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1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Structural design is a systematic and iterative process that involves: ) !dentification of intended use and occupancy of a structure " #y o$ner %) Development of architectural plans and layout " #y architect &) !dentification of structural frame$or' " #y engineer 4) Estimation of structural loads depending on use and occupancy () )nalysis of the structure to determine mem#er and connection design forces *) Design of structural mem#ers and connections 7) +erification of design ,) -a#rication . Erection " #y steel fa#ricator and contractor /) !nspection and )pproval " #y state #uilding official

!deally0 the o$ner and the architect0 the architect and the engineer0 and the engineer and the fa#ricator1contractor $ill colla#orate and interact on a regular #asis to conceive0 develop0 design0 and #uild the structure in an efficient manner2 3he primary responsi#ilities of all these players are as follo$s: • 4$ner - primary responsi#ility is deciding the use and occupancy0 and approving the architectural plans of the #uilding2 • )rchitect - primary responsi#ility is ensuring that the architectural plan of the #uilding interior is appropriate for the intended use and the overall #uilding is aesthetically pleasing2 • Engineer " primary responsi#ility is ensuring the safety and servicea#ility of the structure0 i2e20 designing the #uilding to carry the loads safely and 555555555552 • -a#ricator " primary responsi#ility is ensuring that the designed mem#ers and connections are fa#ricated economically in the shop or field as re6uired2 • Contractor1Erector - primary responsi#ility is ensuring that the mem#ers and connections are economically assem#led in the field to #uild the structure2

CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma) • State 7uilding 4fficial " primary responsi#ility is ensuring that the #uilt structure satisfies the appropriate #uilding codes accepted #y the 8ovt2

1.2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN • Conceptually0 from an engineering standpoint0 the parameters that can #e varied (some$hat) are: ( ) the material of construction0 and (%) the structural framing plan2 • 3he choices for material include: (a) steel0 (#) reinforced concrete0 and (c) steel-concrete composite construction2 • 3he choices for structural framing plan include moment resisting frames0 #raced frames0 dual frames0 shear $all frames0 and so on2 3he engineer can also innovate a ne$ structural framing plan for a particular structure if re6uired2 • )ll via#le material 9 framing plan alternatives must #e considered and designed to compare the individual material 9 fa#rication 1 erection costs to identify the most efficient and economical design for the structure2 • -or each material 9 framing plan alternative considered0 designing the structure consists of designing the individual structural components0 i2e20 the mem#ers and the connections0 of the framing plan2 • 3his course CE470 focuses on the design of individual structural components2 3he material of construction $ill limited #e steel0 and the structural framing plans $ill #e limited to #raced frames and moment resisting frames2

1.3 STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK • -igure sho$s the structural plan and layout of a four-story office #uilding to #e located in

:est ;afayette2 -igure % and & sho$ the structural elevations of frames )-) and 7-70 respectively0 $hich are identified in -igure 2

CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma)

C 0 ft2 E % ft2 D % ft2 C % ft2 7 ( ft2 ) > < ? ! @ S 3 = A B 4

8

;

%( ft2

%( ft2

-igure %2 Structural elevation of frame )-)

**CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma)
**

g 0 ft2 f e % ft2 d % ft2 c % ft2 # ( ft2 a h o v i p $ D 6 E ' r y n m l u t s # a F

&( ft2

&( ft2

&( ft2

-igure &2 Structural elevation of frame 7-7 • )s sho$n in -igure 0 the #uilding has t$o %(-ft2 #ays in the north-south direction and three &( ft2 #ays in the east-west direction2 • 3here are four structural frames in the north-south direction2 3hese frames have structural elevations similar to frame )-) sho$n in -igure %2 • 3here are three structural frames in the east-$est directions2 3hese frames have structural elevations similar to frame 7-7 sho$n in -igure &2 • • 3he #uilding has a roof truss0 $hich is sho$n in -igures % and &2 -rame )-) is a #raced frame0 $here all mem#ers are connected using pin/hinge connections2 Diagonal #racing mem#ers are needed for sta#ility2 • -rame 7-7 is a moment frame0 $here all mem#ers are connected using fix/moment connections2 3here is no need for diagonal #racing mem#ers2 • • 3he north-south and east-$est frames resist the vertical gravity loads together2 3he three moment frames in the east-$est direction resist the horizontal lateral loads in the east-$est direction2

