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RFID Based Road Info

2012-13

1. INTRODUCTION
The first disturbing fact is that RFID is not a new technology. It was first used over sixty years ago by Britain to identify aircraft in World War II and was part of the refinement of radar. It was during the 1960s that RFID was first considered as a solution for the commercial world. The first commercial applications involving RFID followed during the 70s and 80s. These commercial applications were concerned with identifying some asset inside a single location. They were based on proprietary infrastructures. The third era of RFID started in 1998, when researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Auto-ID Center began to research new ways to track and identify objects as they moved between physical locations. This research, which has a global outlook, centered on radio frequency technology and how information that is held on tags can be effectively scanned and shared with business partners in near real time. To do this we needed standards. The work of the Auto-ID Center focused on:
  

Reducing the cost of manufacturing RFID tags. Optimizing data networks for storing and delivering larger amounts of data. Developing open standards. It became apparent that the ideas being proposed, combined with other ongoing

technological and standardization activities worldwide, would help to reduce the costs of RFID tagging. By 2003, the Center had over 100 sponsors from four continents. Its final task was to conduct a large field trial with 40 participating companies in 10 US cities. Today, the work of the Auto-ID Center has helped to make RFID economically viable for pallet and carton-level tagging. The technology is also becoming more affordable for high-value items. The Auto-ID Center officially closed on October 26, 2003, transferring all its technology to EPCglobal.

EPCglobal is now leading the development of industry-driven standards for the Electronic Product Code (EPC) Network to support the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in today's fast-moving, information rich trading networks. EPCglobal is a memberdriven organization composed of leading firms and industries that are focused on creating
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RFID Based Road Info

2012-13

global standards for the EPCglobal Network. The EPCglobal Network is a set of technologies that enable immediate, automatic identification and sharing of information on items in the supply chain. In that way, the EPCglobal Network will make organizations more effective by enabling true visibility of information about items in the supply chain.

Figure 1: The History of RFID Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is used in various industries for controlling and enhancing the data. One of these fields is vehicular applications ranging from safe navigation to Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). RFID can be used in vehicles and highways to control the access to the vehicles, traffic and parking management. Stored information in tags of cars, like as, serial number, driver information could be transferred to the reader. In dangerous region such as bridges, tunnels, and icy road, drivers might need more useful information about the surrounding environment to avoid an unpredictable accident. Output of this work is, creating an information service to supply necessary information to car in foggy and poor visibility road. In the following sections, first, the proposed architecture is described and experimental results are reported. After that, the accurate computing of car to road margin is described.

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RFID Based Road Info

2012-13

2. RFID ROAD INFORMATION
2.1 WHAT IS THE NEED?
On average, there are over 6,301,000 vehicle crashes each year. Twenty-four (24) percent of these crashes—approximately 1,511,000—are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather (i.e., rain, sleet, snow, and/or fog) or on slick pavement (i.e., wet pavement, snowy/slushy pavement, or icy pavement). On average, 7,130 people are killed and over 629,000 people are injured in weather-related crashes each year. (Source: Fourteen-year averages from 1995 to 2008 analyzed by Noblis, based on NHTSA data). The vast majority of most weather-related crashes happen in the presence of fog, the table below gives the statistics of fog related accidents.

Weather-Related Crash Statistics Road Weather Conditions Foggy Annual Rates(Approximately) 15,600 persons injured 1% of crash injuries 2% of weatherrelated crash injuries 600 persons killed 1% of crash fatalities 8% of weatherrelated crash fatalities Table 2.1: Weather-Related Crash Statistics (Annual Averages) RFID is the emerging new technology which will help curd these accidents. A collision avoidance system in urban intersections can also be effectively supported by vehicle RFID readers and lane RFID tags. A driver entering the 4-way intersection may not have noticed a vehicle executing a left turn. In poor visibility (e.g., foggy night), this can easily lead to an accident. If vehicles are aware of their accurate position from tags deployed near the intersection and have announced their position via a beacon, the accident can be
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Percentages

[Dept. that is. There are many one-way streets in downtown areas. It is unfortunately very common for drivers at night to enter the freeway or the ramp and drive on the wrong way in the fast lane with consequences that are easy to imagine. Another promising application of passive lane tags is a wrong way warning. As the car reads the lane RFIDs. it can automatically broadcast an alarm messages to neighbor vehicles to alert them of the possible collision danger. Moreover if a vehicle notices a wrong way from RFID tag data after entry. it immediately realizes that they are coming in the wrong sequence.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 avoided. of ECE. It is important to warn drivers before a head on collision occurs. it is going the wrong way! Advance wrong way warning will prevent the driver from entering the freeway. Particularly deadly is the freeway or ramps. SCTIT] Page 4 .

