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Understand your System

Planning & Process Tools

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Specific Topics
Septic Tanks


Implementation tools

W astewater Treatment

(Semi-)Centralised W astewater Treatments

Implementation Tools Introduction Water Sources Water Purification Water Distribution Water Use Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Reuse and Recharge

Septic Tanks
Compiled by: Dorothee Spuhler (seecon international gmbh)

Related Topics
Sustainable Sanitation Grasp what Sustainable Sanitation actually means: Sustainable Sanitation Health and Hygiene Background information on health and hygiene issues of water management and sanitation. Health and Hygiene Issues Anaerobic Digestion If septic tanks are closed and biogas recovered, they become anaerobic biogas settlers: Biogas Settler Anaerobic Digestion (General) Toilet Systems Septic tank typically collect blackwater from:pour-flush; flush toilet; UD flush; low flush Pour-Flush Toilet Flush Toilet Low-flush Toilet Urine Diversion Flush Toilet Effluent Infiltration The effluent can either be infiltrated on-site or reused for fertigation, if is not heavely polluted. Check out: Soak Pits Leach Fields Fertigation

Executive Summary
A septic tank is an underground watertight chamber made of brick work, concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic that receives both blackwater from cistern or pour-flush toilets and greywater through a pipe from inside a building. Settling and anaerobic digestion reduce solids and organics. Septic tanks are primary treatment methods, and the only moderately treated effluent is infiltrated into the ground or transported via a sewer. Accumulating faecal sludge needs to be dug out the chamber and correctly disposed regularly.
In Blackwater, Brownwater, Excreta, (Organic Solid Waste) Out Blackwater (settled), Faecal Sludge, (Biogas )

The septic tank is the most common small-scale decentralised treatment unit for grey water and blackwater from cistern or pour-flush toilets . It is basically a sedimentation tank (physical treatment) in which settled sludge (solids and organics ) is stabilised by anaerobic digestion (biological treatment). Dissolved and suspended (unsettleable) matter leaves the tank more or less untreated. Its shape can be rectangular or cylindrical. Septic tanks are used for wastewater with a high content of settleable solids, typically for effluent from domestic sources, but they are also suitable for other wastewater of similar properties (SASSE 1998). Typical basic systems including septic tanks at household or school level are pour flush toilets , followed by two-chamber septic tanks and a soak pit, a leach field, or an evapo-transpiration mound ( In densely populated areas, onsite infiltration should not be used because the saturation of the soil with the only moderately treated effluent can cause a serious health risk. In these cases, septic tanks should be connected to a simplified sewer or solids-free sewer to transport the effluents to a secondary treatment (e.g. surface flow, horizontal or vertical flow constructed wetlands ). When septic tanks are used as a primary settling treatment in DEWATS systems, they are generally followed by anaerobic filters, anaerobic baffled reactors (ABRs), constructed wetlands (planted gravel filters) and maturation ponds . In any case, water is needed to pour and bring the wastes to the septic tank (5 to 40 L of water per day per person, DFID 2003).

Faecal Sludge Sludge that has been presettled in septic tanks is called faecal sludge. It is still contains a lot of pathogenes and needs to be treated before reuse. See also: Anaerobic Digestion (General) Drying Beds Settling / Thickening Ponds (Co-)composting (Large-scale)

Overview scheme of a septic tank. Solids settle out and undergo anaerobic digestion, the effluent

