You are on page 1of 8

Ads not by this site

Concept
Home

Understand your System

Planning & Process Tools


Hardware

Implementation Tools

Specific Topics
Septic Tanks

Background

Implementation tools

W astewater Treatment

(Semi-)Centralised W astewater Treatments

Implementation Tools Introduction Water Sources Water Purification Water Distribution Water Use Wastewater Collection Wastewater Treatment Reuse and Recharge

Septic Tanks
Compiled by: Dorothee Spuhler (seecon international gmbh)

Related Topics
Sustainable Sanitation Grasp what Sustainable Sanitation actually means: Sustainable Sanitation Health and Hygiene Background information on health and hygiene issues of water management and sanitation. Health and Hygiene Issues Anaerobic Digestion If septic tanks are closed and biogas recovered, they become anaerobic biogas settlers: Biogas Settler Anaerobic Digestion (General) Toilet Systems Septic tank typically collect blackwater from:pour-flush; flush toilet; UD flush; low flush Pour-Flush Toilet Flush Toilet Low-flush Toilet Urine Diversion Flush Toilet Effluent Infiltration The effluent can either be infiltrated on-site or reused for fertigation, if is not heavely polluted. Check out: Soak Pits Leach Fields Fertigation

Executive Summary
A septic tank is an underground watertight chamber made of brick work, concrete, fibreglass, PVC or plastic that receives both blackwater from cistern or pour-flush toilets and greywater through a pipe from inside a building. Settling and anaerobic digestion reduce solids and organics. Septic tanks are primary treatment methods, and the only moderately treated effluent is infiltrated into the ground or transported via a sewer. Accumulating faecal sludge needs to be dug out the chamber and correctly disposed regularly.
In Blackwater, Brownwater, Excreta, (Organic Solid Waste) Out Blackwater (settled), Faecal Sludge, (Biogas )

The septic tank is the most common small-scale decentralised treatment unit for grey water and blackwater from cistern or pour-flush toilets . It is basically a sedimentation tank (physical treatment) in which settled sludge (solids and organics ) is stabilised by anaerobic digestion (biological treatment). Dissolved and suspended (unsettleable) matter leaves the tank more or less untreated. Its shape can be rectangular or cylindrical. Septic tanks are used for wastewater with a high content of settleable solids, typically for effluent from domestic sources, but they are also suitable for other wastewater of similar properties (SASSE 1998). Typical basic systems including septic tanks at household or school level are pour flush toilets , followed by two-chamber septic tanks and a soak pit, a leach field, or an evapo-transpiration mound (www.schoolsanitation.org). In densely populated areas, onsite infiltration should not be used because the saturation of the soil with the only moderately treated effluent can cause a serious health risk. In these cases, septic tanks should be connected to a simplified sewer or solids-free sewer to transport the effluents to a secondary treatment (e.g. surface flow, horizontal or vertical flow constructed wetlands ). When septic tanks are used as a primary settling treatment in DEWATS systems, they are generally followed by anaerobic filters, anaerobic baffled reactors (ABRs), constructed wetlands (planted gravel filters) and maturation ponds . In any case, water is needed to pour and bring the wastes to the septic tank (5 to 40 L of water per day per person, DFID 2003).

Faecal Sludge Sludge that has been presettled in septic tanks is called faecal sludge. It is still contains a lot of pathogenes and needs to be treated before reuse. See also: Anaerobic Digestion (General) Drying Beds Settling / Thickening Ponds (Co-)composting (Large-scale)

Overview scheme of a septic tank. Solids settle out and undergo anaerobic digestion, the effluent

with suspended and dissolved pollutants flows through. A venting pipe can evacuate the biogas formed during anaerobic digestion. Source: adapted from TILLEY et al. (2008).