or pallet. The tag comprises a simple silicon microchip (typically less than half a millimeter in size) attached to a small flat aerial and mounted on a substrate. contact-less reading of information from a low cost. and read remotely to ascertain its identity. known as ―tags‖ and devices to access the data on the tags. smart tag. of ECE. typically an item.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 3. a ―reader‖ or ―reader/writer‖. Figure 3a: A variety of RFID Tags  Reader or Interrogator— the reader—sometimes called an interrogator or scanner—sends and receives RF data to and from the tag via antennas. position. A reader may have multiple antennas that are responsible for sending and receiving radio waves. data source. or state. RFID BASICS Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a set of technologies that allow for short range. An RFID system will include data-carrying transponders. The whole device can then be encapsulated in different materials (such as plastic) dependent upon its intended usage. The finished tag can be attached to an object.  Tag or Transponder—An RFID tag is a tiny radio device that is also referred to as a transponder. SCTIT] Page 5 . For an active tag there will also be a battery. compact. [Dept. box. smart label. or radio barcode.

Figure 3c: Basic Operations of RFID (RFID Center: Dr Carol David Daniel.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 Figure 3b: Examples of a Reader with Associated Electronics  Host Computer—the data acquired by the readers is then passed to a host computer. Introduction to RFID. RFID Center) [Dept. of ECE. RFID Forum December 2004. which may run specialist RFID software or middleware to filter the data and route it to the correct application. SCTIT] Page 6 . to be processed into useful information.

we experimentally study the impact of reader and tag relative positions on read errors and read rates.e. SCTIT] Page 7 . RFID tags are buried in the pavement and an RFID reader on a vehicle gets road information. but it does not show any experimental results. In this paper. A driver entering the 4-way intersection may [Dept. However. can greatly enhance driving safety. by reviewing the RFID vehicle readings. one obstacle to deployment is the unpredictable read performance. An RFID-based accurate positioning system for vehicles was proposed where an RFID tag is assumed to have accurate position. If a vehicle gets accurate position from RFID tags deployed on each lane. we investigate RFID read latency and thus effectiveness of on-vehicles reader installations for a wide range of speeds. RFID readers have been proposed for several vehicular applications ranging from safe navigation to intelligent transport. The vehicle now plays the data consumer role. the RFID tag is generally mounted on the vehicle and the reader on the roadside unit. then lane-level navigation can be achieved on a freeway. of ECE. Additional integration of lane RFID readings with existing car navigator functionality. latency becomes the key performance factor because of the high speed of vehicles. This information can be helpful to the transportation department to design better and more effective signs. First. In the previously proposed Road Beacon System (RBS). The vehicle is equipped with an RFID reader while the RFID tags are distributed along the road. In vehicular applications. For instance. This is particularly true when the RFID reader is on the moving vehicle. and give us guidance to identify and pursue directions for improvement. mostly due to collisions. The RBS scheme is close to our proposal. The results reveal the critical factors that influence on-vehicle RFID read performance. VEHICULAR APPLICATION OF RFID Due to recent technology advancements. voice warning if the vehicle has declared (through the navigator) the intention to take a particular exit. i. one can easily tell when vehicles change lanes abruptly near a freeway exit. A collision avoidance system in urban intersections canal so be effectively supported by vehicle RFID readers and lane RFID tags. Our proposed system falls into this category. This happens because a driver does not have sufficient forwarding from vertical and horizontal direction signs.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 4. A vehicle with RFID reader travels over the RFID tags embedded in the road and can update its location. An RFID reader occasionally fails to read an RFID tag even in static circumstances. In a mobile vehicular environment.

There are many one-way streets in downtown areas. an active RFID tag contains a power module. modulates ID data. Moreover if a vehicle notices a wrong way from RFID tag data after entry. If vehicles are aware of their accurate position from tags deployed near the intersection and have announced their position via a beacon. With Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).e. namely a reader and tag collision. The inductive coupling uses an inductor coil in HF and LF communication. When the tag receives the radio waves. This enables longer radio range.. Particularly deadly are the freeways or ramps. it absorbs energy from the waves.g. whereas a passive tag is powered by a radio wave beamed from a reader. Current in the tag is so weak. and sends information back to the reader. it immediately realizes that they are coming in the wrong sequence. An RFID system suffers from two types of collision. SCTIT] Page 8 . it is going the wrong way! Advance wrong way warning will prevent the driver from entering the freeway. The reader collision occurs when more than two RFID readers try to access one RFID tag simultaneously. It is important to warn drivers before a head on collision occurs. this can easily lead to an accident. approximately up to 10m. The antenna coil in the reader generates a magnetic field in a nearby area which gives rise to inductive power in the tag antenna. creating a very short transmission range. i. Another promising application of passive lane tags is a wrong way warning. An operating frequency determines how energy and data is transmitted. it can automatically broadcast an alarm messages to neighbor vehicles to alert them of the possible collision danger. foggy night). the accident can be avoided.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 not have noticed a vehicle executing a left turn. It is unfortunately very common for drivers at night to enter the freeway or ramp and drive on the wrong way in the fast lane with consequences that are easy to imagine. This section reviews properties of an RFID system that are closely related to RFID communication. As the car reads the lane RFIDs. The necessity of external power classifies the RFID system. through an inductive coupling or a backscattering coupling.e. i. The modulated backscattering coupling in UHF bandwidth makes use of the fact that a microwave is rejected by an object whose size is greater than half of the wave length. In poor visibility (e. The RFID reader continuously emits RF radio waves and waits for signals back from the tag. that is. a reader is able to [Dept. of ECE. around several centimeters. A passive RFID system is composed of a passive RFID tag storing data and an RFID reader that accesses the tag and collects data.

