advocating and mainstreaming gender in the development process. Ministry of Education. The Government of The Republic of Zambia’s vision on gender as is contained in the “Vision 2030” is to achieve gender equity and equality in the socio-economic development process by 2030. The objective of this report is to present statistics disaggregated by sex in order to show the situation of women and men in various socio-economic aspects of life. 1979 and regional treaties. Central Statistical Office (CSO) is the source Gender Statistics Report . 2012 If not otherwise indicated.

7 16.5 Female 27.092. 1990.000  2.098 1.000.647 Female 2.000  4 000 000  4.293 6. 1990. 2000.984 In 2010.577 3.946. It includes information on population size.000 3. when females were outnumbered.659.000.577 4. the proportion of female headed households reduced to less than 23 percent of the total number of households in the years 1990. Table 1.383.1: Population size by Sex.647 6.885. 2010 Year 1980 1990 2000 2010 Male 72.7 percent of the total households in 1980. Since 1969.000. 2000 and 2010. 1980.400 Percent t Percentage Distribution of Household Head  b  Sex.800 1990 3.2 shows that female headed households constituted 27. household headship.1 81.513.9 22.Population Size Table 1.617.666 Population n Size 7.298 4.0 .9 22.889. 1990. Table 1.884. 1969.Census of Population and Housing.097 9.056.1 72.984 2.000 3. 1980.1 77 5 77.Introduction T his chapter presents demographic characteristics of the population with a gender perspective.128.7 16 9 16.3 81.765. However.889.638.765. 2000 and 2010 Censuses. 2010 Male 1. Censuses of Population and Housing 1969.987.5 Total H/Heads 1. 1990.1 shows population size for the 1969.000.000  5. 1980.987.000  6.454. the number of females has generally been higher than that of males with exception to the year 2000.1 77.768 27.5 1.000  ‐ 1969 1980 2.000.946.Zambia. 1990 and 2000 1980 1990 Year Male Female 2000 2010 Gender Statistics Report .069.069. Table 1.454.3 83.741 2.638.939.1 .520 4.Household Headship A head of household is the person who is considered to be the head by the other members of the household and normally makes the day-to-day decisions governing the running of the household. 1980. 1980.011 2.2 .638.520 Year 2000 4.9 18 9 18.995 5.800 7.000  1.647.298 6.019 Total 4. the number of females was 6.9 18.5 Source: CSO .000. 2000.019.591 13.000. 1990.019 Population Size by Sex.770.Chapter 1: Demographic Characteristics 1.293 2010 6. 2010 1 .327. 2000 and 2010 Population 1969 1980 1990 2000 2010 Male 1. while that of males was 6.011 Female 2.939. life expectancy and age at first marriage. 1980. 1.454.800 3.2: Percentage Distribution of Household Head by Sex. 1.000 2.2000 and by d 2010 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 83. 1969 – 2010 Source: CSO.770.617.

1969. Table 1. 2007 a = Omitted because less than 50% of the men married for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group 2 Gender Statistics Report . 1980. 2001-2.5 22.7 18.3 presents information on life expectancy at birth for the years 1969.6 17.4 Male 1996 Female Male 2001/2 Female Male 2007 Female Source: CSO .5 years which was significantly higher than that of females at 18.Median Age at First Marriage Table 1. life expectancy for both males and females was 52 years.2 18.8 45. 2007 Year Sex Residence Urban Rural Total 24. In 1980. The median age at first marriage for males in 2007 was 23. 2010 .5 19.1 a 22.8 23.Zambia.4 22.1. 2001-2. 1980. 1969.Life Expectancy at Birth Life expectancy at birth refers to the average number of years a newly born child is expected to live. Male and Female (15-49 years) 1996.6 23.4 years.Census of Population and Housing. with female life expectancy at 52 years compared to that of males at 48 years. 1996.3 .0 1980 52 52 53 1990 47 46 48 2000 50 48 52 Source: CSO .5 18. This reduced to 47 years in 1990 and then increased to 50 years in 2000.8 18. The table also shows that the median age at first marriage among females aged 15-49 years remained constant at about 18 years while that of males was above 23 years in all the survey years.4: Median Age at First Marriage. A marked difference of 4 years between female and male life expectancy was observed in 2000. 1990 and 2000. Table 1. Generally. 2000 1.7 17.Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.4 presents information on age at first marriage. Table 1.0 24. Comparisons by residence also indicate that the median age at first marriage for both males and females in urban areas is higher than that of their counterparts in rural areas.5 18.3: Life Expectancy at Birth by Sex. females marry earlier than males. 2000 Sex Both Male Female 1969 41. 1990. 1980.6 23. 1990.4 . Table 1. if the current existing mortality and other conditions were to prevail for a long time.7 17.3 also shows that life expectancy for females in all the census years was higher than that of males.

dropout and completion rates and also shows the number of teachers in schools.2 76.6 percent.2 percent in 2000.5 percent in 2000 while that of the males reduced from 78.2 percent while that of female adults was 56.2 presents information on adult literacy by province for the year 2000. In 2000. with 78.4 percent in 2000.6 percent while that of female adults was 58.9 71.1 . and education in the family. 2010 3 .2 56.Zambia.3 percent. The proportion of male adults who were literate in 1990 was 76. Literacy also empowers females to participate in decision-making at all levels in the society. with 42.1 percent while Eastern Province had the lowest adult literacy rate with 47.3 percent. personal and national development. 2000 1990 66. The highest proportion of female adults who were literate was on the Copperbelt Province.1 presents information on Adult and Youth Literacy.6 58.3 70.Literacy Rates The ability to read and write allows males and females increased access to knowledge and opportunities in life and therefore creates a basis for equal opportunities. Table 2. 1990 and 2000 Indicator Adult Literacy rates (15 years and older) Total Male Female Youth literacy rates (15 . This was followed by Lusaka Province with 81. with 82.5 78.6 percent. nutrition.9 percent in 1990 to 75. Comparison of the 1990 and 2000 data on youth literacy rates shows a decline between the two years for both males and females.Chapter 2: Education 2.Introduction E ducation is a human right and a basic need for the fulfilment of an individual’s aspiration.2 2000 67.Census of Population and Housing 1990.5 Table 2.2 percent in 1990 to 65. The proportion of male adults who were literate was higher than that of female adults in both 1990 and the year 2000. development and peace. It is an essential tool for the goals of equality.24 years) Total Male Female Source: CSO . school enrolments.4 65. The table shows some slight improvements in the total adult literacy rates from 66. Gender Statistics Report . by Sex. the proportion of male adults who were literate was 76.1 75.0 . This was followed by Lusaka Province. 2.3 percent.0 percent in 1990 to 67.8 percent.0 76. Copperbelt Province had the highest rate of adult literacy at 82. It also presents information on tertiary education enrolments.4 percent. This chapter presents information on adult literacy. Eastern Province had the lowest proportion of literate females. Table 2. Literacy of females is an important key to improving health.3 74. The youth literacy rate for females reduced from 71.1: Percentage Adult and Youth Literacy Rates.

