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# Vyy l V = V V cos z 2V V y r # Vx RC V y V r dV r # Vx x RC # V #K V+ =p V =RC V + KV#= VV V# K+ V# V+ p #K #K #V + K+ +V +K d V V r x V # y# r =V V V # V K Vz+ K # V + K # V # V + p r x # + K V p K p K #V +K #V + # VV # V y r p V =V + y# r + V through

the low-pass Vy Vrrp the z # filter, V p passing c r # = 90 V V After high frequency component gets y Goal of the experiment V r V r V only the average value of V V out and filtered output V remains. V RC r 0 = V x # Vy Vr V r V #V V0 Vyy ~ Vrr V #V V x = VV The goal of this experiment is to learn the concept of tuning a filter. The idea x#K V =V 0 +K #V V+ # V #V +K #V #V +p is to adjust the RC time constants of the filter so that in phase response of V V V V V #VV# V V # V # 0 x y = l V V V Vy ~ Vrr = V 0 = Vxp #p (5.3) p l p V V #p 0 = V pV pV cos z V \$ RC V V # a lowpass filter, the output phase w.r.t. input is exactly 90 at the incoming V V V cos z 0 = 2 V r 0 V l d~ ~ 1 V p p 2 V frequency. This principle is utilized in distortion analyzers and spectrum V r p Vr pl cos z= V =VV # V VV = V # V V V 0 V RC = V dV V cos z dV 0 = = av V V V V #V r analyzers, such self tuned filters are used to lock on to the fundamental = dV Kpd 2 V pd = 2 V =V V V Vl r av dzV av l #V = cos z K V = V V cosV z (5.4) pd = dz V V # frequency and harmonics of the input. 2 V l V V dV 2V V V l dV av z d= V cos z dV av V = cos z dV V # V K pd = 2 V z z d d K dV pd = ~ d 2 V K = pd K = d dz dV dV = d~ \$ dV K pd z dz dz pd K = V K = dV K K is called + H in Volts/radians. dz K the sensitivity of the phase detector and is measured pd c dzV 90 zVpd = K V =Vz V 90 # Kc V = s s 5.1 Brief theory and motivation = c K 90 z = z = 90c b1 + ~ Q + ~ l l V V c c 90used zc = is 90 z = Vav av cos 0.= This to tune the voltage controlled For 90 =z V z = 90c , V becomes V ~ 2z Vinformation V av b~ Q l V In order to design self-tuned filters and filter (VCF) automatically. The voltage-controlled filter, along with phase detector, is ~ ~ V z = tan V av K = dV ~ 0 V av ~ ~ other analog systems in subsequent called a self-tuned filter. See Figure 5.2. of the VCF is given by z0 d ~ ~ 0 d1 - b ~ ln ~ = V K ~ = V V \$ RC experiments, we need to introduce V V \$ RCV ~ 0 VccV \$ RC ~ = ~ dz ~ d~~ 1 V ~0 0 = one more building block, the Analog c d~ ~ = 1 90~ = c V \$ RC - 2Q ~ = V RCz = = = 0 = \$ V RC d~ = ~ r V dV 0 ~ d 1 dV d~ V RC 1 V ~ V multiplier. The reader will benefit \$ c V RC = = r V V r c = = V dV 1 V RC dz dz ~ ~ 0 dz dV V V RC ~ ~ d~ 0 = = 0 V \$ RC Q V - 20 =~ from viewing the recorded lecture at Therefore, ~ dV z\$ RC dr dV d 1 0 0 V = r dV dz 0 = 0 Figure 5.1: Analog Multiplier = = V V RC dV c RC PRO, we have used to [21]. In ASLK r dV V =0 dz dz d~ dz dV dz d~ ~cc ~ d 1 V Vcc0 0 Vrr 1 RC dV = d~ \$ ~ ~ ~ c 0 = = Vd = d~ \$ dV = dV dV z z d d MPY634 analog Texas d~ 0 V = V multiplier V +K #V #V +p \$ RC + K # V from +K # RC dV z z d d = = 1 kHz z d ~ d RC \$ = V RC dV r c z d Vc Vr RC dV dV d~ dV V c + ~ ~ dH 1 c Instruments. the symbol of an analog multiplier. V dV = d+ H\$ = ~V dV V = V +p K Refer V +to K Figure K # which V # V shows p # RC # V + 5.1, + RC = = Q = V V K V K V K V V p # # # # = + + + + dV V c s s H RC V V RC dV + V V s s z d H 1 + dV b + dlz c +~ Q+ +~ l ~d b1 c = V V = V +K #V + Q p V = K #V V KV V+ #V+ #K += V s \$sQ \$+ z ~ dz V + K # V + Kp# V # V + p RC #p s VCFsis +H b1Now z dz The V sensitivity of radians/sec/Volts. ~ d 1 + + l b dV c ~ Q0 ~ l ~ z d d ~ dV dV (5.1) V V K V K V K V V p V ~ Q ~ c # # # # 0 offset x x y y 0 x y = + + + + V ~ d \$ p 0 = b~ Ql RC V = V p+ K # V + K # V + K # V # V + p 0 b~ Ql ~ dV d c d= 0 \$ dV c~ l z dz d ~ ~ d tan z= z z d d b~ z = tan VV# V ~ d V 0 Q ~ dV dV \$ b l z z d d c 0 c = V = K #V +K #V + K # VV# V + p + V p ~ d c 0 c ~ 0 ~Q ~ ~ dV dV dn p = z = tan\$ dV d1 - b ~ ln d1 - b ~ ldV z = tan V H 0 c = d~0 \$ + 0 ~ V a#non-linear V # V p is V c term in V and V . For a precision multiplier, V # V and where V H d~0 + ~ V H + dV dV 0 0 c c = d1 ln 2 0 1 = d n l b dz ~ V i = s H00b ~ s s2 V s s dz VxV V # V #V,V where isVthe reference ofVthe multiplier. Hence, for 2 V# V precision #V V voltage Q ~ 2 1 V = + + l b 0 + i s 1 Q ~ 2 +~ =V i ~ Q bd~ V H 0 0+ + 2l d~ z d ~ = d z 1 + + b Q ~ 2 0 0 Q ~ 2 amplifiers, . V# 2 = = #V V V 2l V V =V 2 Q ~ 2 V V #V V #V = V i s s d ~ ~ Q ~ ~ d z 0 0 V d z i s s d ~ 0 0 V y b l Q V 2 1 = + + l b - 2Q V V V l cos z 1 ~b Q V =V # V= V + dV dz+ ~0 Q~ r ~02 VV #V 2l V = V # V V dV = V #V V dz z = tan Q V 2 ~ = ~ Q ~ r 0 0 b l 2 V r Q V In Experiment 4, if we replace the integrator with a multiplier followed by integrator, ~ dV l# 0 = - 2V = 0 V Vx b~ ~ dV = V #V V 0 Ql VV Vz V r # V = V #V V V l cos z V = V d1 - b ~ l n1 V =V cos dV ~ V =V r 0 0 V = then the a Voltage Controlled Filter (or a Voltage Controlled Phase tan z K =becomes 2V circuit ~ = 0Q r 0 V 1 kHz = 2 V 1 -1 1 kHz l 2 b l V V tan z z d l V = V V V V V V = # b l d z ~ V cos z = dV 2 ~ Generator). This forms the basic circuit for self-tuned filter. See Figure 5.2. The Q V = cos z 0Qr 1 kHz dV 2 V # r 1 ~ 2V K = VyK Q ~ 2 0 = 1 kHz Q ~ 1 2 V r K d n ln b = 1 Q r tan z= d~ z = tan V V self-tuned z= # V V dV filter for a square-wave V V l cos zinput, including the control voltage 1 dz d outputdof the l ~ b 0 2 V = Q dV 2 K ~ Q = H Q V \$ \$ r 2 V c 0 K 90 z d z = K = ~r0 ln H \$Q\$V ~ V shown V l cos z dz r is waveform, in Figure 5.3. The figure brings automatic 12Q V H \$ Q \$ d dz out the aspect ofK VV = -b d ln b~ V1 dV = - dz H \$Q\$V 2VK 0 K = dV z = 90candV ~ c K 90 z control self-tuning. = dz V = 