e. In a pure ALOHA algorithm. This is different from the ATC case because vehicles get slower for safety when passing through the toll gateway. after receiving a wave.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 transmit a wave only within the assigned slot. SCTIT] Page 9 . Then. This paper studies feasibility of a commercial RFID system in vehicular environment because of its cost benefit. The wave contains information on the number of slots. The binary tree-based algorithm allows a reader to send a command to a tag. i. vehicles usually drive at faster than 100km/h. the short distance creates a small radio area. they try to transmit data again in the next frame. the reader selects a number by looking at tag IDs causing the collision and sends the number to tags. If two different tags pick the same slot by chance. They estimated that an RFID communication can occur at the maximum speed of 165km/h. reducing probability of successful RFID communication. Then. A tag. When a collision occurs. one frame is a time period when a reader waits for receiving data back from tags after sending a wave out. Chon et al. can an RFID reader access an RFID tag while driving fast? In a freeway. studied this issue by dropping RFID tags down in front of a fixed RFID reader in a laboratory. Unlike the ATC case. in one frame. In the new system. i. the second scenario. real world data is completely different from the laboratory results and we investigate it in the later section. When exploiting the on-board RFID reader system. the communication area moves fast along with the on-board reader. it is fundamental to examine that an RFID communication can occur in fast moving situation. Frame slotted ALOHA (FSA) divides a frame into a fixed number of slots.e. a tag. Therefore. The rest tags transmit data in the next round. 3m~4m. ALOHA-based and binary tree-based. However. The first constraint is vehicles' high speed. Here. Concurrent transmission of tag data toward a single RFID reader causes the tag collision. waits for a randomly generated time period before sending data back. When considering cone-shaped wave propagation. when receiving the wave. Another constraint comes from a very short communication distance. a collision occurs. of ECE. arbitrarily picks up a random number less than S and transmits data only during the selected slot period. TDMA has also provides an anti-collision algorithm in two approaches. In addition. S. a vehicle should be allowed to obtain tag data without decreasing its speed. tags whose ID is greater than the number are allowed to send data back to the reader. the communication distance between a reader and a tag could decrease to less than 30cm since a reader on the front bumper of a vehicle is very close to tags on the road surface. which also increase [Dept.

A vehicle is equipped with a reader and associated antenna(s) and obtains RFID data by passing over the tags. we consider point localization. For a target application. where a vehicle acquires its coordinate data by reading tag data when encountering the tag. 4. Therefore. this paper considers tag multiplicity and antenna diversity. initial arrangement of RFID systems is to be inspected carefully to minimize performance degradation. a reader in motion is highly likely to access tag data in an arbitrary way. maximizing the RFID read performance can be achieved. Figure 4a illustrates the concept. Based on this. The number of tags to be deployed depends on the vehicular application. of ECE. In this paper. For this reason. we establish a target performance of the read latency in a vehicular environment. we draw a simple scenario. However. The tag price (around 10 cents per [Dept. For experiments. This concept is important because the reader plays an active role in RFID communication. SCTIT] Page 10 . An application scenario for measurement of the RFID read rate: point Erratic mobility of the on-board reader also makes the RFID communication unstable. it can be easily calibrated. Each tag is assumed to have one meaningful data. This means that RFID communication could fail at some unpredictable points.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 uncertainty of communication.1 Factors Affecting the RFID Read Performance This section introduces the RFID system used in our experiments and examines factors affecting the RFID read performance. In the case that a reader is fixed on a roadside. In order to enhance RFID read performance. We assume that RFID tags are placed on the road surface along each lane. Figure 4a: localization. we explore strategy of how to install an RFID system on a vehicle and a roadside.

when we consider 'lane level navigation' guiding a freeway exit to a driver in this paper. Based on assumption of regional deployment scenario. [Dept. the number of tags to be deployed is reduced dramatically. is one of the biggest issues in the vehicular RFID applications since each application demands different specification. SCTIT] Page 11 .g. but we believe that a number of tags under an appropriate strategy can be deployed in some specific roads where accidents frequently occur. For example. e. and tag. the deployment strategy.1: Hardware specification of the used RFID system. If we can assume that each vehicle is equipped with a GPS device.1: RFID system: reader. of ECE. this study examines 2m and 5m tag intervals in a 3kmlength test road for evaluation. In fact. The RFID tags would not be distributed over all the roads. Table 4. Figure 4. deciding the tag numbers. reader antenna.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 one tag) and tag intervals could be also taken into account when deploying the tags. the tags can be placed only near the exit.

