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,. Tanker Conversions to FPSOs
Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register
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Presentation on Presentation on
Tanker Conversions
Tanker Conversions
to
to
FPSOs
FPSOs
Rob Rob Potthurst Potthurst
Offshore Floating Units Offshore Floating Units
Oil and Gas Oil and Gas
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Overview Overview
� � Market summary Market summary
� � LR Experience LR Experience
� � Key issues Key issues
� � Rules and Regulations Rules and Regulations
� � Hull strength and fatigue Hull strength and fatigue
� � Some lessons learnt (hopefully) Some lessons learnt (hopefully)
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FPSO / FSO
Market
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Total 70+ units worldwide
Total 70+ units worldwide
Newbuild Newbuild
(30%) (30%)
Conversion Conversion
(70%) (70%)
Ship Ship- -type Floating type Floating
Production Units Production Units
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (:)
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sFuture Floating Offshore Future Floating Offshore
Installation Projects Installation Projects
Analysis of asset types identified under the Analysis of asset types identified under the
most likely development solution most likely development solution
TLP TLP
(11%) (11%)
FSO FSO
(8%) (8%)
Semi Semi
(3%) (3%)
SPAR SPAR
(18%) (18%)
FPSO FPSO
(60%) (60%)
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F(P)SO Capabilities F(P)SO Capabilities
Typical Requirements Typical Requirements
� Storage 200,000 - 2,000,000 barrels
� Production 30,000 - 300,000 bopd
� Vessel 100,000 - 350,000 tonnes
� Water depth 70 - 1500 metres
� Topsides 2000 - 33000 tonnes
� Risers 1 - > 30
� Wave height benign - > 30 metres
� Air temp -20
o
C - > 30
o
C
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (,)
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LR Experience
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LR Experience LR Experience
� FPSO and FSO Units
� Steel Fixed Platforms ~ 800
� Buoys
� Pipelines
� Jack-ups
� Semi-submersibles
� Concrete Structures
~ 40
~ 15
~ 70
~ 50
~ 75
~ 30
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (¡)
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Floating Production Installations
- LR Worldwide Experience
Brazi Brazi
l l
3 3
Canada Canada
3 3
North North
Sea Sea
19 19
Mediterranea Mediterranea
n n
4 4
Vietna Vietna
m m
2 2
Australia Australia
5 5
Philippine Philippine
s s
2 2
New New
Zealand Zealand
1 1
West of West of
Shetlands Shetlands
1 1
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Recent Conversion Experience Recent Conversion Experience
� � Amerada Hess Triton Amerada Hess Triton
� � Amerada Hess Fife Amerada Hess Fife
� � Amerada Hess Amerada Hess Bluewater Bluewater Durward Durward/Dauntless /Dauntless
� � Bluewater Bluewater Bleo Bleo Holm Holm
� � Expro Expro Efiat Efiat Abana Abana
� � MAS Curlew MAS Curlew
� � Petechim Petechim Vietsovpetro Vietsovpetro Dragon Dragon
� � Petrobras Petrobras Roncador Roncador
� � Petrobras Petrobras Barracuda (ex Barracuda (ex PP.Moraes PP.Moraes) )
� � Reading & Bates Reading & Bates Seallion Seallion
� � Shell Todd Maui B Shell Todd Maui B
� � SLP/ SLP/Maersk Maersk Conoco Conoco MacCulloch MacCulloch
� � Shell Shell soreena soreena
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (,)
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Example of Conversion Example of Conversion
Conoco Conoco MacCulloch MacCulloch
North Sea Producer North Sea Producer - - Teesside Teesside
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Example of Conversion Example of Conversion
FPSO “Whakaaropai”
for Shell Todd Maui B Field
FPSO “ FPSO “Whakaaropai Whakaaropai” ”
for Shell Todd Maui B Field for Shell Todd Maui B Field
Oil Storage Capacity approx. 760,000bbls
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (o)
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Conversions
Key Issues
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Overall requirements Overall requirements
� � Shallow/Deepwater Shallow/Deepwater
� � Turret/Spread mooring Turret/Spread mooring
arrangements arrangements
� � Permanent / Permanent / Disconnectable Disconnectable
moorings moorings
� � Small/Large displacement hulls Small/Large displacement hulls
� � Benign/Harsh environments Benign/Harsh environments
� � Project management required Project management required
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What makes an FPSO different What makes an FPSO different
from a trading tanker? from a trading tanker?
