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1,2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221, http://gdalu.

Simulation and Optimization by QForm of Extrusion the Complex Thin Profiles
S Stebuno!1, " #iba2, A $ishny1, $ %iao& 1) QuantorForm Ltd., Moscow, Russia 2) MICAS Simulations Ltd., UK 3) IUI , !"i#in$, C%ina

ABSTRACT The 'a'er 'resents the de!elo'ment and 'ractical im'lementation o( the )* model (or simulation o( thin aluminium 'ro(ile e+trusion that is included in the s'ecial,'ur'ose 'rogram -)orm,*+trusion Due to non,uni(orm material (lo. the 'ro(ile that lea!es the ori(ice may bend, or buc/le 0ther as'ects o( the material (lo. such as location o( the seam .elds in hollo. 'ro(ile e+trusion and the 'ro'agation o( the charge .eld in billet,to,billet e+trusion are also accurately 'redicted The 'rogram has a s'ecial inter(ace (or 1uic/ die geometry im'ort and automatic generation o( the (inite element model The 'rogram automatically recognises bearing 2ones and con!erts them into 'arametric (orm modi(ication o( bearing Alterations and o'timi2ation can be done by using the s'ecial module 3#earing *ditor4 .ith .hich the user can achie!e the most uni(orm distribution o( longitudinal !elocity The simulation also 'ro!ides com'rehensi!e analysis o( the die stress and de(lection 5easonable simulation time is 'ro!ided by 'arallel com'utations The so(t.are is currently in use at many die ma/ing and e+trusion com'anies its high economic e((iciency !TRO"#CT O!
-)orm,*+trusion is a s'ecial,'ur'ose 'rogram (or aluminium 'ro(ile e+trusion simulation that has been de!elo'ed by -uantor)orm $td and it is based on the uni!ersal metal (orming simulation 'rogram -)orm&D This s'ecialised so(t.are includes $agrange,*uler model (or e+trusion simulation at the steady state stage 61, 27 The model is also based the assum'tion that the tool set is com'letely (illed .ith the material 'rior to the beginning o( the simulation thus the domain o( the material (lo. inside o( the tooling set does not change This means that the mesh here is immo!able .hile the material (lo.s through it This a''roach allo.s the 'rogram not to remesh the domain inside the tools but 8ust to calculate the !elocity o( the nodes .ithin it 0n the other hand the (ree end o( the 'ro(ile increases in length !ery 1uic/ly a(ter 'assing through the ori(ice Due to non,uni(orm material (lo. the 'ro(ile that lea!es the ori(ice may bend, or buc/le The simulation is ca'able o( 'redicting this undesirable sha'e deterioration and (inding .ays to minimi2e it It is also !ery im'ortant that .ith such an a''roach it is 'ossible to simulate the tem'erature e!olution in the 'ro(ile a(ter it lea!es the die and com'are it .ith the actual tem'erature measurements that are a!ailable at certain distance (rom the die to tune some 'arameters o( the 'rocess 9alidation o( the model has been 'er(ormed (or 'rediction o( load, material (lo. 'attern, 'ro(ile tem'erature and die de(ormation using s'ecial model e+'eriments and numerous industrial case studies done by the 'rogram users .orld,.ide :om'rehensi!e analysis o( the 'rogram accuracy has been done .ithin the International *+trusion #enchmar/ Tests by means o( com'arison o( the simulation results .ith 'recisely arranged e+'erimental tests ;ere the 'rogram has sho.n !ery good 'er(ormance (see the tests in #ologna in 200< 6&7, Dortmund in 200= 6>7 and recently in #ologna in 2011 6?7)