ABOUT

USER MANUAL

CREDITS

PARTNERS

Treatment Process and Basic Design Principles


SSWM COURSES LIBRARY GLOSSARY

KEY RESOURCES

FAQ

CONTACT

TRAIN THE TRAINERS

A septic tank consists at minimum of 2 compartments made out of concrete or bricks. Prefabricated concrete rings, PVC or fibreglass septic tanks are also available and may be less expensive in some contexts (WSP 2008). The first compartment occupies at least the half the total volume, because most of the sludge accumulates here (SASSE 1998), while scum (oil and fat) floats to the top. When there are only two chambers, the first one should be 2/3 of the total length (TILLEY et al. 2008). The following chamber(s) are provided to calm the turbulent liquid. The baffle, or the separation between the chambers, is to prevent scum and solids from escaping with the effluent (TILLEY et al. 2008). A T -shaped outlet pipe, the lower arm of which dives 30 cm below water level (SASSE 1998), will further reduce the scum and solids that are discharged. Normally, the chambers are all of the same depth (between 1.5 to 2.5 m), but sometimes the first chamber is made deeper as the others. Over time, anaerobic bacteria and microorganisms start to digest the settled sludge anaerobically, transforming it into CO2 and CH4 (biogas ) and some heat. Optimal physical treatment by sedimentation takes place when the flow is smooth and undisturbed. Biological treatment by anaerobic digestion is optimised by a quick and intensive contact between the new inflow and old sludge, particularly when the flow is turbulent. Depending on the way the new influent flows through the tank, different treatment effect predominate. With a turbulent flow, the degradation of suspended and dissolved solids starts more quickly; however, more suspended solids are discharged with the effluent. This leads to bad odours, as active solids that are not completely fermented leave the tank (SASSE 1998). The contact and hence degradation is slower when the flow is less turbulent, but also less suspended solids leave the tank. The gases produced during anaerobic digestion must be allowed to escape. If the drainage system of the house or other building has a ventilation pipe at the upper end, gases can escape from the septic tank along the drains. If the drainage system is not ventilated, a screened vent pipe should be provided from the septic tank itself (WHO 1992). The size of the first chamber is calculated to be at least twice the accumulating sludge volume. The sludge volume depends on different factors: the number of users; the portion of settleable solids of the influent; the amount of water used per capita; the average annual temperature and on desludging intervals (SASSE A septic tank as primary treatment, followed by a leach field. 1998). Approximately 80 to Source: U.S. EPA (n.y.) 100 L should be provided per domestic user (SASSE 1998), but most countries provide a national standard for tank volume per domestic user. The retention time should be designed for 48 hours to achieve at least a moderate treatment (TILLEY et al. 2008). For help on dimensioning of septic tank, an exercise is given in Eawag/Sandec (2008, Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Exercise Septic Tank) and Excel spreadsheets are available in SASSE (1998). A septic tank will remove 30 to 50% of BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand), 40 to 60% of TSS (Total Suspended Solids ) (UNEP 2004) and result in an abatement of 1 log units E. coli (a faecal indicator bacteria) (TILLEY et al. 2008) although efficiencies vary greatly depending on the influent concentrations and climatic conditions. Hydraulic Retention Times (HRT ) are generally 24 hours (MOREL & DIENER 2006).

Septic tank receiving black- and grey water from a housing (left) and a septic tank collecting wastewater from several housing as a primary treatment before a small bore sewer system (right). Sources: http-//cfpub.epa.gov/owm/septic/septic.cfm? page_id=265 (left) and SANIMAS (2005) (right).

Aqua privy
The aqua privy is a variation of the septic tank and consists of a simple storage and settling tank immediately under the latrine floor. Excreta drop directly into the tank through a pipe. The bottom of the pipe is submerged in a liquid in the tank, forming a water seal to prevent escape of flies, mosquitoes and smell (WHO 1992). The tank functions like a septic tank. The effluent usually infiltrates into the ground through a soak pit and accumulated solids (sludge) must be removed frequently (WHO 1992). In any case, the accumulating sludge must be treated.