The RFID reader is KIS900RE operating in 900MHz-914MHz. KIS900AE.3. of ECE.1 shows the RFID system including a computer collecting and processing RFID data.3 Software Aspect of Specification Read Area A previous research revealed that the angle of the used RFID reader antenna is 68°. pause time.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 4. The RFID reader antenna. Figure 4. as shown in Figure 4.5ms.2 Hardware of the RFID system We select UHF RFID system because of its long read range and low cost. Figure 4. before sending data out. has 60°of angle and 6dBi of gain. Table 4.3: RFID read area. we depict a RFID read area. SCTIT] Page 12 . For anti-collision. Based on this information. which is a little bit wider than specification. each tag waits for a random delay time. The maximum pause time is 62. where reader antennas can communicate a tag to obtain data. It supports an anti-collision algorithm with Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) in200 kHz bandwidth. 4. [Dept. The EM4222 chip used in the RFID tag transmits 64bit data at 256kbps.1 summarizes specification of the RFID system. The width (x1) and length (x2) of the area are calculated by Equation 1.

Our experiment. the read area also travels and encounters the fixed tags during a short time period. SCTIT] Page 13 . at least.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 Table 4. The read latency is upper-bounded by vehicles' speed.e.22ms to transmit 64bit tag data. Because the reader antenna is attached to a vehicle traveling at a high speed. must occur between the reader and the tag in the read area. which is around 1minstead of 1. Data Rate 256kbps of data rate of the RFID tag means that it takes 0. In order to obtain RFID data. RFID Communication An RFID communication is a process where an RFID reader transmits wave to an RFID tag and then receives data back from the tag.89ms. i. one communication. we compute how fast the read area moves from Equation 1. This slow communication mainly results from the pause time at the selected tag whose maximum value is 62. reveals that the average read latency is 38. the third column. One communication should occur at least once within this time period.85m. of ECE. In Table 4. For comparison. measured [sec].3.5ms. This implies that there might be no RFID communication when a vehicle travels at [Dept. The gap between 'computed' and 'measured' values is due to the reduced length (x2) of the RFID read area in a real situation. We define RFID read latency as a time period when one communication occurs and thus a reader successfully obtains RFID data from a tag. The table also indicates that the read latency should be less than 36ms at the speed of 100km/h. however.3: Moving speed of RFID read area (time to pass over a RFID tag with h = 37:5cm and µ = 45°). shows results from our experiments.

the next 8 bits identify a company producing the tag.4 RFID Read Rate In order to utilize the RFID system on roads. It is clear that the RFID read rate decreases as speed becomes faster. we establish. This means that the reader is likely to pass by one tag without having one RFID communication. point localization.3). The most significant 2 bits are reserved. 4.5ms of its maximum pause time. the paper figures out what level of reliability the commercial RFID system can provide to the target application. it must demonstrate reliable performance at a high speed. i. As shown in the previous subsections. The tag initiates a packet containing all memory data. Through experiments. 50% of read rate says that the reader obtains data from 125 tags while driving the road.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 a higher speed than 60km/h since the moving speed of the read area becomes 60ms or shorter (Table 4.89ms).e. i.5m of read distance in which one communication occurs within 18ms. advanced data manipulation can be achieved.e. This is based on the measured moving speed and size of the read area. In order to appreciate reliability of the RFID system. When the test road is a 500m-long single lane and tags are placed every 2m. which would degrade reliability of the RFID system. One solution is to shorten the average read latency to less than 36ms at 100Km/h and the other way is to enlarge the read area to decrease its moving speed. without loss of generality. This is one constraint given from the selected commercial RFID system due to 62. two [Dept. an RFID system should provide 0. In the paper. For fine-grained laboratory experiment. a target performance. The next section studies such enhancement. Memory size can increase up to 2. Memory and Packet The tag chip contains 64bit data memory. Therefore. this paper defines RFID read rate as a fraction of RFID tags successfully read over the total number of tags deployed over a designated test road.048 bits if the memory is user-programmable. Reliability (or accuracy) is a relative value whose requirement depends on each application. 250 tags. SCTIT] Page 14 . of ECE. the moving speed of the read area (36ms at 100km/h) is faster than the average read latency measured (38. and the rest 54 bits including a CRC code represent the RFID tag ID.

