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Applied Grammar
Pronoun- Person table


1. TENSE
Use of verbs in tense
Tense Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect
Continuous
Present 1
st
form 1
st
form +ing 3
rd
form 1
st
form +ing
Past Positive
Sentence -
2
nd
form
i| 1
st

from
1
st
form +ing 3
rd
form 1
st
form +ing
Future 1
st
form 1
st
form +ing 3
rd
form 1
st
form +ing
Person Subject Object Relative (1)
With noun
Relative(2)
Without noun
self
I
st

I
We
Me
Us
My
Our
Mine
Ours
My self
Ourselves
II
nd
You You Your Yours yourself
III
rd

He
She
It
They
Him
Her
It
Them
His
Her
Its
Their
His
Hers
Its
Theirs
Himself
Herself
Itself
Their selves
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Use of helping verbs in tense
Root verbs Do Be Have Have+been
Tense Simple Continuous Perfect Perfect
Continuous
Present Do-P
Does-S
Is-S
Are-P
Am-I
Have P
Has-S
Have+ been- P
Has+ been S
Past
Did
Was- S
Were-P
Had Had+been
Future
Shall- I&We
Will-other
subject
Shall be
Will be
Shall have

Will have
Shall have been

Will have been
Note :- p- plural subject
s- singular subject


Present indefinite tense
Rule:1:- Daily, always, usually, seldom, often, every(day, month,
weak, year.) il preset indefinite tense n rin r
Examples: (1) she.(come)to see me every month.

Golden Rules
for
Filling Correct Forms Of Verbs
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(2)I (go) to school daily
(3)My uncle always.(take) tea in the morning.
Ans :- (i) comes (ii) go (iii) takes
Rule-2 modals (can,could,may,mifht,must,shall,will,would,should,ought
to, need not) i r-ii verb | 1
st
form r| in| r|
Examples: (1) she can(do) this work
(2)Yours sister could(bring) some fruits for me.
ans:- (i) do (ii) bring

2. present Continuous
Rule-1 l ln -ii i i- - be li ri nii i n-i i - ri ni
ln -ii - is/ar/am in nii verb | 1
st
form - ing i n |
Exampales :-
(1) He .(be) a teacher.
(2) Ramesh..(be cook) food.
Ans (i) is (ii) is cooking
Rule-2 while, as, still il ii i is/are/am+verb | 1st form +ing
i in rini r|
Eaxmple- (i) The boy brought a letter and he..(still wait) for your
reply.
Ans:- is still waiting
3.present perfect tense
Rule-1 l i - just,yet,already, il i ri ni i present perfect
tense i rini r n ;- has/have+main verb 3
rd
form in||
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Examples: (1) Ram is not at home. He (go) to hospital just now.
(3)They (already finish) their work and now they will
go to the cinema.
(Ans) (i)has gone (ii) have already finished
4. Present Perfect Continuous
Rule: 1. l - r since / for / all ri i i -in ri ni ri ni
ln -ii - has been ii have been + verb - ing ini |
Exmaple :- (i) My brother..(cook) for two hours.
(ii) Rani(teach) to him since 9 o clock.
Ans:- (i) has been cooking (ii) has been teaching

Rule2 :- l i i l n ri i l| i| i - - r
since / for / all ri nii i i present tense - ri ni ln -ii - has
been / have been + verb - ing ni |
Examples :-
(1) Raju.(write) a story since morning , but he has not finished it
yet.
(2) You(waste) my time since 9 o clock, you may go now.
Ans:- (i) has been writing (ii) have been wasting

Rule -3 l i | - since ri ni ln since i - r| li ri
ni since r has been / have been + verb - ing nii since i |
II
nd
form in| |
Examples :- (i) Mother.. (sleep) since you .. ..(go) to office.
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(ii)Rani.(sing) songs since she(take) food.
Ans:- (i) has been sleeping , went
(ii) has been singing , took
Past Indefinite
Rule 1: Yesterday, last (week, month, Year..)il i past
tense r | l i - i ri ni verb | II
nd
form in| |
Examples:-
1. she(go) to Jaipur yesterday.
2. We.(visit) the zoo last month.
Answer:- (i) went (ii) visited
Rule :2 l i past tense - i ri ni i i i past tense- ni|
Examples:-
1. Radha.(cook) and went to market.
2. When I was reading, I..(hear) a loud noise.
Answer:- (i) cooked (ii) heard
5. Past continuous
Rule: 1 l ln -ii i i- - be li ri nii i past tense - ri ni
ln -ii - Was/were ini nii verb | I
st
form - ing i n|
Examples:-
1. He(be read) a letter yesterday.
Answer:- was reading
Rule:2 l i - when ri nii when i verb | II
st
form rini i
i ln -ii - Was/were+ verb | I
st
form - ing i n|
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Examples:-
1. I.. (read) a book when sita come in.
2. My mother(wait) for me when I returned home.
Answer:- (i) was reading (ii) was waiting