� � Operations and safety requirements Operations and safety requirements
� � Layout and arrangement Layout and arrangement
� � Specified service/location Specified service/location
� � Rules and regulations Rules and regulations
� � Design/construction/commissioning Design/construction/commissioning
� � In In- -situ inspection/maintenance situ inspection/maintenance
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Key Choice Drivers Key Choice Drivers
� � Project and client requirements Project and client requirements
� � time to first oil time to first oil
� � location/environment location/environment
� � function function
� � life cycle costs life cycle costs
� � Statutory and National Authority requirements Statutory and National Authority requirements
� � Ship Yard schedule Ship Yard schedule
� � availability / capability / price availability / capability / price
� � location location
� � Availability of suitable tonnage Availability of suitable tonnage
� � capacity capacity
� � condition, age condition, age
� � upgrading scope upgrading scope
� � New build: 2 to 3 years; Conversion: 1 to 2 years New build: 2 to 3 years; Conversion: 1 to 2 years
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Hull Selection Issues (conversion) Hull Selection Issues (conversion)
� � Vessel age, condition and service history Vessel age, condition and service history
� � hull global strength hull global strength
� � remaining corrosion margins remaining corrosion margins
� � remaining fatigue life remaining fatigue life
� � structural steelwork replacement structural steelwork replacement
� � Mooring structure Mooring structure
� � internal or external modifications internal or external modifications
� � structural reinforcement structural reinforcement
� � Topside integration Topside integration
� � structural reinforcement structural reinforcement
� � Upgrades Upgrades
� � equipment / systems equipment / systems
� � coatings / corrosion control coatings / corrosion control
� � machinery machinery
� � accommodation accommodation
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Conversion Conversion - - Major Works Major Works
Existing Hull Existing Hull
� � Removals/modifications Removals/modifications
� � hull steelwork, coatings etc. hull steelwork, coatings etc.
� � propulsion and other machinery propulsion and other machinery
� � rudder/steering gear rudder/steering gear
� � accommodation, deckhouses and accommodation, deckhouses and helideck helideck
� � piping systems piping systems
� � Upgrades Upgrades
� � marine and topsides control system integration marine and topsides control system integration
� � fire protection systems and their integration fire protection systems and their integration
� � power generation systems and their integration power generation systems and their integration
� � cargo tank venting arrangement cargo tank venting arrangement
� � ballast and cargo oil pumps and valves ballast and cargo oil pumps and valves
� � inert gas system inert gas system
� � utility systems ( utility systems (eg eg water, steam, heating) water, steam, heating)
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Conversion Conversion - - Major Works Major Works
Hull Additions Hull Additions
� � turret or spread mooring system, equipment, etc turret or spread mooring system, equipment, etc
� � riser porches or fluid transfer system and piping riser porches or fluid transfer system and piping
� � provision of thrusters provision of thrusters
� � installation of process deck supports installation of process deck supports
� � process systems process systems PAUs PAUs, flare and piping , flare and piping
� � blast walls blast walls
� � life saving equipment life saving equipment
� � fire and gas equipment and systems fire and gas equipment and systems
� � evacuation measures evacuation measures
� � bulwark and breakwater bulwark and breakwater
� � lifting equipment lifting equipment
� � loading instrument (computer) loading instrument (computer)
� � offloading system offloading system
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Mooring Arrangements Mooring Arrangements
Bow Bow
Mooring Mooring
Internal Internal
Turret Turret
Mooring Mooring
Spread Spread
Mooring Mooring
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Turret Mooring Systems Turret Mooring Systems
Large Internal Turret Large Internal Turret
Small Internal Turret Small Internal Turret
Riser Turret Mooring Riser Turret Mooring
(D) (D)
External Turret Mooring External Turret Mooring Submerged Turret Submerged Turret
Production (D) Production (D)
Buoyant Turret Buoyant Turret
Mooring (D) Mooring (D)
Internal Internal External External
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General arrangement General arrangement
� � Living quarters at the stern Living quarters at the stern
Living quarters Living quarters
Oil Oil
Sep. Sep.
