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References Lee, J. R., & Nass, C. (2012, January). Distinctiveness-based stereoty e t!reat and t!

e "oderatin# ro$e of coaction conte%ts. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, Issue1, 1&2-1&&. Retrieved 'ctober 1(, 201(, fro" !tt )**"*science*artic$e* ii*,002210(111001-&. /vatars +ere used to s!o+ !o+ individua$s in "inority socia$ situations erfor" better +!en o eratin# in a coo erative, rat!er t!an co" etitive, environ"ent. 0!e resu$ts s!o+ed better e"otiona$ as +e$$ as syc!o$o#ica$ effects. /nderson, ,. (2010, Ju$y 21). 10 2ays to use avatars in education . Digital learning environments: ools an! technologies for effective classrooms. Retrieved 'ctober 1(, 201(, fro" !tt )**+++.#uide2di#ita$$"*teac!in#3$earnin#*103+ays3use3avatars3educatio n 0!is brief #uide e% $ains various +ays virtua$ individua$s can be used to resent infor"ation or en#a#in# interaction to $earnin# e% eriences. /$t!ou#! t!is is "ain$y for students, it deserves notice for t!e sur rise va$ue in #ainin# t!e interest of adu$ts as +e$$. 4eaudin, 4. 5., & 6uic7, D. (1&&8). 9nstructiona$ :ideo ;va$uation 9nstru"ent. Journal of Extension, "4((). Retrieved ,e te"ber 22, 201(, fro" !tt )**+++.<oe.or#*<oe*1&&8<une*a1. ! 0!e reco""endations in t!is a er are fro" ear$ier days of distance education rovided t!rou#! t!e =.,. Coo erative ;%tension syste". 0!e ite"s are derived fro" ot!er researc! and co" i$ed into an instru"ent t!at is intended to be used by decision"a7ers +it!in ;%tension to eva$uate t!e desi#n and >ua$ity of "u$ti-"edia roducts +it! otentia$ to be used in t!e fie$d as educationa$ resources. 4roo7s-?oun#, ,. (2002). ,tandard :) /ssess"ent and eva$uation. #a$ing technology stan!ar!s %or$ for you (,econd edition ed., . 211). ;u#ene, 'R) 9nternationa$ ,ociety for 0ec!no$o#y in ;ducation. Retrieved 'ctober 1(, 201(, fro" !tt )**+++.iste.or#*docs*e%cer ts*@/0;C2-e%cer t. df 0!is is a #uide for sc!oo$ ad"inistrators to use in t!e rocess of inte#ratin# tec!no$o#y use. 0!e section cited refers to encoura#in# t!e effective use of tec!no$o#y by teac!ers in t!eir dai$y ractice. ,taff s!ou$d beco"e roficient in findin# and usin# t!e a ro riate di#ita$ too$s for t!eir rofession. Co" arison of iN/C'L nationa$ standards for >ua$ity on$ine courses (2011) and t!e >ua$ity "atters A-12 secondary rubric. (n.d.). &uality matters program. Retrieved Nove"ber (0, 201(, fro" !tt s)**+++.>ua$ity"atters.or#*sites*defau$t*fi$es*iN/C'L6@ B20/$i#n"ent. df / ro#ra" and rubric to aid in t!e creation of on$ine instruction are rovided !ere to a$i#n $essons +it! t!e standards of t!e 9nternationa$ /ssociation for A-12 'n$ine Learnin# (iN/C'L). 0!e "ateria$ is rovided co""ercia$$y but bears attention for "otivated, out-sourced rofessiona$ deve$o "ent of researc!-based ractices in ub$ic education. Cono$e, C., Ca$$ey, R., & Cu$ver, J. (2011). Dra"e+or7s for understandin# t!e nature of interactions, net+or7in#, and co""unity in a socia$ net+or7in# site for acade"ic ractice . International 'evie% of 'esearch in (pen an! Distance )earning, 1*((), 1121(1. Retrieved Nove"ber (0, 201(, fro"