Rule:3 while i Was/were+ verb | I
st
form - ing i in n|
Example-
1. The teacher come late while the students...for him.
Answer:- were waiting

7. Past Perfect
Rule:1 l i - before r had+ verb | III
rd
form rini before i
verb | II
st
form in||
Examples:-
1. My sister had cooked food before I (reach) the home.
2. The patient had died before the doctor(come).
Answer:- (i) reached (ii) came
Rule:2 l i - before i had+ verb | II
nd
form rini before r
had+verb | III
rd
form in||
Examples:-
1. My sister(cook) food before I reached the home.
2. The patient..(die) before the doctor came.
Answer;- (i) had cooked (ii) had died
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Rule:3 l i - after r verb | II
nd
form rini after i had+ verb
| III
rd
form in||
Examples:-
1. I washed my shirt after I(go) to Jaipur.
2. Rahul cooked food after seela..(write) a story.
Answer:- (i) had gone (ii) had written
Rule:4 l i - after i had ri ni after r verb | II
rd
form
in||
Examples:-
1. Sita.(go) to school after she had finished her work.
2. Rahul.(cook) food after seela had writer a story.
Answer:- (i) went (ii) cooked

8. Past perfect continuous
Rule:-1 l - r since/for ri i i -in ri ni ri ni ln -ii -
had been+verb | I
st
form+ ing in| | (l i past tense - ri )
Examples;-
1. She..(live) in this house since 1999.
2. Raju .(write) a story for two hours yesterday.
Answer;- (i) had living (ii) had writing
Rule;2 l i i l ri i l| i - - r since/for ri nii
i - verb | II
rd
form ri ni since/for r had been+verb | I
rd
form -
ing i n|
Examples:-
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1. Sita(suffer) from fever for five days when she received the
invitation.
2. Sita..(teach) in this school for ten years when I read last
year.
Answer:- (i) had been suffering (ii) had been teaching.

9. Future Indefinite
Rule:1 l i - tomorrow, next (day, weak, year, month, year,
Mondayetc) l ri ni i future tense i r|
*I we ii shall + verb | I
rd
form i i n n |
*I we i si nii ii will + verb | I
rd
form i i n n |
Examples:-
1. I.(go) to school tomorrow.
2. She (come) here on next Monday.
Answer:- (i) shall go (ii) will come


10.Future Continuous
; Tense - il - i n r | ~i | in| r|
*I we ii shall be + verb | I
rd
form+ ing i i n n |
*I we i si nii ii will be + verb | I
rd
form+ ing i
i n n |
Examples:-
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1. He.(write) a story next day.
Answer:- will writing.
11. Future perfect tense
Rule:-1l - r by ri ni ln -ii - will have/ shall have+ verb | III
rd
form+ ing in||
Examples:-
1. He..(leave) for school by 10 a.m.
2. She.(return) from jaipur by 2014.
Answer:- (i) will have left (ii) will have returned
12. Future perfect continuous
iri
i. i - future tense i r by/on i ri n r|
ii. - r since/for rin r|
iii. i - when i verb | I
rd
form ri|

Rule:-1. Will have been/ shall have been+ verb i| I
rd
form+ ing i i n n |
Example:-
1. Anita(play) football for two hours by six O clock.
2. Ramesh(live) in this house for five year by 2020.
Answer:- (i) will have been playing (ii) will have been living

Imperative sentence
iri
i. Verb | I
rd
form i i-i ri n r|
ii. Do/do not i i-i ri n r|
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iii. Please/ kindly i i-i ri n r|
Rule:-1 l i please i ri nn i l- - not+ verb | I
rd
form ri ni not r do i i n|
Example:-
1. Please(not make) a noise.
Answer:- (i) do not make
Rule:-2 Imperative sentence i i l i i i| ri ni i i -
is/am/are+ verb | I
st
form+ ing i in n |
Example:-
1. Do not get out now, the train..(move) fast.
2. Look! The man.(run) after the bus, perhaps he wants to catch it.
Answer:- (i) is moving (ii) is running

2. Modals
Modals:- Modal i n| mood i i r| Mood i i -iii i -il
ii rini r| ri li rin r| n Helping verb i ni -iii i - n
r, Modal rin r|
Modals | li ini
i. Modals i|i| r| in r main verb ii n ri n r i-n
- Helping verb rin r|
ii. Modals i r- ii verb | 1
st
form i i n rini r|

1. Can :- can i in iln, i-, i-ni i ni ii l li ini r|
able(i) Ability (i ni) , Capacity-i-ni , Power iln , strength- iln ,
Most informal request ili iil l
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Examples :- (i) I can do this work easily (capacity)
(ii) He can run fast.
(iii) My grandmother is over sixty, but she can still read without
glasses.