P.G. P.G.
Gas Gas
Comp. Comp.
Metering Metering
Flare Tower Flare Tower
Turret Turret
Living quarters Living quarters
P.G. P.G.
Oil Oil
Sep. Sep.
Gas Gas
Comp. Comp.
Metering Metering
Flare Tower Flare Tower
Turret Turret
� � Living quarters at the bow Living quarters at the bow
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FPSO
Rules and Regulations
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Governing Regulations Governing Regulations
� � Local National Authority Local National Authority
� � Class Rules for FPSO Installations Class Rules for FPSO Installations
� � Flag State Flag State
International Conventions International Conventions
SOLAS, MARPOL, LOADLINE, SOLAS, MARPOL, LOADLINE,
TONNAGE TONNAGE
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National Regulations National Regulations
� � U.K. U.K. – – HSE safety case and verification HSE safety case and verification
� � Canada(NS) Canada(NS) – – CNOPB, TC(flag) ,RQF, class CNOPB, TC(flag) ,RQF, class
� � Brazil Brazil – – (BNW), class, flag (BNW), class, flag
� � Nigeria Nigeria – – Marine Notice, class, flag(N) Marine Notice, class, flag(N)
� � Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Mexico – – Follows… Follows…
_____________________________ _____________________________
International Conventions International Conventions
SOLAS, MARPOL, LOADLINE, SOLAS, MARPOL, LOADLINE,
TONNAGE… TONNAGE…
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Definitions Definitions
� � Class Class
� � Rules Based / Risk Based Rules Based / Risk Based
� � Certification Certification
� � To Regulations and Codes To Regulations and Codes
� � Verification Verification
� � To Performance Criteria To Performance Criteria
� � Class Class\ \Certification Certification\ \Verification Verification
often combined often combined
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Rules for a Floating Offshore Rules for a Floating Offshore
Installation at Fixed Location Installation at Fixed Location
Rules and
Regulations
Part 4
Rules and
Regulations
Part 4
Rules and
Regulations
Part 4
Rules and
Regulations
Part 4
Rules and
Regulations
Part 5
Rules and
Regulations
��
��
Part 4
Rules and
Regulations
��
��
Part 3
Rules and
Regulations
Part 2
Rules and
Regulations
Part 1A
Rules and
Regulations
Part 1
Parts 2 to 9
Technical Regulations
Parts 2 to 9 Parts 2 to 9
Technical Regulations Technical Regulations
Part 1A Part 1A
Risk Based Approach Risk Based Approach
Part 1 Part 1
Regulations Regulations
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Scope of LR FPSO Rules Scope of LR FPSO Rules
� � LR Rules cover the following LR Rules cover the following
aspects : aspects :
� � Hull and Marine Systems Hull and Marine Systems
� � Mooring Systems Mooring Systems
� � Risers (optional) Risers (optional)
� � Process plant (optional) Process plant (optional)
� � Drilling plant (optional) Drilling plant (optional)
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LR Classification LR Classification
� � Alternatives Alternatives
� � Prescriptive Rules Prescriptive Rules - - business as usual business as usual
� � Flexibility of Risk Based options Flexibility of Risk Based options
� � Risk Based Solutions Risk Based Solutions
� � Applicable to Design of both hull and Applicable to Design of both hull and
topsides, although generally hull topsides, although generally hull
adopts prescriptive approach adopts prescriptive approach
� � Applicable to Periodic Inspection Applicable to Periodic Inspection
(draft LR guidance available) (draft LR guidance available)
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AA6c AA6c
LR Guidance Notes LR Guidance Notes
Supporting the Rules Supporting the Rules
� An Overview of Regulatory Issues
� Conversion of Tankers for Floating
Production Service
� Ship Type Hull Structural Appraisal and
supplement Additional Structural Aspects
� Positional Mooring Systems and supplement Fibre
Ropes for Offshore Moorings
� Periodic Inspection
� Design Appraisal of Semi-Submersible Units
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Conversions
Hull strength and fatigue
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Hull Design Considerations Hull Design Considerations