2000 Province Total Central 68.1 60.333 51.852 284.30 percent were males.10 114.Enrolment in Basic Schools Table 2.2 58.510.016 50.2 Western 59.70 222.063 51.3: Percent Distribution of Enrolment in Basic Schools (Grades 1-9).736 49.40 100 408.30 48.2 Source: CSO .522 460.Enrolment in High Schools Table 2.10 percent compared to 44.30 48.3 52. by Sex and Province.4 presents information on Enrolment in High Schools.745.5 Copperbelt 82.288. 49. by Sex and Province.6 Zambia 67.8 77.4 Eastern 47.70 137.777 Western 120.2 73.365 50.931.60 201. Of these. Table 2. More males were enrolled in high schools with 55. Total pupil enrolments in basic schools.30 percent of male pupils.211 N. The table further shows that there were more males than females enrolled in high schools in all Provinces.10 228.1 Northern 60. grades 1 to 9 was 3. At provincial level.70 49. Copperbelt Province had the highest number of both females and males enrolled in high schools. indicating a near equality. Education Statistics Unit.6 73.90 48.917 454. i. 2010 .70 percent of female pupils compared with 49.Table 2.288 2.4 Southern 70.166 477. the total pupil enrolments in high schools (Grades 10-12) were 283.4 64.70 247.6 Female 60.764.2: Percentage Distribution of Adult Literacy Rates (15 years and older).6 Luapula 61. 2010 50.8 63.70 percent were females. all provinces but two had more males than females enrolled in basic schools. Western 117.705 Lusaka 207.30 284.e.243 Eastern 202.725 National 1. At Provincial level.3 2.30 48.752 Copperbelt 276.6 55.5 Lusaka 81.1 78.729 3.3 42.8 87.341 Source: Ministry of Education.2 70.1 76.8 68. 2010 Males Females Total Province Number Percent Number Percent Percent Number Central 207.630 398.30 54.80 47.3 82.30 1.510. Copperbelt and Lusaka were the only provinces with more females than males enrolled in basic schools with 50. 4 Gender Statistics Report . while 50.90 percent of their female counterparts.387 49.624 Southern 238.90 49.70 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 560.20 111.4 .004 51.947 50.833 Northern 248.669 45.Zambia.880 229.3 presents information on Enrolment in Basic Schools.8 54.212 51.487 Luapula 147.840 234.Census of Population and Housing 2000 Male 77 88.1 North Western 53. In 2010.898 52.70 196.3 .

065 48.277 23. the net attendance rate for females was lower (36 percent) than that of males (38 percent).Zambia.736 47.081 45.917 18.211 59.40 7. Table 2.4 Percent Distribution of Enrolments in High Schools (Grade 10-12).635 17.578 71.509 55.20 Southern 18.Net School Attendance Rates The net attendance rate is the number of individuals who are attending an education level corresponding to their age.90 Total Percent 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Number 28.Table 2. the net attendance rates at secondary school were consistently lower in rural areas than in urban areas in both 2006 and 2010. Gender Statistics Report .5 shows net attendance rates from grade 1 to 12 for the years 2006 and 2010. At secondary school level the net attendance rate was 37 percent in 2006 and 44 percent in 2010.70 National 156.249 38.5 .40 Luapula 11.50 7.967 47.043 61. Comparisons by sex indicate that the net attendance rates at primary school for females have been higher than those of their male counterparts in both 2006 and 2010.5 also shows that in 2010. In 2006. The net attendance rate for females was 77 percent in 2006 and increased to about 81 percent in 2010. The net attendance rate at primary school was 76 percent in 2006 and about 80 percent in 2010. This indicates an increase in the number of children aged 7-13 years who attended the appropriate primary school grades. as a percentage of the total population whose ages also correspond to that level.931 2. while that of males was 75 percent in 2006 and increased to 79 percent in 2010.50 9.30 Northern 14.60 N.70 9.10 Lusaka 25.660 58.60 7.90 22.826 34.80 33. The table also shows that the net attendance rates for 2006 and 2010 were lower in rural areas than in urban areas at primary school level.444 52. Table 2. Similar to primary school. Western 10.10 Source: Ministry of Education Province Females Number Percent 13.422 44. 2010 5 .706 40. indicating an increase in the number of individuals attending the appropriate secondary school grades.527 53.80 16.497 54. by Sex and Province 2010 Males Number Percent Central 15.074 23. the net attendance rate at secondary school for females was about 45 percent compared to about 44 percent for their male counterparts.411 18.148 283.108 46.50 Eastern 14.30 127.50 Western 9.338 52.022 38.577 61.212 53.20 Copperbelt 37.936 46.617 41.

4 41. 2010 Province Male Female Central 1. 2006 and 2010 Residence and Sex Year Zambia Total Male Female Rural Total Male Female 2006 64 63 65 62 61 63 1-4 2010 70.28 percent for females.8 12.9 84. the highest dropout rates were observed in North Western Province with 2.5 62.7 66.2 25.7 38.9 2006 37 38 36 27 28 25 55 56 54 8-12 2010 44.1 41.7 41.9 44.29 6 Gender Statistics Report . Western 2. 2010 .3 11.4 23.3 61 61.41 2.542 1.46 Western 2.7 70.12 1.0 83.71 percent compared to 1. Education Statistics Unit.79 4.4 39 Female 70 73. At national level. The rate shows the extent to which pupils abandon school for various reasons.9 14.053 3.2 45.92 2.0 18. the dropout rate for females was at 2.83 Southern 1.1 62. by Sex and Province.6 40. Table 2.7 71.Table 2.43 2.53 3.512 1.99 4.8 30.59 2.6 60 59.21 3.62 3.5 21.05 Lusaka 1.819 1.3 50.2 79.177 1.7 10-12 2006 18 19 17 9 10 8 33 34 32 2010 23. 2006.71 Source: Ministry of Education. Grade and Residence.8 40 Source: CSO .9 34.28 N.54 percent for females.143 557 586 2.06 3.778 1. Lusaka Province had the lowest dropout rates with 1.6 40 Male 68 73.Zambia.40 1.5 2006 25 24 25 17 16 17 8-9 2010 28.161 1.21 National 1.5 68.6 78.81 Eastern 2. At Provincial level.06 3.3 34.01 Luapula 2.54 Northern 2.258 601 658 Urban Total 69 73.4 34.1 83.12 percent for males and 1. Table 2.5 42.9 Persons Aged 7-18 years Attending School 2006 2010 3.88 percent for their male counterparts.6: Percentage Dropout Rates (Grades 1-9). 2010 2.6 2006 47 44 49 39 36 42 5-7 2010 49.2 80.6 presents drop-out rates for grades 1-9 in 2010.99 percent for males and 4.8 44.6 .338 1.20 1.24 Copperbelt 1.1 68.597 1.Living Conditions Monitoring Survey.75 3.4 61.83 1.5 60 60.4 43.88 2.62 2.910 984 926 1. 2010 Total 1.9 79.Drop-out Rates The Drop-out Rate refers to the proportion of pupils who leave the education system without completing a given grade in a given school year.2 77.3 43.6 48.6 2006 76 75 77 73 73 74 82 81 82 1-7 2010 79.3 21.5 Net School Attendance Rates by Sex.0 24.37 1.

at 36 percent. the dropout rate was 1. The third major reason for leaving school was ‘not having been selected or failed exam’ with 12 percent and was highest among individuals whose highest level of education was between grade 8 and 9. by Sex and Province.57 1.84 Lusaka 0.8 shows the percentage distribution of individuals who were not in education but who had earlier been to school. 2010 Total 1.Reasons for Leaving School Table 2.79 1.28 Northern 0.62 1.Table 2.59 Copperbelt 0.39 0.58 percent than that of males at 0. The table shows that the major reason for leaving school among persons who had attended school was ‘lack of financial support’. Gender Statistics Report .58 Source: Ministry of Education.06 0.Western Province at 3.Zambia. The significant reasons contributing to female individuals leaving school include.8 . At provincial level.74 1. a high female dropout rate was recorded in North. by highest level of education obtained and reasons for leaving school for the year 2010.7: Percentage Dropout Rates (Grades 10-12).52 1.80 2.42 1.40 Southern 0.36 1. Among other notable reasons given for leaving school were.66 1. Table 2. ‘needed to help out at home’ (1.23 1.6 percent). At national level. Western 1.89 Western 0.28 percent.86 Luapula 0.05 percent.72 N. Education Statistics Unit.22 1.01 0.62 percent.05 2.74 2. Lusaka Province had the lowest female dropout rate at 0. The female dropout rate was higher at 1.70 3. The second major reason for leaving school was ‘completed studies’.90 National 0.54 2.64 1.37 0.96 Eastern 0.72 percent. 2010 Province Male Female Central 0.7 presents drop-out rates for grades 10-12 in 2010. ‘pregnancy’ with about 6 percent and ‘got married’ with 4 percent. 2010 7 .9 percent) and ‘Unsafe to travel to school’ (0. with about 20 percent.