2. Cannot i in can ii-- - rini r|
Not allowed to ( ini r|) Not permitted to (-ln r|)
Examples: (i) Pakistan cannot attack India.
(ii) This is examination room so you cannot use mobile here.

3. Could:- can past - could i in ri ni r| l i past tense - li
ri
Past able, past ability, past capacity, past power, past strength.
Polite request (l- l) l could i i n li ini r ( l l ln
l li i ri r i -n lii ri)
Examples:- (i) I could do this work. (post capacity)
(ii) I could buy a car because I was rech.
(iii) Could I take your pen? ( polite request)
(iv) Could you help me, please.

4. May:- may i i n -iii, iii-ii, i|ii, -ln i l li
ini r|
Possible (-i), Possibility (-iii),allowed(ini i), permission(-ln),
wish(iii-i), bless(ii|i), formal permission(iil -ln),
likehood(-iii)
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Examples:
i. He may win this match. (Possibility)
ii. May you live long life.(bless)
iii. May I come in, sir? (formal permission)

* in i ii - so that ii n-i i - may i i n li ini r|
Examples:- (i). She is working hard so the she may get good marks.
(ii). There are clouds in the sky. So, it may rain today.
5.May not:- may not i i n No formal permission (i il -ln r|)
i - li ini r|
Example:- No, you may not come in. [No formal permission]
6.Might:- might, may i past i rini r| might i i n i|i -iii l
li ini r| past possibility, Remote possibility(i|i -iii)
Examples:- (i). There are not clouds in the sky. So it might rain today.
ii. He is very poor students, he might pass.

7. Must:- Must i i n ini, lini, ini, -| ii il i
n l li ini r|
Obligation (ini), necessary(i), necessity(ini), compulsory(li),
compulsion (-|)certain(lln), sure(lln), determine(lln i),
mandatory(lini), order(ii)
Examples:- (i)Student must come in uniform.
(ii)Soldiers must follow the order of the officer.
8. Must not:- must not i i n lii l li ini r|
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Prohibition (lii), not allowed(ini r| i), forbade(-i i), not
compulsory(li r|)
Examples:- (i).you have T.B. you must not smoke.
(ii).You must not walk in the middle of the road.
9. Would:- would i in l- l, ini| in l li ini r|
;i i n will past i - i| rini r|
polite request(iiii l- l ), please,kindly(ini ), past habit(past
habitual and repeated actions(ini| in)
Examples:- (i) I would swim in my childhood.
(ii)You would tell me about my child.
10. Should:- should i in ir, ni n i ii - rini r| ;i
i n shall past i - i| rini r|
advice(ir), suggestion(ni), moral duty(ln n), moral obligation(ln
ini)
Examples:- (i).You should obey your parents.
(ii).He should welcome his guest.

11. Ought to:- ought to i i n ir, ni n i ii - rini r|
advice(ir), suggestion(ni), moral duty(ln n), moral obligation(ln
ini)
Note:- l l r ln -ii n - to li ri ni i ought in n ii should
i i n n |
Golden Rule:- n i - ln -ii nn i to li ri ni i ought to i n
n|
Examples:- (i)You ought to obey your parents.
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(ii)He ought to welcome his guest.
12. Will:- will -i i - i ii ni r| ;i i n ii, i-| il
i - Future tense - I we ii li ini r|
Promise(ii), Threat(i-|)
Examples:- (i)We will do this work in favour of you.( Promise)
(ii)I will kill you, if you punish me. (threat)
13. Shall:-shall -i i - i ii ni r| shall i i n ii, i-| il
i - Future tense - I we i si li ini r|
Examples:- (i).My son shall help you in your work. (promise )
(ii).He shall kill you, if you punish me.( threat)

Exercises
Secondary Board Examination ;2012
Exercise-1 Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given blow.
(can, could, may, must, might)
(i) There are clouds in the sky. So it may rain today.
(ii) His lungs have become very weak. So he must give up smoking.
(iii) My grandmother is over sixty, but she can still read without glasses.
(iv) He belonged to a poor family therefore, he could not buy a car.