It may be possible to select another RFID system providing shorter maximum pause time for the performance issue. SCTIT] Page 15 . Having a long random access time in a commercial RFID tag is to avoid tag collision. We expect that further interdisciplinary researches enable an experiment with very short random access times. A non-zero maximum access time of an RFID tag is fixed at the factory. which would overcome the limitation of the commodity RFID system for better RFID performance. Unfortunately. of ECE. however. [Dept. the selected tag was the one having the shortest maximum random access time available on the market at the moment of experiments.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 techniques are experimentally investigated to satisfy the performance. which is the most significant issue in existing RFID application. Recent researches have tried to advance specification of RFID systems including the pause time in a tag for various applications.

in particular. connected to the antenna via the cable but not shown in this figure. and the tag. we adjust the reader antenna to be mounted on a vehicle. The antenna is adjusted to have 30° of pitch angle. tag multiplicity is taken into account for performance improvement. The reader. We affix the antenna at the center of the front bumper since this position shows the minimum error rate. we examine an RFID tag. Then. we deliberate its horizontal and vertical position. of ECE. we set h=30cm.5m away from the antenna is measured. because our experiment indicates that20~40cm of height shows similar performance and the height of the front bumper of the test vehicle is 30cm. has 30° of yaw angle. LABORATORY EXPERIMENT FOR INSTALLATION OF RFID SYSTEM Figure 5: Test bed: RFID system This section discusses installation of the RFID system in a vehicular environment. inside the black square line. which helps determine the read area with different pitch angles of the antenna. SCTIT] Page 16 .The reader antenna is fixed on a 30cm-heightframe and tags are aligned near the antenna on the floor. With respect to the vertical position. When mounting a reader antenna on a vehicle. identifies the tags accessed within 18ms. We build a static test set for laboratory experiments . [Dept. The figure represents one of the experiment settings that evaluate the yaw angle of a tag. The read latency to access the tags 0. At first. RFID tags are placed at the center of each lane and on the road surface.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 5.

When one reader antenna is mounted. Figure 5. the read area is 86cm in width.1 RFID Reader Antenna Antenna Diversity A dual RFID reader antenna is investigated to increase the RFID read rate.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 5. Figure 5.2b: Influence of dual RFID reader antennas. . the read area may not pass over the tags.1 depicts the read areas with 18ms of read latency when one or two RFID reader antenna(s) is mounted at the height of 30cm and the angle of 30° Figure 5. which is acceptable if a user drives in the middle of a lane all the time. When mounting an additional reader antenna. of ECE. which will make worse the RFID read rate as drawn in Figure 5.1a: Measured RFID read area (18ms read latency). SCTIT] Page 17 .2b. the width is extended to 130cm with small [Dept. Otherwise.

RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 decrease of the length from 80cm to 78cm. 5. a vehicle is able to obtain RFID data unless it changes a lane.3. A pitch angle of the reader antenna is as much important as horizontal and vertical position because the beam shape and direction influences substantially on the receive sensitivity in a short-ranged RFID communication. Figure 5. The experiment measures the average read latency by varying the pitch [Dept. SCTIT] Page 18 .2a: Length of RFID read area with varying pitch angles of RFID reader antennas.2 Posture (Pitch Angle) Figure 5. In this case. Experiments in this paper use dual RFID reader antennas. otherwise explicitly stated. of ECE.2b: Average read latency with varying pitch angles of RFID reader antennas. Definition of the pitch angle is referred from Section 4.

0cm~30cm on the x-axis. Figure 5. Table 5. SCTIT] Page 19 . a single RFID reader antenna. [Dept. the figure also illustrates how the length changes with different pitch angles. we attach the reader antenna on the front bumper with 30° of the pitch angle for easiness of installation. A yaw angle is an internal angle of the tag and the straight line drawn from the antenna to the tag.2: Average read latency [ms] with varying yaw angle (a single RFID tag. Figure 5.2d: Average read latency with varying pitch angles of RFID tag (yaw angle=0degand pitch angle of the reader antenna=30deg).RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 angle from 0° to 70° as shown in Figure 5. This subsection investigates a posture of an RFID tag in terms of its yaw angle and pitch angle. It tells that 20°~40° of the pitch angles creates the longest read area within an error tolerance and out performs other angles. In our experiment.2a sketches the side view of the read area where one communication occurs at least once within 18ms based on results from Figure 5. the average read latency in most test cases converges to around 13ms.2c describes their definition. of ECE. In some specific range of distance. As the x-axis can be considered as the length of the read area. As the distance point becomes further from the range area (to forward or backward direction). the average read latency increases dramatically. Figure 5.2c: Yaw angle and pitch angle of RFID tag. Figure 5. and pitch angle = 0°).2b.2b.