304 11.4 0.7 5.0 2.0 100 100 100 Degree (postgraduate) & above 0.7 0. the table shows that there were more female teachers in all the Provinces except for Lusaka and Copperbelt provinces.73 4.402 Luapula 1.8 Too far 7.98 9.0 2. 2010 Province Male Female Total Number Number Percent Number Percent Central 4.4 63.0 5.9 0.8: Percentage distribution by highest level obtained and reasons for leaving school.02 40.9 1.05 60.2 Started working/business 0.3 2.647 Source: Ministry of Education.6 2.0 No need to continue school 11.3 1.5 2.98 percent) than male teachers (49.9 shows the total number of teachers by Sex and Province in 2010. Table 2.0 0. 2010 2.83 3.781 N.4 2.5 0.0 5.2 0.087 49.5 12. Western 2.Table 2.8 4.Number of Teachers Table 2.1 0.1 0.8 6.2 3.3 0.7 Illness/injury/disability 4.4 0.085 Northern 3.0 100 Reason for leaving 2010 Grade 1-4 Grade 5-7 44.423 5. 2010 .4 0.80 50.9 0.Zambia. 2010 Highest level of education obtained Grade 12 (A-Level) / Grade 10Grade 8-9 Certificate/ 12 (O-Level) Diploma (undergraduate) 45.3 0.95 4.2 0.3 100 Total 36.520 Eastern 2.379 48.1 Unsafe to travel to school 2.1 0.17 41.0 0.902 39.0 0.8 0.6 0.2 2.20 3.71 60.0 0.3 18.71 54.8 0.2 23.8 Needed to help out at home 5.2 5.0 0.734 Total Percent 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 8 Gender Statistics Report .952 36.2 3.8 85.2 0.0 12.02 percent).1 0.0 0.2 Got married 3.300 11. there were more female teachers (50.87 36.516 63.8 2.3 1.3 Total 100 Source: CSO .098 9.2 1.1 1.524 79.866 58.1 1.5 Completed studies 0.9 .4 0.Living Conditions Monitoring Survey.9 0.1 Expelled 0.630 Southern 5.49 3.51 53.2 2.1 1.348 Lusaka 6.036 7.5 0.2 19.27 63.5 19.49 5.4 0.304 5.1 0.3 0.4 0.2 11.2 0.0 0. Education Statistics Unit.5 Too expensive 2.7 0.1 5.6 6.0 4.6 2.5 4.0 0.1 0.3 0.719 Copperbelt 9.9 0. Overall.5 0.3 0.29 5.0 Pregnancy 2.674 39.3 83.5 0.288 46.2 0.135 Western 2.013 39.1 1.51 60.1 Other 2.2 Not selected/failed/couldn't get a place 1.9 2.13 4.027 Total 39.6 0.29 6.3 0. 2010 51.3 3.1 11.3 100 Lack of financial support 43.7 School not important 13.2 0.6 0.2 0.647 5.0 Made girl pregnant 0. At Provincial level.2 0.9: Percent Distribution of Teachers in All Schools by Sex and Province.098 15.497 45.

77 13.16 Eastern 46.16 percent.45 60.61 53.66 47.80 Southern 42.32 45.70 28.59 60. Table 2.89 43. while 3.23 35.26 43.85 54.09 56.98 32. the completion rate for females at grade 12 was lower (27.8 percent.71 58.74 Male Female Total Male Central 60.42 percent while Northern Province had the lowest completion rate at 13.10.61 percent) than that of males at 51.70 51. At grade 12 level.49 N.89 percent. 2010* Completion Rates Province Grades 9 Grades 12 Female 30.86 Copperbelt 58.39 Total 51.19 42.63 percent. the completion rate for females in grade 9 was higher (54. Education Statistics Unit. At national level.83 55.78 Western 51.42 20.74 Lusaka 66. Table 2.70 31. the Ministry of Education put in place the re-entry policy which mandates schools to allow girls who previously left due to pregnancy.64 51.46 32.77 42. (70.54 26.58 23.16 66.83 38. Those re-admitted into the school system in 2009 were 5.11 presents information on pregnancies and re-admissions in schools.330).90 20.46 46.26 67.19 31.66 Source: Ministry of Education.58 38.83 Total 31.01 60. Similarly. back into the school system. In line with this recognition.11 .66 percent).10: Percentage Completion Rates (Grade 9 and12) by Sex and Province.74 26.6 percent of total pregnancies. On the other hand.111).Completion Rates Completion rates for grades 9 and 12 are summarized in table 2. Western 62. Lusaka Province had the highest completion rate for females in grade 9 at 67.24 26. Gender Statistics Report . 2010 9 .32 62.39 46.98 21. At Provincial level.09 50. The number of girls who fell pregnant at basic level (Grade 1 .37 35. One thousand and thirty three (1. the number of girls who fell pregnant at high school level.033) girls were re-admitted into the school system in 2009 (56.33 23.55 Luapula 60.64 32.10 .85 percent.817) and lowest in 2005 (1. 2010 * Preliminary 2.Zambia.64 18.98 39.63 23. (Grade 10-12) was highest in 2009 (1.769) and lowest in 2005 (9.06 27.83 percent) than that of males (35.9) was highest in 2009 (13.46 26.2.899 were re-admitted into the school system in 2005 representing 42.50 Northern 43. the highest completion rate for females was in Copperbelt Province at 45.60 39.034 representing 36.9 percent) and 932 were re-admitted in 2005.1 percent).59 32. while Northern Province had the lowest completion rate with 38.Re-admissions in Schools The United Nations Convention on the rights of the Child and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognise that all citizens of a country have a right to education.

9 2009 13.917) and lowest in 2006 and 2008 (4.692 37.995 5.019 65.381 3.572 1.566 1.107 10.12: Distribution of University Enrolment by Sex.300 833 1.11: Pregnancies and Re-admissions in Schools.059 10. However.181 4.University Enrolment The numbers of females receiving university education in Zambia are low compared to those of males.019 64.769 5.8 2006 12.13 shows that the School of Education produced the highest number of graduates for both males and females in all the years.080 4. 2010 2. both universities recorded an increase in the number of female student enrolments in 2009 compared to female enrolments in 2008.1 1.014 5.1 2007 11. though the number of enrolled females has always been lower than that of males. Table 2.242 Female 4.111 3.159 Male 3. Table 2.9 2005 9.867 Source: Ministry of Education.080).155 4. At the University of Zambia.437 Total 4.Table 2.979 5.470 36. The table also shows that the number of female graduates from all the schools were lower than those of males.0 2008 12.059 11.181 2.6 Source: Ministry of Education.917 Total 10.1 1.112 4. Education Statistics Unit.430 CBU Female 833 1. 2010 .752 1.Zambia.8 1. 2001-2009 Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 UNZA Male 5. 2010 2.899 42.080 4. 10 Gender Statistics Report .8 1.13 .979 6.034 36. the highest enrolment for females recorded was in 2009 (4. This was followed by the School of Humanities and Social Sciences.370 4.817 1.033 56.870 34. 2005-2009 Basic Schools (Grades 1-9) Pregnancies Re-admitted % of re-admitted High Schools (Grades 10-12) Pregnancies Re-admitted % of Re-admitted 1.855 3.082 61.12 .014 4.Graduates from University Of Zambia (UNZA) Table 2.12 shows that there were more males than females enrolled at both the University of Zambia (UNZA) and the Copperbelt University (CBU).330 932 70. Education Statistics Unit.370 4.

