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Different Paths to Different Feminisms?

Bridging Multiracial Feminist Theory and Quantitative Sociological Gender Research Author(s): Catherine E. Harnois Reviewed work(s): Source: Gender and Society, Vol. 19, No. 6 (Dec., 2005), pp. 809-828 Published by: Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL: . Accessed: 06/03/2013 06:15
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Theory and Quantitative Gender Research Sociological
CATHERINE E. HARNOIS University of Illinois-Chicago

examines the limitations of the sociological research on feminist identities and ideologies that ignores the intersection the of race and gender. Drawing from multiracial feminist theorizing, as feminist a biased indicator of the salience of feminism author asks, Is self-identification in African American women 's lives? Do women 's racial statuses mediate the relationship between particular life events and experiences and the extent to which they embrace feminism ? and To what extent are racial dif This article to be ? To answer these ques important when considering what women understand feminism ferences to analyze data from tions, the author conducted multiple group analyses of structural equation models are consistent with multiracial feminist the 1996 General Social Survey. Her findings theories and sug are no to feminist research so that women's differences gest a need to rethink traditional approaches longer marginalized.







JVlore than twenty years ago, Ransford
survey years: life data to demonstrate intersection experiences what multiracial that "the chances and of race

and Miller

used quantitative
theorists had been



and gender... assume of which

creates patterns

' simply by adding the effects of race to those of gender" (1983,46). While has been much ing widely accepted and corroborated by qualitative
research, quantitative sociological research has failed to incorporate this

arguing the aggregates,... unique that cannot be anticipated

this find feminist
lesson suf




studies of feminist


and ideologies

AUTHOR'S NOTE: An earlier version of this article was presented at the annual meeting of the Ameri can Sociological in San Francisco, in August 2004. The author would like to Association, California, thank Judith Blau, Andrew Perrin, Barbara Risman, Tanya Golash-Boza, and the anonymous at Gender & Society for their extremely helpful comments regarding this article. REPRINT Catherine Harnois, Department REQUESTS: IL 60607-7140; 1007 W. Harrison e-mail: St., Chicago, reviewers

of Sociology, University of Illinois-Chicago,; phone: 919-357-0908.

GENDER & SOCIETY, Vol. 19No. 6, December 2005 809-828 DOI: 10.1177/0891243205280026 ? 2005 Sociologists forWomen in Society 809

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g. "how close for example. of the women's liberation thermometer and "a feeling rating they feel" are able to measure and or feminists.. and Rhodebeck (1996). The methodological approaches assumption that the meaning of feminist identity and feminism is identical for women of different racial and ethnic groups. and Presser 2004. Peltola.. Freese. Rhodebeck In so doing. for women income) tion. depending used in these and other studies on their race also make the ethnicity. education.g. Schnittker. feminist dif it seems groups This content downloaded on Wed. equally Asian American women's feminist identities. 1996. Milkie.810 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 often use methods that assume Leaving women's aside race those has studies relatively that focus little to do with on one their racial relationship to feminism. family forms. Johnston Conover's (1988) study of feminist identity and political beliefs finds that "feminists are distinctive in their fundamental women might and values" affect but these makes values. marital affect) feminist status. white. that generational differences Due "either ences Schnittker. Hunter and Sellers studies of feminist identification 1998. and that generational involvement differences. 617) conclude affect women's likelihood of identifying as feminist. feminist and in none identities. Rhodebeck's (1996) study of feminist identity women movement to assumes that two variables. For example. no mention of how racial differences among Given both the history of race and class privilege within movement fer in their the extent to which women and work of different experiences racial (to family. of these Each studies of these is race studies allowed among includes race to interact the vari variable. for example. and Powell (2003). Johnston Conover 1988. the on racial feminist cancel dummy variable." What suggest that influ do self-identification each other that various these and in different studies to the nonsignificance of race has little influence operate in ways not allow riences for. solely one group (e. employment parental in exactly the same way identity (e. independent assume in this way. Black. Milkie. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the American and name ethnic a few). Schnittker. and opinion. these studies assume that (1) the effect (or lack thereof) of any particu lar characteristic different be measured racial A groups. labor in the paid force might and shape women's feminist identities differently. genera affect (or do not racial and of different ethnic groups.. and Presser (2004). Kane and Schippers 1996. close examination of a few recent studies reveals the importance of this meth racial by on women's or ethnic a groups relationship and set of with feminism is the same with do not for women feminism vary of can across (2) a woman's indicators that relationship themselves particular odological assumption. the authors status. Ridley Maison and ideology use 1983). however. Freese. and Powell 2003). and Powell (2003. In this case. Peltola. affect that ultimately is the possibility women of different might that particular characteristics racial and ethnic groups life expe ways. In modeling that the the relationships variables independent status." well Latina. investigate how sociodemo graphic only with ables characteristics as a dummy any other affect variable. almost all quantitative race as only of several con trol variables (e. income and they do not allow for the possibility educational levels. Freese. the authors or out.g.