Amit Varma) • 3he four #raced frames in the north-south direction resist the horizontal lateral loads in the north-south direction2 1.4 STRUCTURAL MEMBERS Structural mem#ers are categoriFed #ased up on the internal forces in them2 -or eEample: • • • • 3ension mem#er "su#Dected to tensile aEial force only Column or compression mem#er "su#Dected to compressive aEial force only 3ension1Compression mem#er "su#Dected to tensile1compressive aEial forces 7eam mem#er "su#Dected to fleEural loads0 i2e20 shear force and #ending moment only2 3he aEial force in a #eam mem#er is negligi#le2 • 7eam-column mem#er " mem#er su#Dected to com#ined aEial force and fleEural loads (shear force0 and #ending moments) !n #asic structural analysis (CE371) students have come across t$o types of structures0 namely0 trusses and frames2 -or eEample0 -igure % sho$s a roof truss supported #y a #raced frame2 • )ll the mem#ers of a truss are connected using pin1hinge connections2 )ll eEternal forces are applied at the pins1hinges2 )s a result0 all truss mem#ers are su#Dected to aEial forces (tension or compression) only2 • • • • !n #raced and moment frames0 the horiFontal mem#ers (#eams) are su#Dected to fleEural loads only2 !n #raced frames0 the vertical mem#ers (columns) are su#Dected to compressive aEial forces only2 !n #raced frames0 the diagonal mem#ers (#races) are su#Dected to tension1compression aEial forces only2 !n moment frames0 the vertical mem#ers (#eam-columns) are su#Dected to com#ined aEial and fleEural loads2 -or practice0 let us categoriFe the mem#er sho$n in -igures % and &2 .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr.

%( ft2 %( ft2 -igure %2 Structural elevation of frame )-) g 0 ft2 f e % ft2 d % ft2 c % ft2 # ( ft2 a n m l u t s # a F ' r y D 6 E i p $ h o v &( ft2 &( ft2 &( ft2 -igure &2 Structural elevation of frame 7-7 .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma) C 0 ft2 E % ft2 D % ft2 C % ft2 7 ( ft2 ) > < ? ! @ S 3 = A B 4 8 .

Amit Varma) 1.5 STRUCTURAL CONNECTIONS ?em#ers of a structural frame are connected together using connections2 Arominent connection types include: ( ) truss 1 #racing mem#er connectionsG (%) simple shear connectionsG (&) fullyrestrained moment connectionsG and (4) partially-restrained fleEi#le moment connections2 • 3russ 1 #racing mem#er connections are used to connect t$o or more truss mem#ers together2 4nly the axial forces in the mem#ers have to #e transferred through the connection for continuity2 • Simple shear connections are the pin connections used to connect #eam to column mem#ers2 4nly the shear forces are transferred through the connection for continuity2 3he bending moments are not transferred through the connection2 • ?oment connections are fix connections used to connect #eam to column mem#ers2 7oth the shear forces and #ending moments are transferred through the connections $ith very small deformations (full restraint)2 • Aartially restrained connections are flexible connections used to connect #eam to column mem#ers2 3he shear forces are transferred fully through the connection2 <o$ever0 the #ending moment is only transferred partially2 .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr.

7racing connection and Simple Shear Connection at G in -rame )-)2 .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma) Figure 5.

)ll-#olted dou#le angle shear connection2 -igure *2 )ll-#olted dou#le-angle shear connection H Bevel H ull penetration groove weld H ield welding H !eld access hole H bac"-up bar 7eam H fillet welds H shear tabs Column Figure 7. Amit Varma) 7eam Column Figure 6.CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Directly $elded flange fully restrained moment connection2 .

CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma) • -igure 4 sho$s an eEample truss connection2 -igure ( sho$s an eEample #racing connection2 -igure * sho$s an eEample shear connection2 -igure 7 sho$s an eEample moment connection2 • • Connections are developed using #olts or $elds2 7olts are used to connect t$o or more plate elements that are in the same plane2 7olt-holes are drilled in the plate elements2 3he threaded #olt shan' passes through the holes0 and the connection is secured using nuts2 • • 7olts are usually made of higher strength steel2 :elds can #e used to connect plate elements that are in the same or different planes2 ) high voltage electric arc is developed #et$een the t$o plate elements2 3he electric arc causes localiFed melting of the #ase metal (plate element) and the $eld electrode2 )fter cooling0 all the molten metal (#ase and $eld) solidifies into one continuum2 3hus0 developing a $elded connection2 • !n -igure 40 all the truss mem#ers are connected together #y $elding to a common gusset plate2 3he aEial forces in the mem#ers are transferred through the gusset plates2 3his same connection can also #e developed using #olts2 #ow$ • !n -igure (0 the #racing mem#ers are connected to gusset plates0 $hich are also connected to the #eam and column2 3he #racing mem#er can #e connected to the gusset plate using #olts or $elds2 <o$ever0 the gusset plate has to #e $elded to the #eam 1 column2 • !n -igure *0 t$o angles are #olted to the $e# of the #eam2 3he perpendicular legs of the angles are #olted to the flange of the column2 3hus0 an all-#olted dou#le-angle shear connection is achieved2 3his all-#olted connection $ill #e easier to assem#le in the field as compared to $elding2 #ow is this a shear connection$ • !n -igure 70 the #eam flanges are beveled and $elded directly to the flange of column using full penetration groove $elds2 3his $elding $ill have to #e done in the field during erection and it $ill re6uire the use of #ac'-up #ars2 :eld-access holes and s'illed $elders are re6uired to achieve a $eld of accepta#le 6uality2 • !n -igure 70 the #eam $e# is #olted to a shear ta# (plate)0 $hich is fillet $elded to the column in the shop2 3his shear ta# connection transfers the shear from the #eam to the column2 #ow is igure % a moment connection$ .

0: (inimum Design &oads for Buildings and )ther 'tructures.ive .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma) 1.oads ('): are vertical gravity loads due to sno$0 $hich are su#Dected to varia#ility due to seasons and drift2 • Coof .oad (&r): are live loads on the roof caused during the design life #y planters0 people0 or #y $or'ers0 e6uipment0 and materials during maintenance2 • +alues of structural loads are given in the pu#lication )SCE1SE! 7.ive . 3he first phase of structural design consists of estimating the loads acting on the structure2 3his is done using the load values and com#inations presented in )SCE1SE! 7.oads (!): are in the form of pressure or suction on the eEterior surfaces of the #uilding2 3hey cause horiFontal lateral loads (forces) on the structure0 $hich can #e critical for tall #uildings2 :ind loads also cause uplift of light roof systems2 • Sno$ .0 as eEplained in the follo$ing su#-sections2 .oads (&): are non-permanent loads acting on the structure due to its use and occupancy2 3he magnitude and location of live loads changes fre6uently over the design life2 <ence0 they cannot #e estimated $ith the same accuracy as dead loads2 • :ind .oads (D): are permanent loads acting on the structure2 3hese include the self-$eight of structural and non-structural components2 3hey are usually gravity loads2 • .6 Structur ! L" #$ 3he #uilding structure must #e designed to carry or resist the loads that are applied to it over its design-life2 3he #uilding structure $ill #e su#Dected to loads that have #een categoriFed as follo$s: • Dead .

Categorization of Buildings • Categories !0 !!0 !!!0 and !+2 See 3a#le 2(.#elo$ and in )SCE1SE! 7. Amit Varma) 1.1 Step I.6.02 1.CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr.2 Dead Loads (D Dead loads consist of the $eight of all materials of construction incorporated into the #uilding including #ut not limited to $alls0 floors0 roofs0 ceilings0 stair$ays0 #uilt-in partitions0 finishes0 cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items0 and fiEed service e6uipment such as plum#ing stac's and risers0 electrical feeders0 and heating0 ventilating0 and air conditioning systems2 .6.

6.0 (see 3a#le 42 #elo$)0 $hichever produces the maEimum load effects in the structural mem#ers2 .! Li"e Loads • 7uilding floors are usually su#Dected to uniform live loads or concentrated live loads2 3hey have to #e designed to safely support the minimum uniformly distributed load or the minimum concentrated live load values given in the )SCE1SE! 7.CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma) !n some cases0 the structural dead load can #e estimated satisfactorily from simple formulas #ased in the $eights and siFes of similar structures2 -or eEample0 the average $eight of steel framed #uildings is *0-7( l#1ft%0 and the average $eight for reinforced concrete #uildings is &0 l#1ft%2 -rom an engineering standpoint0 once the materials and siFes of the various components of the structure are determined0 their $eights can #e found from ta#les that list their densities2 See 3a#les 2% and 2&0 $hich are ta'en from <i##eler0 C2C2 ( ///)* 'tructural Analysis* 4th Edition2 0- 1.

CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr. Amit Varma) .

Amit Varma) .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr.

Amit Varma) .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr.

ive loads shall not #e reduced for passenger vehicle garages eEcept the live loads for mem#ers supporting t$o or more floors may #e reduced #y %0K2 .) for mem#ers $ith +&&A. is the tri#utary area in ft% and +&& is the live load element factor as follo$s: +&& is e6ual to 420 for interior columns and eEterior columns $ithout cantilever sla#s2 +&& is e6ual to &20 for edge columns $ith cantilever sla#s.o 0 . o for mem#ers supporting t$o or more floors2 . Amit Varma) • 3he minimum uniformly distri#uted live loads (. cannot #e less that 024. ÷ ÷ ( 2 ) $here0 A.ive loads that eEceed 00 l#1ft % shall not #e reduced eEcept the live loads for mem#ers supporting t$o or more floors may #e reduced #y %0K2 .o) given in 3a#le 42 a#ove can #e reduced for #uildings $ith very large floor areas* #ecause it is unli'ely that the prescri#ed live load $ill occur simultaneously throughout the entire structure2 • E6uation ( 2 ) can #e used to calculate the reduce uniformly distri#uted live load (.o for mem#ers supporting one floor and . cannot #e less than 02(.ive loads shall not #e reduced in assem#ly uses2 . J the largest unreduced floor live load on a given story level acting alone • Some limitations to the live load reduction are as follo$s: .o% I unreduced floor live load applica#le to each of the supported story level irrespective of the tri#utary area2 .CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr.// ft01 ( & = &o 02%( + + && A.-. +&& is e6ual to %20 for corner columns $ith cantilever sla#s0 edge #eams $ithout cantilever sla#s0 and interior #eams2 +&& is e6ual to 20 for all other mem#ers not identified a#ove2 #$C#%&I'() E6uation 2 (a) can #e used instead of E6uation 2 for mem#ers of one and t$o-family structures supporting more than one floor load2 & = 027 × ( &o + &o % + 222) ( 2 (a)) .

2 340. 2 . Amit Varma) #*a+ple 1. 2 93&%.ei and ei 6 hi can #e calculated using the reduced floor live load and the tri#utary area for the #eams supporting the floors2 %) 3he live loads acting on #eams di 6 ei and ei .ei .5 ft0 di A .%5 ft0 hi A . 2 .78.5 ft0 ei e i 4 fi %( ft2 A .fi can #e used to determine the concentrated live load reactions on columns di0 ei0 and fi :here0 the live loads acting on the #eams di 6 ei and ei . 2 340. 2 93%.78. 2 .78.%5 ft0 ai (0 ft2 bi (0 ft2 c h i .1 Determine the magnitude and distri#ution of live loading on the north-south frame bi .hi @43ES: ) 3he live loading on the #eams bi .fi are calculated using the reduced floor live load and the corresponding tri#utary area for the #eams &) 3he concentrated live load acting on the columns can also #e estimated directly using the reduced live load and the tri#utary area for the columns2 7ut0 this method $ould #e inconsistent #ecause the live load carried #y the #eams bi-ei and ei-hi $ould #e included t$ice2 )dditionally0 the live load reduction factor calculated directly for the columns $ill #e different from the live load reduction factors calculated for the #eams2 Consider the 3a#les developed in this eEample2 • Step I) Determine relevant tri#utary and influence areas2 Estimate live load reduction factors2 gi A . 2 .5 ft0 ii %( ft2 A.CE470-Design of Steel Structures (Dr.%5 ft0 A .5 ft0 A .78.%5 ft0 A .

&a.ii ai .5 L/Lo mi!. e3 e0 e4 h7 h5 h.(E(0 E %2()1 000L02(&'1ft2 bi ei .ei and ei .le 1.27( ft % %20 0274 02( %20 20 02( Step II. b3 b0 b4 e7 e5 e.0/(KLL 02.ei ei .25 + 15.hi b7 b5 b. Estimate the distri#uted loads acting on the #eams bi .1 ?em#er tri#utary areas and minimum design live loading2 Beam Member bi-ei ei-hi di .di di .hi hi .ii )3 L M E %(20 E %2( L (*2%( ft % Tributary area )3 L M E %(20 E %2( E % L & %2( ft % KLL %20 L/Lo=0.( T) 0. h3 h0 h4 (02. 02( )3 L M E %2( E %(20 E % 9 %(20 E %(20 L /&72( ft % %20 02*0 02( )3 L M E ((09%() E %2( L 4*.fi gi .fi fi .ci ai .bi bi .gi ci .