Education Statistics Unit. However.147 Source: Ministry of Education.559 2004 Female 4678 1590 1235 1574 97 8 567 342 13 10104 38% Male 5321 0 675 809 120 100 6122 3604 380 17131 61% 28. 2010 58 271 61 118 32 53 9 915 1.Table 2.14 . 7 5 Totals 791 356 Grand Totals 1.595 3 314 36 49 1 32 0 680 2005 Male 60 290 58 215 81 103 28 74 5 914 1. Enrolment of females to secretarial studies has been above 99 percent in all the years while the males have dominated in the technologist programme at above 97 percent.550 19. 2003-2006 2003 2004 School Male Female Male Female Agriculture 54 7 29 5 Education 268 162 284 240 Engineering 82 6 HSS 114 80 LAW 56 28 MEDICINE 123 46 Mines 32 3 NAT.Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVET) Institutions.Zambia. 2010 11 .221 2003 Female 4605 1556 1106 1585 84 10 558 271 7 9782 43% Male 5024 1 543 766 180 54 5972 3571 344 16455 62% 26.848 Source: Technical Education and Vocational Training. Student Enrolment Engineering programmes that include technologists. 2006 Gender Statistics Report .303 2005 Female 5012 1603 1560 1587 130 30 698 543 9 11172 39% (41%) 57% 43% 16.496 Female 20 279 1 140 37 57 0 47 1 582 Male 43 379 59 200 50 137 22 58 7 955 2006 Female 14 342 3 161 44 67 0 45 6 682 1.13: Graduates from the University of Zambia by Sex and School. Sciences 55 19 Vet Med. crafts and aviation have continued to be male dominated while secretarial. hotel and tourism programmes are female dominated. Table 2.637 2.14: Student Enrolment by Sex and Training Programme. 2001-2005 Programme Male Business Studies Secretarial studies Hotel and tourism Media and applied arts Paramedical Aviation Craft Advanced certificate Technologist TOTAL 3685 0 239 613 150 50 2616 2191 154 9698 (59%) 2001 Female 3535 1548 516 737 84 15 286 128 3 6852 Male 3997 1 310 613 162 48 3642 2366 144 11 283 2002 Female 3989 1636 1096 1043 71 13 463 250 4 8565 Male 4353 1 376 702 168 52 4356 2192 239 12439 56% 22. enrolment in the business studies programme appears to be gender balanced.

603.3 1.7 21.Labour force Survey.1 .468 698. The low activity rate implies that a large proportion of people are not participating in the labour force.1 27 5.692 6.319 646.160 1.5 70.9 percent.713.1 shows information on Labour force participation rates for persons aged 15 years and above by sex and residence.199 81.1:Labour Force Participation Rate for Persons Aged 15 Years and Above by Sex and Residence.940 438. the labour force participation rate for males was higher at 78.3 percent. 2008 Overall. 2010 .753.8 3.0 . measure the proportion of the economically active population in relation to the total working age population.Labour Force Participation Rates Labour force is the sum of the number of persons aged 15 years and above who are employed. 2008 Economic Status Economically Active Both Sexes Female Male Economically Inactive Both Sexes Female Male Population aged 15 years and above 1. 3. Table 3.Chapter 3: Work and the Economy 3.220 574. Table 3.623 63 52. Labour force participation rates (Activity Rates).932 329.003.871 2.274. The economically active comprises the employed and unemployed persons.353 1.049 2.7 904.9 20 17. By residence. This chapter presents information on the Labour force (Economically Active Population).536 369. the participation rate for males was 82. while that of females was 80 percent.400. For the urban population.492 18.712.696 890.552 1.3 78. average monthly earnings and average weekly hours worked in the Formal and Informal Sectors.288 2.Zambia.441.031 25.2 807.466.9 73 All Zambia Number Percent Number Rural Percent Number Urban Percent Source: CSO .404 4.8 percent than that of females at 70.1 80 82.537. while that of females was 52.013.Introduction E conomic development largely depends on the positive contributions of its population in the various economic activities. unemployed and available for work during the reference period. the employed and unemployed Labour Force. 12 Gender Statistics Report . labour force participation rate among males was 63 percent.539 37 47.3 percent for the rural population.5 29.716.822 74.

9 Employed Persons 4.285. may have been in cash or in the form of goods and services or a combination of these.7 47. barter or family gain.2.2 percent were male while 50.2 48 79.3 Male 59. 45.3 57.7 Female 48.8 36.8 48. bad weather.8 percent were female. 59. 51. Residence and Occupation.1 percent were female.4 53.4 33.8 17.4 43.2 63.9 percent were male while 29.2 percent of employed persons were male and 40.2 76. Furthermore.2 . 2010 13 .6 percent for females. Of all persons in rural areas whose tasks are associated with Agriculture. forestry and fishing.3 59. In rural areas.7 40.3 27 54.3 Male 49.111 303.6 46.1 Urban Female 40.8 23. 2008 Total Male 51.3.3 30.3 52.Currently Employed Persons by Occupation Table 3.9 48.2 percent). forestry and fishing. subsistence farmers as well as those who were temporarily absent from work due to illness.274 231.2 shows the percentage distribution of currently employed persons by occupation.7 49.7 percent were male while 52.7 Rural Female 50. In terms of Professional and technical activities.9 70.037 3.6 66. and Sales activities.3 percent were females.2 51. profit etc.4 percent compared to only 17. Occupations in the Production and related activities registered the highest proportions of males with 82.4 63.9 percent were male and 48. The employed population included all persons who had a job and would normally have worked for pay or profit or return in kind.951 11.1 34.3 50. 3. profit. all the other activities had more males except for Sales activities which registered more females (58. the employed population comprised all persons who performed some work for pay.7 69.8 percent) than males (41. Of the total number of employed persons in 2008.6 36.7 percent were males while 54.. In urban areas. there were more males than females in the other types of occupations.2: Percentage Distribution of Currently Employed Persons Aged 15 Years and above by Sex. and Sales activities.606. technical and related Clerical and related Sales Agriculture.1 . etc. 47.2 58.736 Gender Statistics Report .Currently Employed Persons D uring the 2008 Labour Force Survey.6 56.1 38.Zambia. mechanical faults.1 29. It also included those who were on paid or unpaid vacation or study leave. insufficient raw materials.9 61. of all persons in rural areas whose tasks are associated with Sales.3 57.1 percent were female. forestry and fishing Production and related Service Not stated Source: CSO . Table 3. managerial Professional.7 42. 2008. Similarly more females than males in rural areas had occupations in the Agriculture.4 percent). Employment in the last 7 days before data collection day was referred to as current employment. Occupation Total Zambia Administrative.8 52 20. males (61. whereas in urban areas.785 348. Payment of wages.879 333.3 percent were female.2 82.2 69. 70.6 percent) outnumbered females (38. industrial dispute.8 41.1 51. The table also shows that with the exception of Agriculture.9 65. forestry and fishing.846 32.8 percent were female. 49.073 60.Labour force Survey.7 73 45.7 42.8 30. Of the persons whose tasks are associated with Administrative and managerial occupations.