Toilet with aqua privy and soak pit. Source: WAaF (2002)

Costs considerations
Construction costs of septic tank are relatively low compared to other water based systems. However, they are much more expensive than for dry or composting toilets and unlikely to be affordable by poorer people in society. They also require sufficient piped water to flush all the wastes through the drains and manual or mechanical (vacuum or gulper) de-sludging needs to be done periodically. Engineers must prepare design and layout, while unskilled labourers can carry out construction if a mason supervises the work.

Operation and Maintenance


To start up a septic tank it should be "seeded" with sludge from a tank that has been operating for some time to ensure that the necessary microorganisms responsible for anaerobic digestion are present (WHO 1992). Routine inspection is necessary to remove floating debris such as coarse materials and grease, to ensure that there are no blockages at the inlet or outlet and to check whether de-sludging is needed. De-sludging is needed when 1/2 to 2/3 of the total depth between the water level and the bottom of the tank are occupied by sludge and scum (WHO 1992). One of the difficulties with septic tanks is that when the tank is almost full of solids, the inflow scours a channel through the sludge and pass through the tank in a matter of minutes rather than remaining in the tank for the required retention time (SASSE 1998). The most satisfactory method of sludge removal is by vacuum tanker. If a vacuum tanker is not available, the sludge must be bailed out manually using buckets or a gulper. This is an unpleasant work and care must be taken to ensure that sludge is not spilled around the tank during emptying, as the removed sludge from a septic tank includes fresh excrete and presents a risk of transmission of diseases of faecal origin (TILLEY et al. 2008). The faecal sludge needs to be correctly disposed and further treated (e.g. small or large scale composting , anaerobic digestion). Before that, the faecal sludge can also be further separated from the liquid in drying beds or settling . The separated effluents from these systems should be treated in waste stabilisation ponds (WSP) or constructed wetlands (surface flow, horizontal or vertical flow). Generally, septic tanks should be emptied every 1 to 5 years. A small amount of sludge should be left in the tank to ensure continuing rapid digestion. When opening the tank, gas produced in anaerobic digestion could escape and therefore, open fire should be avoided when opening the septic tank. Regular de-sludging activities require well-organised community or public/private service provider (TILLEY et al. 2008). Because of the delicate ecology, care should also be taken not to discharge harsh chemicals into the septic tank (TILLEY et al. 2008).

Health Aspects
Since the effluent from septic tanks is anaerobic, it is likely to contain large numbers of pathogens , which can be a potential source of infection (WHO 1992). Many of the problems with septic tank systems arise because no adequate consideration is given to the disposal of the tank effluent. However, the entire tank is below the surface so direct contact of users with any wastewater is avoided (TILLEY et al. 2008). But because of the microbial health risk which arises from both the effluent and the faecal sludge care should be taken during inspections and emptying. Mechanical emptying in a vacuum truck or a manual technology like a sludge gulper can decrease the health risks (TILLEY et al. 2008).

At a Glance
Basically a sedimentation tank (physical treatment) in which settled sludge is stabilised by anaerobic digestion (biological treatment). Dissolved and suspended matter leaves the tank more or less untreated. Household and community level; Primary treatment for domestic grey- and blackwater. Depending on the following treatment, septic tanks can also be used for industrial wastewater. Not adapted for areas with high groundwater table or prone to

Working Principle

Capacity/Adequacy

flooding. BOD: 30 to 50%; TSS: 40 to 60 %; E. coli: 1 log units HRT : about 1 day Low-cost, depending on availability of materials and frequency of de-sludging. Requires expert design, but can be constructed with locally available material. Should be checked for water tightness, scum and sludge levels regularly. Sludge needs to be dug out every 1 to 5 years and discharged properly (e.g. in composting or drying bed). Needs to be vented. When not regularly emptied, wastewater flows through without being treated. Generally good resistance to shock loading. Simple to construct and to operate. Effluent and sludge require further treatment. Long start-up phase.