2 %( ' %.Step III) Estimate the concentrated live loads acting on the columns of frame bi-ei-hi0 $hich are produced #y the live load distri#ution on the #eams of the orthogonal frames di-ei-fi * ai-bi-ci 0 and gi-hi-ii (02*0E(0E%()1 000L027('1ft2 d7 d5 d. a3 a0 a4 b7 b5 b.2 %( ' .2 %( ' 420*%( ' %2(N 420*%( ' 0274E(0 E %2(L024*'1ft a7 a5 a.2*7 ' .2*7 ' .2 %( ' %. f3 f0 f4 %2(N %(N %2(N %(N %2(N 420*%( ' 02*0E(0E%(L027('1ft 2 420*%( ' %.2 *7 ' 0274E(0 E %2(L024*'1ft 72&4 ' . b3 b0 b4 72&4 ' 72&4 ' 72&4 ' 72&4 ' :esultant c7 c5 c.2 %( ' :esultant f7 f5 f. c3 c0 c4 %2(N %(N %2(N %2(N %(N %2(N .2 %( ' %. d3 d0 d4 e7 e5 e.2*7 ' 3hus0 the concentrated live loads acting on columns bi and hi are 72&4 'ips 3he concentrated live loads acting on columns ei are %. e3 e0 e4 %.

e loads /al/ulated in Step I-.e li"e loads /al/ulated in Steps I0 II0 and III are /onsistent and to .e used for design. 024 02( for b70 h7 420 420 024* 024 02( for e7 .at t.e loads /al/ulated in Steps I0 II0 and III are +ore t. • &.5 x 5/ 2 705 ft0 ai (0 ft2 Co"um! Member bi hi ei )3 L %( E (0 L %(0 ft % bi (0 ft2 KLL % ci Tributary area )3 L %2( E (0 L *%( ft L/Lo=0.at t.0/(KLL 02(( T) 0. 2 40.Step I-) Chec' the estimated column live loadings $ith values that $ould #e o#tained directly for the columns gi hi A.ive load acting on column ei L 024* E (0 psf E %(0 L %.ive load acting on column e7 L 02( E (0 psf E %(0 L & 2%( 'ips • (ote t.an t. 2 05 x 5/ 2 405/ ft0 ei 0 ii %( ft2 di fi %( ft2 A.25 + 15.5 L/Lo mi!.e/2 t.are 1ust to /. 2 40.27( 'ips . .e /on/entrated li"e load /al/ulated in Step I.5 x 5/ 2 705 ft A. 'ips .ive load acting on column #i and hi are L 02(( E (0 psf E *%( L 72 .

ed roof.3 4oof Li"e Loads 4rdinary flat0 pitched0 and curved roofs shall #e designed for the live loads specified in E6uation 2% (from )SCE1SE! 7.r is the roof live load per s6uare foot of horiFontal proDection in psf2 L 41 L 2% .ere0 F 5 no.0) outlines the process for determining $ind loads2 %% . 1.5 7ind Loads • Design $ind loads for #uildings can #e #ased on: (a) simplified procedureG (#) analytical procedureG and (c) $ind tunnel or small-scale procedure2 • -igure %*2 .es of rise per foot for pit/.()SCE1SE! 7. Amit Varma 1. of in/.0)2 .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.6.O 4 for 4 P .020( L 02* for .P % for % O - 6.6.0200 )3 L 02* for )3 O %00 ft% for %00 P )3 P *00 ft% for *00ft% O )3 $here0 % O .r O %0 ( 2%) 55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555 L 42 5 2% .r L %0 C C% $here0 .

in )SCE1SE! 7. Amit Varma • Cefer to )SCE1SE! 7.0 ) %& .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.) for calculating the velocity pressure (.0 (E6uation %72&.z L 0200%(* +z +zt +d V0 (l#1ft%) ( 2&) $here0 V is the #asic $ind speed (see -igure %*2(.0 for the simplified procedure2 3his simplified procedure is applica#le only to #uildings $ith mean roof height less than &0 ft2 • 3he $ind tunnel procedure consists of developing a small-scale model of the #uilding and testing it in a $ind tunnel to determine the eEpected $ind pressures etc2 !t is eEpensive and may #e utiliFed for difficult or special situations2 • 3he analytical procedure is used in most design offices2 !t is fairly systematic #ut some$hat complicated to account for the various situations that can occur2 • :ind velocity $ill cause pressure on any surface in its path2 3he $ind velocity and hence the velocity pressure depend on the height from the ground level2 E6uation 2& is recommended #y )SCE1SE! 7.z) in l#1ft% .

