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07/01/2013

ARQUITECTURA DE REDES QOS

REFERENCE

CISCO QoS EXAM CERTIFICATION GUIDE CCIE STUDY GUIDE End-to-End QoS NETWORK DESIGN: QUALITY OF

SERVICE IN LANs, WANs, and VPNS.


www.cisco.com

CERTIFICATIONS

CCNP SERVICE PROVIDER CCNP SERVICE PROVIDER OPERATIONS CCNP VOICE CCIE R&S/ SERVICE PROVIDER
http://www.cisco.com/go/certifications

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INTRODUCTION TO QOS
Understanding the Need for QoS

Converged Networks Converged Networks Quality Issues Available Bandwidth End to End Delay Packet Loss
Understanding QoS

QoS Defined QoS for Converged Networks QoS Requeriments QoS Traffic Classes QoS Policy

Metods for Implementing QoS

Before Converged Networks

Traditional data traffic characteristics:


Bursty data flow First-come, first-served access Mostly not time-sensitive delays OK Brief outages are survivable

After Converged Networks

Converged traffic characteristics:


Constant small-packet voice flow competes

with bursty data flow


Critical traffic must get priority Voice and video are time-sensitive Brief outages not acceptable

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Converged Networks: Quality Issues

Telephone Call: I cannot understand you; your

voice is breaking up.

Teleconferencing: The picture is very jerky.

Voice not synchronized. hours ago. Where is it?

Brokerage House: I needed that information two Call Center: Please hold while my screen refreshes.

Converged Networks: Quality Issues (Cont.)

Lack of bandwidth: Multiple flows compete for a limited

amount of bandwidth.
End-to-end delay (fixed and variable): Packets have to

traverse many network devices and links that add up to the overall delay. Variation of delay (jitter): Sometimes there is a lot of other traffic, which results in more delay. Packet loss: Packets may have to be dropped when a link is congested.

Lack of Bandwidth

Bandwidth max = min (10 Mbps, 256 kbps, 512 kbps, 100 Mbps) = 256 kbps Bandwidth avail = bandwidth max / flows
Maximum available bandwidth equals the bandwidth of the weakest link. Multiple flows are competing for the same bandwidth, resulting in much

less bandwidth being available to one single application.

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Ways to Increase Available Bandwidth

Upgrade the link: the best solution but also the most expensive. Forward the important packets first. Compress the payload of Layer 2 frames (it takes time). Compress IP packet headers.

End-to-End Delay

Delay = P1 + Q1 + P2 + Q2 + P3 + Q3 + P4 = X ms

End-to-end delay equals a sum of all propagation, processing, and queuing delays in the path. In Best-Effort networks, propagation delay is fixed, processing and queuing delays are unpredictable.

Types of Delay

Processing Delay: The time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input interface, examine it,

and put it into the output queue of the output interface


Queuing Delay: The time a packet resides in the output queue of a router Serialization Delay: The time it takes to place the bits on the wire Propagation Delay: The time it takes to transmit a packet

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Processing and Queuing Delay

Processing Delay: The time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input

interface, examine it, and put it into the output queue of the output interface
Queuing Delay: The time a packets resides in the output queue of a router Serialization Delay: The time it takes to place the bits on the wire Propagation Delay: The time it takes to transmit a packet

Types of Delay

Processing Delay: The time it takes for a router to take the packet from an input

interface, examine it, and put it into the output queue of the output interface
Queuing Delay: The time a packet resides in the output queue of a router Serialization Delay: The time it takes to place the bits on the wire Propagation Delay: The time it takes to transmit a packet

Ways to Reduce Delay

Upgrade the link; the best solution but also the most expensive. Forward the important packets first. Compress the payload of Layer 2 frames (it takes time). Compress IP packet headers.

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Packet Loss

Tail drops occur when the output queue is full. These are common drops,

which happen when a link is congested.


Many other types of drops exist, usually the result of router congestion,

that are uncommon and may require a hardware upgrade (input drop, ignore, overrun, frame errors).

Ways to Prevent Packet Loss

Upgrade the link; the best solution but also the most expensive. Guarantee enough bandwidth to sensitive packets. Prevent congestion by randomly dropping less important packets before

congestion occurs.

QoS Defined

The ability of the network to provide better or

special service to a set of users and applications to the detriment of other users and applications

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QoS for Converged Networks

Step 1: Identify Traffic and Its Requirements

Network audit
Identify traffic on the network

Business audit
Determine how each type of

traffic is important for business


Service levels required
Determine required response

time

QoS Traffic Requirements: Voice


Latency < 150 ms* Jitter < 30 ms* Loss < 1%* 17-106 kbps guaranteed priority bandwidth per call 150 bps (+ Layer 2 overhead) guaranteed bandwidth for voice-control traffic per call

*one-way requirements

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QoS Requirements: Videoconferencing

Latency 150 ms* Jitter 30 ms* Loss 1%* Minimum priority bandwidth guarantee required is: Video stream + 20% For example, a 384 kbps stream would require 460 kbps of priority bandwidth *one-way requirements

QoS Traffic Requirements: Data


Different applications have different traffic characteristics. Different versions of the same application can have different traffic characteristics. Classify data into relative-priority model with no more than four to five classes: Mission-Critical Apps: Locally defined critical applications Transactional: Interactive traffic, preferred data service Best-Effort: Internet, e-mail, unspecified traffic Less-Than-Best-Effort (Scavenger): Napster, Kazaa, peer-to-peer applications

Step 2: Divide Traffic into Classes

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Step 3: Define Policies for Each Traffic Class

Set minimum bandwidth

guarantee
Set maximum bandwidth

limits
Assign priorities to each

class
Manage congestion

QoS Policy

A network-wide definition

of the specific levels of quality of service assigned to different classes of network traffic

QoS Policy (Cont.)

Align Network Resources with Business Priorities

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Methods for Implementing QoS Policy

CLI MQC AutoQoS VoIP (voice QoS) AutoQoS Enterprise (voice, video, and data QoS) QPM (

Monitoring and Reporting with CBQoSMIB) CiscoWorks

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