!tt )**+++.irrod$.or#*inde%. ! *irrod$*artic$e*vie+*&1E*1121 Researc!ers !ere studied t!e +ay t!at eo $e and tec!no$o#y !ave evo$ved syner#istica$$y. , ecific tec!no$o#y is ubi>uitous in "odern institutions +!ic! individua$s t!en use in a ersona$iFed fas!ion and in so doin# c!an#e revious +ays of o eratin# t!eir $ives. 'ne +ay t!is rocess is described !ere, fro" revious researc!, is t!e /ctor-Net+or7 0!eory (/N0) +!ic! resents eac! !u"an and non-!u"an interactive node in t!is connectivis" conce t as connectin# +it! ot!ers t!rou#! t!e net+or7ed infor"ation for s!ared $earnin# o ortunities. Don7or, D. (2011). /ssess"ent of $earner acce tance and satisfaction +it! video-based instructiona$ "ateria$s for teac!in# ractica$ s7i$$s at a distance. he International 'evie% of 'esearch in (pen an! Distance )earning, 1*(G), -E-&2. Retrieved Nove"ber (0, 201(, fro" !tt )*** $i* resentations*5erLearn5a er. df 0!is +as a study of !o+ $earners fe$t about usin# a video $esson to $earn a s7i$$, s ecifica$$y b$oc7-$ayin#, t!at !ad for"er$y been offered on$y in rint. 0!e over-a$$ resu$ts +ere ositive in res ondin# to a se$f-ad"inistered >uestionnaire. 9te"s inc$uded severa$ erceived as ects of t!e e% erience) usefu$nessH ease of useH intention to useH and actua$ use. Donseca, L. (2011). ;duCa" Co$o"bia) socia$ net+or7ed $earnin# for teac!er trainin#. International 'evie% of 'esearch in (pen an! Distance )earning, 1*((), 80--&. Retrieved Nove"ber (0, 201(, fro" !tt )**+++.irrod$.or#*inde%. ! *irrod$*artic$e*vie+*11E*112G 0!is a er is an account of a +or7s!o set u by t!e t!e Co$o"bian #overn"ent to a$$o+ educators to e% erience $earnin# about tec!no$o#y too$s in an o en and co$$aborative ersona$ $earnin# environ"ent (5L;). 0!is a$$o+ed t!e" to see !o+ students can $earn +it!out !avin# an instructor orc!estratin# every nuance of a course. Co$$aboration ca"e about by identifyin# and $abe$in# eo $e +it! stic7ers as resources for infor"ation on s ecific e$ectronic too$s (5C 8G) +!ic! t!ey +ere ob$i#ed to t!en s!are. ,ince eac! artici ant !ad a $a to , t!is infor"ation +as t!en rocessed by t!e $earner in so"e +ay +!ic! in turn earned an ac!ieve"ent stic7er. 0!e study is not on$y uni>ue but +as "ade avai$ab$e in severa$ for"ats inc$udin# an @5( recordin#, as +ere ot!ers fro" t!is <ourna$. Doster, J. C. (201(, Nov. - Dec.). 0!e ro"ise of di#ita$ bad#es. echni+ues, 88,8, (0-(E. Retrieved Nove"ber (0, 201(, fro" !tt )**"*y#sre rints*/C0;*#(-(103acte3novdec201(*I*(0 9n t!e evo$vin# rocess of education a syste" of reco#niFin# 7no+$ed#e ac>uisition is bein# created usin# di#ita$ bad#es - icons re resentative of s ecific 7no+$ed#e or s7i$$s. 0!e syste" invo$ves a re utab$e institution +!ic! issues t!e bad#es for docu"ented co" etency to $earners +!ic! is t!en stored and ub$is!ed e$ectronica$$y. 0!e /ssociation for Career and 