people occupying in systematically ence react will experience. across quantitative theories are likely that the particular factors for women of different racial theorizes activist groups that what commitments as well.. and when In this understanding when used methods together in multiracial women's theories. Although far from a unified line of inquiry. multiracial cation as feminist racial of different that theory posits that the relationship between salience groups. (i.e. I demonstrate the importance of centralizing research multiracial on feminism... 1997) (Barkley a focus a and fundamental force in of power. quantitative feminist differences. In what women involved follows. BACKGROUND Baca Zinn and Thorton Dill ( 1996) have described multiracial feminist theory as a feminist perspective that first and foremost goes beyond an additive model of oppression by theorizing the intersectionality of different systems of oppression and by refusing the temptation to privilege one dimension of oppression or identity over others.. of political hence struggle. and men's lives" and Thorton Dill women's 1996. feminism may And ethnic feminist lives differs self-identifi for women suggest to differ feminism and ethnic to feminist feminism third. lead women and ethnic multiracial the understand to be differ ideological racial and in feminism) I discuss the dominant approaches This content downloaded on Wed. Taken (Baca Zinn shaping as a whole. structural differences and the particular I bring article. of feminism Second. 324). feminist While that when conducting research and research quantitative feminism sociological an uneasy have tool for relationship. in women's multiracial to embrace groups. same way social locations will everyone come to tend to experience has same the same kind conclusions the world of experi that about article. First. Although the analysis here speaks most directly to sociological analyses of femi nism. multiracial feminist theory is held together by theorists' emphasis on the relational aspect of women's differ a social Brown and the "treatment of race as a basic division." In this theories quantitative different in the different ways. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 472) in women's quantitative argues. of domina "as along who the enduring relations tion. to salience to feminist framework theories for and lives understanding the different equation modeling and measuring the paths that lead women propose of femi an feminism. conjunction employed multiracial intersectional nism in women's with allow remains Quantitative a useful methods feminist documenting are most useful. much feminist offers three that multiracial theory hypotheses challenge ences structure of the existing quantitative and and the research on women's feminist identities and ideologies. the implications of this research highlight the importance of multiracial feminism for feminist scholarship and practice more generally. to emerge.Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 811 reasonable (including to white suggest that racial differences may women's) researchers sociological as our world is hierarchically long with experiences us believe. I maintain and however. would have organized not or play feminism As Moya a role larger than many (2001.

Smith (1983). to self-identify feminist beliefs. however. Presser typically operationalizes respondents' Schnittker. or attitudinal variables to measure the salience of feminism in against Using ideological women's lives is also problematic. Whereas or upper-class. may as feminist. multiracial feminist theo rists (e.. and hooks (1984) have repeatedly argued. the salience of as Powell and in women's two ways: self-identification 2003) and respondents' feminist attitudes or beliefs (e. Collins ([1990] 2000. as feminist for white and women poses salience we of can the 1984. both and of Smith (1983) and Collins ([1990] 2000) have a part of Black is so much women's that because lives. and resentation" many white employment. as sepa issues feminist in addition women heterosexual. even if they have what as feminist self-identification Thus. will We to measuring of multiracial for traditional challenges in women's lives. 16. Roth 2004. Lorde feminism the feminism. Many as "womanist" Black hesitance many would among con "feminist" might instead not be a reli may women concerned or might identify or "humanist" prefer no label at all. Jackson 1998. class. feminism may mean something different to particular racial and ethnic groups of women. self-identification. quantitative From the per between lives women. welfare middle- and political rep system.. Smith two 1983). in one and of Peltola. feminism accommodations. approaches spective multiracial (hooks 1984. they are less compelled political that oppression. ability. and public expand see African taken on oppres gender American feminism discrimina to eliminate in housing.g. antipoverty of race. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to antisexism work In sum. to maintain efforts (especially white women) sexuality. feminism that feminism and ethnic self-identification differ significantly hypothesize of salience racial the relationship in women's minority and This content downloaded on Wed. scholarship on feminism lives Milkie. Walker 1983) have suggested that women's racial status may affect the relationship between women's self-identification as feminist and their feminist ideology. With regard to the first approach. Black women are. The history of Black women's marginalization from Black sider able about the women's women to be indicator gender movement.812 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 understanding racial feminist feminist theories identities and ideologies pose for these approaches. From the perspective of multiracial feminist theory.g. 238) has that in contrast argued sion to the exclusion includes tion a wide range to white of other feminism. hooks 1984. to include antiracism multiracial work. oppression suggested a distinct moment in which become because seldom have conscious they they a to adopt label to take a stand their oppression. both approaches are potentially problematic. of how issues cause some for example. the social able-bodied. which tends to focus of oppression. As Collins ([1990] 2000). 2004.. Furthermore. systems of behavior "actions including education. may English-speaking.g. Dugger 1988. Ransford and Miller 1983). and the specific challenges multi Measuring the Salience of Feminism inWomen's Lives Quantitative feminism feminist (e. Freese. rate from those theories broaden "feminist" and and or "women's" ethnicity.

know what of Black realize women is that white exists. family. lives for the suggests different While feminism in women's might attitudes feminism feminism ideologies white among for racial and women ethnic might minority and racial of particular to nontraditional be related women might mean gender something ideologies. Roth 2004. As characteristics characteristics) status." have per been feminist consciousness is often and and may women other "pointed women For white in school. Multiracial feminist research (e. lifelong that oppression is a "oppression to use. hooks 1984. I don't that they however. affect feminism age. powerful women." haps exposed lives. to feminism assumption. Segura 1994) has found that women of different racial and ethnic groups tend to have tion that among different qualitatively the three. Poster 1995. the path one of one's regardless same. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and whereas conscious oppression women racial white women's marital suggest be education.Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 813 would more racial salience and expect. investigate race. (higher feminist While about oppression. Moraga and Anzaldua (Collins [1990] 2000. feminism would than that be a and more minority for women indicator Second. Porter Gump 1980. Davis Maison 1983). and other women savvyness. dominant gies. 114) have further argued that one of the differences between women For Black white tend women's to have and gender politics a specific in which moment of color. Jones 1984. I think what it is. is like the surprise factor. argued earlier. many of. Ridley Smith and Smith (1981. Collins [1990] 2000. theorists involvement their throughout oppression to particular life events related multiracial in the paid labor force). intellectual them. however.. feminist theorists' approach quantitative demonstrates study incorporate multiracial on difference the challenges emphasis to understanding identities and ideolo feminist on feminism to for quantitative research the need feminist theories. sexist feminism may not develop that for many life of color." are more likely women. income. implicit assumption inmost empirical studies of women's takes however. Much feminist of multiracial theorizing. There is virtually no Black person in this country who is surprised women white manner. paths to feminism is generally challenged has is that the this race or ethnicity. What Leads Women To Embrace of (e. in response In sum. more This fully to particular multiracial experiences.g. goes their on to say that in contrast to Black in "an out of for color women. women thing": "There is a political word canniness? some difference in attitude I think between Black and white feminists. differences. Given life experiences experiences these with work. to. She to find sexist Black both feminism status. 1981. Feminism? how marital a core set of demo and other the Quantitative graphic family studies generally education. It begins with the central This content downloaded on Wed. significant and ethnic of from this perspective. may affect multiracial women's and religion. that self-identification of white multiracial correspond ethnic as feminist women's feminism with groups.. women's feminism. hooks 1984. different. Ridley Maison 1983. theories feminist in different the rela suggest ways particular feminism 1981.g.