Performance

Costs

Self-help Compatibility

O&M

Reliability

Main strength

Main weakness

Ads not by this site

Applicability
Septic tanks can be installed in every type of climate, although the efficiency will be affected in colder climates (TILLEY et al. 2008). Septic tanks are used for wastewater with a high percentage of settleable solids, typically for effluent from domestic sources (SASSE 1998). They can be introduced as a decentralized, onsite treatment system at household, block or school level (UNEP 2004). Effluents still contain pathogens and should therefore not be used for crop irrigation nor should it be discharged to canals or surface water drains (WHO 1992). Effluents form septic tanks can be soil infiltrated in soak pits, a leach field or mounds. In more dense areas, the effluents should not be infiltrated but the septic tank may be integrated as individual pre-treatment units for a community into a small bore sewer system transporting the wastewaters to a secondary treatment. Even though the septic tank is watertight, it should not be constructed in areas with high groundwater tables or where there is frequent flooding (TILLEY et al. 2008). Aqua privies can be built indoors and above ground and are appropriate for rocky or flood prone areas where pits or other technologies would not be appropriate, but they require frequent emptying and constant maintenance (TILLEY et al. 2008).

Advantages
Can be built and repaired with locally available materials No real problems with flies or odours if used correctly Long service life Little space required due to underground construction Low investment costs, low operation and maintenance costs depending on the availability of water and the requirement for emptying No energy required

Disadvantages
High cost compared to dry or composting toilet systems Constant and sufficient amounts of piped water required to bring the waste to the treatment unit Low reduction in pathogens, solids and organics: Secondary treatment for both effluent and faecal sludge required De-sludging required: Manual de-sludging is hazardous to health and mechanical desludging (vacuum trucks) requires the infrastructure and may be rather costly Only suitable for low-density housing in areas with low water table and not prone to flooding Manual cleaning of the tank is highly hazardous and an inhumane task, while mechanical cleansing (vacuum trucks) requires sophisticated instruments

References
EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Exercises: Septic Tank. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec). PDF

U.S. EPA (Editor) (n.y.): Planning for Septic Systems - Use of Online Decentralized Systems in Developing Areas . Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development.. URL [Accessed: 01.01.1970]. PDF DFID (Editor) (2003): Handbook for the Assessment of Catchment Waster Demand and Use. Oxon and London: HR Wallingford and Department for International Development (DFID).. URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]. PDF MOREL, A.; DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). URL [Accessed: 19.05.2010]. PDF SANIMAS (Editor) (2005): Informed Choice Catalogue. pdf presentation. BORDA and USAID. PDF SASSE, L. ; BORDA (Editor) (1998): DEWATS . Decentralised Wastewater Treatment in Developing Countries. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Association (BORDA). PDF TILLEY, E.; LUETHI, C.; MOREL, A.; ZURBRUEGG, C.; SCHERTENLEIB, R. (2008): Compendium of Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Duebendorf and Geneva: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG). URL [Accessed: 15.02.2010]. PDF See document in FRENCH UNEP (Editor) (2004): Improving Municipal Wastewater Management in Coastal Cities. The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office.. URL [Accessed: 18.01.2011]. PDF WAaF (Editor) (2002): Sanitation Technology Options. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (WAaF). PDF WHO (Editor) (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO). URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010]. PDF WSP (Editor) (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to DecisionMaking. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]. PDF

Further Readings

Ads not by this site

IDAHO DEQ (Editor) (2001): A Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems. Boise: Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDAHO DEQ). URL [Accessed: 04.05.2010]. PDF This manual provides information on functionality of septic systems containing the modules septic tank and leach field and addresses the user at the household level. Construction, maintenance and operation are described.