0ec!nica$ ;ducation (/C0;) ro"otes t!ese bad#es as t!ey are easi$y verifiab$e, convenient$y "ana#ed, identify ro#ress a$on# career at!s, and rovide o en, s!ared infor"ation. @ayer, R. ;., & @oreno, R. (200(). Nine +ays to reduce co#nitive $oad in "u$ti"edia $earnin#. E!ucational Psychologist, "8(1), E(-G2. Retrieved Nove"ber 18, 201(, fro" !tt )**e!is.ebsco!".eF*e!ost* dfvie+er* dfvie+erJ sidK1c--11bE-fEEb-E8Gd-bd(e-(b(112d8d8(cBE0session"#r111&vidKG&!idK11G 0!e ter" "u$ti"edia is first defined !ere for $earnin# and instruction as t!e use of

bot! ictures and +ords for instruction. 0!ere is no "ention of sound besides t!e s o7en +ord, a$t!ou#! t!at !as beco"e increasin#$y used as +e$$. 9nstruction is defined as t!e +ay !u"ans or#aniFe ne+ infor"ation +it! res ect to t!at +!ic! +as revious$y stored by +ay of "enta$ "ode$s. 0!e discussion addresses "enta$ over$oad issues created in "u$ti"edia instruction suc! as t!e s $it-attention effect +!en bot! te%t and narration are resented +it! an i"a#e. /not!er +ay to reduce co#nitive $oad offered !ere is re-trainin# +!ere t!e $earner is rovided +it! e$e"ents of t!e $earnin# tas7 rior to t!e resentation +!ic! t!en beco"e art of t!e +or7in# 7no+$ed#e and are not a"on# t!e ne+ conce ts bein# introduced in t!e video. '7ita, ,. ?., 0ur7ay, ,., Ai", @., & @urai, ?. (201(, / ri$). Learnin# by teac!in# +it! virtua$ eers and t!e effects of tec!no$o#ica$ desi#n c!oices on $earnin#. -omputers . E!ucation, /", 1-8-1&8. Retrieved 'ctober 1(, 201(, fro" !tt )**"*science*artic$e* ii*,0(801(1G120021&1 Researc!ers !ere !ad severa$ !y ot!eses in "ind to see !o+ individua$s usin# avatars in ,econd Life $earned a sub<ect better. 'ne su orted conce t +as t!at teac!in# and observin# anot!er individua$ !e$ ed "ore t!an studyin# a$one, +atc!in# so"eone e$se $earn, or t!e avai$abi$ity of desi#n c!oices. 5aas, D., Ren7$, /., & ,+e$$er, J. (2010, June 1). Co#nitive $oad t!eory and instructiona$ desi#n) Recent deve$o "ents. E!ucational Psychologist, "8011, 1-E. Retrieved Nove"ber 18, 201(, fro" !tt )**cis."s<*evoc*8(-*References*5assCo#nitiveLoad0!eory/nd9D. df 0!is is an overvie+ of researc! t!at +as conducted in t!e ear$y t+enty-first century to increase 7no+$ed#e in t!e area of !o+ $earnin# occurs. 9t be#ins +it! a brief !istory of t!e study in t!e fie$d of co#nitive $oad t!eory (CL0) in t!e 1&10Ls +it! t!e identification of t!e increasin#$y co" $e% $eve$s of "enta$ activity invo$ved in $earnin#. 0!e discussion t!en roceeds to !o+ t!e "ore si" $e e$e"ents beco"e or#aniFed in t!e brain, ca$$ed !u"an co#nitive arc!itecture, in order to for" sc!e"as of !o+ to coordinate t!e e$e"ents to+ard an intended ur ose. 6i, @., & 4oy$e, 0. (2010). Di"ensions of cu$tura$$y sensitive factors in t!e desi#n and deve$o "ent of $earnin# ob<ects. Journal of Interactive #e!ia in E!ucation, *212 (, ecia$ issue on o en educationa$ resources). Retrieved ,e te"ber 1G, 201(, fro" !tt )**+++-<i"e.o*artic$e*2010-8* df 0!is a er dea$s +it! t!e concern of cu$tura$ sensitivity in t!e desi#n of e$ectronic educationa$ ite"s so t!at t!ey +i$$ be usab$e in "ore circu"stances. 