indicator indicators variables are (1) to measure the importance (2) improved the the of salience of feminism rights the categories). In the third section.3 and In English-speak data set is partic to recent surveys a module that Social it includes 1996.2 ideology proxy for feminist beliefs and sexism identification.g. feminism. I investigate how this might we when change we make fewer racial tionship and ethnic between consider assumptions groups. Collins how 2004.. ing to it is the well suited because few this very among ularly project ask whether respondents on focuses specifically they gender self-identify and women's as feminist issues. is a nationally survey representative on a biennial This in conducted adults the basis. Lorde among 1984. women inism among from other racial is tremendous of other racial need and for quantitative ethnic groups. 270 of whom self-identified as Black and 1. scholarship. Rubin issues varies 1993). Women who identified as neither white nor Black were excluded from my While there analysis. in the General research the small Social fem concerning of women number made this an groups represented Survey impossibility I use lives. movement the women's has respondent (3) the frequency with which women (four categories). I then While address previous the to embrace studies typically associate higher incomes and higher levels of education with fem inist identity and less traditional gender ideology. for example. four These for this particular study. the a broader about understanding the similarities of women's between feminism women I then of and when different on the first two Building questions. of whom 139 self-identified as Black and 645 identified as white. and understand that feminist and practice scholarship of gay and are generally supportive as a used is. Rich these three 1980. issues: gender ideology and support for gay and lesbian It is commonly assumed in feminist women less traditional have gender ideologies and Gender role lesbian issues. in women's lives salience of feminism the rela explore are generally and what held to be two feminist issues. the General Survey was administered to 1.619 women. women Once established. of noninstitutionalized. I test for women of different racial the relationship groups. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I then discuss some of the implications of these findings for feminist RESEARCH DESIGN To examine which these hypotheses. I use data from the 1996 General Social Survey. The gender module was administered to a subset of 821 women. United States. in women's issue to the the women's extent her life to which (three respondent believes (a five-category variable).272 of whom identified as white.814 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 problem see of how to measure the salience of feminism in women's lives?the extent to which women they themselves of what question see feminism as factors a part encourage as important in their lives and the extent to which of feminism. the respondent pays attention to issues that especially and (4) whether the respondent self-identifies affect as feminist This content downloaded on Wed. frequently and numerous as feminist inherently scholars interconnected and organizations heterosexism (e.

model The the model program. consistent with more using than one one's set of Rather. more at religious I also values indicate attendance services).4 To increase the reliability of my findings. lives affects respondents' gender ideology and issues. In the third section of the analysis. whether books favoring homosexuality should be allowed to library (dichotomous). set for a particular estimate. including educational attainment (dummy variables for completed high school. feminist. and more than college. whether an "admitted homosexual" make ations. category). issues. latent believe I measure variable sexual with relations what respondents' four observed categories). (measured by an eight-category category). are averaged across of the estimates parameters variances sets data imputed are calculated This content downloaded on Wed. I test how the salience of feminism in women's lesbian for gay and support a latent variable respondents' gender ideology by creating women are hurt three observed with variables: whether by the traditional family "women take care of running their homes whether should and leave (dichotomous). have the right and whether to ask (four a person under "detailed For for important situ questions" each observed and lesbian concerning variable. I imputed eight sets. indicate this measure and self-identification liberal feminist more relatively to capture is designed it deliberately refrains from measure everyday with relationship of how women lives.5 Sch?fer's each separate data sets the NORM and conducted I combined (2000) parameter estimates In the following from this analyses each of on each these data of these sets data using from data imputed a single to create parameter program. In each feminism. support numerical values greater gay as many respondents in the analysis as possible. I investigate the extent to which feminism itself differs for white and Black women. case. likely task to take (four care and the extent due each to which to their of these are more to this represent respondents "bio being variables. family (dummy logged or separated. gender using a their of children For better-suited" logically lower values numerical attitudes. are thought for gay support variables: the to be more and extent sex lesbian traditional issues by to which are wrong respondents (four catego between two adults of the same should be allowed in the public ries). To keep orientation represent categories). investigating I use several the factors that lead Black sociodemographic variables and white women (again from the to embrace 1996 General Social Survey). 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 815 (two categories). frequent higher include the respondent has children variables and dichotomous whether indicating the reference never married her current workforce status. some college. I impute values for missing data using the multiple imputation procedure in SAS. As higher argued as attitudes to be of values above. and to avoid the bias caused by listwise deletion. relate to feminism?the it is designed salience inclusive in women's feminism When feminism. or widowed and divorced where married is the refer ence and religiosity where variable. a speech in the community the government should her higher or his sexual (dichotomous). where no high school diploma is status for variables marital income. Imeasure running believe the country that women up to men" (dichotomous). a response as a measure a more of women's feminism.