ECOSAN CLUB (Editor) (2012): Faecal Sludge Management. Vienna: Ecosan Club. URL [Accessed: 16.10.2012]. PDF This issue presents studies from different regions (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Burkina Faso) that mainly show the non-existence of faecal sludge management. Additionally, the last paper describes a new technological solution (LaDePa) for producing hygienically safe organic fertiliser from sludge from ventilated improved pit toilets (VIPs). NATURGERECHTE TECHNOLOGIEN, BAU- UND WIRTSCHAFTSBERATUNG (TBW) GmbH (Editor) (2001): Decentralised Wastewater Treatment Methods for Developing Countries . GTZ and GATE. PDF Different operation and maintenance options are presented with respect to sustainable plant operation, the use of local resources, knowledge, and manpower.

Ads not by this site

WHO (Editor) (1992): A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation. Geneva: World Health Organisation (WHO). URL [Accessed: 14.04.2010]. PDF The publication presents appropriate technologies for sanitation and highlights socio-economic aspects of planning and implementing. Emphasis is given to household-level sanitation improvements for urban areas, as well as rural areas and small communities. Background information on sanitation, in-depth technical information on the design, construction, operation and

maintenance and project planning and development processes involved in projects and programmes complement the book. U.S.EPA (Editor) (1980): Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development. PDF Rather old design manual for onsite wastewater treatment options. However, valuable information on established systems such as septic tanks, sand filters, aerobic treatment units (suspended growth and fixed film), disinfection, nutrient removal as well as wastewater segregation and recycling are given. Additional information is given on disposal methods and appurtenances. UNEP (Editor); Murdoch University (Editor) (2004): Environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment for the implementation of the UNEP/GPA "Guidelines on Municipal Wastewater Management". The Hague: United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action (UNEP/GPA), Coordination Office. PDF Technical information on environmentally sound technologies in wastewater treatment.

Ads not by this site

WSP (Editor) (2007): Philippines Sanitation Source Book and Decision Aid. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program. PDF This Sanitation Sourcebook distils some of the core concepts of sanitation in a user-friendly format so that the book can serve as a practical reference to sanitation professionals and investment decision-makers, particularly the local governments. The annexe contains a practical collection of factsheets on selected sanitation system options. WSP (Editor) (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. Washington: Water and Sanitation Program. URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010]. PDF These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.

MONVOIS, J.; GABERT, J.; FRENOUX, C.; GUILLAUME, M. (2010): How to Select Appropriate Technical Solutions for Sanitation. Cotonou and Paris: Partenariat pour le Dveloppement Municipal (PDM) and Programme Solidarit Eau (pS-Eau). URL [Accessed: 19.10.2011]. PDF The purpose of this guide is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these assist you in characterizing each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa. See document in FRENCH

Ads not by this site

LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2007): Anaerobic Reactors. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing. URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]. PDF Anaerobic Reactors is the forth volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment. The fundamentals of anaerobic treatment are presented in detail, including its applicability, microbiology, biochemistry and main reactor configurations. Two reactor types are analysed in more detail, namely anaerobic filters and especially UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Particular attention is also devoted to the post-treatment of the effluents from the anaerobic reactors. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects and operational guidelines for anaerobic reactors.

SPERLING, M. von; LEMOS CHERNICHARO, C.A. de (2005): Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions Volume 1. London: International Water Association (IWA) Publishing. URL [Accessed: 01.11.2013]. PDF Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions gives a state-of-the-art presentation of the science and technology of biological wastewater treatment, particularly domestic sewage. The book covers the main treatment processes used worldwide with wastewater treatment in warm climate regions given a particular emphasis where simple, affordable and sustainable solutions are required. The 55 chapters are divided into 7 parts over two volumes: Volume One: (1) Introduction to wastewater characteristics, treatment and disposal; (2) Basic principles of wastewater treatment; (3) Stabilisation ponds; (4) Anaerobic reactors; Volume Two (also available in the SSWM library): (5) Activated sludge; (6) Aerobic biofilm reactors; (7) Sludge treatment and disposal.