0!e four sensitive areas considered are) 7no+$ed#eH eda#o#yH accessH and tec!no$o#y. 6ua$ity "atters rubric standards 2011- 201( edition +it! assi#ned oint va$ues. (n.d.). &uality matters program . Retrieved Nove"ber (0, 201(, fro" !tt s)**+++.>ua$ity"atters.or#**$ayout-1*do+n$oad*6@B2G20,tandardsB2G202011201(-E. df 0!is is a co""ercia$$y roduced rubric for eva$uatin# on$ine rofessiona$ deve$o "ent ro#ra"s. 0!e co" u$sory to ics inc$ude) introductory infor"ationH intended outco"esH "eans of eva$uationH instructiona$ ob<ectsH co""unityH tec!no$o#yH su ortH and acco""odations. 0!ese are +ei#!ted on a 1-( oint sca$e of va$ue rovidin# #uide$ines for creatin# ne+ or assessin# e%istin# on$ine ro#ra"s. Run!aar, 5., Aoner"ann, J., & ,anders, A. (201(). 0eac!ersL or#aniFationa$ citiFens!i be!aviour) Considerin# t!e ro$es of t!eir +or7 en#a#e"ent, autono"y and $eader-

"e"ber e%c!an#e. eaching an! eacher E!ucation, "2, &&-101. Retrieved 'ctober 1E, 201(, fro" !tt )**"*science*artic$e* ii*,0-E20G1.12001GE0 0!is study of 211 teac!ers s!o+ed t!at t!e "ore invo$ved teac!ers are in t!eir +or7, t!e "ore !e$ fu$ t!ey are +it!in t!e or#aniFation. 0!e sense of autono"y in effective$y teac!in# students !as been under"ined in recent years +it! increasin# e%terior de"ands "ade u on t!e" fro" detac!ed entities suc! as #overnin# bodies. ,7aa$vi7, ;. @., & ,7aa$vi7, ,. (200&). Does sc!oo$ conte%t "atterJ Re$ations +it! teac!er burnout and <ob satisfaction. eaching an! eacher E!ucation, *3((), G11-G2E. Retrieved 'ctober 1E, 201(, fro""*science*artic$e* ii*,0-E20G1.0100218( 0!is study +as of a $ar#e o u$ation of bot! "idd$e sc!oo$ and e$e"entary teac!ers. 0!e conte%t of t!eir e" $oy"ent +as ana$yFed +it! t!ree as ects of burnout co""on to t!is rofession) e"otiona$ e%!austion, de ersona$iFation, and reduced ersona$ #oa$-satisfaction. 0+o di"ensions of t!e +or7 $ace +ere autono"y and autono"y ti"e ressure for +!ic! it is su##ested t!at Measy to useM "easures be deve$o ed. ,oft+are & 9nfor"ation 9ndustry /ssociation. (2010, Nove"ber). Innovate to E!ucate: System 4'e5Design for Personali6e! )earning7 8 'eport from the *212 Symposium. 9n co$$aboration +it! /,CD and t!e Counci$ of C!ief ,tate ,c!oo$ 'fficers. 2as!in#ton, DC. /ut!or) @ary /nn 2o$f. Retrieved on 11*(0*201( fro" !tt )*** $i* resentations*5erLearn5a er. df 0!is re ort is t!e resu$t of a sy" osiu" on education refor" in 4oston a"on# re resentatives fro" t!e ,oft+are & 9nfor"ation 9ndustry /ssociation (,99/), a non rofit educators association, /,CD, and t!e Counci$ of C!ief ,tate ,c!oo$ 'fficers. 9t +as dee"ed i" erative t!at education evo$ve to ersona$iFe $earnin# +!ic! is current$y ossib$e t!rou#! tec!no$o#y. Dive e$e"ents of t!is custo"iFation are) ti"e f$e%ibi$ityH redefined teac!er ro$esH $earnin# t!rou#! doin#H student-driven e% eriencesH and ro#ression t!rou#! e%!ibited "astery. 