indices equality and sug indices gests that model 3 represents the best fit. than Index. feminism to be equal for Black and white allows the factor loadings of the observed variables to differ. feminist theorists (e. averages error the Compara the model tive Fit Index and the Tucker-Lewis and 0. to differ across rights groups. By comparing can determine across to vary which be allowed model should groups parameters and which The Table salience can results 1. Moraga and Anzaldua among these indicators might a suggesting a good overall model fit. I conduct to test for these differences. Model 3 builds on model 2 by allowing the factor loadings of the observed variables. group group pro analysis Multiple analysis multiple a sophisticated to understanding vides differences cross-group by allow approach on individual to progressively free cross-group constraints ing researchers equality more we fit the of and less constrained indices models. and the Index across imputed data sets are high (0. for groups The each fit significantly Comparative are the models better Fit strong. first dent) results these been variables constrained the factor (the has as described of the other above.947 Root squared of approximation (RMSEA) is low (0. as well as the mean and variance of the latent variable. respectively). women of the but constrains in women's the means lives.g. those models thatmake fewer constraints across RMSEA racial across groups.. The factor loading for the observed of issues rights variables. hooks 1981.951. (equal I present the com RESULTS Measuring The sented the Salience measurement in Figure of of Feminism tool 1. imputed of to the respon The combined data sets are importance to 1 to scale performed the women's from analyses on each the eight The shown in the first model mates indicate that of Table 1.The fit indices shown below the parameter esti fits the data very mean well.6 where otherwise follows. all Because many multiracial 1984. Collins [1990] 2000. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Model of remain from 2 equal. this analysis are shown and in the variance second of and the third latent columns variable.049). Smith 1983) have argued that the relationship differ for women of different racial groups. parameters.7 These fit statistics are supported by the This content downloaded on Wed. to be 1 and is the factor used for the importance of women's loading to index variables. but those that assume average of Tucker-Lewis each of these Index.816 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 by combining the within-imputation variance estimates) and point except variance (equal to the average variance of the com to the plete-data variance bined of the complete data estimates from NORM the between-imputation In what estimates). In all three models. indicated. the other indicator is constrained The fit indices at the bottom of Table 1 suggest that each measure of the salience of feminism inwomen's lives fits well with the data. where for the the inWomen's salience of Lives feminism in women's lives lives is repre vari salience of feminism in women's is a latent able with four indicator variables.

movement the women's benefited has you feeling personally. The factor loading for feminist self-identification than twice as are large for white women indicators The supports is more ences statistically factor different compared across groups. are all to women's to the salience attention issues related paying strongly in women's of feminism lives. are they also are significant significantly in Black predictors weaker of of feminism the salience pre dictors for Black women. than white When salience age. hooks does we see with not suggest compare 1984). than complicated in model revealed previous 3 lend relationship The cross-group feminist feminism differ argu to multiracial theory's ment concerning feminist middle-class identify movement. and ismore all three confirmatory multiracial feminism's of analysis assertion studies support salience of feminism in women's with lives that women's have suggested. variables white differences self-identifi women. groups.8 of the average chi-square divided by the degrees of free occurs itself. aver compared What Leads 2 Women summarizes to the To Embrace the salience Feminism? from my model Consistent of factors the Table contributing results of feminism sociodemographic in women's lives. on that feminism white women's. Comparing model the factor loadings for the observed 1with model to differ 3. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . we the means is. the with Black women. important women are less feminist women. while these women's variables lives. with This content downloaded on Wed. factor analysis already suggests some interesting differences in how Black and white women see that when we allow across cation and relate to feminism. emerge. Among important as feminist. that this marginalization however. white as feminist the historical marginalization Black women's and may women's movement lead many perception of racial minority women of feminism about some as largely reluctance from the an upper to self may bring to question the extent to which the women's movement has benefited them personally (Collins [1990] 2000. more of feminism salient in women's in Black women's lives in model lives 3. It is that Black of the to note.Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 817 Women's Improved Movement Your Life has Figure 1 : The Salience of Feminism inWomen's Lives fact dom By we that the lowest in model this value 3.

then mean were 1.093) (0.869*** TABLE Loadings.061) Each b.70) Model 2 * (white) * (Black) (white) 0.106) Model 1 0.120) (0.049 2. at *significant ***significant Root mean squared approximation13 of error Women's helped has movement you Importance of rights women's feminist as Self-identify Variance of "closeness to feminism" Mean of "closeness to feminism" Pays issues to attention women's Fit lndexb Comparative lndexb Tucker-Lewis yfldf Average df a.942 0.009 1a 0.990 1.01. .988 (0.404 (Black) (Black) 0a (white) 1a 0.942 (0.001.498 0.097) (0. Constrained.119) (0.320 10 0. Parameter estimates and standard errors were combined using NORM.100) (0.200) Model 3 (white) 0. .179) (0.063) (0.534 0.05. averaged.532* 0.898*** (white) 0.331) (0.430* (Black) 0.054 3. **significant .021 0.947 0.418 (white) 0a 0. This content downloaded on Wed.875*** (Black) 0. of General 1996 (N= Analysis: Factor Social Survey 1.(0.951 13 NOTE: Numbers in parentheses are combined standard errors.060) (0. Factor 1: Salience Confirmatory Feminism.014*** 0.104) (0.098) (0.817*** (Black) (Black) 0.177) (0.275) (0.707* (white) 0.416*** 0a 0.225) (0.828*** (white) 0.824*** (0.291** 0.029*** (Black) 0.026 1.087) (0.921* 1. data imputed its Fit produced set Comparative Index.909*** (white) 1.124) (0. Tucker-Lewis and own which squared of root error approximation.951 0. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .542) 1a 0.