2008 100 71.7 9. 15 percent were males and 6 percent were females.2 0.4 .1 Male 100 17.644 386.3 shows the distribution of currently employed persons by industry.3 2.0 percent were females. and in the private enterprises as self-employed.7 Employed Persons 4.4 0.9 9. 2010 .4 0.5 21 0. Of the persons in formal employment.8 0. While the Agriculture.3 3.7 2.3 7.2 1. Forestry and Fishing industry had the highest share (66 percent among males and 77 percent among females) of employed persons.2.1 10.194 13. gas and water Construction Wholesale & retail trade Transport & communication Hotels and restaurants Finance.0 3.626 9.5 0.263 3.Currently Employed Persons by Industry Table 3.3 2 0.2 2.5 0.208 92.2 .2 Total Male 100 66 3. Electricity. Forestry and Fishing industry registered higher proportions of females.Formal and Informal employment The formal employment constituted all employed persons who work in Government. Construction and Mining and Quarrying industries registered higher proportions of males in both rural and urban areas. All employed persons who worked in an enterprise that did not meet any of the above conditions fell in the informal employment. insurance & real estate Community.4 0.Zambia.3 34.9 0.1 2. Residence and Industry.1 2.2 0.7 0.2 0.9 0. In 2008. Table 3.5 9. In 2005.973 18.6 2.2 Female 100 77 0.0 percent were males and 6.1 3.9 0.1 0 2.3: Percentage Distribution of Currently Employed Persons aged 15 Years and Above by Sex.5 3.2 Male 100 88.255 425.3 2. Gas and Water. 2008.1 0. The table also shows that 94 percent of female employed persons in 2008 were in informal employment while only 6 percent were in formal employment.606.3 3.284.4 8.5 19.1 3.5 Urban Female 100 24. 0. paid employees or employers that contributes for social security.864 80.6 0.2 0.1 Rural Female 100 93 0. social & personal services Not stated Source: CSO .3 9.3 5.846 3. Industry Both Total Zambia Agriculture.2.1 1.209 94.3. Agriculture. Of those in formal employment 17.3 1.5 10 1.5 7.4 shows percentage distribution of employed persons by form of employment.810 159.5 0. only 11 percent of the employed persons were in formal employment while the remaining 89.9 0.3 0.0 percent were in informal employment.1 0.1 0.800 41. only 12 percent of the employed persons were in formal employment while 88 percent were in informal employment.2 4.2 8.5 1. forestry & fishing Mining and quarrying Manufacturing Electricity. Table 3.3 0.1 1.3 . 14 Gender Statistics Report .6 0.1 0.Labour force Survey.2 25. are entitled to annual paid leave and in exceptional cases employing not less than 5 persons.4 0.

Gender Statistics Report .6 18.1 10.3 Female 20.7 2.8 18.7 percent were females. Twenty six percent (26 percent) of these were females while 24 percent were males.8 10.103 288.3 5.6 5.4 9.5: Proportion of the Currently Unemployed Persons Aged 15 Years and Above by Sex. current unemployed population referred to persons without work.0 83.785 2.871 561.4: Percentage Distribution of Currently Employed Persons Aged 15 Years and Above by Sex and Form of Employment.697 396.1 3.0 85.7 3.855 653.0 4.7 46.0 16.3 2.Zambia.2 4.0 3.8 4. At national level.8 Luapula 2. 2005 & 2008.2 6.3 6.5 4.Current Unemployed Population by Age Group Table 3.9 percent of persons in the labour force were unemployed. Table 3. 8. Total Both Male Zambia 7.0 94.391.6 shows the percentage distribution of currently unemployed persons by sex.0 16.4 5.4 20.6 .5 percent of females in urban areas were unemployed compared to 16.9 14.0 Employed Persons 4.5 3.5 11.3 1.0 6.3 .0 1.0 17.1 7.2 Southern 5. 2008 Province Female 7.5 8. 2008 2005 Formal Employment 12.7 4.0 percent) than unemployment rate for males (4. retired persons and homemakers who performed some economic activity for at least one hour in the seven days prior to the interview day were classified as employed.1 21.Labour force Survey.722 428.1 4.6 5.4 Lusaka 15.2 20.5 5.6 4.7 Source: CSO .606. the labour force in the age group 15-19 years had the highest unemployment rate of 25 percent.9 3.9 10.215. 7.2 18.1 2.5 3.711 4.Table 3.0 94. available for work and seeking work in the 7 days preceding the survey.0 percent).649 689.9 8.0 Informal Employment 88.2 18. Of the unemployed labour force. residence and age group.3 5.0 5.0 6.9 4.7 1.531 1.1 percent were males while 7.061 3.0 17.0 9. Sex Both sexes Male Female Both sexes 2008 Male Female Source: CSO .9 Residence Rural Male 4.4 2.846 2.2 Northern 3. However.7 5.7 3.0 11.2 2. 2010 15 .Current Unemployed Population During the 2008 Labour Force Survey.8 9.3 North western 4.5 5.1 37. 2008.003.1 15.820 2.1 6.Labour force Survey.1 5.9 Both 3.3 2.0 11.4 Labour force 5.979 719. Residence and Province.209 Comparison by residence indicates that 20.0 Urban Male 16.0 89.8 12.2 Both 18. In 2008.0 Eastern 7. Full-time students.7 24.8 6.0 15.5 3. unemployment rate for females in rural areas was lower (3.1 percent of males.189.8 Female 3.6 Western 6.4 9.7 2.6 7.3 15. 3.5 Copperbelt 16.1 Central 5.3 14.131.116 574.8 2.941.541 691.8 57.

3 35.0 Female 26.283 222. Table 3.0 27.508 Source: CSO .673 210. Of the urban unemployed persons. 2010 .0 Urban Male 40.0 36.5 42.846 511.9 43. more hours (41hours) than those in informal employment (29 hours). 16 Gender Statistics Report . residence and sex.Comparison by residence shows that the proportions of the unemployed persons in the age group 15-19 were higher in urban areas at 59 percent than in rural areas at 13 percent.977 120.8 40. female workers in informal employment spent 28 hours on average per week compared to male workers who spent 31 hours.Labour force Survey. Similarly.Zambia.0 Both Sexes 39.0 28.0 Female 28.338 4.7 41. Table 3.7 shows the average number of hours of work by form of employment.116 451. Table 3.606.0 Female 36.867 Age-Group 15-19 25 24 20-24 22 21 25-29 15 13 30-34 13 11 35-39 8 7 40-44 9 8 45-49 8 7 50-54 10 8 55-59 10 11 60-64 12 11 65+ 10 7 Source: CSO .255 296.Labour force Survey.788 788. there were no variations in the unemployment rates for males and females in the age group 15-19 in rural areas. In urban areas.839 162. Age Group and Residence.Average Number of Hours of Work by Formal and Informal employment Information on formal and informal employment in relation to the number of hours of work is useful in assessing the difference in the number of hours of work between formally employed persons and informally employed persons.0 Male 32.6 39. 61 percent were females while 57 percent were males. 2008.838 628. 2008.0 40.0 29.0 Rural Male 28. on average per week.7: Average Number of Weekly Hours of Work by Formal and Informal Employment and Residence.7 . Sex/AgeGroup All Zambia Total Both Sexes 16 Male 14 Female 17 26 24 18 15 10 10 9 12 9 14 14 Unemployment Rates Rural Both Sexes 10 13 11 9 10 6 8 6 8 6 12 9 Male 9 13 12 8 9 5 7 6 5 7 9 7 Female 10 13 10 10 11 6 8 7 10 4 14 12 Both Sexes 28 59 46 24 18 13 11 12 14 19 15 21 Urban Male 23 57 38 19 14 10 8 9 13 17 15 12 Female 36 61 56 31 24 18 15 16 16 25 16 37 Labour Force 4. persons in both formal and informal employment spent on average more hours of work per week than those in rural areas.7 39. 2008 Persons in formal employment spent.6: Proportion of Currently Unemployed Persons by Sex. On the other hand.0 28.2 42.423 821.850 863.0 Employed Persons 4. 2008 3.0 38.667 351.918. as both had 13 percent.0 26. Total Employment Status All Zambia Formal Employment Informal Employment Both Sexes 30.095.4 38.0 Both Sexes 27. Females working in formal employment spent 39 hours on average per week while males spent 42 hours.0 31.