Board modal paper- 2013
Exercise:- 2 Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given blow.
(can, could, may, should, might)
(i) Raju is very intelligent he.. get I
st
Division in the board examination.
(ii) You are very weak, you.take nutricious food.
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(iii) He .play football, When he was in school.
(iv) You have completed your homework, now you.go.
Answer. (i) can (ii) should (iii) could (iv) may
Exercise:- 3 Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given blow.
(can, could, may, must, might)
(i) There are not clouds in the sky, but itrain today.
(ii) Your son has got a first position in the boards exam. He.be a
very intelligent boy.
(iii) She was a rich lady so shebuy a car for her son.
(iv) The patient is very serious. He..die at any time.
Answer (i)might (ii) must (iii) could (iv) may
Exercise:- 4 Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given blow.
(can, could, may, ought to, might)
(i) The last bus has gone, so hecome now.
(ii) ..you help me, please?
(iii) I..solve any question of this exercise
(iv) The clouds are dark, so it .rain today.
Answer. (i) might (ii) could (iii) can (iv) may

Exercise:-5 Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given blow.
(can, could, ought to, should, would )
(i) I.run fast when I was young.
(ii) You are ill. You..take rest.
(iii) She..speak Hindi well.
(iv) You..to serve your old parents.
Answer. (i) could (ii) should (iii) can (iv) ought to
Exercise:- 6 Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given blow.
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(ought to, shall, will, must, should)
(i) Youdo your duty honestly.
(ii) My son.help you.
(iii) I.help you.
(iv) Weto be a good citizen.
Answer. (i) should (ii) shall (iii) will (iv) ought to
Exercise:- 7 Fill in the blanks with suitable modals given blow.
(may, must, might, should, would)
(i) He play football in his childhood.
(ii) You.look after your old father.
(iii) Those boy.pass because they are negligent to studies.
(iv) A soldier..be in the uniform.
Answer. (i) would (ii) should (iii) might (iv)must

3. Active to passive
Rule:-1. Passive - r- ii verb | III
rd
form ni; in| r|
(i) He is reading newspaper.
(M.V.)
P= Newspaper is being read. (verb III
rd
) by him.
(ii) Are you teaching maths?
P= Is maths being taught(verb III
rd
) by you?
Rule:- 2. Passive in - helping verb i change l- ii| i ri ni:-


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Change of helping verb
S.R. Active voice Passive voice
1 Do/Does Is/ Are/Am
2 Is/ Are/Am Is/ Are/Am + Being
3 Has/Have Has/Have+ Been
4 Did Was/ Were
5 Was/ Were Was/ Were + Being
6 Had Had been
7 Shall/Will Shall / Will + Be
8 Shall Have/ Will Have Shall have / Will have +Been
9 Modal Modal + Be

Change of Helping verbs According Tense

Tense
Simple continuous Perfect
Active Passive Active Passive Active Passive

Root
Verbs
Do Be Be Be +Being Have Have+been
Present
Do-P
Does-S
Is-S
Are-P
Am-I
Is-S
Are-P
Am-I
Is+being
Are+ being
Am+ being
Have P
Has-S
Have+ been
Has+ been
Past Did
Was- S
Were-P
Was- S
Were-P
Was+Being
Were+
Being
Had Had+been
Future
Shall- I&We
Will-other
subject
Shall be

Will be
Shall
be

Will be
- -

- -
Shall
have

Will
have
Shall have
been

Will have
been

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Note :- p- plural subject
s- singular subject

Rule:- 3. Active passive in - Active subject i i - by ni passive
i object i li ini r
(i) Ramesh has prepared tea.
P- Tea has been prepared by Ramesh.
(ii) He gives me a lot more money.
P- I am given a lot more money by him.
Or
A lot more money is given to me by him.
Rule:-4. Active passive in - Active object i passive i subject i li
ini r
1. He likes tea at 4.00PM every evening.
p- Tea is liked at 4.00PM every evening by him.
2. Do you write letters?
p- Are letters written by you?
Formula:-
(1) A.V.- (S.) +M.V.+(ob.)+ Ot.?
P.V.- S(ob.)+H.V.(be)+M.V.(III)+ot+by+ob(S).
Example:-
A.V.:- I have given him a book.
P.V. :- He has been given a book by me.
Or
A book has been given to him by me.
Simple Present

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S- (S)+M.V.+(O.)
P.V.- S(O)+Is/Are/Am+M.V.(III)+by+O.(S)
N- (S)+H.V.+not+M.V.+O
P.V- S.(O)+Is/Are/Am+not+M.V.(III)+by+O.(S)
I.- H.V.+(S)+M.V.+(O)+?
P.V.- Is/Am/Are+S(O)+M.V.(III)+by+O(S)+?
I.N.- H.V.+(S)+Not+M.V.+(O)+?
P.V.- Is/Am/Are+S(O)+not+M.V.(III)+by+O(S)+?
Examples:-
1. You do not do your work.
P.- Your work is not done by you.

