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MME2204 Fundamentals of Material Science 2 Faculty of Engineering University of Malta

Composite Design

Adrian Borg (286193M) Adrian Camilleri (540993M) Jean Paul Sultana (226293M)

.............................................................................................. 6 5) Test Description and Results....................................................... 12 10) Appendix ..... 3 2) Establishing the Young's modulus of bamboo flooring .............................................................................................................................. 6 4) Calculating the estimated strength of the composite ......................... 13 11) References .................................................................................................................................................. 8 6) Calculating the actual strength of the solid composite ....................................................... 8 7) The percentage error in the actual strength .......................................................... 9 8) A discussion including a description of the mode of failure of both specimens ....................................... 4 3) Calculating the Young's modulus for fibreglass ..................................................................................................................................... 15 12) Group Efforts Page .................................................. 11 9) Conclusion................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 16 Page 2 of 16 .................................................................Contents 1) The Composite .............................................................................

Once the last layer of bamboo was placed.77 g/cm3 which is relatively low. Acrylic is a polymer also known as polymethyl metacrylathe. resin was added onto the wood and the glass fibres were placed into the resin. so it is lightweight while still having good mechanical properties [1]. Moreover it has good compression characteristics having a compressive modulus of 3 GPa and a compression yield strength of 95 MPa[2]. These values are very high and will reinforce the fibreglass composite. The acrylic was placed first with the smooth side on the bottom. Fibreglass is a composite consisting of glass fibre reinforcement and a polymer resin matrix. It is easily formed and moulded by heating it. Together the resin and glass will produce a lightweight material with good tensile properties. It is also impact resistant and has been used as a replacement for glass (ex. resin was applied to the rough side and a bamboo layer was placed on top. To produce the composite the mould was made and covered in packaging tape to prevent the resin and eventually the composite form getting stuck to the mould. Several layers of fibre were then place to finish the composite off Bamboo is a natural composite with a high strength to weight ratio compared. E-glass fibres were used having a Young’s modulus of between 72 and 85 GPa and a tensile strength of 1. in motorcycle windshields). The resin has an average modulus of about 3. layers of bamboo and layers of fibreglass composite. It is a very fast growing plant so making it easier to produce compared to other types of wood. shaping it when hot and cooling back to room temperature for it to harden.95 to 2. The several layers of bamboo and acrylic were then roughened up to improve the adhesion of the resin to the layers. The outer layers require good compressive or tensile properties depending on the side while the middle does not need to be as strong but should still be able to take some of the load. Figure 0 The composite Top: Fibreglass Middle: Bamboo Bottom: Acrylic Page 3 of 16 . It was used in the centre since the average density of bamboo flooring is around 0. a layer of acrylic. Resin was applied onto the bamboo and another 2 layers were added using this process.1) The Composite The composite chosen was divided into 3 main materials.4 GPa and tensile strength ranging from 20 to 80 MPa [4]. It is easy to mould and has a big strength to weight ratio which makes it a popular choice for automobiles and boat hulls among others. it is a tough and shatter resistant.05 GPa [3].

i. ( ) The experimental procedure would consist of choosing various values for L and F. ( ) 〈 〉 ( ) Figure 1 [5] Illustrates how this function could be obtained and what the Macaulay's brackets. The weight of the beam was neglected since the deflection when the beam is loaded was taken to be the displacement of the beam's end from when it was unloaded. i. The first derivative is assumed to be small in the derivation of (2) Deflections in the experiment would be kept as small as possible to validate this assumption. Using singularity functions the following function defining the internal moment M(x) along the x axis was defined. its full derivation is shown in [6]. ( ) ( ) Where E is the Young's modulus in Pa. mean. This Implies 〈 〉 ( ) In order to obtain an expression for the deflection y as a function of x The above equation needs to be integrated twice. y is at its maximum. Resulting in the following equation for the modulus should x be set to zero. An average of the values obtained would be used in the calculations Figure 2 Two samples of bamboo where considered one had a bigger cross section than the other.e.2) Establishing the Young's modulus of bamboo flooring Picture a loaded strip of bamboo hanging over a bench as shown in the figure below along with its free body diagram.e. 〈 〉. measuring ymax and calculating the Young's modulus for each instant. the deflection was assumed to be zero when the beam was unloaded. The relationship between the internal moment and the curvature of the beam is given by the following equation. I is the moment of inertia in m4 and y & x are the displacements as shown in diagram {1}. Page 4 of 16 . The constants of integration could be evaluated using the following boundary conditions. Three lengths and weights where chosen leading to 18 combinations.

