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Education in Sudan is free and compulsor for children a!ed " to #$ ears. %rimar education consists of ei!ht ears& followed ' three ears of secondar education. The former educational ladder " ( $ ( $ was chan!ed in #))*. The primar lan!ua!e at all le+els is Ara'ic. Schools are concentrated in ur'an areas, man in the South and -est ha+e 'een dama!ed or destro ed ' ears of ci+il war. In .**# the -orld /an0 estimated that primar enrollment was 1" percent of eli!i'le pupils and .# percent of secondar students. Enrollment +aries widel & fallin! 'elow .* percent in some pro+inces. Sudan has #) uni+ersities, instruction is primaril in Ara'ic. Education at the secondar and uni+ersit le+els has 'een seriousl hampered ' the re2uirement that most males perform militar ser+ice 'efore completin! their education.

Accordin! to -orld /an0 estimates for .**.& the literac rate in adults a!ed #3 ears and older was "* percent. In .*** the compara'le fi!ure was almost 34 percent 5") percent for males& 1" percent for females6, outh illiterac 5a!es #37.16 was estimated at .$ percent.

The pu'lic and pri+ate education s stems inherited ' the !o+ernment after independence were desi!ned more to pro+ide ci+il ser+ants and professionals to ser+e the colonial administration than to educate the Sudanese. 8oreo+er& the distri'ution of facilities& staff& and enrollment was 'iased in fa+or of the needs of the administration and a -estern curriculum. Schools tended to 'e clustered in the +icinit of 9hartoum and to a lesser e:tent in other ur'an areas& althou!h the population was predominantl rural. This concentration was found at all le+els 'ut was most mar0ed for those in situations 'e ond the four; ear primar schools where instruction was in the +ernacular. The north suffered from shorta!es of teachers and 'uildin!s& 'ut education in the south was e+en more inade2uate. Durin! the condominium& education in the south was left lar!el to the mission schools& where the le+el of instruction pro+ed so poor that as earl as the mid;#)$*s the !o+ernment imposed pro+incial education super+isors upon the missionaries in return for the !o+ernment su'sidies that the sorel needed. The ci+il war and the e<ection

Accordin!l & an e:tensi+e reor!aniCation was proposed& which would e+entuall ma0e the new si:.) percent& and& despite the efforts of successi+e !o+ernments& ' #))* it had risen onl to a'out $* percent in the face of a rapidl e:pandin! population. 8oreo+er& the increasin! demand for intermediate& secondar & and hi!her education could not 'e met ' Sudanese teachers alone& at least not ' the 'etter educated ones !raduated from the elite teacher.of all forei!n missionaries in =e'ruar #)"1 further diminished education opportunities for southern Sudanese. There were some preprimar schools& mainl in ur'an areas. As a result& education in Sudan continued to depend upon e:pensi+e forei!n teachers. / the late #)@*s& the !o+ernment>s education s stem had 'een lar!el reor!aniCed. trained uni+ersit !raduates& 'ut little was done to prepare for technical wor0 or s0illed la'or the !reat 'ul0 of students who did not !o as far as the uni+ersit or e+en secondar school. The philosoph and curriculum 'e ond primar school followed the /ritish educational tradition.*4&"446& #*4 intermediate schools 5enrollment #1&"$. At independence in #)3"& education accounted for onl #3. ear curriculum in primar schools and . Althou!h all students learned Ara'ic and En!lish in secondar and intermediate schools& the lan!ua!e of instruction at the Uni+ersit of 9hartoum was En!lish.3 percent of the Sudanese 'ud!et& or ?Sd13& to support #&@@4 primar schools 5enrollment .. ear elementar education pro!ram compulsor and would pa much more attention to technical and +ocational education at all le+els.$6.trainin! colle!e at /a0ht ar Buda. Ai!her education was limited to the Uni+ersit of 9hartoum& e:cept for less than #&*** students sent a'road ' wealth parents or on !o+ernment scholarships. The s stem produced some well. The adult literac rate in #)3" was .led !o+ernment too0 power in #)")& it considered the education s stem inade2uate for the needs of social and economic de+elopment.6& and 1) !o+ernment secondar schools 5enrollment 3&1. Since -orld -ar II the demand for education had e:ceeded Sudan>s education resources.. The 'asic s stem consisted of a si:. %re+iousl & primar and intermediate schools had 'een preludes to secondar trainin!& and secondar schools prepared students for the uni+ersit . -hen the Nimeiri.