2. I give money to my father.
P.- Money is given to my father by me.

3. I do my duties.
P.- My duties are done by me.

4. Do you like your house?
P.- Is your house liked by you?

5. I do not know the shopkeeper.
P.- The shopkeeper is not known by me.

6. Do I not decorate the home?
P.- Is the home not decorated by me?

7. Does your father build the houses?
P.- Are the houses built by your father?

8. She prepares food for everybody in this family.
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P.- Food for everybody in this family is prepared by her.
OR
Food is prepared for everybody in this family by her.

9. Does Raman not ask his teachers some questions about national problems?
P.- Are his teachers not asked some questions about the national problems
by Raman?

10. I do not like book which was given to you.
P.- The book which was given to you is not liked by me.

11. Do you not teach them Hindi?
P.- Are they not taught Hindi by me?

12. He always reads newspaper.
P.- Newspaper is always read by him.

13. Rahul does not have the book.
P.- The book is not had by Rahul.


*Passvie in - ll-lin subject i object i r| lii ini r|
1) They
2) We
3) This..
4) That
5) These..
6) Those.
7) people
8) .person..
9) Every.
10) Some.....
11) Any
12) No one, no body
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13) Police
14) Students
15) Boys
16) Girls
17) The teachers

Examples:-
1. The teachers teach the student.
P.- The students are taught.

2. They do not ask the questions in the class room.
P.- The questions are not asked in the class room.

3. We do not say them anything.
P.- They are not said anything.

4. Every student says something about this book.
P.- Something about this book is said.

5. These boys play football at 4.30PM.
P.- Football is played at 4.30.

6. These People never cut the trees in this village.
P.- The trees are never cut in this village.
7. He does his home work.
P.- His home work is done by him.

8. Do you like mango the most/
P- Is the mango liked the must?

9. Does he not give his father some money?
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P- Is his father not given some money by him?


Present Continuous
Formula:-
P- (S)+ Is/Am/Are+ M.V. +(O)
P.V._ S.(O)+Is/Am/Are+ Being+ M.V.(III)+By+ O(S)

N.- (s)+ Is/Am/Are+ not+ M.V. +(O)
P.V. S.(O)+Is/Am/Are+ not+ Being+ M.V.(III)+By+ O(S)

I.- Is/ Am/Are+ S+ M.V.+(O)+?
P.V.- Is/ Am/Are+ S(O)+being+ M.V.(III)+by+O(S)+?

I.N.- Is/ Am/Are+ S+ not+ M.V.+(O)
P.V.- Is/ Am/Are+ S(O)+not+ being+ M.V.(III)+by+ O(S)+?

1. Am I not asking you any question?
P.- Are you not asked any question by me?

2. Are they watering the plants in the garden?
P.- Are the plants being watered in the garden?

3. I am not saying something to you.
P.- Something is not being said to you by me.

4. Are they not singing the song?
P.- Is the song not being sung?
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5. Am I not giving you money for your education?
P.- Are you not being given money for your education by me?

6. They are playing the drama for the NGO.
P.- The drama is being played for the NGO.

Present perfect Tense
Formula:-
P- (S)+Has/Have+ M.V.+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+Has/Have+ been+ M.V.(3
rd
) + by+ O(S)

N.- (S)+Has/Have+ not+ M.V.+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+Has/Have+ not+ been+ M.V.+ by+ O(S)

I- Has/have+ (S)+ M.V.+ (O)+?
P.V.- Has/have+ S(O)+Been+ M.V.+(O)+?
I.N.- Has/Have+ S(O)+not+ been+ M.V.+ by+ O(S)+?
P.V- Has/Have+ S(O)+ not+ been+ M.V.+ by+ O(S)+?
Examples:-
1. He has had this car.
P- This car has been had by him.

2. He has not had this car.
P- This car has not been had by him.

3. Has he had this car?
P- Has this car been had by him?
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4. Has he not had this car?
P- Has this car not been had by him?

5. They have refused me.
P- I have been refused.

6. I have broken this table glass.
P- This table glass has not been broken by me.

7. Have I not broken this table glass?
P-Has this table glass not been broken by me

8. She has asked everybody about her son.
P- Everybody has been asked about her son by her.





Past Simple

P- (S)+ M.V.(II)+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+ Was/Were+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

N.- (S)+Did+ not+ M.V.(I)+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+Was/Were+ not+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

I- Did+ (S)+ M.V.(I)+ (O)+?
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P.V.- Was/Were+ S(O)+ M.V(III)+ By+ O(S)+?

I.N.- Did+ (S)+not+ M.V.+ (O)+?
P.V- Was/Were+ S(O)+ not+ M.V. (III)+ by+ O(S)+?

Examples:-
1. He did not do his work.
P.V.- His work was not done by him.