2001/02. health promotion and counselling.0 - 1.0 91.4 2001/2 Total (15-49) Residence Urban Rural 4. life expectancy and economic growth. Table 4.1 4.7 2007 Total (15-49) Residence Urban Rural 1.1 .1 1.6 80. 4.Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.1: Percentage Distribution of Females Aged 15-49 Who Had a Live Birth in the Five Years Preceding the Survey by Antenatal Care Provider During Pregnancy. prevention of diseases through immunisation and micronutrient supplementation.0 2. The objective is to achieve optimal health outcome for the mother and the baby. This can be facilitated through the provision of health care services for females to cater for their antenatal and children’s needs. (93. child as well as infant mortality and disability.Introduction T he health status of people generally determines their quality of life.4 2.1 Source: CSO . birth preparedness and complication readiness.0 2.0 2.Zambia.9 5.Access to Antenatal Care Antenatal care is health care provided to expectant mothers before the end of pregnancy.7 91. level of production.5 87.0 0. The services provided include.7 5.5 1. 2007 Gender Statistics Report .2 97. Antenatal care is best provided by skilled health workers. Table 4. and Percentage Receiving Antenatal Care from Skilled Provider for Most Recent Birth.8 84. The table also shows that the proportion of females who received care from skilled health providers was higher in urban areas compared to their counterparts in rural areas.1 3. Females need the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health especially at the time of pregnancy.4 percent in 2001-2 and 93. HIV prevalence and information on condom use. Year Background Characteristics Doctor Clinical Officer Nurse/mid wife Traditional Birth Attendant Other No One Percentage Receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider 93.2 93. Most of the services were provided by the nurse or midwife.Chapter 4: Maternal and Child Health 4.7 4.1 shows that a high percentage of expectant mothers.7 percent in 2007) received antenatal care from a skilled provider.3 84. maternal mortality.4 - 1.0 2. 2010 17 .1 3.1 99. Also provided is information on adult.4 10.3 2.0 93.0 91.3 0.6 1.8 4.0 0.9 7.0 .3 1.7 1. Chapter 4 presents various health statistics on antenatal care. early detection of complications and prompt treatment.

by Sex and Age Group. Table 4.5 12.8 497 443 363 274 210 154 131 2.023 1.7 16.365 1.162 869 792 787 608 410 314 5.6 11. Table 4.892 1.1 18.8 19. Table 4.4 15 20.6 864 752 681 534 437 307 232 3. 2001-2.6 21.4 24.7 8. 2001/02.5 15. The maternal mortality ratio is calculated as the number of deaths per 100.6 23.1 16.5 22.3 percent in 2007.0 24.Maternal Mortality Maternal mortality can be defined as female deaths associated with pregnancy and child bearing. Age 15-49 2007 591 2001-2 729 1996 649 Source: CSO .000 live births in 2007.4.2 .1 1. 2007 18 Gender Statistics Report .6 16.1 29. and 2007 Age Group 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 15-49 years 4.2 12.4 20.9 4.1 11. Table 4.850 1.2 shows that maternal mortality ratio was recorded at 591 maternal deaths per 100.1 15.000 live births.5 18.877 Source: Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.202 1.3 25.6 percent in 2001/2 to 14.7 11.5 20.9 16.4 20.374 Male 2001/02 1.502 Female 2001/02 6. This was a major improvement from 729 recorded in 2001-2.607 1. household and national level. Table 4.194 855 682 10.6 5.3: Percentage HIV Prevalence.9 26.9 366 309 318 260 227 153 101 1.073 2007 3.3 1.5 17.3 . and 007.2: Direct Estimates of Maternal Mortality Ratio. and 2007. 2007 4.6 17.3 12.1 14. 2001-2.444 2001/02 4.6 17.807 2007 5. 1996.4 25.9 18.1 22.058 818 586 445 369 5.1 22.3 21. the HIV prevalence for persons in the age group 15-49 years has declined from 15.Zambia.Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.3 Total 2007 2.3 13. 2001/2.2 also shows that maternal mortality levels have remained moderately high over the three surveys from 1996.HIV and AIDS The HIV and AIDS pandemic has had a devastating impact and drastically hindered the country’s economic development at individual. 2010 .4 22.3 shows that overall. 2001/02.

1 per 1000 person-years of exposure in 2001/2. Table 4. the rate reduced to 12.3 percent among males. The HIV prevalence in males in 2007 was high in the age group 40-44 with 24. 4.Condom Use The use of condoms is currently one of the most effective methods of HIV prevention among sexual partners.Adult Mortality Rate Adult mortality rate is the rate at which adults are dying. Table 4. table 4.Furthermore.4 percent in 2001/2. In 2007. Comparisons by sex show that the HIV prevalence among females was high in the age group 30-34 in both 2001/2 and 2007 with 26.4 percent.9 per 1000 person-years of exposure in 1996 to 14. the HIV prevalence among females was 16. Among the age groups. 2010 19 . respectively. HIV prevalence is higher among females than males.4 .5 in 2007. However.8 percent compared to 12. The mortality rate for females in 2007 was however noticeably higher than that of males at 13.0 Number of Females 532 Percentage who reported using a condom 47. The HIV prevalence rate for females in 2001/2 was 17.6 Males Number of males 884 Source: Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.9.3 shows that overall.Zambia. the highest HIV prevalence was in the age group 30-34. Only 47.1 percent and 12.4: High Risk Intercourse Among Persons aged 15-24 and condom Use at last High Risk Intercourse in the 12 months Prior to the Survey. the age group 35-39 had the highest HIV prevalence in 2007 while in 2001/2. Table 4.2 and 11. By Sex.0 and 29.5 shows that mortality rate for adults aged 15-49 years increased from 10.6 percent of the males aged 15-24 used a condom during the last high risk encounter. 2007 Females Percentage who reported using a condom 38. there were no major variations in the mortality rates of the males and females in 1996 and 2001/2.9 percent for the males.0 percent used a condom. Gender Statistics Report .5 . 2007 4. The proportion was even lower among the females as only 38. respectively.1 percent and high in the age group 35-39 with 22.4 shows that the use of condoms among the youths that engage in high risk sex is generally low.

mental or health problem. Reductions in infant and child mortality and the prevalence of high risk pregnancies remains a priority in Zambia’s health care interventions.Table 4. 1980. while Under Five mortality measures the probability of a child dying between birth and the fifth birthday.Zambia.6 shows information on infant. 4.7 .0 14.5 Rate expressed as death per 1000 person-years of exposure Source: Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. 20 Gender Statistics Report . Table 4. 1990 and 2000 Sex Zambia Male Female Infant Mortality Rate 1980 99 101 94 1990 123 127 120 2000 110 120 100 Child Mortality Rate 1980 71 73 66 1990 95 98 91 2000 82 91 72 Under-five Mortality Rate 1980 121 124 115 1990 151 157 146 2000 162 169 155 Note: All rates are expressed per 1000 live births.1 2007 11. It is also indicated that the mortality rate for males was higher than that of the females in each category in all the years under review. child and under-five mortality rates.6 10.6: Child and Infant Mortality Rates by Sex. 1996. 2001-2. 2000 The table shows that there was a general increase in the under-five mortality rates from 121 in 1980 to 151 in 1990 and 162 in 2000. except for child mortality which is expressed per 1000 children surviving to 12 months of age.5: Percentage Adult (15-49 years) Mortality Rates by Sex 1996. Source: Censuses of Population and Housing 1980.6 .9 13.3 10.Child and Infant Mortality Rates Infant Mortality is defined as the probability of a child dying before the first birthday. Table 4. Infant and child mortality rates are a basic indicator of a country’s socio-economic development.9 2001-2002 14.3 14. Child Mortality measures the probability of a child dying between the first and fifth birthday. Table 4. This is in line with the National Policy on Disability which defines disability as any restriction or lack of ability to perform any action in the manner or within the range considered ‘normal’ for a human being and would or would not entail the use of supportive and auxiliary aids (WHO).7 presents information on disability.2 12. 1990.Disability Disability refers to a person who is limited in the kind or amount of activities that he/she can do because of ongoing difficulties due to a long-term physical. 2010 . 2007 and 2001/02 4. and 2007 Sex Male Female Both sexes 1996 11.