parameter 2. where those of is 0. shows of the Figure representation pictorial salience lesbian of feminism as in women's lives.272 white women).g. other factors being held equal. What Does In addition It Mean To Be Feminist? racial have groups suggested may that take differ ent paths to theorizing that women of different to feminism. observed from the the first salience portion of are of this feminism allowed analysis. in women's the mean lives.943 and 0.. variables group effect to differ shown here for white allows women.033. among although four the predictors included tors of the salience of in the model. in much feminist multiple between feminism relationship and support and women's among for gay the and issues. multiracial feminist theorists feminism itself may differ for women hypothesis examine by the using a of different racial and ethnic groups. the average the data. age. education feminism years embracing Having some attended is also associated with increased feminism college significantly test. and and each While and variance of loadings the latent of the the factor women.923. nism. attends women's white women religious feminism. fam ily income) are not statistically significant predictors of the salience of feminism in white women's lives. levels and of force. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 819 results variable. although this may in part be due to the relatively small number of Black women included in this analysis (270 Black women. and Index and Tucker-Lewis respectively.10 involvement Somewhat with labor higher surprisingly. as compared with 1. who have services and is shown to have with compared never married a significant negative or widowed married effect white more In general. have the multiple a unique indices from a analysis on Black and white not suggest tive Fit the confirmatory factor the average analysis. feminism that were those including significant predic are shown to predict women's in white the lives. to the predictor variables as strong as the fit quite fit indices for this model the average RMSEA with The Table and many feminism the data. all of which from suggest that the model are column fits quite well presented of the in table estimates the coefficients women for white the multiple women group analysis are in the first second. with are more to embrace femi likely is positively the salience associated with of women more who white have than spent in postsecondary the most.9 Black of In addition. who Women der ideologies assumed are generally thought to be more supportive and practice. associate in the paid for Black the characteristics among women are presented in the that many traditionally (e. thought to have less traditional gen of gay and lesbian This content downloaded on Wed. The frequency with which the respondent on white women. salience of feminism in the lives of Black women. I investigate group analysis of a structural equation in women's model lives this to and the salience of feminism relationship two issues that are frequently included in discussions of a 2 issues. None white this is true only if we use a one-tailed of women. assumed is frequently embrace feminism and are often gender ideology. with Across fit data sets. formal feminism in white women's education lives. the good imputed Compara Index were and 0.

711 0.172 0.090) (0.051 -0.999*** 0. to differ for Black and white the extent the same running of the women's importance sexual relations between take care of running their issue.050) -0.400) (0. along with the means.096 -0. and up to leave the country This content downloaded on Wed.261 (0.082) 0.05 (one-tailed).943 Index = 0.133 -0.139) (0.055 0.542) Black Women Independent Generation Birth year Education Some More Family variable (compared 1936-1955 to birth year > 1955) 0.105) (0.11 to which sex intercepts. Table strongly for racial other theorizing correlated and ethnic suggests across all minority traditional for a number of women.923 error of approximation = 0.095) of women's 1a 1a rights as feminist 0.194 -0.131) 0.008 0.219) (0. *significant ***significant issues. lesbian I have allowed issues.085) (0. together the assumption that these three con is one potentially in white rooted groups fit that women. Constrained.093 to married/widowed) 0.820 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 TABLE 2: Combined Selected Estimates Independent of the Salience Variables: of Feminism 1996 General White Social Women inWomen's Survey Lives (N= on 1. a. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . at .622 0.086) (0. gender embracing ideologies feminism and may mean sexual than rejecting of supporting 3 presents the results for gay of the and support ideology of the factor loadings and variances of the for loadings dents believe women should and three on gender the multiple of feminism group analysis In this model.528) (0.1711" Religiosity in paid Currently Has had child Marital status (compared Divorced/separated Never married Dependent Importance variable (0.204) (0.094) (0. women.049*** (0.253) 0.012) (0.060 0.833*** 0.118) (0.077) (0.194) High school 0. rights two adults of homes and respon are wrong.001 (two-tailed). Each its own fit indices.381* -0.034) (0.242) (0.741* 0. Parameter estimates and standard errors were combined using NORM.200 Birth year < 1936 (compared college than college income (log) labor force (0.540 (2.139 to < high school) (0.298) (0.034 0.745) (0.05 (two-tailed). While these feminist three issues may indeed multiracial cepts are solipsism.222) (0.172) (0. b. something minorities.062) 0.1491" 0.213) (0.385*** (0.308 0.038 0.097) (0. imputed data set produced at . Factor latent variables.100 0.031 squared in parentheses are standard NOTE: Numbers errors. each latent variables.941*** Self-identify Women's movement has helped you to women's issues Pays attention Residual variance Fit of closeness to feminism (0.086) (0. Significant at .288) Fit indices'3 Comparative Tucker-Lewis Root mean Index = 0.031 -0. which were then averaged.060 -0.