Amit Varma +d is a $ind directionality factor +zt is a topographic factor (L02.7 o -or Cis' Category ! #uildings and structures " use -ig2 %*2(.C • ) significant portion of the Q2S2 including :est .z L %.))2 )t these locations0 for Cis' Category !! .0 ) • 7asic :ind Speed (+) : o -or Cis' Category !! #uildings and structures " use -ig2 %*2(.) o -or Cis' Category !!! and !+ #uildings and structures " use -ig2 %*2(.( for CE 470) (L 20 for CE 470) +z varies $ith height F a#ove the ground level and EEposure category (see 3a#le %72&in )SCE1SE! 7.CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.afayette has V L Category !! (-ig2 %*2(.27. +z (l#1ft%) ( 24) ( mph for Cis' %4 .

h for lee$ard $all2 .z is used to calculate the design $ind pressure (p) for the #uilding structure as follo$s: p L .i L .in )SCE1SE! 7. L .h is constant2 . <=p " .h for $ind$ard0 lee$ard0 side $alls and roofs (fully enclosed #uilding) • @ote that a positive sign indicates pressure acting to$ards a surface2 @egative sign indicate pressure a$ay from the surface • E6uation 2( indicates that the design $ind pressure p consists of t$o components: ( ) the eEternal pressure on the #uilding (.( for CE 470) =p L eEternal pressure coefficient from -igures %724.i (<=pi) $here0 < L gust effect factor (L02. depends on the orientation of the #uilding $all or roof $ith respect to direction of the $ind as follo$s: .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr. <=p)G and (%) the internal pressure in the #uilding (.z for the $ind$ard $all " varies $ith height z .h is .0 %724-% and %724-&in )SCE1SE! 70 (8=pi )L internal pressure coefficient from 3a#le %*2 .z evaluated at z L h (mean height of #uilding)2 . Amit Varma • 3he velocity pressure .0 (l#1ft%) ( 2() . L .i<=pi) %( .

CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr. Amit Varma )SCE1SE! 7.(Ag2 %(%-%(&) %* ..0 -igure %*2.

Amit Varma %7 .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.

. Amit Varma -igure sho$ing the 7asic :ind Speed map of QS (Category !! 7uildings)2 ()SCE1SE! 7.0 Aages %/0-%/ ) %.CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.

CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr. Amit Varma %/ .

& ()SCE1SE! 7.0 Aages2%*&-%**) &0 .0 % .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr. Amit Varma EEternal Aressure Coefficients -igures %724.

CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr. Amit Varma & .

Amit Varma &% .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.

Amit Varma && .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.

CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.0 Aage %(0) &4 . Amit Varma :ind Directionality -actor ()SCE1SE! 7.

CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr. Amit Varma +elocity Aressure EEposure Coefficient ()SCE1SE! 7.00 Aage %* ) &( .

CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.02 Aage %(.) &* . Amit Varma !nternal Aressure Coefficient for #uildings ()SCE1SE! 7.

a3 a0 b7 b5 b. c3 c0 E Figure 9.afayette2 gi hi ii %( ft2 di fi ( ei %( ft2 ai (0 ft2 ci (0 ft2 bi Figure 8. Structural floor plan 0 ft2 0 ft2 0 ft2 0 ft2 0 ft2 a4 ( ft2 b4 c4 a7 a5 a. Structural elevation in east-$est direction &7 .2 Consider the #uilding structure $ith the structural floor plan and elevation sho$n #elo$2 Estimate the $ind loads acting on the structure $hen the $ind #lo$s in the east-$est direction2 3he structure is located in :est . b3 b0 c7 c5 c. Amit Varma #*a+ple 1.CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.