Past Continuous
P- (S)+ Was/Were+ M.V.(I+ing)+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+ Was/Were+ being+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

N.- (S)+ Was/Were+ not+ M.V.(I+ing)+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+Was/Were+ not+ being+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

I- Was/Were+ (S)+ M.V.(I+ing)+ (O)+?
P.V.- Was/Were+ S(O)+ Being+ M.V.(III)+ By+ O(S)+?

I.N.- Was/Were+ (S)+not+ M.V.(I+ing)+ by+ (O)+?
P.V- Was/Were+ S(O)+ not+ being+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)+?

Past perfect
P- (S)+ Had+ M.V.(III)+(O)
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P.V.- S(o)+ Had+ Been+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

N.- (S)+ Had+ not+ M.V.(III)+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+Had + not+ been+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

I- Had+ (S)+ M.V.(III)+ (O)+?
P.V.- Had+ S(O)+ Been+ M.V.(III)+ By+ O(S)+?

I.N.- Had+ (S)+not+ M.V.(III)+ by+ (O)+?
P.V- Had+ S(O)+ not+ been+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)+?
Example:-
1. I had Taken your book.
P- Your book had been taken by me.

PAST SIMPLE TESNE
1. He did not do his work.
P-His work was not done by him.

2. They did not ask me about my brother who cut his pipeline.
P- I was not asked about my brother who cut his pipeline.

3. Did you like that book which was not available?
P- Was that book which was not available liked by you?

4. Did the blacksmith not make this cutter for the wood cutter?
P- Was this cutter not made for the wood cutter?

Past Perfect
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1. I had taken your book.
P- Your book had been taken by me.

2. Were they watering the plants?
P- Were the plants being watered?

3. Was I not asking them some question in the class room by me?
P- Were they not being asked some question in the class room by me?

4. Had you had that important shop?
P- Had that important shop been had by you?

Simple future
Formula:-
P- (S)+ Will/Shall+ M.V.+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+ Will/Shall+ Be+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

N.- (S)+ Will/Shall + not+ M.V.+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+ Will/Shall + not+ be+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)

I- Will/Shall + (S)+ M.V.+ (O)+?
P.V.- Will/Shall + S(O)+ Be+ M.V.(III)+ By+ O(S)+?

I.N.- Will/Shall + (S)+not+ M.V.+ by+ (O)+?
P.V- Will/Shall + S(O)+ not+ be+ M.V.(III)+ by+ O(S)+?
Future perfect Tense
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Formula:-
P- (S)+ Will/Shall+ have+ M.V.+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+ Will/Shall+ have+ Been+ M.V(III) + by+ O(S)

N.- (S)+ Will/Shall + not+ have+ M.V.+(O)
P.V.- S(o)+ Will/Shall +not + have + been+ M.V(III) + by+ O(S)

I- Will/Shall + (S)+ have+ M.V.+ (O)+?
P.V.- Will/Shall + S(O)+ have+ Been+ M.V(III)+ By+ O(S)+?

I.N.- Will/Shall + (S)+not+ have+ M.V.+ by+ (O)+?
P.V- Will/Shall + S(O)+ not+ have+ been+ M.V. (III)+ by+ O(S)+?
Example:-
1. I shall not ask your teacher.
P- Your teacher will not be asked by me.

2. They will not have told this man.
P- This man will not have been told.

3. Shall we not have any reason?
P- Will any reason not be had?

4. Will you have refused the king?
P- Will the King have been refused by you?

5. Will the players not play this match?
P- Will this match not be played?

6. Aadesh will not tell me the reason for not coming with me.
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P- I shall not be told the reason for not coming with me by Aadesh.

7. Hari singh will have robbed Anil till tomorrow morning.
P- Anil will have been robbed till tomorrow morning by Hari singh.
*Wh- Group i sentence i passive voice
Formula :- WH WORD+H.V+(S)+M.V+(O)?
P- WH WORD +H.V+S(O)+M.V(III)+BY+O(S)?
Examples:-
1. Why was he asking me to go out?
P- Why was I being asked to go out by him?

2. How did you get this house?
P- How was this house got by you?

3. Where is he playing the game?
P- Where is the game being played by him?

4. How are you reading the book without a good eyesight?
P- How is the book being read without a good eyesight by you?

5. How can you beat him?
P- How can he be beaten by you?

6. Why should I obey you?
P- Why should you be obeyed by me?

7. Why shall I cut this line?
P- Why will this line be cut by me?

8. Where will you arrange the party?
P- Where will the party be arranged by you?

9. When have they told you about that loss in income?
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P- When have you been told about that loss income?