Then the moment of inertia MOI about the neutral axis na was found.First the dimensions shown in figure {2} where established by taking multiple readings and averaging. The results are shown in the spreadsheet in figure {3}. Figure 3 The results for substituting values from experimentation in equation (4) are shown in the spreadsheet illustrated in figure {4} Figure 4 Page 5 of 16 .

4) Calculating the estimated strength of the composite Before any theory based on the deflections of beams is applied. the cross section of the composite beam could be transformed to one having homogenous material. Then the moment of inertia of each individual rectangle about its own neutral axis that makes up the cross section are found out. B. modulus of B divided by modulus of A. The choice of the material is arbitrary however usually one which makes up a portion of the composite beam is chosen since calculations will be easier. The method was obtained from [7] its proof is also shown.3) Calculating the Young's modulus for fibreglass For discontinuous and randomly oriented fibre reinforced composite the rule of mixtures was found to be as follows from ref (below1). The internal moment as a function of displacement in the x direction could be defined using singularity functions. Detailed equations for the general case and their derivation are shown in [5]. than the Figure 5 untransformed material. All these methods are illustrated in [7] Appendix A The beam was loaded as shown in figure {6} support reactions will not be calculated since they are trivial. The transformed cross section for a square cross section three ply composite beam would look something like the one in figure {5}. ( ) ( ) Where ECD is the composite's modulus. The origin of the coordinate system was set at the head of the left-most reactive force and the directions for the axes are shown in their positive sense. The method could be summarized like this. EF is the fibre's modulus. K is a fibre efficiency parameter. A are multiplied by the ratio. VF is the fibre's volume fraction and EM is the matrix's modulus. the widths of laminates made from a different material. Page 6 of 16 . once this is done the beam could be assumed to be made entirely of material A. The new cross section's neutral axis is the same as the one for the composite beam. Since it was hard to obtain values for the parameters required to solve the equation above from some form of experimentation these where averaged out from values found in literature ref (below2) The final calculation with entered values is shown below. simplifying calculations. Here the material was transformed into Figure 6 one having a young's modulus of the middle section throughout. Y1 indicates the position of the neutral axis which could be found by methods used to find the centroid of an area. The parallel axis theorem is applied to find the moment of inertia about the neutral axis.

shown in figure {8}. The calculated values correspond to those shown in figure {5} Figure 8 In order to calculate the force expected to produce a specified deflection using equation (6) and the modulus of a homogenous beam having the same Figure 9 Page 7 of 16 . The composite consists of three laminates stacked as shown. First the composite beam cross section will be defined as shown in figure {7}. their heights are entered and the uniform width b is inputted as well. This formula will be used to determine the force required to produce a specified deflection. Finding out the modulus of a prismatic beam made from a single material and having the same cross section that will undergo the same deflection as the composite beam will be done later. Figure 7 Properties of the transformed section are found out using the principles defined before. ( ) All of the above calculations will be entered in a spreadsheet using Microsoft excel so parameters could be varied easily and should mistakes be present they could be eliminated without having to working out the problem again. 〈 〉 〈 〉 ( ) Integrating both sides twice and solving for the constants of integration using the following boundary conditions would result in equation (6) which is also known as the three point bending formula.Then this could be equated to a term containing the 2nd derivative of the curvature equation from equation (2) as shown below.

Microsoft excel was used to calculate the modulus since it was very convenient. A graph of flexural load vs. The table in figure {12} shows the result using only the final extension and force values. extension was plotted for both samples. We were mainly interested in the force and corresponding deflections. the holders below the specimen move upward. The machinery used is displayed in figure {11}. shown in figure {10}. Finding out the modulus of a prismatic beam made from a single material and having the same cross section as the composite beam. This enabled us to easily interpret data using graphs and calculations. whilst figure {13} shows the value of the calculated modulus as found out by taking the average of the modulii which were calculated for each corresponding force deflection value given in the lab excel sheet for deflections greater than 5 mm. whilst the point in the middle stays stationery. and that will undergo the same deflection could simply be done by equating the modulus and moment of inertia of this beam and the beam with the transformed cross section. This was done and included in the results. this can be seen in the appendix Figure 11 6) Calculating the actual strength of the solid composite Once again a form of equation (6) (E was made subject) was used and the beam was considered to be made of a single material in order to find out a single value for its modulus. Figure 12 Figure 13 Page 8 of 16 . the properties of the prismatic beam need to be defined as shown in figure {9}. Figure 10 5) Test Description and Results The test carried out on the sample is known as a three point flexural test in the industry. and solving for the modulus of the new beam. The results of the machine could be outputted in a Microsoft excel spreadsheet as was the case in our test. since the modulii for deflections less than 5 varied widely.original cross section.