)rom a 'ractical 'oint o( !ie. the most im'ortant stage o( the e+trusion 'rocess is the 1uasi steady,state stage .hen the 'roduct sha'e and its 'ro'erties are (ormed During this 1uasi steady,state stage some 'arameters such as the tem'erature and load do !ary due to reducing o( the billet length in the container

ell as either (ull or 'artial su''ort o( the die tongue (or each o( the 'ro(ile The 'ro(ile dra.elding chambers as .ing and stages o( the model creation are sho. 'ro(ile) The other 'arts o( the die assembly (the bac/er and the bolster and some other 'arts) ha!e no direct contact .hen simulating the die stress and its de(lection As a ty'ical e+am'le o( the model 're'aration in -)orm.ith the (eeder and the die (solid 'ro(ile) and .o similar hollo.een e+truded material and the tools but this !ariation can be ta/en into account by the model still ha!ing the same *uler mesh in the e+trusion die area Generally the source data (or e+trusion simulation include@  The geometric models o( the die set originally created in some :om'uter.1. the bac/er and the bolster Semi hollo. the die. stress data and thermal 'ro'erties)  The conditions on the contact sur(ace o( the e+truded material . 'ro(iles 'ro'osed (or scienti(ic benchmar/ test (a) and subse1uent stages o( the model 're'aration in -)orm. the die ca'.n in )ig 1 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) )ig 1 The scheme o( the hollo. 'ro(ile e+trusion.ith the tools ((riction.called simulation domain The simulation domain is the !olume o( the e+truded material that 'artially (ills the container and com'letely (ills the inner s'ace o( the die assembly u' to the e+it (rom the bearing The die set (or solid 'ro(ile e+trusions generally includes the (eeder or mandrel.*+trusion@ the tool set im'orted (rom :AD system (b)A the mesh in the .alpc. tooling design can be done according to o'en die or closed die scheme de'ending on the 'ro(ile s'eci(ics In both cases the tooling set is e!entually assembled .org.hile the die has di((erent design o( . http://gdalu. the tooling set includes the mandrel. the bac/er and the bolster Sometimes there may be no (eeder at all or the (eeder and the die can be made as a single tool In the case o( a hollo.ith the die ca' and the mandrel (hollo.ithin a and the heat e+change bet. 'ro(iles ha!ing big !ariation o( the .ith the material and are not used to create the simulation domain Their design and 'ro'erties are only ta/en into account .Aided Design (:AD) system  The 'ro'erties o( the e+truded material (the (lo. heat trans(er coe((icient.all thic/ness . and tem'erature o( the tools)  The 'rocess 'arameters (initial tem'erature o( the billet and its distribution.ith the container Thus the e+truded material (ills the s'ace inside the container and has the contact only .2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221. e+trusion s'eed and 'ulling (orce) The simulation o( the e+trusion 'rocess in our 'rogram is 'er(ormed .*+trusion let us consider the e+'erimental die set used (or scienti(ic benchmar/ test 'resented in #ologna in 0ctober 2011 The details o( the 'rocess and the die design can be (ound in 6?7 The 'rocess includes 'arallel simulation o( t.

