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f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i 1kHz 1 !

Vss _R R i 4RC # 2 1 Vc f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i Sensitivity of the VCO is the important parameter and is given as KVCO , where it is Vc $ R2 given as df ! Vss f l = dVc 4 RC V $ $ r $ R1 To understand a classic mixed mode circuit that uses two-bit A to D Converter f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i 1V along with an analog integrator block. The architecture of the circuit is similar df l f R2 Vc $ R2 (6.1) l 1kHz f = K Hz Volts VCO = = Vc to that of a sigma delta converter. 4 $ RC $ Vr $ R1dVc = 4RC $ Vr V 1 10kHz df l f R2 KVCO = Hz Volts =_ = Vc RC4 4 $V dV _R 1 f RC 1 i $ rV c 2 R1i = where f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i 1kHz 1kHz VCO is an1important analog circuit as it is used in FSK/FM generation and constitutes 1 _R 2 R1i 4RC # part _R # 2 R1i As a VCO, it can be used in Phase Locked Loop the modulator of the MODEM. 4 RC Vcis a basic building block forming sigma delta converter. It can also be used The feedback loop is made up of a two-bit A/D converter (at ! Vss levels), also (PLL). It Vc KVCO oscillator for a Class D amplifier. called Schmitt trigger, and an integrator. The circuit is also known function _1 a i $ _ R2 R1i as reference 4RC f = as df generator and is shown in Figure 6.1. The output of the function generator is Vc $ R2 fl = dVc KVCO 4 $ RC $ Vr $ R1 shown in Figure 6.2. 1 df l f V R KVCO = = 4RC $2V V = Vc Hz Volts df dV c 1kHz The function generator produces a square wave at the Schmitt Trigger output and r 1 f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i ! Vss 10kHz dVc a triangular wave at the integrator output with the frequency of oscillation equal 1 kHz 1V to f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i . The function generator circuit can be converted as a linear 1 VCO by using the multiplier integrator combination as shown in Figure 6.3. Vc $ R2 _R R i fl = 4RC # 2 1 1kHz 4 $ RC $ Vr $ R1 V c df l f R2 KVCO = Hz Volts 10kHz dVc = 4RC $ Vr V1 = Vc KVCO f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i df VG dVc 1kHz 1V 1 C _R R i 4RC # 2 1 1kHz Vc 10kHz R KVCO U 1•U2 VF1 10 df VF2 dVc Figure 6.2: Function Generator Output R1 U1 R2 1V U2 1kHz 10kHz

experiment 6

Goal of the experiment

6.1 Brief theory and motivation

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6.2 Specifications

Figure 6.1: Function Generator

Design of a function generator which can generate square and triangular wave for a frequency of 1 kHz. ! Vss

! Vss

The frequency of oscillation of the VCO becomes

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f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i Vc $ R2 fl = 4 $ RC $ Vr $ R1 df l f R2 KVCO = Hz Volts = = dVc 4RC $ Vr V1 Vc

6.3 Measurements to be taken

f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i Vc $ R2 fl = 4 $ RC $ Vr $ R1 df l f R2 KVCO = Hz Volts Determine the frequency of oscillations Vc triangular wave. Frequency of RCsquare $ Vr V1 =and dVc = 4of = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i . Convert the function generator into a oscillation should be equalfto 1kHz Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) or FM/FSK generator also called “mod of modem.” 1 _R R i 4RC # 2 1 Analog System Lab Kit PRO Vc KVCO

Notes on Experiment 6:

1

Simulate the circuits and obtain the Transient response of the system.
C R2 VC R1 R1

2 3

f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i Vc $ R2 fl = 4 $ RC $ Vr $ R1 df l f R2 K Hz Oscillator Volts VCO = 6.3: Figure Voltage-Controlled (VCO) 4RC $ Vr V1 = Vc dVc = f = _1 4RC i $ _ R2 R1i 1 kHzof time response from oscilloscope and compare it with Take the plots 1 simulation results. _R R i 4RC # 2 1 Vc Vary the control voltage of the VCO and see the effect on the frequency of KVCO the output waveform also measure the sensitivity (KVCO) of the VCO which is nothing but df . Use Table 6.1 to note your readings. dVc 1V 1kHz S.No. Control Voltage (Vc) Change in Frequency 10kHz
1 2 3 4 Table 6.1: Change in frequency as a function of Control Voltage

! Vss

6.5 Exercise Set 6
Apply 1V, 1kHz square wave over 2V DC and observe the FSK for a VCO which is designed for 10kHz frequency.

Analog System Lab Kit PRO

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experiment 6

6.4 What should you submit