The equation of the trend line was found to be. The plot obtained is a scattered plot. whereby using the features of Microsoft Excel. ξE. We can note that to achieve the error in the Youngs Modulus. [( ) ( ) ] [( ) ( ) ] [( ) ( ) ] To obtain the uncertainty value for the Force variable. we must investigate with respect the uncertainties in the four containing variables of the equations. its general eqaution for a rectangular crosssection is used. a trend line is produced along the plot and its equation found. Therefore to obtain the uncertainty for the variable I.7) The percentage error in the actual strength The method for the calculation of the percentage error in our calculations starts off tfrom the equation for the Young’s Modulus with deflection of the beam. Incorporating the equation for uncertainty[10]. Page 9 of 16 . we must do this analytically from the graph obtained from the test-machine.

645 Ya = 394.28mm Estimated/Actual Force Ye = 103.377 Difference in Forces 8.389 Ye = 162. Once these uncertainties for Force and Moment Inertia were found.48mm 9.56mm 10.51mm 7.714 Ya = 274.277N 11.45mm 6.778 Ye = 400.110N 6.734N 15.554 Ya = 578.123 Ya = 94.42mm 4.753N 11.908 Ya = 227.605N 7.55mm 14.442 Ya = 146.491N 10.54mm 11.Where the y-values indicate force applied and the x-values the deflection of the beam.051N 8.14mm 4.07mm 6.72mm 5.345 Ya = 165.392 Ye = 259.31mm 13.255N 4.499N 10.698N 13.006 Ye = 350.516N 5.535 Ye = 446.647 Ye = 238.031N 0.693 Ye = 585. Deflection 3.299 Ya = 253.175 Ya = 165. Page 10 of 16 .08mm 7. we can return to the Young’s Modulus Equation and find its derivatives with respect to the containing variables.595 Ya = 358.488 Ye = 528.223 Ye = 313.943 Ye = 176. using the trend line.45mm 12.183N 6. The differences for numerous points along the graph between the estimated.384 Ya = 620.233 Ya = 491.088 Ya = 532.547 Ye = 210.523 Ye = 619.057 Ya = 303.546 Ye = 285. and the actual obtained results was found and tabulated below.840 Ye = 488.779N 3.993N Thus from the differences in forces a standard deviation was found and this was taken to be the uncertainty of the force variable.67mm 8.061 Ya = 452.

6m. [( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] [( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] [( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ] Once this uncertainty is obtained we can carry on to find the percentage error of the actual Young’s Modulus found. Such common modes of failure range from Brittle Failure. where the sample bends. we clearly saw the sample deform elastically as expected due to the Bamboo core. Other modes can also be present in the non-cyclic load application as our sample has undergone. which has a great tensile capability. 8) A discussion including a description of the mode of failure of both specimens There are numerous mechanism thorugh which failure of a structure can occur[11]. together with the Fibre-Glass. With respect to our uniform beam of 0. and can deform both elastically as well as plastically if its Yield Limit is exceeded. Ductile Fracture where the sample fractures during plastic deformation and finally Elastic Distortion where the sample returns to its original shape after it fails to perform as designed. where the load exceeds the Ultimate Tensile Strength of the structure and cracks or fractures propagate throught the sample.bulges and bows under load. Page 11 of 16 .The Uncertainty equation can be incorporated at this stage. brittle or plastic deformation of any kind in either of thedifferent material laminas. such as Buckling. in designing a composit structure the design stage is crucial in taking into account all the possible frailures that can occur. There is also Ductile Failure where the sample id displaced greatly in reaction to the loads applied. The Sample was seen the continuously deform elastically with no signs of failure.