school population 5.secondar schools in the pu'lic s stem in #)4*& 'ut it was at this le+el that pri+ate schools of +ar in! 2ualit proliferated& particularl in the three cities of the capital teachers.* and $$ percent of the countr >s population.3 percent of all !eneral secondar schools were in the south until #)4$. In the earl #)4*s& the num'er of <unior 5also called !eneral6 secondar schools was a little more than one. The renewal of the ci+il war in mid. and teacher. 8oreo+er& prospecti+e emplo ers often found technical school !raduates inade2uatel . In #)4*& despite the emphasis on technical education proposed ' the !o+ernment and encoura!ed ' +arious international ad+isor 'odies& there were onl thirt .fifth the num'er of primar schools& a proportion rou!hl consistent with that of !eneral secondar to primar .fi+e technical schools in Sudan& less than one. In #)@". A'out ". #)4$ destro ed man schools& althou!h the S%DA operated schools in areas under its control.fifth the num'er of academic upper secondar schools. Of the more than 3&1** primar schools in #)4*& less than #1 percent were located in southern Sudan& which had 'etween .4#6. trainin! secondar schools desi!ned to prepare primar . ear pro!rams. Ne+ertheless& man teachers and students were amon! the refu!ees fleein! the ra+a!es of war in the south.. 8an of these southern schools were esta'lished durin! the Southern Be!ional administration 5#)@. =rom that point& 2ualified students could !o on to one of three 0inds of schools: the three.trainin! schools for upper.@@ ei!ht times as man students entered the academic stream as entered the technical schools& creatin! a profound im'alance in the mar0etplace.trainin! schools for <unior secondar teachers& and hi!her teacher. ear curriculum in <unior secondar schools. ear upper secondar & which prepared students for hi!her education. There were onl #)* upper. commercial and a!ricultural technical schools. %ostsecondar schools included uni+ersities& hi!her technical schools& intermediate teacher."*&*** to #&$$1&***6.secondar teachers. The latter two institutions offered four.three. Elite schools could recruit students who had selected them as a first choice& 'ut the others too0 students whose e:amination results at the end of <unior secondar school did not !ain them entr to the !o+ernment>s upper secondar schools.

These postsecondar institutions and uni+ersities had pro+ided Sudan with a su'stantial num'er of well. /ut the process was inherentl slow and was made slower ' limited funds and ' the inade2uate compensation for staff.trained& a conse2uence of sometimes irrele+ant curricula& low teacher morale& and lac0 of e2uipment.le+el technical schools has not dealt with what most e:perts saw as Sudan>s 'asic education pro'lem: pro+idin! a primar education to as man Sudanese children as possi'le. Colle!es were specialiCed de!ree. The uni+ersities were in the capital area& and all of the institutions of hi!her learnin! were in the northern pro+inces. The hope for uni+ersal and compulsor education had not 'een realiCed ' the earl #)4*s& 'ut as a !oal it led to a more e2uita'le distri'ution of facilities and teachers in rural areas and in the south. In the mid.educated . The realistic assumption was that Sudan>s resources were limited and that e:penditures on the postprimar le+el limited e:penditures on the primar le+el& lea+in! most Sudanese children with an inade2uate education. E+en more important was the de+elopment of a primar . teachers who could find a mar0et for their s0ills elsewhere& includin! places outside Sudan& did not remain teachers within the Sudanese s stem. Durin! the #)4*s& the !o+ernment esta'lished more schools at all le+els and with them& more teacher. Institutes !ranted diplomas and certificates for periods of specialiCed stud shorter than those commonl demanded at uni+ersities and colle!es.!rantin! institutions. The proliferation of upper. Esta'lishin! more primar schools was& in this +iew& more important that achie+in! e2uit in the distri'ution of secondar schools. %erformance ma also ha+e suffered 'ecause of the low morale of students& man of whom tended to see this 0ind of schoolin! as second choice at 'est& a not surprisin! +iew !i+en the s stem>s past emphasis on academic trainin!& and the low status of manual la'or& at least amon! much of the Ara' population. three institutes in Sudan. In the earl #))*s this situation had not si!nificantl chan!ed. The technical schools were meant to include institutions for trainin! s0illed wor0ers in a!riculture& 'ut few of the schools were directed to that end& most of them turnin! out wor0ers more useful in the ur'an areas.trainin! schools& althou!h these were ne+er sufficient to pro+ide ade2uate staff.#)@*s& there were four uni+ersities& ele+en colle!es& and twent .school curriculum that was !eared to Sudanese e:perience and too0 into account that most of those who completed si: ears of schoolin! did not !o further.