0 dz = - 2Q ~0 0 dV V V V V x # y r =z= = - 2Q ~00 K 0= d ~ ~ V V K z = 90c d z dz 90c d~ z00 1 kHz d 0 = V ~ Q ~ ~0 2Q 0 -2 =K ~ =V ~ d~ z0 z = 90cV Detector V p\$ V pl Q 5.1.1 Multiplier as a Phase d ~ V RC z 0 Q V 2 V cos z c = 0 =c ~ V 90 z ~ V = ~ = dV ~ 1 c = - 2Q Vc r c H \$Q\$V ~ = V d z V \$ RCd~ =2V dV V \$ RC d z c c V RCV= V dV V V ~ Q V 2 c = =V d~ 1 of ~ ~ = 0 V - 2Q Vc =0 dV av = av ~ d~ 1 In the circuit Figure 5.1, multiplier \$ RC the output of the = dV dz c V \$ RC is = V RC = V V K av = dV pd = V RC dV = V ~ av c V dV ~ ~ d 1 ~ = dV ~ ~ 1 zV RC = V d= V \$d RC dz V = dz 1 kHz dV 0 Vav av =0 V V dV = V RC = V p pl d~ dz V dz ~ (5.2) = 1 kHz ~ ~ d 1 dV \$ V \$ cos z cos ~ t z = _ i dV B 8 0pd = + \$ V RC Figure 5.2: A Self-Tuned Filter based on a Voltage Controlled Filter K z d = = z d ~ dV d dV V V RC dV 2 V z dz dd d~ dV 1 kHz dz dz d~ ~\$ V ~ 1 r+ Q 1 kHz Phase Generator or Voltage Controlled dV H = = V = d~ \$ dV dz Q dV = d~ dV = V RC dV dV c z z d d 90 z = V ~ d z z d d s s ~ d dV \$ = d~ + b1 + V = d~ \$ dV dz + H dV Q V +H H00 \$\$ Q Q \$\$ V Vii Analog System Lab Kit PRO ~ Q dV ~ l Q = page z d~ dz ddV V = 36 H s s V dV s s 0 i + V~ \$ V H l b1 + ~ = + av 1 V H + + + l b Q ~ dV d~ =dV ~Q ~ dz dz H d~ b ~ Q V = sl s V s s H0 \$\$ Q Q \$\$ V Vi
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Vr # Vx V zK = 90c Vy # Vr c 90 z ~ V = Vy # Vr V Vr # Vx ~ ~ = V V \$ RC Vr ~ V ~voltage = V \$ RC ~ d~ 1 Input = V0 # Vrx # Vy Vr y = V dV = V RC = V ~ = V0 = Vx # Vy Vr ~ ~ d 1 S.No. Input Frequency Output Amplitude = V \$ RC = V dz Vr Vp Vpl dV ~ d~ V RC 1 V0 = Vp Vpl cos z dV = = z d V 1 V RC dV V V0 z dz dz d~ V dV #rr Vcos 0 = xV y Vr = V2 \$ dz 2 dV = d~ dV dV av z ddV dz d~ K pd = 2 \$ = V +H dV l av Vp V dV p dz d~ dz dV ~ z d K V = = s s V cos z \$d 0pd = = 1 + V H b + dV d~ dV z d 2 V r ~ Q+~ l = 3 VV K pd s H s +~ l b1 + ~ + ~ Q dV K b~ Ql av RC pd V = s s K 1 + + pd = l b ~ ~ z = tan cz V = V + K # V + K # V + K # V # V + p 4 ~ Q z = 90 b~ d ~ Ql c d1 - b ~ ln z = 90 ~ RC z = tan b ~~ l p Q ln K V pd av tan d1 - bwith z= V = V +K #V +K #V +K #V #V +p dz Table 5.1: Variation of output amplitude input frequency ~ Vav ~ 2Q ~ V 1 d n l b d ~ =dz ~ z ~0= 90c V p 2Q ~ = dz d~ ~0 dz 2Q V V dV = = - 2Q ~ V V # d z d ~ V V av c V Q V 2 5.2 Specification =V =0 ~0 = Vc V # V dV dz V r \$ RC V # V 2Q V = ~ 0 = 1 kHz 0 V = ~ dV 0 the Self-Tuned Figure 5.3: Output of based on simulation Vr \$ RC ~ ~ d 1V VFilter 0 0 #V 0 = Q and design a highBand pass filter Assume that the input frequency is 1 V kHz V == V #~ V 0V ~c0 = V d 1 V c V RC dV c r whose centre frequency gets tuned to . V= 1 kHz H \$Q\$V Q ~ 0 == V V lV RC dV c z \$ rRC V = cos V = Q\$ Q \$ V H zc Vr V d 2VV # V V z dV ~ d~ 1K V V V0l cos z H \$Q\$V 0 = dV c = = = dz 2 V 5.3 Measurements