con!ergence 'roblem and deteriorate the 1uality o( the simulation It is es'ecially critical i( the mesh has im'ro'er density distribution at the entrance to the bearing area . http://gdalu.ith the mesh ready (or simulation (e) The mesh inside the domain is built using tetrahedral elements The 1uality o( the (inite element mesh is critical to obtain accurate results Besh o( insu((icient density or .ith too big a gradient o( the element si2e may cause non.een the tool and de(ormed material can be re'resented as a combination o( adhesi!e (riction (orce and the (orce that is re1uired to de(orm sur(ace as'erities Thus the e+'ression (or (riction traction in general can be .ith 'redominantly de(ormation (riction It is situated at the entrance to the bearing and may e+tend .e can clearly distinguish t.ith res'ect to (riction conditions The (irst area co!ers the inner sur(ace o( the container.1. contact normal 'ressure and sliding !elocity At high contact 'ressure the de(ormation com'onent d is 'redominant . *+trusion 'rogram (c) .een e+truded material and the tooling set "umerous e+'erimental and theoretical studies sho. (eeding channels and 'oc/ets .hen it is re'resented in 'arametric (orm ()ig 2) In this area .hole assembly .alpc.ith the mesh (d).hen the bearing has a cho/e angle 2 The sliding 2one .s@ & Chere is the total (riction traction. the .hen the normal 'ressure is small the adhesi!e com'onent is relati!ely more in(luential De'ending on the !alue o( the normal contact stress it is necessary to a''ly di((erent mechanisms o( (riction as it is e+'lained in our .2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221.een the body sur(aces and is de'endent on the materialDs 'hysical 'ro'erties The de(ormation com'onent is re1uired to de(orm the as'erities and de'ends on the roughness o( the sur(aces.o di((erent areas .e in turn distinguish three 2ones .org.ritten as ( the most intensi!e de(ormation ta/es 'lace In -)orm. the dra(t o( the bearing line (b) and 'ro(ile e+truded a(ter a''lying the boundary conditions in -) de(ormation (riction decreases & The 2one . in e+trusion 'rocess it is also necessary to ta/e into account realistic (riction and heat trans(er conditions tool set (c)A the simulation domain . stress o( the de(ormed material.*+trusion 'rogram during the data 're'aration .hile . stress This means that the metal stic/s to the sur(ace o( the tooling set and sliding ta/es 'lace inside the de(ormed material by intensi!e shearing de(ormation The second contact area is the bearing area that can be !isible in #earing *ditor o( -) the material may se'arate (rom the die due to small normal contact stress a a ' d . (1) (a) (b) (c) )ig 2 The contact area sub8ect to transient (riction conditions as it is seen in the #earing *ditor (a).ithout user inter!ention and it 'ro!ides necessary bac/ground (or accurate simulation o( the 'rocess )or accurate 'rediction o( the material (lo.or/ 6E7 Particularly in aluminium e+trusions .ere the contact 'ressure is !ery high and the de(ormation (riction (actor is close to 1 Due to additional e((ect o( the adhesi!e (riction the total (riction traction (ormally can be bigger than shearing (lo. (lo. is the (orce re1uired to brea/ the adhesi!e lin/s d is the (orce re1uired to de(orm the as'erities The adhesi!e (riction com'onent is caused by molecular lin/s o( di((erent nature bet. that (riction traction on the inter(ace bet.*+trusion such mesh o'timisation is 'er(ormed automatically .ith di((erent (riction models@ 1 The stic/ing 2one .