The siCe of the latter and perhaps its lac0 of presti!e reflected the fact that man if not most of its students wor0ed to support themsel+es and attended classes in the afternoon and at ni!ht& althou!h some da classes were introduced in #)4*. / #))* some institutes had 'een up!raded to colle!es& and man had 'ecome part of an autonomous 'od called the 9hartoum Institute of Technical Colle!es 5also referred to as 9hartoum %ol technic6.&*** students in de!ree pro!rams ran!in! from four to si: ears in len!th. Dar!er 'ut less presti!ious was the 9hartoum 'ranch of the Uni+ersit of Cairo with #$&*** students.persons in some fields 'ut left it short of technical personnel and specialists in sciences rele+ant to the countr >s lar!el rural character. Tuition onl at the 9hartoum 'ranch was free& whereas all costs at the full residential Uni+ersit of 9hartoum were paid for ' the !o+ernment. In #))* it enrolled a'out #. The Uni+ersit of Eu'a& esta'lished in #)@@& !raduated its first class in #)4#. At the Institute of Ai!her Technical Studies& which had 1&*** students in #))*& tuition was free& and a monthl !rant helped to defra 'ut did not full co+er other e:penses. After the out'rea0 of hostilities in the south in #)4$& the uni+ersit was mo+ed to 9hartoum& a mo+e that had se+erel curtailed its instructional pro!rams& 'ut the uni+ersit continued to operate a!ain in Eu'a in the late #)4*s. Some of its affiliates were outside the capital area& for e:ample& the Colle!e of 8echanical En!ineerin! at At'arah& northeast of 9hartoum& and Al EaCirah Colle!e of A!riculture and Natural Besources at A'u Naamah in Al Awsat. The oldest uni+ersit was the Uni+ersit of 9hartoum& which was esta'lished as a uni+ersit in #)3". Al EaCirah Colle!e of A!riculture and Natural Besources was also intended to ser+e the . In its first ears& it enrolled a su'stantial num'er of ci+il ser+ants from the south for further trainin!& clearl needed in an area where man in the ci+il ser+ice had little educational opportunit in their outh. / #)4* two new uni+ersities had opened& one in Al Awsat %ro+ince at -ad 8adani& the other in Eu'a in Al Istiwai %ro+ince& and in #)4# there was tal0 of openin! a uni+ersit in Darfur& which was nearl as depri+ed of educational facilities as the south. The smallest of the uni+ersities in the capital area was the specialiCed Islamic Uni+ersit of Omdurman& which e:isted chiefl to train 8uslim reli!ious <ud!es and scholars. It was intended to pro+ide education for de+elopment and for the ci+il ser+ice for southern Sudan& althou!h it was open to students from the whole countr .

supportin!. There were no +ocational schools for !irls& onl a Nurses> Trainin! Colle!e with 'ut ele+en students& nursin! not 'ein! re!arded ' man Sudanese as a respecta'le +ocation for women. / #)33& ten intermediate schools for !irls were in e:istence.!rowin! demand for hi!her education and trainin!. Its emphasis on trainin! in administration& en+ironmental studies& ph sics and mathematics& and li'rar science had pro+en popular.secondar schools."3 students& was the onl !irls> secondar school operated ' the !o+ernment. Durin! the #)"*s and #)@*s& !irls> education made considera'le !ains under the education reforms that pro+ided #&*4" primar schools& . Such 'asic schools did not prepare !irls for the secular learnin! mainstream& from which the were +irtuall e:cluded. Dar!el throu!h the pioneerin! wor0 of Sha 0h /a'i0r /adri& the !o+ernment had pro+ided fi+e elementar schools for !irls ' #). Firls> Education Traditionall & !irls> education was of the most rudimentar 0ind& fre2uentl pro+ided ' a 0halwa& or reli!ious school& in which Guranic studies were tau!ht.countr as a whole& 'ut its focus was consistent with its location in the most si!nificant a!ricultural area in Sudan. / #)"*& . The uni+ersit was to 'e non!o+ernmental& <o' oriented& and self. It was onl in #)1* that the first intermediate school for !irls& the Omdurman Firls> Intermediate School& opened. upon the hundredth anni+ersar of the foundin! of the cit of Omdurman and was intended to meet the e+er. E:pansion was slow& howe+er& !i+en the 'ias for 'o s and the conser+atism of Sudanese societ & with education remainin! restricted to the elementar le+el until #)1*. +ocational schools for !irls ' . Its curriculum& tau!ht in En!lish and oriented to <o' trainin! pertinent to the needs of Sudan& had attracted more than #&4** students ' #))*. It was esta'lished ' academics& professionals& and 'usinesspeople in #)4. Of particular interest was the d namic !rowth and e:pansion of Omdurman Ahlia Uni+ersit . upper."4 intermediate schools& and 3.13 elementar schools for !irls had 'een esta'lished& 'ut onl .*.3 <unior secondar or !eneral schools and . Support came mainl from pri+ate donations& forei!n foundations& and the !o+ernment& which appro+ed the allotment of thirt acres of prime land on the western outs0irts of Omdurman for the campus. In #)3"& the Omdurman Secondar School for Firls& with a'out .