of Black to be the rights of we compare a very statistically minorities?that's women's picture to challenge feminism among these women. We significantly and are sig also see that there and is a non feminism attitudes more of positive to express likely support the effect of the salience correlation between feminism for gay in women's and lesbian lives. Index are the RMSEA the average than 0.08 (0. likely what is consistent with as many Some people's might say. the gender is. are all constrained to be 1 to scale the other observed variables and are not included in this table.While when compared with the model the fit indices are slightly weaker the salience of feminism in this model in women's predicting lives. Browne and Cudeck (1993) have suggested that RMSEA values less than 0.05. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the indices suggest that themodel fits the data reasonably well.055) indicate "a reasonable meets Index this and error standard. to the parameter estimates presented see that there is a strong 3. no different significant Black there of appears relationship between salience This content downloaded on Wed. however. issues support traditional gender previous intuitive "Of roles studies of ideology the among white women. For that women.Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 821 Wrong Same-Sex Relations or Not? Allow Homosexual to Speak Publicly? Government Ask re. While ideally less than 0. we positive in the midsection effect of the salience the left of fem inism inwhite women's for gay and more likely nificantly independent significant lesbian to have issues. and it means This finding as well feminism. Sexual Orientation? Allow Homosexual Book in Library? Are Women Hurt by the Traditional Family? Should Women Be in the Public Sphere? Are Women Biologically Suited forChild-Rearing? Figure 2: Structural Lesbian Model Equation on Women's Issues of Gender Feminism Ideology and Support for Gay and men. the other On hand. in this model values of the greater suggesting of has Turning column of Table a good overall fit. Tucker-Lewis certainly Fit Comparative that the model now of approximation". feminism of what embrace understanding course women who and gender ideology to embrace are more feminism sexual white support when However. lives on both nontraditional White women who embrace that challenge of traditional for gay and gender gender lesbian ideology and support are ideology issues." issues to relationship emerges.90.

370** 0.852*** 0.072) (0.822*** 0.016*** 0.117) (0.170) (0.358*** 0.347*** Would Should Would Women homosexual to speak publicly ask about sexual orientation? government in library allow homosexual book allow are biologically better suited to child 1.206 0.244** 0.913 Tucker-Lewis Root mean squared error of approximation = 0.822 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 TABLE 3: Results Gay and from Structural Lesbian Issues and Support for Model of Gender Equation Ideology on Women's 1996 General Embrace of Feminism: Social Survey (N = 1. support to be clear tradi However.05.699* 0. ***significant at .120) (0. gender ideology women and were support in fact For the majority gay and similar.267 0a 0.137) (0.152) 0a (0.048) (0.252) (0. homophobic for are more on to discuss the implications moving women the data do not indicate that Black Iwant or more tional in their gender ideologies observed issues.740) (0. for gay Before that is a significant between correlation Black positive and nontraditional issues gender ideologies.124) (0. beliefs gay and concerning from those different significantly there and lesbian this measure. **significant at .946*** 1. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .178) (0.220 0a 0.542) White Women Black Women 1. Constrained.606 1. of these findings.085) (0.044*** 0. Each its own fit indices.529*** Issues for 0.350*** 0. This content downloaded on Wed.164) (0.072) (0.064) (0.433*** 0.682) (0. imputed data set produced at .055 are standard in parentheses errors.180 0.045) (0.526** 0.090) (0.414 0. *significant errors feminism ditional have in women's lives and Black their women support who.085) (0.210) (0. b. for gay by and lesbian issues embrace or their feminism that tra gender ideology.184 0.089) (0.271** 0. of of lesbian In fact. issues more than do white What quite indicators these findings for support do suggest. which were then averaged.260 0.112 0.778*** 0.761 0.401** issues Intercept of gay and Intercept of gender ideology Fit indices'3 Fit Index = 0.104) (0. and lesbian of Black issues women ideologies gender who do not embrace women's are not feminism.189) (1. Parameter and standard NOTE: Numbers estimates were combined using NORM.001.914 Comparative Index = 0.594*** 1. and white some of the particular average support women.454*** has helped you to women's issues Pays attention -> Gender Feminism Ideology -> Support for Gay and Lesbian Feminism Correlation of gender ideology and support issues of support of gender for gay and ideology lesbian gay and lesbian feminism Variance Residual issues Residual Mean variance of feminism of support variance lesbian 0.124) (0.095) (0.01.581*** (0. a.502) (0.161*** 0.100) rearing All benefit Feminist Women's from the traditional identity movement family 0. Black gay variables the means women and lesbian on measuring for Black compared with white women.154) (0.817) (0.199) (0.436) (0.

ideologies DISCUSSION I began this study by expressing my concern for what lack of attention paid to multiracial feminist theorizing sociology. I then asked if Black and white women followed different paths to feminism. with particular feminism labor force predicted marital women Black status. and historically Black and white may racial women's postponement Black who have women. to Black Future research concerned women's relationship nism should bear inmind two observed variables. more While many Black embrace generally) of feminism in the salience to women's attention paying women and white embrace for white women compared to femi racial perhaps self-identification as it does as feminist for white women minority does not reflect women. women the same from the same direction and that feminism ferences. may on white events. view these experiences force out of necessity. none of the variables seemed Multiracial case. ethnic typically offer family associated with of feminism explanations have differed may white or shape women some forms feminist in Black as to why identity or beliefs women's this might across lives. historically independence." While to which the extent white significantly to significantly feminist to the extent lines. of The different and Black but nonliberating impact religiosity refusal involve experience as an act of of marriage in the paid labor participated This content downloaded on Wed. the answer predicted acteristics was education. Again. In fact. or significant as less significant. relationship significantly of these char feminism. More specifically. and First. I asked whether the implicit I perceive to be a general in much of quantitative white solipsism inmuch that regardless dif of racial of quantitative feminist research the assumption (i. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Reliance that indicator is feminist of (and the extent self-identification?is to which and embrace likely to produce a racially biased feminism..Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 823 however. embraced women's and religiosity with all none feminism.e. lives issues The of white and extent their women gender to which to their does not support true hold for gay is sig ideol Black for Black women or their embrace feminism does not reliably predict either their gender support for gay and lesbian issues. their issues lives the importance of for allowing on a single women ethnic a complex indicator measure of women's of women's feminism?even relation if feminism. "yes. be the influence theories that the salience family relationship ment in the paid experiences While differently. While that Black indicator with as well to the extent is significantly related it is a stronger and more feminism. nificantly the ogy. a resounding of this study suggest "yes. the limitations of measuring this concept with only one or Building on the differences revealed in the first section of this article." portion The in women's factor of the salience of feminism lives confirmatory analysis revealed ship with measure women feminism. is that while related same the salience of feminism and in the lesbian women. significant women. approach can be measured was of each in the same way) The feminism results problematic.