*+trusion includes the in(luence o( the elastic de(ormation o( the tooling set on the e((ecti!e angle and the 'ro(ile thic/ness 6E7 Such a com'licated (riction model cannot be e+'ressed analytically thus it is reali2ed as an iterati!e semi em'iric algorithm )irstly . bending is sho. o( the 'ro(iles .n in )ig 1 .as originally manu(actured in the die and the angle o( the bearing sur(ace inclination that a''ears due to tool de(ormation The 'ro(ile thic/ness also may !ary due to the die de(ormation Thus to get the 'recise results o( the material (lo.ards . http://gdalu.n. The (ront 'ieces o( the 'ro(iles are sho.ith 'redictions The same good corres'ondence .e calculate the (riction stress de'ending on !elocity. . c and d) and are in good agreement .nA (b) G the same 'ro(iles simulation .hen the guides are a''lied to 're!ent . 'rediction As seen (rom the simulation results the 'ro(ile 1 tends to go much (aster than the 'ro(ile 2 ()ig & a and b) In the same time the simulation sho.ithin the con(erence I:*# 2011 and its results ha!e been re'orted by us in 6F7 The data summary and e+'erimental results 'resented by the organisers can be (ound in 6?7 The 'ro(ile s/etch and the tooling set are sho.hile the 'ro(ile 2 is going more or less straight The e+'erimental data . 'roblem again )or e!ery 2one in e!ery 'oint o( the bearing 'erimeter . the e+trusion load.n e+actly the same trend in real material (lo.n on the 'hotos ()ig &.hile here .e need to ta/e into account the !ariation o( the e((ecti!e cho/e angle and the actual thic/ness o( the 'ro(ile To get these !alues the material (lo. and sol!e the die de(ormation 'roblem Then . the 'ro(ile tem'erature and the die de(ormation that can be (ound in 6?7 and 6F7 a) b) c) d) )ig & The simulation o( the 'ro(iles ( 5elati!e dimensions o( these 2ones de'end on se!eral 'arameters and may !ary along the 'ro(ile 'erimeter The di!ision o( the bearing into 2ones and some o( the relations 'arameters may in(luence the e+tent o( the 2ones@ • Actual (e((ecti!e) cho/e angle • Actual thic/ness o( the 'ro(ile • 9elocity o( the 'ro(ile (lo.ith the !elocity distribution.1. the (riction model de!elo'ed in -)orm.e simulate the material (lo.alpc.ith e+'eriment has been obser!ed in 'redicting the relati!e !elocity o( the 'ro(iles 1 and 2. in the test@ (a) G (ree (lo. 'roblem is to be cou'led .s that due to di((erent design o( the .e .ith the simulation o( the tool de(ormation "o. stress %ATER A& F&O( A!" T$E %O"E& )ER F CAT O! The numerical model described abo!e has been tested using both dedicated laboratory tests and cases (rom routine industrial 'ractice 0ne o( the most recent laboratory tests has been done .e calculate e((ecti!e cho/e angle and actual 'ro(ile thic/ness at e!ery 'oint o( the bearing 'erimeter and sol!e the material (lo.een them ha!e been e+'erimentally 'ro!ed by S Abtahi 6<7 Thus (or e!ery 'oint along the 'ro(ile 'erimeter the (ollo.hen ha!e been disclosed at the con(erence ha!e sho. The e((ecti!e cho/e angle is the algebraic sum o( the cho/e angle as it .2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number chambers and other 'arts o( the dies the 'ro(ile 1 (on the le(t) has the trend to be bent do.ould li/e to discuss some results on the material (lo. normal contact stress and (lo.

2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221. Turkey .ardsA (d) .as done using a .cou'led and cou'led simulation o( the material ( 'ro(iles bendingA (c) .*+trusion It . http://gdalu. and the die de(ormation should be considered as a cou'led 'roblem $et us com'are the range o( solid and (ound that .hen simulating the most com'licated thin 'ro(iles it is !ery im'ortant to ta/e into account elastic de(ormation o( the tool set and es'ecially de(ormation o( the mandrel and die ca' in bearing area It means that the material (lo. mandrel (b) and die ca' (c) that are designed (or this 'ro(ile e+trusion In cou'led simulation o( the 'ro(ile e+trusion .e consider the assembly o( the tool set that may ha!e di((erent com'onents li/e sho. 'hoto o( the 'ro(ile 1 that bends do.alpc. o( the 'ro(ile that sho. 'ro(iles o( !arious com'le+ity and e+trusion ratios that are 'roduced by di((erent users o( -)orm.n.n on )ig >a a) b) c) )ig > Actual double tube 'ro(ile ti'1(a).n on )ig ? 1 Cith /ind 'ermission o( A$BAH aluminium. 'hoto o( the 'ro(ile 2 going mostly straight CO#P&E" S %#&AT O! A!" !"#STR A& %P&E%E!TAT O! Industrial !eri(ication o( the model .