( +zt L topographic factor L 20 +h values for >xposure B* =ase 0 K# 02*% 02** 0270 027* 02. g3 g0 g4 @ 0 ft2 b3 0 ft2 b0 0 ft2 b4 ( ft2 Figure 1:2 Structural elevation in north-south direction • +elocity pressure (. +z psf ( mph for Cis' Category !! (-ig2 %*2(. e3 e0 e4 g7 g5 g.z) +d L directionality factor L 02.z L 0200%(* +z +zt +d V0 ?n :est .z L %. .( .afayette0 V L .( 02.)) &.27. Amit Varma 0 ft2 0 ft2 b7 b5 b./ • $(%t) %0 %( &0 40 (0 *0 70 02(7 0 . e7 e5 e. 02.CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.

psf a$ay from surface EEternal pressure on side $all L .27. Amit Varma • :ind pressure (p) 8ust factor L < L 02.27. >*( E 02.27. +75 E 02. +z E 02.z <=p L %. < =p EEternal pressure on $ind$ard $all L .ength 1 $idth L %20 EEternal pressure coefficient L =p L 902.h <=p L%.( E (-02&) L *2&.( E 02.( E (-027) L 42/0 psf a$ay from surface 3he eEternal pressures on the structure are sho$n in -igures and % #elo$2 Figure 112 EEternal pressures on structural plan &/ .h <=p L %. for $ind$ard $alls =p L -02& for lee$ard $alls =p L -027 for side $alls EEternal pressure L .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.( -or $ind in east $est directionG &/B L . L /2(7 +z psf to$ard surface EEternal pressure on lee$ard $all L .

CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.27.h 2 %. +75 2 %. E 02.27.i (<=pi) L 42( psf acting to$ard or a$ay from surface See -igure & (a) and (#) #elo$ (a) (#) Figure 1!2 !nternal pressure seen in structural plan • 3a'e the eEternal pressure from -igure and % and add to internal pressure from -igures & (a) and (#) to o#tain the final pressure diagrams2 )dding the internal pressure $ill not change the lateral forces in the structure2 40 . (acting a$ay from surface) .i 2 .i (<=pi) . (acting to$ard surface) <=pi L -02 . Amit Varma Figure 122 EEternal pressure on structural elevation (east $est) • !nternal pressure .7 2 %(204 psf Enclosed #uildingG <=pi L 902 .

r or S) 4 ( 2* " ) ( 2* " %) of )!SC manual)2 3he .7 Load and 4esistan/e Fa/tor Design 3he load and resistance factor design approach is recommended #y )!SC for designing steel structures2 !t can #e understood as follo$s: Step !2 Determine the ultimate loads acting on the structure 3he values of D0 .0 or : loading2 3he ultimate load on the structure can #e calculated using factored load com#inations0 $hich are given #y )SCE and )!SC (see pages %. Amit Varma (a) (#) Figure 132 Cesultant $ind pressure diagrams including eEternal and internal pressures • @ote: )ccording to )SCE1SE! 7.CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.00 the minimum $ind design loading is e6ual to * l#1ft% multiplied #y the area of the #uilding proDected on a vertical plane normal to assumed $ind direction2 • Compare the determined design $ind loading $ith the minimum value and continue $ith the greater as the design $ind loading22 1.0 are nominal loads (not maEimum or ultimate) During its design life0 a structure can #e su#Dected to some maEimum or ultimate loads caused #y com#inations of D0 .0 and %most relevant of these load com#inations are given #elo$: 24 D 2% D 9 2* . 9 02( (.0 :0 etc2 given #y )SCE1SE! 7.

r or S) 9 (02( . or 02( :) 2% D 9 20: 9 02( .CE 470: Design of Steel Structures – Dr.r or S) 02/ D 9 20 : Step !!2 Conduct linear elastic structural analysis Determine the design forces (Au0 +u0 and ?u) for each structural mem#er Step !!!2 Design the mem#ers ( 2* " &) ( 2* " 4) ( 2* " () 3he failure (design) strength of the designed mem#er must #e greater than the corresponding design forces calculated in Step !!2 See E6uation ( 27) #elo$: φ Cn R ∑γi Bi ( 27) :here0 Cn is the calculated failure strength of the mem#er φ is the resistance factor used to account for the relia#ility of the material #ehavior and e6uations for Cn Bi is the nominal load γi is the load factor used to account for the varia#ility in loading and to estimate the ultimate loading condition2 4% . Amit Varma 2% D 9 2* (. 9 02( (.

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