each tag can have 0°~20° of pitch angles. if a reader receives data back first from any tag in one cluster.2c. we measure the average read latency and the length of the read area.3a: RFID tag cluster models. at least one tag is likely to select a short pause time. For each pitch angle. we can conclude that the pitch angle of a tag does not affect performance of the RFID read rate. A fundamental idea is to regard multiple tags in a cluster as one data. more tags may cause tag collision that deteriorates the RFID performance. Results in the case of 10° and 20° are almost same. which shortens the read latency.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 The average read latency when varying the yaw angle by every 30° is summarized in Table 5. Therefore. we use 0° of pitch angle. of ECE. SCTIT] Page 20 .2.3 Tag Multiplicity An RFID tag cluster model is contrived in order to speed up the read latency. Figure 5. then we say that RFID communication occurs and tag data is read successfully. the results are reasonable since energy transmission is maximized with matched polarization between the reader antenna and the tag. Definition of the pitch angle of a tag is same to that of the reader antenna as shown in Figure 5. If we can use Cat's Eye' when deploying RFID tags on roads. i. For deployment of the RFID system. Given that the used reader antenna is horizontal polarization. The rest settings of yaw angles show similar results. When comparing them to the result of 0°. On the other hand. 5. and 120° of yaw angles. Figure 5. and thus we use 0° of yaw angle. the only distinction is the starting and ending point of the read area.3b: Average read latency with four RFID tag cluster models [Dept. The next experiment tries to find the best cluster model.2d. there is no communication.e. As the number of tags increases in a cluster. which is shown in Figure 5. At 60°. 90°.

3. The result allows us to calculate the maximum speed at which a vehicle can read RFID data while traveling as below.5m) and compute an average read latency after iterating the experiment. With 5 member tags.3b shows the average read latency with four RFID tag cluster models with increasing the number of the tags from 1 to 5. which is expected to enhance the receive sensitivity. Cluster 1 and 2 represent horizontal and vertical integration. it verifies that as a cluster includes more tags the read latency comes to be shorter. we decide to use Cluster 3 having 3 or 4 members of RFID tags since they show the best performance. and 4. 3. [ ] [Dept. a space is given between two neighboring member tags. 5. We randomly place each cluster within the target read distance (0.5m of read distance in which communication occurs within 18ms. In Cluster 2.e. performance gets much worse due to tag collision.8m with 18ms of the read latency. and 4 members’ tags. This estimation is also equivalent to the estimation in the previous research.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 We consider four types of RFID tag clusters as shown in Figure 5. Based on results. In Cluster 4. Each cluster manifests its own characteristic in a way how to combine multiple tags in one cluster. the time values go down below 18ms when there are 2. Our laboratory experiments with stationary test sets quantify that the length of the read area (read distance) becomes 0. of ECE. At first. an RFID system should provide 0. 3. SCTIT] Page 21 . Figure 5.3a a tag consists of a tag chip (a black spot at the center) and a dipole antenna. Recall our target performance in Section 4. i. respectively.4 Preliminary Result We have conducted laboratory experiments to study how to install an RFID system on a road environment. the tag chips share one dipole antenna. In the next.

there is only one case that tags distance is important: information is about the exact distance of car to road margin. b. This guide can be used by driver in foggy road and poor vision environment. and tag reader is in the car. transmits it to the monitoring system. b) Distance to bridge is b. Reader detects the RFID tags data. can be between 10 to 20 meters. d) Distance to turn-left is d. a. Information about the road is stored in RFID tags and can be read by tag reader that posted in the car. left -turn. Monitoring accuracy basically is not determined by the gaps between the installed nodes until the distance is more than 20 meters. These data and related codes are stored in passive tag as in table 1. are stored as binary numbers ranging between 0 and 100. The distance of these tags. According to this information. PROPOSED STRUCTURE FOR RFID ROAD INFORMATION In proposed structure. because the road situation can’t change rapidly. Such as tunnel. situation of 100 meters from the front of car is transmitted to the car and information goes to the monitoring system. f) Distance to 4-way cross is f. e and f are distance terms measured in meter unit. There is no need to closer distance. The data types that can be extracted from tags are: a) Distance to tunnel is a. c) Distance to turn-right is c. e) Distance to 3-way cross is e. SCTIT] Page 22 . of ECE. Some data of road are stored in passive tags that are posted on road. Basically. d. road situation is send to car in the road. in front road information is monitored in real time. and so on. These data are about ―what we would see in front‖.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 6. bridge. The format of this part of the code is shown in Figure 6. In fact. c. By recording the sequence of RFID tags data. These codes are stored in data part of passive tags. a road guide is produced to driver. [Dept.