to be taken Vc Vz dV dV r RC cc K d z d d If we consider the low-pass output, then 0 dV K~ = = dz \$ = dz ~ 0 dz 90c dV dV c = d~0z \$d K c 5.3.1 Transient response dVc d~0V dV c V 0 + zH =090c z= dz ~+ d V H s2 V0 i = s V~0 Apply a square wave input and observe the amplitude of the Band Pass output for \$d + + V s 22 l Vi c =b1 s ~ dV d dV 0~ c ~0 = Q ~ ~ 0 fundamental and its harmonics. \$ RC 2 l V+ b1 + ~0 Q ~ 0 ~ d~ 1 V0 H 0 r V + ~ = V ~== VV RC dVb 2 \$ RC ~ Vi = - 1 d r l s s ~ Q 0 z d~ + l 1 2l ~ b 1 + b = V z = tan - 1 ~ ~0= Q 5.4 What should you submit Q 0 dV 0 V~ RC 2 ~ z = tan dV r z d z z d d 2 d~ d1 b~ r \$ r ln =~ ~ 0 dV ~ dV d dV 1b l d ln b ~0 Q ~ 0 H d~ z dz d+ 1 Simulate the circuits and obtain the transient response of the system. -1 V = \$ z dz = tan V dV = d~ s s dV 2 b10+ Q V~ ~ rQ+~ l d~ z0 = - 2d ~ d 1nH l+ b then ~ 2Q = 0 2 Take the plots of transient response from oscilloscope and compare it with = ~ V 0 ~ s d ~ 0 b ~sQ l 1+ + l b simulation results. dz ~ tan z= Q V 2 d z c = dz ~~ d1 - bb~ nl dV c = QV ~ 2 =Q 2 c 0 ~l Q 3 Measure the output amplitude of the fundamental (Band Pass output) at d ~ tan z = 0 dV c ~ Vav = 0 dz varying input frequency at fixed input amplitude. d1 - b ~ ln 2Q ~ V dav z= 0 d~ = c = - 2Q dz 1 kHz dz V dV Hence, sensitivity of VCF(KVCF) Output amplitude should remain constant for varying input frequency within -2 cis equal to VQ. ~ 2Q = ~-= 1 kHz dV d the lock range of the system. V 0 V = dz Qav = 0 Q V 2 = For varying input frequencyQ the output phasedV will always lock to the input phase 1 kHz with 90˚ phase difference between 1 HkHz \$ VitwoQif V = 0. 0 \$ Q the H0 \$ Q \$ Vi 1 kHz H \$Q\$V Q Q Analog System Lab Kit PRO page 37 H \$Q\$V H0 \$ Q \$ Vi
pd av av 0 0av 0 c 0 r 0 c r 0 0 0 0 c c r c r 0 c 0 r c 0 c c r c c 0 c 0 c c 0 c 0 c 0 i 0 0 2 0 i c 0 0c 2 0 2 0 0 i 0 0 2 0 2 r 0 r 2 0 -1 0 0 offset x x y y 0 x y -1 0 2 r 0 r 0 offset x x y y 0 x y -1 2 0 r x y 0 2 r 0 0 0 0 x y 0 c r x r 0 c 0 c y c av r x r av c r c y av 0 x y r r 0 i p p 0 0 r x y r 0 i pd av p p 0 i 0 r pd pd av pd av 0 av 0 c 0 r 0 c 0 c 0 r r c 0 0 c c r c 0 c c 0 c 0 i 0 0 c 0 c 2 0 i 0 2 0 0 r 2 -1 0 0 2 0 2 r r 0 0 -1 2 r 0 0 0 c 0 c 0 av c c av 0 i 0 i

experiment 5

experiment 5

5.4.1 Exercise Set 5
1

dz 2Q ~0 d~0 = dz 2Q Vc dVc = Vav = 0 kHz Determine the lock range of1 the self-tuned filter you designed. The lock range Q frequencies where the amplitude of the output is defined as the range of input voltage remains constant at H0 \$ Q \$ Vi

~2 d1 - b ~r ln
0

Related Circuits
Texas Instruments also manufactures the following related ICs - Voltagecontrolled amplifiers (e.g. VCA820) and multiplying DAC (e.g. DAC7821). Refer to http://www.ti.com for application notes.

Notes on Experiment 5:

page 38

Analog System Lab Kit PRO