What was also noted is that in the load-extension graphs the graphs started out flat. Also any moisture that could have entered the fibreglass matrix would decrease its properties significantly and more care could have been taken to prevent this. Imperfections in the wood could have also affected the results since they will act as stress concentrators. To improve the composite more experience with the production would have helped.3m sections with a metal clamp joining the ends with four bolts securing the parts. Conditions for the abrasive might also have not been ideal. The imperfections could be present in the materials before the production of the composite or could result from the production. A very notable point to note is that the metal clamp also showed no sign of deformation. also showed a significant form of Elastic Deformation with no propagation of fractures or cracking throughout the whole samples. this will improve the stiffness of the overall material. more appropriate adhesives could have been used to join the separate layers which would have helped spreading the load in the composite better. 9) Conclusion As can be seen from the results the actual Young’s modulus differs from the estimated. the glass fibres could have also been placed longitudinally so the stress would be distributed among all fibres equally. As for the joint. which included two 0. The difference between the whole beam and the one joined by the coupling is also very significant. this would also be the case for the yielding strength of the composite. stiffer materials could have been used Page 12 of 16 . Different. creating rougher surfaces for the resin to stick to between the layers could have improved the bonding between the laminates. This is due to the compressive forces passing throught the Acrylic layer and the Tensile forces split across the Bamboo and Fibre-Glass to not deform the more susceptible metal clamp. which shows that the sectioned beam worked as designed. Since the testing produces tension mainly in one direction. knowledge on production (for example the composite could have been lacking enough resin or had excess resin) would have been lacking.The second sample. more expensive products such as using s-glass fibres instead. this is due to imperfections in the material. any imperfections should be minimised. this could be due to any material being compressed before the bending began. The materials could also have been upgraded to higher quality. The whole beam had a much larger stiffness than that which was cut and could withstand a larger load. Imperfections create stress concentrations in the areas around them which would lead to fracture before expected.

10) Appendix Images of the composite beams: Page 13 of 16 .

00 14.00 12.00 6.343x .00 2.Flexural Load N Vs Extension mm 700 y = 46.00 10.00 -100 Page 14 of 16 .00 8.00 4.934 600 500 400 Load (no coupling) Load (coupling) Linear (Load (no coupling)) Linear (Load (coupling)) 300 200 y = 13.686x + 15.00 16.42.956 100 0 -2.00 0.

(2005) Material EASE. J. Beer.. Polyester Resins.C. [3] E-Glass Fibre.bamboofloors.pdf.matweb.google. Bamboo Brochure. F. [10] Scheid.winona. USA: Prentice Hall.com. Material Failure Modes part 1. Materials Science and Engineering. [11] Craig.com/reference/compressivestrength.pptx&ei=7PqbUcS8GI n-PLLkgbgK&usg=AFQjCNH-CTiT.au/Bamboo%20Brochure. Dewolf & David F.iastate. John T.pdf. Callister & David G. Mechanics of Materials: Bending (eight edition).mt/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDMQFjAA&url=http%3 A%2F%2Fcourse1. [online] Available: www. B.R. Last accessed 22nd May 2013.com/pdf/2005MaterialEASE29. [7]R. [online] Available: www. Last accessed 22nd May 2013. (2011). Hibbeler(2009). Mazurek (2009). In-text: (Scheid.Schaum's outline of theory and problems of numerical analysis.aspx?ArticleID=764. [online] Available: www. 1968).com/properties.pdf Page 15 of 16 . USA: Mc Graw Hill. (2003).11) References [1] bamboo floors. [8] William D. Part I Bibliography: Craig. Russel Johnston. [2] Compressive Strength Testing of Plastics.edu/files/2012/01/5-Polyester-Resins. E. [online] Available: www. Last accessed 22nd May 2013. Portugal: Springer. [4] Tim Pepper.azom.com. Mechanics of Materials : Deflection of Beams (Fifth Edition). Rome. Mechanics and Strength of Materials : Bending Deflections. [5]Ferdinand P. Hand Lay-up. [online] Available: polycomp. Asia: John Wiley & Sons. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rethwisch. New York Published (online): http://ammtiac.alionscience. Last accessed 22nd May 2013. B.mse. Bibliography: Scheid.edu%2Fkdennehy%2FENGR390%2FTopics%2Flayup. Material Failure Modes. Ashland Chemical Company. Last accessed 22nd May 2013. [9] Winona State University. [6]Victor Dias Da Silva (2006). (eight edition). (1968) Schaum's outline of theory and problems of numerical analysis. F.aspx.

12) Group Efforts Page Adrian Borg 286193M 33% Adrian Camilleri 540993M 33% Jean Paul Sultana 226293M 33% Page 16 of 16 .