[Dept.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 Figure 6a: Data part of tag format for proposed design Data can be grouped in 6 categories now. The tags near the tunnel have codes as Figure 6b. C or D have a binary number too. d. Table 6: Information that is stored in Data part of tag As an example. of ECE. the fields B. SCTIT] Page 23 . The data situation and content and fields are added up in table -6. like as left-turn or 4-way cross. c. Figure 6b: Content of tags when there is a tunnel in road If there are other object in road. Where a. suppose that there is a tunnel in front of car. e and f are binary numbers. b.

two fields of codes are active. The situation of bridge will be changed in monitoring display. when reader detect from tag that there is a tunnel in front of the car with about 60 meters. In this case. of ECE. it may have some combinational situation. two changes in road. This figure shows an example. bridge and right-turn are reported by tags. Figure 6.1: Pictures on monitoring displayer based on appearance of change in road. the road information. it transmits them to the monitoring system and records them in the system.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 6. The new situation. SCTIT] Page 24 . As an example same as Figure 3-g and Figure 3-h.1 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS When the reader detects the RFID tag data. Figure 6. will be close and closer to car. By recording the sequence of RFID tags data. in front road are monitored in real time.1. the Figure 3-f schema is shown on monitoring display. a) Nothing in front b) 3-way in front c) turn left in front d) 4-way in front e) turn right in front f) tunnel in front g) bridge in front h) bridge in front i) bridge& turn right in front [Dept. same as bridge in road. As in Figure3-i. while car is going in road. shows some types of information on monitoring package.

The incoming power curve from tags and the reader distance from tag are shown in Figure 6. Therefore the suitable case is tightly tags. one in front and other in the [Dept. we can activate proper alarms like as green-light in 4. we can detect the power level of incoming signal from tags and have a criteria of distance of car from tag (or road margin). SCTIT] Page 25 . Figure 6. Time Based We can compute the accurate distance between car and tag or road margin. because it can be used to avoid car deviation. Based on this distance. red – light in 3. it causes this measurement or sense to be non-valuable. if the distance of tags is far. We do this by two methods: the first is based on time and the second one is based on incoming signal power. Power Based If tags are installed on x meters from the road center.2 DISTANCES FROM ROAD MARGIN The distance from right margin of the road is an important data. A. we must use two tag readers in car.2a: Power/distance chart of received power from tag to reader B. It could be extracted from tags but for this function to be done true. In both cases. of ECE. If we want to have this information. blink in 2 and buzzer in 1 meter.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 6. it is needed the tags to be tight together.2a.

the exact distance from car to tag. 6. we can compute as follows: t1: data receiving time for tag-reader1 t2: data receiving time for tag-reader2 Vc: signal propagation speed Figure 6. D is known and then: And so. of ECE. Two Sided-Road When road is two sided and meanwhile the road width is low. When the reader detects the RFID tag data.3 SOME IMPROVEMENTS Based on experiment results. it is transmitted to the monitoring system. so by solving the equations. A. t1.2b: Detection of accurate distance between car and tag The t2. This cause to read nonrelated data by readers and the [Dept. According to Figure 6.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 back of car. we can do some improvement on primary design. is determined. ―A‖. Vc and B are known. SCTIT] Page 26 . information of one side tags could be read by another side cars.2b.

else will be discarded. Tags used in the experiment have 7 meter read distance (XCTF-8102A). B. we can use tags with high distance readability. another field is added to stored data for showing the direct of tags. So Figure 6b will be changed to Figure 6. of ECE. Figure 6. but we have to use tags with more read distance. if it is accumulated on tag. This field is numbered in ascending. To overcome this problem.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 road monitoring cannot be used by user. To overcome this problem. SCTIT] Page 27 . [Dept.3 form. Order of Tag-no would be checked by server and if matched by previous ascending order. 1 in the start of road. we must mount tag on a shady place. with increment by one for next tag.3: Content of tags when there is a tunnel in road and with tag-no. will be accept. For snow accumulation problem. Snow and Rain Effect Snow and rain reduce the read distance of tags. Snow can effect intensively on reducing this distance.

car trackers or navigational devices tend to be the most well known civilian uses. RFID requires specialized scanners to read and transmit data. which don't require accuracy within a few inches. Emergency homing beacons. but happen on a large scale where no other infrastructure such as RFID or radio towers are set up.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 7. RFID Vs GPS RFID As you might imagine. Radio waves sent out from this system of satellites transmit their time and orbital data to receivers down on Earth. they work brilliantly for hundreds of purposes in your everyday lives. is best suited for tracking anywhere in the world—but because of the sheer distance of the satellites. localized scale. [Dept. well. Using the data from multiple satellites. receivers can then triangulate their position relative to the satellites. as opposed to specialized scanners here on the ground. SCTIT] Page 28 . Civilian models particularly are not as accurate in certain situations as one might like. GPS. for instance at the bottom of a canyon or indoors. of ECE. by definition. may be incredibly powerful for both tracking and for providing information. or even just not get a signal. GPS Now. RFIDs serve for an incredible variety of purposes. While it also uses radio waves to transmit data. this technology is best suited for smaller spaces. it does so using. The dedicated infrastructure may be of great cost on a large scale. and the number is just likely to grow. and is easier to jam. GPS is a very different beast from RFID. thus. from automatically scanning highway toll fees to using Zip cars to use of public transportation to preventing shop lifting to IDing livestock to even identifying humans by passport—or implant. the global positioning system of 24 satellites. That being said. but on a small. where the infrastructure is already in place to use it. and thus on the Earth's surface. and so the sort of tracking its best at happens on the scales of tens or hundreds of miles. GPS is. global. there's no point. and without one specific to the proprietary receivers. the signal is weaker.