and Smith (1983) have suggested. On in Black the other women's hand. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . movement many racial may have largely the salience previous women. African American feminism may focus more broadly on social and economic justice issues. women. lesbian lesbian These issues that while gender ideology a significant focus of white support women's Black women's feminism likely has a different focus. Oppenheim Mason and Kuhlthau 1989).824 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 women's relationship with feminism also supports for women multiracial feminist theories. hooks (1984). I posed the question of whether feminism might mean something different for Black and white women. religiosity negatively Black and in that women's the institutions appears religious marriage experiences are to discourage less likely their embracing feminism. on Dodson churches to explore and Townsend Gilkes have issues served as a space (1987). The lack of significant predictors of the salience of feminism inBlack women's lives may women. to be associated traditional gender roles (Brinkerhoff and MacKie 1985. to socioeconomic in women's of feminism lives is less related studies would have us believe. than In the third section of this article. As Smith and Smith (1981) and hooks ( 1984) sug that because their concern oppression for women's is a more or feminist salient aspect is not of Black issues and girls' associ generally ated with particular life events. women's it could be lives. feminist theories. with lower and women and gender The results this issues from sug analysis equality. gender ideol and lives. is shown suggest constitute Black to be women's unrelated gender to the ideology salience and support feminism for gay feminism. As Collins ([1990] 2000). comparatively than the Multiracial might might Black feminist been white cerned gest status be also provide into why feminist theories for example. was lower statistical be. of the model for Black power was than smaller significantly the lack of significant predic can also be read as support the number the salience tors of of feminism lives ingmultiracial gest. and all of which women's foster help For white in contrast. Drawing American authority. value been married and While for white corresponding having are to it associated white women's closeness with feminism. and again the results of this salience analysis provide of feminism an affirmative in white women's answer. including commitments to racial and This content downloaded on Wed. religiosity relationships feminism. women. in part. insight as feminist but with women's associated self-identification traditionally not have a significant in white the salience of feminism with and relationship as women's lives. self-identification (1984) although and limited women with that in the mainstream participation to upper-middle-class white with women's feminist women. income. Collins maintains to exercise strong to to build relationship seems that African leadership and among broadly with more of oppression. lives It is clear is strongly and of from and this analysis that associated the positively for gay in their and with their support for gay and lesbian issues and with nontraditional ogy. issues results may In contrast. This thesis is supported by the fact that the mean value of the salience of feminism in Black women's lives is significantly higher women. due to relatively as the number women of Black in this study of white women. minority are deeply con incomes less education. As hooks has argued. defined.

its base and If we assume from that to recover participants the feminist of racism in the feminist is seek classism. allows ferences When when erally nism and for in some some in how racial cases interactions even racial between particular differences" race this and events in that world?in of dummy the vari by means and other independent masks variables. lives. the relationship identities. educational opportunities. and the salience for multiple in as of different underscore the meaning remains ment care lives. of Black but and women. research Studies feminist differences. that seek to examine prac scholarship our to rethink to approaches encompassing between of women's life experiences. and movement a history behoove then understanding the movement's the possible main variety of paths to adopting feminism It would feminist should be to priorities. The results of this study further suggest that studies of feminist identity and ide ology tities The are also and analyses limited to the extent are identical here ideologies presented that they for women assume the meaning racial feminist of particular and ethnic theory's The feminisms. iden groups. CONCLUSION The feminisms tice. While to the develop contributing research should future take of feminism in women's it a useful of feminist not to blur between Gender-related in feminism. Multiracial affect the number the case that lives.Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 825 economic equality. and health care. organizers This content downloaded on Wed. and this study strongly supports this hypothesis. and gender ideology (and no doubt other types of ideology as well) are limited to the extent that they assume that women of different racial and ethnic will the world?and groups experience same way. attitudes they they self-identification themselves do not capture the do not by especially an play certainly important the salience of feminism in salience of feminism in the women's lives capture The movement ing both one of implications equally to broaden are of this study for nonacademic significant. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . While for "controlling ables. the dif their differences people to be observed. role of feminism enterprise identities the lines itself may differ for white to and investigate gender-related these and and Black women. Future research would do well to further explore this line of inquiry. important implications these findings underscore so that we and practice. experience and variables only by dummy of color of women (as is gen it is the white model have of femi in nationally in is revealed that particular representative the life analysis. claim of different multiracial strongly support that the relationship women's of this lives study differs also between for women the feminist importance identity and the salience of feminism racial and ethnic groups. significant have racial differences in women's for future the need can be more relationship feminist with and paths and to In general. of different among women women dwarfs racial approach groups ultimately ethnic differences of white are measured the number studies). feminist women of theories different repeatedly experiences argued racial and ethnic groups differently. results of allowing the factors attitudes.