as active solids that are not completely fermented leave the tank (SASSE 1998). transforming it into CO2 and CH4 (biogas ) and some heat. Source: adapted from TILLEY et al. 2008). The tank functions like a septic tank. The effluent usually infiltrates into the ground through a soak pit and accumulated solids (sludge) must be removed frequently (WHO 1992). Septic tank receiving black. is to prevent scum and solids from escaping with the effluent (TILLEY et al. 40 to 60% of TSS (Total Suspended Solids ) (UNEP 2004) and result in an abatement of 1 log units E. 2008). gases can escape from the septic tank along the drains. 2008). the amount of water used per capita.cfm? page_id=265 (left) and SANIMAS (2005) (right).gov/owm/septic/septic. the lower arm of which dives 30 cm below water level (SASSE 1998).and grey water from a housing (left) and a septic tank collecting wastewater from several housing as a primary treatment before a small bore sewer system (right). because most of the sludge accumulates here (SASSE 1998). the chambers are all of the same depth (between 1. an exercise is given in Eawag/Sandec (2008. EPA (n. particularly when the flow is turbulent. In any case.S. the degradation of suspended and dissolved solids starts more quickly. the accumulating sludge must be treated. the average annual temperature and on desludging intervals (SASSE A septic tank as primary treatment. Prefabricated concrete rings. but most countries provide a national standard for tank volume per domestic user.5 to 2.y. A T -shaped outlet pipe. but also less suspended solids leave the tank. If the drainage system is not ventilated. If the drainage system of the house or other building has a ventilation pipe at the upper end.) 100 L should be provided per domestic user (SASSE 1998).with suspended and dissolved pollutants flows through. anaerobic bacteria and microorganisms start to digest the settled sludge anaerobically. but sometimes the first chamber is made deeper as the others. For help on dimensioning of septic tank. The sludge volume depends on different factors: the number of users. 1998). the first one should be 2/3 of the total length (TILLEY et al. The first compartment occupies at least the half the total volume. the portion of settleable solids of the influent. 2008) although efficiencies vary greatly depending on the influent concentrations and climatic conditions. followed by a leach field. Excreta drop directly into the tank through a pipe. A venting pipe can evacuate the biogas formed during anaerobic digestion. Biological treatment by anaerobic digestion is optimised by a quick and intensive contact between the new inflow and old sludge. mosquitoes and smell (WHO 1992). The baffle. however. while scum (oil and fat) floats to the top. When there are only two chambers. With a turbulent flow. The size of the first chamber is calculated to be at least twice the accumulating sludge volume. Depending on the way the new influent flows through the tank. Normally. Exercise Septic Tank) and Excel spreadsheets are available in SASSE (1998). different treatment effect predominate. Aqua privy The aqua privy is a variation of the septic tank and consists of a simple storage and settling tank immediately under the latrine floor. Sources: http-//cfpub. coli (a faecal indicator bacteria) (TILLEY et al. more suspended solids are discharged with the effluent. Optimal physical treatment by sedimentation takes place when the flow is smooth and undisturbed. The retention time should be designed for 48 hours to achieve at least a moderate treatment (TILLEY et al. PVC or fibreglass septic tanks are also available and may be less expensive in some contexts (WSP 2008). . The bottom of the pipe is submerged in a liquid in the tank. ABOUT USER MANUAL CREDITS PARTNERS Treatment Process and Basic Design Principles SSWM COURSES LIBRARY GLOSSARY KEY RESOURCES FAQ CONTACT TRAIN THE TRAINERS A septic tank consists at minimum of 2 compartments made out of concrete or bricks. The contact and hence degradation is slower when the flow is less turbulent. A septic tank will remove 30 to 50% of BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand). The following chamber(s) are provided to calm the turbulent liquid. (2008). Over time. a screened vent pipe should be provided from the septic tank itself (WHO 1992).epa. forming a water seal to prevent escape of flies. Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT ) are generally 24 hours (MOREL & DIENER 2006). The gases produced during anaerobic digestion must be allowed to escape. This leads to bad odours. Approximately 80 to Source: U. or the separation between the chambers. Sanitation Systems and Technologies. will further reduce the scum and solids that are discharged.5 m).