ere se!eral goals o( such industrial in!estigation@ • Testing and im'ro!ing the methods o( the geometry data trans(er (rom industrial systems o( die design into the simulation 'rogram • *stimation o( the accuracy o( the simulation • Ise the results o( the tests (or (urther de!elo'ment o( the numerical model and the so(t.are The results obtained in these tests ha!e sho.ith the sha'e o( its (ront end 'redicted in simulation The sha'e o( the (ront ti' clearly used (or this case study includes all the com'onents e+ce't a container that .er than the outer 'art o( the 'ro(ile as sho.ith 'lastic material (lo.n in the )ig <a The simulation o( the same e+trusion case ta/ing into account the elastic de(ormation o( the tool set has simulated as the material (lo.ith the inner 'art going (aster The (ront ti' obtained in this com'uter trial is sho. Italy .n on the 'hoto ()ig <c) 2 Cith /ind 'ermission :0BP*S S ' a.ere used (or cou'led simulation o( the material ( the o''osite material (lo.n that the central 'art o( the double tube 'ro(ile in the die ori(ice goes slo.ay is to com'are the sha'e o( the (ront ti' o( a real 'ro(ile .as re'laced by a''ro'riate boundary conditions on the billet side sur(ace )ig E sho. http://gdalu.s ine1uality o( the !elocity in di((erent 'arts o( the 'ro(ile There . In the (irst com'uter trial it .alpc.2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221. through the rigid tool set (mandrel and die ca') The results ha!e sho. 'attern .n that it is !ery im'ortant to consider the cou'led elastic de(ormation o( the tool set .n on )ig <b and loo/s !ery similar to the real (ront ti' sho. the double tubes 'ro(ile Tool Set Domain *+trusion Domain )ig E The *+trusion Domain and Tool Set Domain ready (or simulation o( the double tube 'ro(ile It is im'ossible to measure the !elocity distribution along the 'ro(ile contour in a real e+trusion Thus the only .cn/ )ig ? Ty'ical tools set arrangement2 The tool set that .s the *+trusion Domain and Tool Set Domain that .

hen simulating . by simulation is necessary to im'lement the cou'led a''roach This a''roach also 'ro!ides estimation o( the 'ro(ile de(lection during e+trusion and 'ossible de!iation o( the geometrical dimensions and angles o( the 'ro(ile )ig F #earing inclination due to elastic de(ormation o( the die (in angular minutes) 9ery good corres'ondence bet.alpc.een the simulation and real e+trusion results can be e+'lained by the in(luence o( the die de(ormation on inclination o( the bearing 2one )ig F initially straight may get either cho/e or relie( angle that in turn signi(icantly changes the material (lo.s that the bearing that .er than it .cn/ a) b) c) )ig < Double tube 'ro(ile ti' sha'es . It is clearly seen that the 'arts o( the 'ro(ile that are in the area .as 'redicted (or the rigid dies 9ice !ersa the 'arts o( the 'ro(ile that the bearing has got a cho/e due to die de(ormation are going slo.2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221.ith rigid tool set (a) and de(ormable tool set (b) and the 'hoto o( real (ront ti' obtained in e+'eriment (c) The results o( simulation that are sho. in the )ig < con(irmed the assum'tion that (or accurate 'rediction o( the material (lo.

cn/ are in relie( area are going (aster Altogether it causes the e((ect that .elds (or both 'ro(iles A(ter the e+trusion the 'ro(iles ha!e been cut and etched Their cross sections in magni(ied scale are sho.ards to the corners a) b) .n as bac/.elds (longitudinal .een an old and a ne. (rom the container through (eeding channels to the (inish 'ro(ile and by these means it e((ecti!ely (inds out the locations o( the material 'aths (rom the billet s/in into the 'roduct as . billet in billet.1. 'ro(iles and too much e+tended charge . -) o( 'ro(ile 2 are located 8ust belo.elds o( 'ro(ile 1 are near the bottom 'art o( the 'ro(ile that is the result o( material s'eed di((erence in the (eeders In the simulation the 'rogram traces the material (lo. 'atterns on )ig < PRE" CT O! OF SEA% (E&"S A!" C$AR*E (E&"S ! E'TR#S O! #esides o( the 'ro(ile sha'e accuracy there are some other as'ects o( the 'roduct 1uality also related to the material (lo. im'ro'er location o( seam .s o!er the areas .elds) in hollo. let us illustrate this ability using the same scienti(ic benchmar/ test (rom #ologna 2011 as .billet e+trusion All these 'henomena can be success(ully 'redicted and corrected or at least minimi2ed by means o( simulation as it is illustrated by the e+am'les 'ro!ed by laboratory and industrial tests belo.ell as the locations o( the .elds as they are seen in reality ()ig = J and d) In 'ro(ile 2 they are closer to the bridge a+is .as mentioned abo!e The authors o( the test ha!e 'ro!ided the results about location o( longitudinal seam .eld seams o( both ty'es )irstly.elds transition (trans!ersal . 'attern Actually there are three ty'es o( de(ects that ha!e to be a!oided in e+trusion 'ractice@ contamination o( billet s/in and its 'enetration in the 'roduct /no. through the (eeding channels that are highlighted by di((erent colors (see )ig = b) and then it sho.*+trusion has (acilities to trace the material ( these material streams do merge in the 'ro(ile crosscuts ()ig = a) The simulation 'redicts e+actly the same locations o( the seam .n on )ig = J and d It is clearly seen that the . the bridge a+es .hile in 'ro(ile 1 they are signi(icantly shi(ted illustrated by the material (lo.n.2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221. http://gdalu.elds) the .to.alpc.