This is true to the extent that gender role ideology is used tomeasure feminist identity/ideologies and that feminist research. the 1996 General Social Survey is Study and the 1999 Century of theWoman Poll. See. has but there is much that more study that of white demonstrated women.. For every variable with missing data. Sch?fer and Olsen normal distribution and Allison for that particular have suggested the formula variable that five (Allison (1998) (2002) 2002. of Black feminism. clear is that in contempo and of that the ignoring As Lorde but our reluc rary American possibility ( 1984. While multiracial feminism among Black women. and t = 1. tance to recognize those differences and to deal effectively with the distortions which have resulted from the ignoring and misnaming of those differences. broadening and moving this and what which through of addressed issues range from research among the which the idea of as impor equally In practical terms. these undermines differences said. The within-imputation variance is calculated U =? where U equals the variance variance is calculated using of the parameter the formula using m fu(t). The degree of difference feminisms associated with other racial and ethnic feminisms groups will vary and the paths as well.. Two other recent data sets that include feminist self-identification to these. as a whole. women is different our of women's while from this differences. fr[ m. multiple imputation estimates a linear regression of that variable on each of the other variables in the data set. "it is not our differences promise separate feminism. and paths should be conducted there to. 4. that individuals from these groups take to NOTES 1. are the 1992 National Election 3. 6. 6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . of. 2. imputed data sets are enough to provide reliable parameter estimates. may mean this might recruit feminist Taken new members. The between-imputation estimates Q." This study work among advances to be Black done. and educational practices emphasize these issues to the exclu sion of other potential women's/feminist issues. and support for gay and lesbian issues. there may be many diversifying be multiple (legitimate!) the means the paths to feminism varieties of feminism. 33). This content downloaded on Wed. organizations. away other makes women and by feminists a singular feminism. gender ideology.122) of has differences do exist society. organizations. understanding In particular. To each predicted value is then added a random draw from the residual 5. women. 2. for example. feminisms remains a to investigate paucity who for women themselves revealed to be neither white analysis suggests nor Black that the (Kane 2000). feminist the quantitative of research consider studies of Black generalizability that investigates in this of feminism these the meaning and identities Furthermore. Compared better suited to this analysis because it asks a wider variety of questions concerning feminism.. Moraga and Anzald?a (1981) and Combahee River Collective ([1977] 1983).826 GENDER & SOCIETY / December 2005 that acknowledge there that tant. feminist organizations and. and these estimated regression equations are then used to generate predicted values for the cases with missing data. additional feminism research is needed to further our understanding theories offer hypotheses concerning theories.

6 Mar 2013 06:15:27 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . edited by Linda Nicholson. 1984.964 C. and Mimi Schippers. 10.. 11. Vol. 1988. edited by Rosemary Reuther and R. R. Kane. endurance in the sacred world of Black Christian women. Browne.043. student attitudes. In This bridge called my back. Long. and Marlene MacKie. In Testing equation models. Something within: Social change and collective Dodson.1 performed multiple group analyses that progressively freed cross-group equality constraints on individual parameters and found that the least restrictive model had the best fit. Merlin B. 1996. Karen. is defined as T = ? + (1 + mTl) B (Sch?fer 1997. Cudeck. 8. and the highest root mean squared error of approximation was 0. Journal of Marriage and the Family 47:415-29. 1988. New York: Routledge. Black feminist thought. River Collective. Race. and the development of the female consciousness. 1987. and white 1998. 1984. The results from this in Table 3. Johnston Conover. 2002. CA: Sage. and M. 1997. New York: New York Uni versity Press.946. [1977] 1983. Boston: South End. Patricia Hill. Emily W. Feminist theory: From margin to center. and Cheryl Townsend Gilkes.. edited by Cherrie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldua. and class. Davis. Gender & Society 12:81-99. Combahee and American structural -. Theorizing difference from multiracial feminism. Missing Baca Zinn. New York: Routledge. and sexuality. 2004. in women's Barkley Brown. and feminist politics. Gender & Society 10:650-65. race. Bollen and J. and Bonnie Thorton Dill. The results from this model are presented in Table 2.1 performed multiple group analyses that progressively freed cross-group equality constraints on individual parameters and found that the least restrictive model had the best fit. Angela Y 1981.Harnois / DIFFERENT PATHS TO DIFFERENT FEMINISMS? 827 1 m -1 rt * (f) ? . Feminists and the gender gap. Gender & Society 2:425-48. sex. model are presented REFERENCES data. and men. Inmodel 9. A Black feminist statement. Feminist Studies 22:321-33. Jualyne E. edited by Kathleen M. Shirley A. bell. Feminist Studies 10:441-51. age was significant neither when included as a categorical nor when included as a continuous variable. I am using % Idfto compare the nested models rather than the traditional % difference test because each model produces eight % statistics.. Women. Beverly W. Elsa. Racial ogy 26:419-39. InNo Jackson. 2000. W. "Something about the word": African American women and feminism. Men's in gender-related and women's attitudes. and Sherrill L. 1900-1968. Thousand Oaks. Paul D. New York: Random House. 1998. Feminist attitudes among African American women Hunter. hooks. A. Emily W. "What has happened here": The politics of difference history In The second wave.. the lowest values for the Comparative and 0.. and ethnic variations 1996. Thousand Allison. respectively. New York: Kitchen Table-Women of Color Press. Sellers. Oaks. New York: Harper and Row. Pamela. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Keller. and the total variance 7. middle ground: Women and radical protest. women. S. Collins. New York: Routledge. North Carolina. Jones. Social location and gender-role attitudes: A comparison of Black Dugger. 109). CA: Sage. 1985. Religion and gender: A comparison of Canadian Brinkerhoff. Annual Review beliefs about gender of Sociol 1920-1940. This content downloaded on Wed. edited by K. 1993. Journal of Politics 50:985-1010. 3. [1990] 2000.When controlling for other factors in the model. and class: Black female tobacco workers inDurham. Maxine. Fit Index and Tucker-Lewis Index were 0. Andrea G. InWomen and religion inAmerica. Black sexual politics. Blee. Kane.

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