gas produced in anaerobic digestion could escape and therefore. This is an unpleasant work and care must be taken to ensure that sludge is not spilled around the tank during emptying. Mechanical emptying in a vacuum truck or a manual technology like a sludge gulper can decrease the health risks (TILLEY et al. which can be a potential source of infection (WHO 1992). Because of the delicate ecology. Generally. But because of the microbial health risk which arises from both the effluent and the faecal sludge care should be taken during inspections and emptying. At a Glance Basically a sedimentation tank (physical treatment) in which settled sludge is stabilised by anaerobic digestion (biological treatment). as the removed sludge from a septic tank includes fresh excrete and presents a risk of transmission of diseases of faecal origin (TILLEY et al. 2008). Health Aspects Since the effluent from septic tanks is anaerobic. Before that. Not adapted for areas with high groundwater table or prone to Working Principle Capacity/Adequacy . If a vacuum tanker is not available. septic tanks can also be used for industrial wastewater. Depending on the following treatment. Dissolved and suspended matter leaves the tank more or less untreated. Engineers must prepare design and layout.g. open fire should be avoided when opening the septic tank. Operation and Maintenance To start up a septic tank it should be "seeded" with sludge from a tank that has been operating for some time to ensure that the necessary microorganisms responsible for anaerobic digestion are present (WHO 1992). The separated effluents from these systems should be treated in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) or constructed wetlands (surface flow.and blackwater. small or large scale composting . while unskilled labourers can carry out construction if a mason supervises the work. Source: WAaF (2002) Costs considerations Construction costs of septic tank are relatively low compared to other water based systems. One of the difficulties with septic tanks is that when the tank is almost full of solids. The most satisfactory method of sludge removal is by vacuum tanker. They also require sufficient piped water to flush all the wastes through the drains and manual or mechanical (vacuum or gulper) de-sludging needs to be done periodically. When opening the tank. A small amount of sludge should be left in the tank to ensure continuing rapid digestion. 2008). to ensure that there are no blockages at the inlet or outlet and to check whether de-sludging is needed. Primary treatment for domestic grey. the inflow scours a channel through the sludge and pass through the tank in a matter of minutes rather than remaining in the tank for the required retention time (SASSE 1998). anaerobic digestion). 2008). However. care should also be taken not to discharge harsh chemicals into the septic tank (TILLEY et al. De-sludging is needed when 1/2 to 2/3 of the total depth between the water level and the bottom of the tank are occupied by sludge and scum (WHO 1992). 2008). However. septic tanks should be emptied every 1 to 5 years.Toilet with aqua privy and soak pit. the faecal sludge can also be further separated from the liquid in drying beds or settling . it is likely to contain large numbers of pathogens . horizontal or vertical flow). Regular de-sludging activities require well-organised community or public/private service provider (TILLEY et al. Routine inspection is necessary to remove floating debris such as coarse materials and grease. Household and community level. the sludge must be bailed out manually using buckets or a gulper. The faecal sludge needs to be correctly disposed and further treated (e. the entire tank is below the surface so direct contact of users with any wastewater is avoided (TILLEY et al. Many of the problems with septic tank systems arise because no adequate consideration is given to the disposal of the tank effluent. 2008). they are much more expensive than for dry or composting toilets and unlikely to be affordable by poorer people in society.

low operation and maintenance costs depending on the availability of water and the requirement for emptying No energy required Disadvantages High cost compared to dry or composting toilet systems Constant and sufficient amounts of piped water required to bring the waste to the treatment unit Low reduction in pathogens. Effluent and sludge require further treatment. Septic tanks are used for wastewater with a high percentage of settleable solids. 2008). Advantages Can be built and repaired with locally available materials No real problems with flies or odours if used correctly Long service life Little space required due to underground construction Low investment costs. BOD: 30 to 50%. 2008). coli: 1 log units HRT : about 1 day Low-cost. wastewater flows through without being treated. the effluents should not be infiltrated but the septic tank may be integrated as individual pre-treatment units for a community into a small bore sewer system transporting the wastewaters to a secondary treatment. Aqua privies can be built indoors and above ground and are appropriate for rocky or flood prone areas where pits or other technologies would not be appropriate. while mechanical cleansing (vacuum trucks) requires sophisticated instruments References EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. block or school level (UNEP 2004). Sludge needs to be dug out every 1 to 5 years and discharged properly (e. In more dense areas. Long start-up phase. onsite treatment system at household. but can be constructed with locally available material. Exercises: Septic Tank. solids and organics: Secondary treatment for both effluent and faecal sludge required De-sludging required: Manual de-sludging is hazardous to health and mechanical desludging (vacuum trucks) requires the infrastructure and may be rather costly Only suitable for low-density housing in areas with low water table and not prone to flooding Manual cleaning of the tank is highly hazardous and an inhumane task. TSS: 40 to 60 %. E. Generally good resistance to shock loading. a leach field or mounds. Simple to construct and to operate. They can be introduced as a decentralized. Should be checked for water tightness. although the efficiency will be affected in colder climates (TILLEY et al. 2008). typically for effluent from domestic sources (SASSE 1998). it should not be constructed in areas with high groundwater tables or where there is frequent flooding (TILLEY et al. Requires expert design. in composting or drying bed).flooding. Effluents still contain pathogens and should therefore not be used for crop irrigation nor should it be discharged to canals or surface water drains (WHO 1992). Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag). When not regularly emptied. depending on availability of materials and frequency of de-sludging.g. scum and sludge levels regularly. PDF . Needs to be vented. Even though the septic tank is watertight. Effluents form septic tanks can be soil infiltrated in soak pits. but they require frequent emptying and constant maintenance (TILLEY et al. Performance Costs Self-help Compatibility O&M Reliability Main strength Main weakness Ads not by this site Applicability Septic tanks can be installed in every type of climate. Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec).

Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). Office of Water Office of Research and Development. . Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG). URL [Accessed: 14. the use of local resources. PDF This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. EPA (Editor) (n. URL [Accessed: 18.2012]. URL [Accessed: 16. MOREL.04.04. Construction. PDF SANIMAS (Editor) (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue.03. Vienna: Ecosan Club. in-depth technical information on the design. PDF SASSE. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (WAaF). URL [Accessed: 19.01.. PDF This manual provides information on functionality of septic systems containing the modules septic tank and leach field and addresses the user at the household level. Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. C. the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs). Duebendorf and Geneva: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG). GTZ and GATE.05.): Planning for Septic Systems . E. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO). Washington: Water and Sanitation Program. Coordination Office.2010].. A. PDF WHO (Editor) (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. PDF MOREL. BORDA and USAID. L. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA).05... Oxon and London: HR Wallingford and Department for International Development (DFID).02. URL [Accessed: 04. SCHERTENLEIB.. URL [Accessed: 18. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries. Ads not by this site WHO (Editor) (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation.1970]. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO). C. Review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. Washington.U. Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. and manpower. D.y.2011]. ECOSAN CLUB (Editor) (2012): Faecal Sludge Management.. S. A. Emphasis is given to household-level sanitation improvements for urban areas. maintenance and operation are described.2010]. LUETHI. URL [Accessed: 14. BORDA (Editor) (1998): DEWATS . PDF TILLEY. PDF DFID (Editor) (2003): Handbook for the Assessment of Catchment Waster Demand and Use.2010]. as well as rural areas and small communities.. knowledge.2010].S.2011]. PDF Further Readings Ads not by this site IDAHO DEQ (Editor) (2001): A Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems. PDF See document in FRENCH UNEP (Editor) (2004): Improving Municipal Wastewater Management in Coastal Cities. PDF The publication presents appropriate technologies for sanitation and highlights socio-economic aspects of planning and implementing.. construction. URL [Accessed: 15. A Guide to DecisionMaking. DIENER. PDF WSP (Editor) (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. Background information on sanitation. URL [Accessed: 26.10. pdf presentation. Cameroon. ZURBRUEGG. operation and . Additionally. BAU. URL [Accessed: 01.2010].C.2010]. NATURGERECHTE TECHNOLOGIEN. Boise: Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDAHO DEQ). pdf presentation.: United States Environmental Protection Agency. PDF WAaF (Editor) (2002): Sanitation Technology Options. PDF Different operation and maintenance options are presented with respect to sustainable plant operation. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA). R.01.UND WIRTSCHAFTSBERATUNG (TBW) GmbH (Editor) (2001): Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Methods for Developing Countries .Use of Online Decentralized Systems in Developing Areas .01.

construction aspects and operational guidelines for anaerobic reactors. The fundamentals of anaerobic treatment are presented in detail. J.10. WSP (Editor) (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Développement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarité Eau (pS-Eau). PDF These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. MONVOIS. Ads not by this site WSP (Editor) (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. PDF Anaerobic Reactors is the forth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. PDF The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program. FRENOUX. nutrient removal as well as wastewater segregation and recycling are given..A. C.. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA). PDF This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers. pdf presentation. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics. pdf presentation. M. de (2007): Anaerobic Reactors. aerobic treatment units (suspended growth and fixed film). (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation.03. Coordination Office. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing. PDF Rather old design manual for onsite wastewater treatment options. See document in FRENCH Ads not by this site LEMOS CHERNICHARO. GABERT. A Guide to Decision-Making. Office of Water Office of Research and Development. design examples.. disinfection. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts. URL [Accessed: 01. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches. C. sand filters. Two reactor types are analysed in more detail. Murdoch University (Editor) (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". particularly the local governments. However. GUILLAUME. United States Environmental Protection Agency.2010].2013]. these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. including its applicability. namely anaerobic filters and especially UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.2011]. Particular attention is also devoted to the post-treatment of the effluents from the anaerobic reactors. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program. expected removal efficiencies. URL [Accessed: 26. biochemistry and main reactor configurations. URL [Accessed: 19. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed.11.S. UNEP (Editor). valuable information on established systems such as septic tanks. microbiology. design criteria. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options. U. Additional information is given on disposal methods and appurtenances. working principles. .EPA (Editor) (1980): Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual.maintenance and project planning and development processes involved in projects and programmes complement the book. PDF Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment. J.