#)@*& when !irls> education claimed appro:imatel one. Ae allocated ?Sd1** million for the academic ear #))*. In consultation with leaders of the 8uslim /rotherhood and Islamic teachers and administrators& who were the stron!est supporters of his re!ime& /ashir proclaimed a new philosoph of education.)# to carr out these reforms and promised to dou'le the sum if the current education s stem could 'e chan!ed to meet the needs of Sudan. This rather dismal situation should not o'scure the successful efforts of schools such as the Ahfad Uni+ersit Colle!e in Omdurman& founded ' /a'i0r /adri as an elementar school for !irls in the #). The !irl was a +alua'le asset in the home until marria!e& either in the 0itchen or in the fields. This !irls could not do. It had a mi:ture of academic and practical pro!rams& such as those that educated women to teach in rural areas. Education Beform The re+olutionar !o+ernment of Feneral /ashir announced sweepin! reforms in Sudanese education in Septem'er #))*. The new education philosoph was to pro+ide a frame of reference for the reforms. This could onl 'e accomplished ' a 8uslim curriculum& which in all schools& colle!es& and uni+ersities would . This slow de+elopment of !irls> education was the product of the countr >s tradition.third of the total school resources a+aila'le. their +alue was enhanced not at school 'ut at home& in preparation for marria!e and the dowr that accompanied the ceremon . %arents of Sudanese !irls tended to loo0 upon !irls> schools with suspicion if not fear that the would corrupt the morals of their dau!hters. / #))* it had e+ol+ed as the premier women>s uni+ersit colle!e in Sudan with an enrollment of #&4**.*s. 8oreo+er& preference was !i+en to sons& who ' education could ad+ance themsel+es in societ to the pride and profit of the famil .torn south& the ratio had remained appro:imatel the same. Althou!h ' the earl #))*s the num'ers had increased in the north 'ut not in the war. Education was to 'e 'ased on the permanence of human nature& reli!ious +alues& and ph sical nature. =inall & the lac0 of schools has discoura!ed e+en those who desired elementar education for their dau!hters.

The optional course of stud would permit the student to select certain specialiCations accordin! to indi+idual aptitudes and inclinations. The o'li!ator course to 'e studied ' e+er student was to 'e 'ased on re+ealed 0nowled!e concernin! all disciplines. Ae dismissed a'out se+ent facult mem'ers at the Uni+ersit of 9hartoum who opposed his reforms. . / earl #))#& /ashir had decreed that the num'er of uni+ersit students 'e dou'led and that Ara'ic replace En!lish as the lan!ua!e of instruction in uni+ersities. -hether the !o+ernment could carr out such sweepin! reforms throu!hout the countr in the face of opposition from within the Sudanese education esta'lishment and the dearth of resources for implementin! such an am'itious pro<ect remained to 'e seen. All the essential elements of the o'li!ator course would 'e drawn from the Guran and the reco!niCed 'oo0s of the hadith. 8em'ership in the %opular Defence =orces& a paramilitar 'od allied to the National Islamic =ront& 'ecame a re2uirement for uni+ersit admission.consist of two parts: an o'li!ator and an optional course of stud .