10. When will you have done my work?
P- When will my work have been done by you?
Who i sentences;-
Formula:- Who+h.v.+m.v.+ ob.?
P.V.:-By whom+h.v.+s(ob.)+m.v. (III)?
1. Who can ask him?
P- By whom can he be asked?

2. Who had taken this responsibility?
P- By whom had this responsibility been taken?

3. Who is taking this book?
P- By whom is this book being taken?

4. Who will cut the line?
P- By whom will the line be cut?

Whom i sentences;-
Formula:- A.V.- Whom+ H.V.+ S.+ M.V.+ ?
P.V.- Who+ H.V.+ M.V.(III)+ By+ O(S)+?
Examples;-
1. Whom can I ask?
P- Who can be asked by me?

2. Whom have you given money?
P- Who has/have been given money by you?

3. Whom will I ask about?
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P- Who will be asked about by me?

4. Whom did he make fool?
P- Who was made fool by him?


Is /are/am/ was/were+going/coming i sentence.
Formula:-
A.V.:- (S)+is/am/are/was/were+going/coming +to+M.V.(I)+O
P.V.:- S(O)+ is/am/are/was/were+going/coming +to+be+M.V.(III)+by+ O(S)

Examples:-
1. They are going to buy this house.
P- This house is going to be brought.

2. I am coming to ask you about this matter.
P- You are coming to be asked about this matter by me.

3. The police is going to arrest the shopkeeper.
P- The shopkeeper is going to be arrested.

4. She is going to tell you something.
P- You are going to be told something by her.

5. Am I not going to give him food?
P- Is he not going to be given food by me?

6. Why are you going to test this dish?
P- Why is this dish going to be tested by you?

7. When are you going to bring the book?
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P- When is the book going to be brought by you?

Imperative Sentence i Passive Voice

(A)M.V. | I
st
form i ri i sentence

Formula:-
M.V.(I)+ Ob.
P- Let+ ob.+ be+ M.V.(III)
Examples:-
1. Print the newspaper.
P- Let the newspaper be printed.

2. Allow him to go to Jodhpur.
P- Let him be allowed to go to Jodhpur.

3. Cut down the tree.
P- Let the tree be cut down.

4. Put on your school dress.
P- Let your school dress be put on.

(B) Please/kindly M.V. | I
st
form i ri i i:-
Formula:-
Please/ kindly+ M.V.(I
st
)
P- you are requested to..
Example:-
1. Teach us please.
P- you are requested to teach.
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2. Go please.
P- You are requested to go.

3. Kindly issue me my T.C.
P- You are requested to issue me my T.C.

4. Please have seat.
P- you are requested to have seat.

5. Go away please.
P- you are requested to go away.

(C) Dont +M.V. | I
st
form i i
Sentence structure:-
A.V- Dont +M.V.(I)+ob
P.V- Let +ob. +not+ be+ M.V.(III)
Examples:-
1. Dont ask me.
P- Let me not be asked.

2. Dont allow him.
P- Let him not be allow.

3. Dont trip the lion.
P- Let the lion not be tripped.

(D) Let+ M.V.+ | I
st
form i sentences:-
A.V.- Let +ob(i)+M.V.(I)+ob(2)
P.V.- Let+ Ob(2)+ be+ M.V.(III)+to/by+ ob(i).
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Examples:-
1. Let me ask a question.
P- Let a question be asked to me.

2. Let me give money.
P- Let money be given to me.

3. Let him make a plan.
P- Let a plan be made to him.

4. Direct to Indirect

(A) Reported speech - i l positive i negative ri ni reporting verb -
l-ii change rini|
(i) Say to- tell
(ii) Says to- tells
(iii) Saying to- telling
(iv) Said to told
i r l say i to r| ri ni change r| ri ni|

(B) Inverted commas -:-
Rule:- reported speech - i l positive i negative ri ni Inverted
commas i r-i ii ii i that i i ini r|


(C) Reported speech - change:-
(I) Pronoun - i| change:-
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Rule Reported speech - i i i s
n
person pronoun - i ; change r|
rini

Example:-
(i) I am saying to you, she has given her sister the book.
(ii) I am telling you that she has given he sister the book.
Rule Speech - ii i i 1
st
person pronoun - reporting verb subject
i change rini|