org.eld 'rediction (or more com'licated industrial 'ro(iles se!eral e+am'les ha!e been used and chec/ed 0ne o( them is 'resented in the )ig 10& As clearly seen (rom this com'arison the 'rediction is accurate enough to be used (or routine chec/ o( the 'ro(iles at the stage o( the tooling design to a!oid 'ossible 'roblems due to ina''ro'riate seam .eld locations in magni(ied scale (or 'ro(ile 1 (c) and 'ro(ile 2 (d) obtained e+'erimentally ('hotos abo!e) and by means o( simulation (belo.2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number mechanical 'ro'erties along them Thus charge .eld location a) b) c) )ig 10 *+'erimental (a).een the old and the ne.n o!er the 'ro(ile contour (c) :harge or trans!erse .elds usually contain contamination o( o+ides or other substances that are res'onsible (or c) d) )ig = The location o( the seam . http://gdalu.eld 'osition is !ery im'ortant (or industrial 'ro(iles Bean.elding lines may e!en cause crash o( constructions .) The seam .here the .elds may a''ear "on 'ro'er 'osition o( the . billet during continuous e+trusion 0n the contrary to seam .here such 'ro(iles are used To chec/ the accuracy o( the seam . Italy .alpc. 'redicted (b) locations o( the seam .elds the charge .elds are generated bet.elds and location o( (eeding channels in the tooling set sho.elds are to be discarded (rom the (inish 'ro(ile In industrial 'ractice 1uite o(ten it is not easy to (ind their 'ositions and costly microstructure in!estigations are to be done &) Cith /ind 'ermission o( :0BP*S.elds obtained in simulation (a) and contours o( (eeding channels o!erla''ed o!er the 'ro(ile contours (b) :om'arison o( the seam .hile due to their sha'e com'le+ity it is !ery di((icult to 'redict a 'riori .