Tag collision occurs when numerous tags are present in a confined area. radio transceiver and microchip. reduces labor and provides quick access to a wealth of information. but provides a good return on investment in the long run. MERITS AND DEMERITS Merits 1. This result in tag collision. The RFID tag reader energizes multiple tags simultaneously. RFID reader collision results when the coverage area [Dept. 3. wood and even the human body. RFID tags can easily track moving objects and send the required information back to the reader. such as areas of high temperature or moisture. Efficiency: RFID tags do not require line-of-sight to be deciphered they can be read through cardboard. Return on Investment (ROI): RFID costs more to implement than a barcode system.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 8. Less Vulnerable to Damage: RFID tags are less susceptible to damage. since RFID is significantly more efficient. increasing the overall cost of an RFID system. 2. enabling the system to be used in a variety of harsh environments. all of which reflect their signals back to the reader. Expense: RFID systems are typically more expensive than alternatives such as barcode systems. This eliminates human errors. Collision: Tag collision and reader collision are common problems with RFID. active tags are costly due to their complexity. An RFID tag is securely placed within an object or embedded in plastic. of ECE. While passive tag reading is similar to (and generally less expensive than) barcode reading. or with exposure to chemicals or the outdoors. plastic. and the RFID reader fails to differentiate between incoming data. 2. SCTIT] Page 29 . Active tags consist of an antenna. Demerits 1.

external (and malicious) high-intensity directional antennas could be used to scan sensitive tags. Since the system is not limited to line-of-sight. Fraud is always a possibility when the technology is used for high-security operations. such as payment verification. SCTIT] Page 30 . Security: RFID technology gives rise to numerous security concerns. of ECE. 3.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 managed by one RFID reader overlaps with the coverage area of another reader. [Dept. This causes signal interference and multiple reads of the same tag.

c. reader can extract its own data form tags. These tools are not expensive for public facilities. While cars pass through road. it is possible to improve the monitoring system to 127 meters of in front road. The suggested method is well suited to foggy road and poor visibility environment. b. instead of 100 meters. [Dept. FUTURE SCOPE AND CONCLUSION A number of RFID tags are implanted in road. tag messages could be cared and be monitored. the RFID tag is mounted on the vehicle and the reader on the roadside unit. Second: by incrementing the accuracy of distance computing. but in our design. we can use them for a driver-less car in an intelligent car. e and f numbers are 7-bits binary numbers. of ECE. In this project RFID tags are placed on the road at fix interval and directions.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 9. Also by posting the tags in the road center and putting two sides’ data in tags. we can use a dual RFID reader resulting to detect the distance of cars from road-margin. d. In most of the vehicular applications. For future work: first: since a. this is inverse. In developed technique of using these tags. SCTIT] Page 31 .

2008. Department of Computer Science City University. 2009 [6] Ok. WSEAS Press.. Young Min. and Al-Khateeb. www. VANET’09. pp.. Johari. [3] Garza. United Kingdom. Kim. Mathematical Methods and Applied Computing‖. white paper. SCTIT] Page 32 . pp. Journal of Computer Science 4 (7). [5] Lee. ―An Introduction to Passive RFID‖. pp. and Eom...Y. ―An RFID Information e-Highway‖. RFID Journal. Jung. pp. ―DiCa: Distributed Tag Access with Collision avoidance Among Mobile RFID Readers‖.. 78-83 [8] Zebra_tech. 413–422. pp. DOI: 01. K.S. 19-22 June 2006. INFOS2008. March 27-29. Kim. January 2011..F. September 25. 2011. K. D. July 2008.M.A.517.3844/jcssp. 2006. 2006. Beijing. Ho. Plymouth. J. of ECE.us [7] Yoo. Min-hwan.. Eun-Kyu. C..rfidjournal. 2009.com [Dept. 2008. and Fedrowitz. 704-706. China. W.RFID Based Road Info 2012-13 REFERENCES [1] Al-Khateeb. pages12. Hong Kong. Y.A. K. Computer science colloquium. 2009. Park." Proceedings of the Intelligent Computing in Engineering Conference. "Implementation of RFID Technology in the VTVDOT Highway Maintenance Monitoring Program (HMMP). W. 517-524.2009 ― A Location Tracking by RFID to Assist the Transportation Vulnerable in Subway Stations‖. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2006. J. 2008 CairoEgypt. ―Dynamic Traffic Light Sequence Algorithm Using RFID‖. 2008.524 [2] Cook. Robert. Yoo.wseas. B.. and Ko. ―INTRACS: Intelligent Traffic control System Based on Ubiquitous Technology‖.. 518-527 [4] Hwang. www. ―Installation and Evaluation of RFID Readers on Moving Vehicles‖.. Park and Chan Gook. J.