0!ese refer to t!e entire $earnin# rocess fro" #oa$-creation, to referred $earnin# e% eriences, a$$ t!e +ay t!rou#! assess"ents. /"on# t!e issues raised by suc! a syste" t!at +i$$ need to be addressed is t!e +ays and "eans of accreditin# t!e $earnin# acco" $is!ed. ,out! Caro$ina ,tate Library - /i7en County. (n.d.). South -arolina State )i9rary : home. Retrieved 'ctober 1(, 201(, fro" !tt )**+++.state$*ai7en-county / brief but rat!er co" re!ensive !istory of t!e city and county of /i7en are rovided. 0!e reco$$ection be#ins in 11-1 and conc$udes in "ore recent events inc$udin# t!e deve$o "ent of t!e ,avanna! River ,ite, for nuc$ear researc! and deve$o "ent, and t!e $oca$ ca" us of t!e =niversity of ,out! Caro$ina. ,tur#is, C., & 5atric7, ,. (n.d.). 2!en success is t!e on$y o tion) Desi#nin# co" etency-based at!+ays for ne%t #eneration $earnin#. i;8-(). Retrieved Nove"ber (0, 201(, fro" !tt )**+++.inaco$.or#*c"s*+ -content*u $oads*2012*0&*iN/C'L3,uccess'n$y' tn. df 0!e insi#!t rovided !ere is tar#eted ri"ari$y at at-ris7 $earners identified as a $ar#e ortion of on$ine $earners due to t!eir needs to co" $ete educationa$ re>uire"ents. 0!e study is t!e resu$t of an effort bet+een t!e non- rofit 9nternationa$ /ssociation for A12 'n$ine Learnin# and t!e socia$$y-conscious investor, @etisNet. 0!e instructiona$ desi#n rinci $es advocated for creatin# a co" etency-based $earnin# rocess are) advance"ent u on successfu$ "astery +!ic! is not ti"e-basedH e" o+erin# students t!rou#! rovidin# t!e abi$ity to identify t!e conce ts and $eve$s of t!eir $earnin# fro"

different entry ointsH and t!at assess"ent is a ositive deve$o "enta$ e% erience su orted by t!e state and $oca$ co""unities. /$so cited are otentia$ issues surroundin# >ua$ity, $o#istics, and on-#oin# su ort. 0!is student-centered a roac! is ro osed to deve$o $ife-$on# $earners and co""unity assets of a$$ students. :o$"er, J., , ur7, D., & Niessen, C. (2012). Leader-"e"ber e%c!an#e (L@.), <ob autono"y, and creative +or7 invo$ve"ent. he )ea!ership &uarterly, *"((), 5a#es EG8-E8G. Retrieved 'ctober 12, 201(, fro" !tt )**"*science*artic$e* ii*,10E1&1E(110018(& 0!is study $oo7ed at t!e effect of su ervisory re$ations!i s and autono"y on t!e creativity of e" $oyees. 9t +as found t!at t!ere +as a #reater ositive effect in t!e creativity and inter ersona$ do"ain +!en e" $oyees e% erienced a #reater de#ree of se$f-deter"ination in t!eir tas7s. 2anous, J. 5., & Reic!ers, /. ;. (2000). Ne+ e" $oyee orientation ro#ra"s. <uman 'esource #anagement 'evie%, 12(E), E(G-EG1. Retrieved 'ctober 1(, 201(, fro" !tt )**"*science*artic$e* ii*,10G(E12200000(G1 0!e idea t!at orientation ro#ra"s, as cited bein# used by a "a<ority of or#aniFations, are i" ortant for decreasin# t!e stress for ne+ e" $oyees of not 7no+in# <ob e% ectations. 0!is is re$ated a$beit se arate fro" socia$iFation in a ne+ settin# in t!at orientation #enera$$y occurs +it!in a s!orter eriod of ti"e and is direct$y re$ated to <ob erfor"ance. 8P8 formatting 9y =i9#e>org>