816 Female 3. 2010 21 .577 2. Males made up the larger proportion of the disabled than females in both census years.330 Source: CSO . 1990 and 2000 Sex Total Total Population Rural Urban Proportion of the Disabled Rural Urban Total 0.283 1990 Male 3.9 Total 7.0 2.467 Total 9.684.Table 4.097 4.0 0.743.1 1.7: Proportion of Disabled Persons by Sex and Residence.Census of Population and Housing.347.7 0.761 1.6 0.453.2 1.477.0 3.594.290 2. Gender Statistics Report .383.053 1.356 3.9 0.520 2.2 3.163.7 percent in 2000.337.814 2.135 3.931.9 1.990.662.Zambia.2 1.058.765.4 2. 2000 The proportion of the physically and mentally challenged in 1990 was 0.9 percent and 2.7 3.905.617.9 2.069 2000 Male 4.451.805 1.6 1.739 Female 4.2 2.425 5.314.551 1.8 0.

5 The table also shows that the proportion of female Cabinet Ministers also increased from 9.2 shows the percentage distribution of civil servants in selected positions by sex in 2005 and 2006.8 percent in both years.2 2009 13. 5. This chapter presents information on male and female representation in certain decision making positions.1 percent in 2009 to 17.9 9.Political Positions Table 5. comes after a drop in the proportion of female MP’s in both 2006 (14.3 . This increase.2 . however.8 8. The information indicates that there were more males than females in all the selected positions in both years. Table 5. The table also indicates that female representation in the position of a Deputy Director reduced from 34.8 18.9 percent in 2009 to 15 percent in 2010.Introduction P olitics and decision-making have generally been dominated by males in Zambia. are lesser than what was recorded in 2005 and 2006 when female representation at Cabinet Minister level was at 23.3 percent in 2006.9 percent) from 19 percent in 2005. the position of a Deputy Permanent secretary had no female representation which indicates a drop from the 6.5 percent in 2010.2 percent to 17. In 2006. Female representation in the office of Deputy Minister was lowest in the year 2005 at 8.9 2006 14.2 percent in 2009 and at 12.1 . female representation in the office of Deputy Minister continues to record a decrease from 2006 at 18.1 17.Zambia.1 shows that the proportion of female Members of Parliament (MP) increased from 13.7 23. On the other hand.4 percent in 2010.4 12.Chapter 5: Participation in Decision-making 5. These proportions though.2005-2010 Decision-making positions Members of parliament Cabinet ministers Deputy ministers Source: National Assembly of Zambia 2005 19 23. 22 Gender Statistics Report .Representation in Selected Positions in the Civil Service Table 5. 5.7 percent female representation recorded in 2005.7 percent) and 2009 (13.9 percent.1: Percentage Of Females In Decision-Making Positions For Selected Political Positions. 2010 .8 percent in 2005 to 18.2 2010 15 17.

2009 and 2011 Sex 2009 Female Male Total 682 1905 2587 Number 2011 1078 2452 3530 2009 26.4 .3. Though the participation of females in decision making positions has generally been low.Zambia.6 0 23 18. GSS 3 for position of Assistant Director and GSS 4 for Principal.5 100 Source: Payroll Management and Establishment Control System (PMEC) database April 2009 and October 2011 Gender Statistics Report .9 16. GSS 2 for position of Deputy Director.2: Representation in the Civil Service by Sex.Representation in Senior Management in the Public Service Information on female participation in senior management positions within the public service is presented in table 5.4 percent in 2009 to 30.5 percent in 2011.8 8 6.3: Males and Females in Decision Making Positions (Salary Scale GSS1-GSS4 or Equivalent) in the Public Service. Table 5.Table 5.4 73.3 34.3 20. 2010 23 .7 21.5 69.9 16.8 20.2 0 23 13 37 11 2006 Male 35 24 77 58 140 57 Total 43 24 100 71 177 68 Percent Female /Total 18. 2006 Economic Report) 5. (MOF.2 Permanent secretaries 6 32 38 Deputy permanent 1 14 15 secretary Directors 16 59 75 Deputy director 31 58 89 Assistant director 37 140 177 District commissioners 11 57 68 Source: Cabinet Office.6 100 Percent 2011 30. 2005 and 2006 Position in the civil service 2005 Female Male Total Percent Female Female /Total 15. The category covers positions in salary scale GSS 1 for position of Director. an increase is noted were female representation increased from 26.

2006 Comparison by residence shows a similar pattern with more males than females who had physically hurt their spouse/partner. community and national level. violence reduced in the age group 15-19 from 28 percent in 2001/2 to 19 percent in 2007.2 . hit. kicking or physically hurting their spouse or partner in 2006. or physically hurt spouse/partner Total Total Both Sexes 16 84 100 Male 20 79 99 Female 12 88 100 Both Sexes 15 85 100 Rural Male 20 80 100 Female 11 89 100 Both Sexes 19 81 100 Urban Male 22 78 100 Female 17 83 100 Source: CSO . 16 percent indicated ever physically hurting their spouse or partner. Examples of Gender-Based Violence include spouse beating. but is not limited to physical.Gender Based Violence Survey Report. However. Table 6.Domestic Violence Domestic violence is physical violence between spouses or partners. 6.1 .0 .Introduction G ender-based violence is violence that occurs between a man and a woman. Some of the consequences of physical violence include injuries. depression and even death. sexual or psychological abuse. physical disability of victims. Overall. All the age groups within 20-49 years had a notable increase. Table 6.1 shows the percentage of persons who indicated ever slapping. The proportion of females who had experienced physical violence in the 12 months prior to the two surveys increased from 23 percent in 2001/2 to 33 percent in 2007. Gender-based violence limits participation of the victims in the development process at individual. while in urban areas 22 percent of the males indicated ever physically hurting their spouse/partner compared to 17 percent of the females. It can be. Kicked or physically hurt spouse/partner Never slapped. 2006 Type of Violence Has slapped.Zambia. There were more males (20 percent) than females (12 percent) who indicated ever having physically hurt their spouse/partner. Twenty percent (20 percent) of males in rural areas indicated ever physically hurting their spouse/ partner compared to 11 percent of the females.1: Percentage Distribution of Type of Violence by Sex and Residence. 2010 .2 shows information on cases of violence against females in Zambia.Violence against Females Table 6. 6.Chapter 6: Gender-Based Violence 6. rape and the sexual abuse of children. This chapter presents information on various forms of gender based violence cases prevalent in Zambia. 24 Gender Statistics Report . the practice of dispossessing widows or widowers of property at the time of dissolution of marriage due to death of spouse.