Case Studies
MOREL, A.; DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater treatment systems for hotel premises, Sri Lanka. In: MOREL, A.; DIENER, S. (2006): Greywater Management in Low and Middle-Income Countries, Review of different treatment systems for households or neighbourhoods. Duebendorf, 80-84. This case study presents different cost-effective on-site treatment technologies with main focus on hotel greywater and blackwater treatment systems. The first greywater treatment plant was constructed for the Swiss Residence Hotel. Based on the experience gained by the Swiss Residence Hotel, further systems were implemented at the hotels Ivy Banks and Coral Sands. ROBBINS, D.; STRANDE, L.; DOCZI, J. (2012): Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines. North Carolina: RTI International . URL [Accessed: 15.01.2013]. PDF In July 2012, a team from RTI International deployed to the Philippines to evaluate four FSM programs with the goal of reporting on best practices and lessons learned. The four cases Dumaguete City, San Fernando City, Maynilad Water for the west zone of metro Manila, and Manila Water from the east zone of metro Manilawere chosen to highlight their different approaches to implementing FSM.

Awareness Raising Material


U.S. EPA (Editor) (1987): It's Your Choice: A Guidebook for Local Officials on Small Community Wastewater Management Options . United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development. PDF This booklet was prepared by the United States Environmental Protection Agency U.S. EPA for officials from communities of less than 10000 people to present them available options and thus to enable an informed choice. U.S. EPA (Editor) (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Septic System Tanks. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development (US EPA). URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]. PDF Four-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), describing septic tanks, their applicability and the design of septic tank systems for household-level black and greywater treatment. U.S. EPA (Editor) (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet - Septic Tank Leaching Chamber. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development.. URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]. PDF Seven-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), describing the system, its applicability and the design of a leaching field following a septic tank.

U.S. EPA (Editor) (2000): Decentralized Systems Technology Fact Sheet: Septic Tank Systems for Large Flow Application. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development.. URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]. PDF Ten-page factsheet by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA), describing the system, its applicability and design of a septic tanks for large-flow applications.

U.S. EPA (Editor) (2002): Homeowner's Guide to Septic Systems. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Office of Research and Development.. URL [Accessed: 15.04.2010]. PDF Booklet that describes how a septic system works and what homeowners can do to help their systems treat wastewater effectively.

Training Material
EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Exercises: Septic Tank. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec). PDF Exercise on the dimensioning of a septic tank.

EAWAG/SANDEC (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Lecture Notes . Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (EAWAG), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC). PDF Lecture notes on technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation systems in developing countries.

Eawag/Sandec (Editor) (2008): Sanitation Systems and Technologies. Presentation. Duebendorf: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science (Eawag), Department of Water and Sanitation in Developing Countries (Sandec). PDF PDF presentation on the technical and non-technical aspects of sanitation systems in developing countries. WAaF (Editor) (2002): Sanitation Technology Options. Pretoria: Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (WAaF). PDF In this document, you will find more information on the various technical options that meet the requirements for basic sanitation. These need to be considered within all the sustainability requirements, e.g. affordability, operation and maintenance. The options are divided into two categories: Dry non-water reliant onsite systems and wet systems (that do require water for operation).

Important Weblinks
http://cfpub.epa.gov/owm/septic/index.cfm [Accessed: 17.02.2010] This site offers valuable information and resources to manage onsite wastewater systems in a manner that is protective of public health and the environment and allows communities to grow and prosper. http://www.schoolsanitation.org/ [Accessed: 17.02.2010] This toolkit makes available information, resources, and tools that provide support to the preparation and implementation of hygiene, sanitation, and water in school policies and projects. http://en.wikipedia.org [Accessed: 17.02.2010] Wikipedia article containing a description and a listing of potential problems and environmental issues regarding septic tanks.

Ads not by this site