EPA (Editor) (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet .C. In: MOREL. describing the system. U.S. (7) Sludge treatment and disposal. EPA (Editor) (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet .2013].04. PDF Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment. DOCZI. URL [Accessed: 15.11. Washington. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing..2010]..S. U. affordable and sustainable solutions are required.2010].S. San Fernando City. describing septic tanks..S. LEMOS CHERNICHARO.. The first greywater treatment plant was constructed for the Swiss Residence Hotel. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. D. L.: United States Environmental Protection Agency. its applicability and design of a septic tanks for large-flow applications. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple. Volume Two (also available in the SSWM library): (5) Activated sludge. Case Studies MOREL.2010].04. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila. A. EPA). C. (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors.S.: United States Environmental Protection Agency. D. their applicability and the design of septic tank systems for household-level black and greywater treatment.C. A. its applicability and the design of a leaching field following a septic tank. PDF Four-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U. EPA). Washington. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries. DIENER. PDF This booklet was prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency U. Awareness Raising Material U.C. and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manila—were chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM. S.04.S. DIENER. This case study presents different cost-effective on-site treatment technologies with main focus on hotel greywater and blackwater treatment systems. ROBBINS. PDF Ten-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U. (4) Anaerobic reactors.S. North Carolina: RTI International . Office of Water Office of Research and Development.SPERLING. Review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. URL [Accessed: 15. Sri Lanka. URL [Accessed: 01.Septic System Tanks.Septic Tank Leaching Chamber. J. URL [Accessed: 15. von. EPA (Editor) (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank Systems for Large Flow Application. EPA for officials from communities of less than 10000 people to present them available options and thus to enable an informed choice.. Washington. S..S. Office of Water Office of Research and Development. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics. describing the system. STRANDE. Office of Water Office of Research and Development. PDF In July 2012. Based on the experience gained by the Swiss Residence Hotel. (3) Stabilisation ponds. EPA (Editor) (1987): It's Your Choice: A Guidebook for Local Officials on Small Community Wastewater Management Options .: United States Environmental Protection Agency. The four cases— Dumaguete City. treatment and disposal. EPA). a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. (2006): Greywater treatment systems for hotel premises. . URL [Accessed: 15. PDF Seven-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U. D.2013]. further systems were implemented at the hotels Ivy Banks and Coral Sands. Duebendorf.01. U. D. Office of Water Office of Research and Development (US EPA). (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment. 80-84. M. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1. particularly domestic sewage.A.

Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag). URL [Accessed: [Accessed: [Accessed: 17.schoolsanitation.2010] This site offers valuable information and resources to manage onsite wastewater systems in a manner that is protective of public health and the environment and allows communities to grow and prosper.wikipedia.02.U. PDF Lecture notes on technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation systems in developing countries. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG).2010] This toolkit makes available information. Presentation.. Eawag/Sandec (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. PDF PDF presentation on the technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation systems in developing countries. sanitation. Office of Water Office of Research and Development.02. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (WAaF). PDF Booklet that describes how a septic system works and what homeowners can do to help their systems treat wastewater effectively. and water in school policies and projects.2010] Wikipedia article containing a description and a listing of potential problems and environmental issues regarding septic tanks. Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). WAaF (Editor) (2002): Sanitation Technology Options. Training Material EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. PDF In this document. The options are divided into two categories: Dry non-water reliant onsite systems and wet systems (that do require water for operation).2010]. e. EPA (Editor) (2002): Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems.g. Ads not by this site .04.S. PDF Exercise on the dimensioning of a septic tank. operation and maintenance. affordability. Exercises: Septic Tank. These need to be considered within all the sustainability requirements. http://en. Important Weblinks http://cfpub. Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec). United States Environmental Protection Agency. you will find more information on the various technical options that meet the requirements for basic sanitation. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag). Lecture Notes . Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec).gov/owm/septic/index.cfm [Accessed: 17.epa.02. resources. http://www. EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. and tools that provide support to the preparation and implementation of hygiene.