Example:-
1. I have said to him,you are very good student.
I.D I have told him that he is very good student.
2. Ramesh will say to me, I will do your work.
I.D Ramesh will tell me that he shall do my work.
3. The teachers are saying to the students, You have to do yours work.
I.D The teachers are telling the students that they have to do their work.
(d) Tense -i| change
Rule:- l Reporting verb present i future rense - ri ni Reported specch tense
- i; change r| ri ni
1. I have said to Rahul, you may go.
I.D I have told Rahul that he may go.
Rule-2 l Reporting verb past tense - ri ni Reported speech tense l- ii|
i change rini
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S.R Direct Indirect
1. M.v 1
st
form M.V 2
nd
form
2. M.V 1
st
form + s/es M.V 2
nd
form
3. Do/does Did
4. Is/Are/Am Was/ were
5. Has/Have had
6. Has been/Have been Had/been
7. Did+mv1
st
form Had+m.v 3
rd
form
8. M.v 2
nd
form Had+m.v 3
rd
form
9. was/were had been
10. shall/will would
11. can could
12. may might
Examples
1. You said to me, I am going to buy yours house.
I.D You told me that you were going buy my house.
2. I said to him,you are going to play with the team.
I.D I told him that he was going to play with the team.
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3. Rakesh said to meera , you have to give her your oen.
I.D Rakesh told meera that she had to give her pen.
4. I said to him, You are looking very nice.
I.D I told hin that he was looking very nice.
5. Rakesh said to sandeep and his sister, ;You did not ask me any question.
I.D Rakesh told sandeep and his sister that they had not asked him any
question.
6. I had told her, You making me a fool,
I.D I had told her that she was making me a fool.
7. He asked me, They are cutting the card boad .
I.D He asked me that They were cutting the card-load.
8. Raman said to prem,I am not a player.
I.D Raman told prem thet he was not a player.
9. He said to me,I had a note book of you.
I.D He told me that he had had a notebook of me.
10. Rakesh told his sister, I dont want to say you any thing my alan which is
related to your mistakes.
I.D Rakesh told his sister that he didnt want to say her anything about his
plan which was related to your mistakes.
11. The class teacher said, studenrs. I knew every thing about you,
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I.D The class teacher told the students that he had known everything about
them.
12. She said, mother I want to say you some thing about my school,
I.D She told mother that she wanted to say her something about her school.
13. Niraja said to Meenakshi, I want to give you my book at your school.
I.D Niraja told at Meenakshi that she wanted to give her her book at her
school.
Note :- I.D means Indirect Speech
Interrogative Sentences
l- . l reported speech helping verb i Interrogative ri ni Reporting verb
i ask - n r nii i l if i i n li ini r|
Examples:-
1. I said to him, Are you going to jaipur.?
I.D I asked him if he was coming to Jaipur.
l- z.
Reported specch Inrerrogative sentence i positive i li ini r|
Examples:-
1. Rahul said to my mother, Did your son write the letter to your husband
before last Monday,
I.D Rahul asked my mother if her son had written the letter to her husband
before the previous Monday.
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2. He said to Ram, Do you Like this car?
I.D He asked Ram if he liked that car.
3. he said him , Are you asking this question ?
I.D I asked him if He was asking that question.
Wh-G i Inrerragative sentence
l- . Reporting verb i Reported speech i i - wh-G i i r| i-
i ni|
Examples:-
1. They said to me, when did we say some thing to this man?
I.D They asked me when they had said something to that man.
2. I told your father,why are you asking about your son ?
I.D I asked your father why he was asking me about his son.
Imperative sentences
(a) Please/kindly i I mperative Sentence
l- . Reporting verb , requested rin|, Reported Speech - please i kindly i
r-i to i i i i li ini r|
Examples:-
1. The student said to me,pleare answer my question
I.D The student requested me to answer his question.
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2. Madhu said to me, Kindly issue me my T.C.
I.D Madhu requested me to issue her T.C. .
3. The captain said to the coach,please dont arrange the extra player.
I.D The captain requested the coach not to arrange the extra player.
4. I requested him,take it without asking any thing,
I.D I requested him to take it without asking anything.
(b) dont i imperative sentences
l- - Reporting verb forlade rin|, Reparted - dont i r-i to i i
i i li ini r|
Examples:-
(1) The caption said to the coach, Dont arrange the extra player.
I.D The caption forbade the coach to arrange the extra player.
(2) She said to me, Dont cut the wire.
I.D She forbade me to cut the wire.
(3) I said to my brother, dont say me anything about your friend.
I.D I forbade my brother to say me anything about his friend
( c) M.V | 1
st
form iin i Imperative Sentences.
l- Reparting verb, Reported speech ii i change rin|, i
Reported speech i to i li ini r|
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Examples:-
1. He said to his teacher, check it ,sir
I.D He requested his teacher to check it.
2. Geeta said to her friend,Ask your mother dont ask me.
I.D Geeta advised her friend to ask her mother and forbade to ask her.
3. Ravi said to me, come inside; but dint make a noise ,
I.D Ravi ordered me to come inside but forbade to make a noise
4. I said to my students, write down the note,
I.D I ordered my students to write down the note.
5. He said to his father, Bring the book from market,
I.D He requested his father to bring the book from market.