171 1.Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. 2001/2 and 2007 2001/2 Females experiencing physical violence in the last 12 months Central 19 Copperbelt 28 Eastern 17 Luapula 21 Lusaka 26 Northern 24 North-Western 11 Southern 25 Western 26 Source: CSO . This was followed by North-Western Province with 22 percentage points.205 3.2: Percentage of Females Who Experienced Violence in the 12 Months Preceding the Survey. 2001/02.Zambia. Western Province recorded the lowest increase with 1 percentage point. 2010 25 . 2001/02.053 1.983 1. Gender Statistics Report .986 1. Table 6. by Residence.236 2. Table 6.303 770 5.043 2. 2007 Province 2007 Females experiencing physical violence in the last 12 months 24 44 20 46 33 31 33 31 27 Percentage Points Change 5 16 3 25 7 7 22 6 1 Luapula Province had the highest increase in the proportion of females who had experienced physical violence with 25 percentage points.140 735 5.Table 6.024 1. 2007 The table also shows that violence against female cases increased by almost the same proportions in both rural and urban areas with 10 percentage points in urban areas and 9 percentage points in rural areas.3: Percentage of Females who Experienced Violence in the 12 Months Preceding the Survey by Province. 2001/2 and 2007 Year 2001/2 Age Group 15-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 who experienced physical violence in the 12 months prior the survey 28 27 19 14 23 25 22 19 34 40 37 33 33 Total Number of Females 1.031 Total Residence Urban Rural 2007 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Total Residence Urban 35 Rural 31 Source: CSO .085 1.029 2.3 below presents information on females who experienced violence during the 12 months preceding the ZDHS. 2001/2 and 2007 by Province.

respectively.4 shows that out of a total of 437. Table 6. A similar pattern is observed in both rural and urban areas where more males than females did not want to receive any of their late spouses’ property. The proportion of males that did not receive any of their late spouses’ property was higher than that of females in both rural and urban areas.693 341. 6.268 57. More males with 52 percent did not receive their late spouses’ assets than females with 39 percent.4: Percentage Distribution of Receipt of Spouse’s Asset/Valuables by Sex and Residence All Zambia Receipt of Spouse’s Assets Total Male Female Received 58 48 61 Not Received 42 52 39 Population 437. 2006 Total 51 49 281.093 males and females who were widowed in 2006. the proportion of males who did not want to receive any of their late spouses’ property was higher than that of females with 44 percent and 8 percent. 49 percent of respondents in rural areas did not receive any of their late spouses’ assets compared to 27 percent of those in urban areas.5 . This.Gender Based Violence Survey. Twenty one percent (21 percent) indicated that the reason they did not receive any of their late spouses’ assets was because of threats from the family of the deceased. was more prevalent in urban areas with 42 percent. This practice is likely to increase the victims’ vulnerability to poverty.628 By residence.818 Population Source: CSO .400 Source: CSO . indicated by 33 percent of the respondents. however.093 95. Table 6.902 Urban Male 65 35 33.5: Reasons for not Receiving any Assets by Sex and Residence. than in rural areas with 11 percent. The proportion of those that had been dispossessed of property was higher in rural areas at 43 percent.072 Spouse’s family took 33 30 everything Threats from spouse’s 21 6 family 17 44 Did not want 29 20 Other 231.772 Total 73 27 155.191 Rural Male 39 61 62.419 Female 54 46 218.Property Grabbing Property grabbing is the practice of dispossessing surviving spouses of property after the death of their partner by family members of the deceased.274 Female 75 25 122.577 Urban Male 21 79 14. Table 6.Zambia. than in urban areas at 12 percent.Gender Based Violence Survey.450 Both 43 11 13 32 155.313 Female 49 12 6 33 112. 42 percent indicated that they did not receive any of their late spouses’ assets.6.378 Both 12 42 24 21 75.691 Rural Male 29 10 32 30 43. Table 6.4 . 2006 26 Gender Statistics Report . 2010 .5 also shows that 17 percent of respondents who did not receive any of their late spouse’ assets.Reasons for Dispossession The major reason indicated for failure to receive assets from deceased spouses was that the family of the deceased took everything. indicated that they did not want to get anything.505 Female 10 52 11 26 61. At national level. 2006 Reasons Both Total Male Female 35 26 8 31 173.

In 2009.6: Percentage of Females who Reported Ever Forced to Have Sex by Age Group. It can also have an adverse effect on the psychological and social well being of the victim.6 19.1 16.4 percentage point increase in the proportion of females that reported to have been forced to have sex with 20.7 shows some of the gender based crimes reported to the police.1 2005 10.6 shows information on females who were forced to have sex. 2010 27 . 2008.2 20. Table 6.6 percent from 16. 2003.419 cases in 2010. 2007.Forced Sex Forced sex increases the risk for females to contract HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).Gender Based Crimes Reported to Police Table 6. Zambia Sexual Behaviour Survey 6.6 percent in 2005 to about 19.2 percent in 2005.344 2. The perpetrators of these crimes are mostly males.2 15. 2005 and 2009 Age Group 15-19 20-24 25-49 15-49 Number of Females 2003 500 509 1. Table 6.2 Source: CSO.6 .6. Table 6. Defilement was another gender based crime which recorded a significant increase from 696 cases reported in 2007 to 2. the age group 25-49 years shows a 4. 2009 and 2010 Type of Violence Rape Attempted Rape Property Grabbing Defilement Indecent assault on girls Indecent assault on boys 2007 178 19 169 696 135 38 2008 229 34 195 1224 140 1 2009 244 260 1676 2010 254 35 211 2419 3 Source: Zambia Police Victim Support Unit Note: Information at the time is not dissagregated by Sex Gender Statistics Report . There has been an increase in the number of rape cases over the years from 178 in 2007 to 254 in 2010. The proportion of females forced to have sex increased from 15.324 2005 463 467 1.3 14.146 2009 443 419 1.6 17.206 Percent ever forced to have sex 2003 9.7: Gender Violence Offences Reported to Police.315 2.Zambia.216 2.2 percent in 2009.6 19. The age group 25-49 years indicates the highest percentage increase in the proportion of females that reported to have been forced to have sex over the survey years.6 2009 12.7 .9 14.9 21.

Introduction O rphans are defined as children under the age of 18 who have lost one or both parents.2 percent of children below 18 years were orphans and/or vulnerable in 2007. This chapter provides information on orphans and vulnerable children as well as initiation of sexual activity by the Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) and the non OVCs. 28 Gender Statistics Report . 2001/02.430 9. 7.8 percent of their female counterparts.2 shows that male OVCs were more likely to initiate early sexual activity before age 15 (21 percent) than female OVCs (9 percent).1 .Zambia.1 shows that 19. Vulnerable children are children who meet one or more of the following conditions: a parent has been ill for at least three months in the past 12 months.8 14.Sex before Age 15 Table 7. child lives in a household where there is an adult aged 18-59 years who has been very sick for at least three months in the past 12 months or lives in a household where an adult (18-59 years) death occurred in the last 12 months after an illness of at least three months. 2007 Sex Male Female Total <18 Orphan childrenPercentage of children with one or both parents dead 15. There were 15 percent male orphans compared to 14. 2010 .0 percent. 7.0 .Chapter 7: Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVCs) 7.2 Number of children 9.1 Percentage of Children Under 18 Years who are Orphans or made Vulnerable by Sex.0 14.4 percent and the female children had 19.9 Percentage of children who are orphans and/or vulnerable 19.Orphan Hood Table 7. Orphanage in terms of sex was almost the same. with 16 percent for females and 15 percent for males.130 Source: CSO . 2007 Note: Statistics based only on children who usually live in the household A similar pattern was observed among the vulnerable children where the male children had 19.700 19. the proportions of male and female non-OVCs who initiated sex by age 15 were relatively comparable. However.Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.4 19.0 19.2 . Table 7.

Zambia Demographic and Health Survey.Table 7. 2007 Female OVC status Percentage who had sexual intercourse before exact age 15 9 16 13 Number in the sample 332 629 961 Male Percentage who had sexual intercourse before exact age 15 21 15 17 Number in the Sample 299 576 875 OVC Non-OVC Total Source: . 2010 29 . a smaller proportion of female OVCs (9 percent) had sexual intercourse before the age of 15 compared to the non. Among females however.Zambia.2: Percentage of Children (Aged 15-17) who had Sexual Intercourse before Age 15 by OVC Status by Sex. 2001/02.OVC females (16 percent). 2007 More male OVCs had sexual intercourse before the age of 15 with 21 percent compared to non-OVC males with 15 percent. Gender Statistics Report .