billet material (red) into the 'roduct (b) Bore com'rehensi!e !ie.4 material e+'ands through the 'ro(ile during the 'rogress o( the e+trusion The com'arison has sho. material sho. 'ro'agation o( the material (rom a 3ne.*uler a''roach .cn/ The accuracy o( the model 'rediction ca'abilities (or trans!erse .ith s'ecially o'timi2ed (inite element mesh in the simulation domain Aluminium e+trusion model re1uires consideration o( more com'licated (riction o( the e+truded 'ro(ile (a) and the 'rogress o( 'ro'agation o( the ne.ith e+'erimental data is sho. the actual 'ro(ile sha'e and other !ital 'rocess 'arameters Accurate 'rediction o( the material (lo.alpc. and old material The 'ictures in )ig 11 sho.eden .n by red colour in the e+truded 'ro(ile 'redicted in simulation (le(t) and the 'hotos o( etched crosscuts (right) (or the same di((erent 'ositions (a and b)> CO!C&#S O!S 1 2 & *+trusion simulation model included in -)orm.eld and its com'arison .1.s analy2ing o( longitudinal and trans!ersal seam .n the high accuracy o( the numerical 'rediction a) b) )ig 12 "e.4 billet through 3old4 one a) b) )ig 11 General !ie. S. that includes the in(luence o( adhesion (riction The 'rogram has !alidated by model and industrial e+'eriments sho.n on )ig 12 The crosscuts sho.ide range o( industrial and research im'lementations in the (ield o( thin 'ro(ile e+trusion > ? >) Cith /ind 'ermission o( SAPA Technology. good accuracy o( the results in terms o( material (lo. o( the charge .elds has been tested using an industrial e+am'le 'ro'osed by SAPA Technology (S.*+trusion 'rogram is based on $agrange. the 'ro'agation o( the trans!ersal seam .eden) To sho.2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221. allo.eld inside the e+truded 'ro(ile the charge 'lane is to be s'eci(ied This 'lane initially se'arates ne. ho. http://gdalu.elds that o(ten are critical (or the 'roduct 1uality and are to be o'timi2ed at the stage o( the tool design The 'rogram is an ideal tool (or . 'rediction.

3De!elo'ment and industrial !eri(ication o( -)orm. B Schi/orra. S Stebuno!.4 (%.=? >) D Piet2/a. http://gdalu. 3*+trusion #enchmar/ 200<4 in (roc""din$s o) t%" Con)"r"nc" Lat"st Ad1anc"s in +. 200=.trusion "c%nolo$. Dortmund. die de(lection and seam . 3-)orm. '' &?. 3In(luence o( contact (riction conditions on thin 'ro(ile simulation accuracy4 in (ro$r"ss in +. A $ishni8. 3*+trusion #enchmar/ 2011@ *!aluation o( di((erent design strategies on 'rocess conditions.2E ?) A Sel!aggio. $ Tomesani. Italy.and Simulation and 4t% +. Italy. A Gu2el. +. #ologna.and Simulation o) Li$%t M"tal Allo-s. 3)riction and Inter(ace 5eactions on the Die $and in Thin.20< . $ Tomesani. $ Donati. " #iba. * Te//aya.trusion "c%nolo$.*+trusion 'rogram (or simulation 'ro(ile e+trusion4 in (roc""din$ o) Int"rnational Con)"r"nc" on +. 3. 200<.10 E) " #iba. A $ishni8. ISA. 2011.Called *+trusion.>2 <) S Abtahi. "or.and Simulation in +uro/". S Stebuno!. Dortmund.2 December 2012 Guangdong Aluminum Processing Technology International Seminar (APTIS) booth number 221. Germany. 2011.*+trusion data (orm scienti(ic4 in Lat"st Ad1anc"s in +. Trondheim.trusion "c%nolo$. 200F 2) S Stebuno!. #ologna. * Te//aya. #ologna. #ologna.>2 &) $ Donati. 2011./osition.trusion !"nc%mar0. REFERE!CES 1) " #iba.egian Institute o( Technology.eld 1uality in hollo. * Te//aya. 200=.and Simulation o) Li$%t M"tal Allo-s.trusion and !"nc%mar0 . '' >1. A 9laso!. " #en Hhali(a. Germany. 3*+trusion #enchmar/ 200= *+'erimental analysis o( de(lection in e+truded dies4 in Ad1anc"s on 2ot +. $ Donati. '' F=. Italy.ay. %"sis. '' A Segatori. 1==? F) " #iba.trusion "c%nolo$.1.trusion "c%nolo$. '' 1. '' 1=. A $ishni8. S Stebuno!. +A''lication o( -)orm Program (or Im'ro!ement o( the Die Design and Pro(ile *+trusion Technology4 in (roc""din$s o) t%" *int% Int"rnational Aluminum +.trusion and Simulation o) Li$%t Allo-s. 'ro(iles4 in (ro$r"ss in +. "or. $ Tomesani.alpc.S"minar .