� hull strength, arrangement and materials
� 100-year site specific criteria
� local connection details and fatigue life (min 20 years)
� range of loading conditions
� vessel motions and accelerations
� mooring system and hull integration
� process support structure
� slamming and green seas
� sloshing
� helideck, cranes and cargo offloading system
� accommodation
� corrosion control
� construction tolerances and fabrication quality
� philosophy for in-service periodic survey
� interfaces
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Model Testing Model Testing - - support support
� � To support design calculations To support design calculations
� � Riser & mooring design Riser & mooring design
� � Loading, excursions, separation Loading, excursions, separation
� � FPSO/shuttle tanker interaction FPSO/shuttle tanker interaction
� � Hull motions, slamming, green Hull motions, slamming, green
seas seas
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Ship Rules Ship Rules - - basic hull strength basic hull strength
� � Parametric equations for : Parametric equations for :
� � Wave bending moment/shear force Wave bending moment/shear force
� � inertia inertia
� � Hull modulus Hull modulus
� � FEA requirement FEA requirement
(strength/fatigue) (strength/fatigue)
� � Local strength Local strength
� � WW service (limitation options) WW service (limitation options)
� � Equivalence through IACS Equivalence through IACS
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FPSO Hull FPSO Hull - - Global Strength Global Strength
� � Minimum class rule standard Minimum class rule standard
� � Site specific environmental criteria Site specific environmental criteria
� � Effect of mooring system Effect of mooring system
(+ (+weathervaning weathervaning) )
� � Process facilities Process facilities
� � Long term service (at site) Long term service (at site)
� � Range of loading conditions Range of loading conditions
(including inspection and accidental cases) (including inspection and accidental cases)
� � Slamming/green seas Slamming/green seas
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FF2 FF2- -1g 1g
Global Hull Design Global Hull Design – – wave BM & SF wave BM & SF
� Still water loading conditions often more severe
for FPSOs
� Class Rules permit review of Rule versus Site
specific wave bending moments and shear forces
� Will depend upon site environmental criteria
� Harsh environment wave BM and SF are close to and
may exceed Ship Rule requirements
� Benign environment are less than Ship Rules but not to
be taken less than 70% of unrestricted service Ship Rule
requirements in general
� Multisite operation may require assessment
� Owners requirements, eg corrosion margins
� Towing and temporary conditions to be
considered
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100 Year Hs / 100 Year Hs / Tp Tp Contours Contours
2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
20
4
Hs1
2 i �
Hs2
2 i �
Hs3
2 i �
30 2 TP1
2 i �
TP2
2 i �
� TP3
2 i �

West of Shetland West of Shetland
Northern North Sea Northern North Sea
Central North Sea Central North Sea
Hs
Tp
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Some typical criteria Some typical criteria
Hs Hs Tp Tp
Nigeria Nigeria 3.1 3.1 7.6 7.6
Offshore Iran Offshore Iran 5.9 5.9 10.2 10.2
Australia Australia 7.2 7.2 11.1 11.1
U.K. Central U.K. Central 13.0 13.0 15.2 15.2
West of Shetland West of Shetland 17.1 17.1 16.0 16.0
Nova Scotia Nova Scotia 16.0 16.0 14/18 14/18
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Accidental Loads Accidental Loads
� � Collision due to supply boat / Collision due to supply boat /
shuttle tanker / iceberg shuttle tanker / iceberg
� � Dropped object Dropped object
� � Explosion / blast Explosion / blast
� � Ultimate strength criteria Ultimate strength criteria
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Steel Grades Steel Grades
� � Class rules for ships Class rules for ships
� � New requirements for low New requirements for low
temperature operation temperature operation
� � Structural categories Structural categories
� � Thickness Thickness
� � Location Location
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Hull Strength/Fatigue FEA Hull Strength/Fatigue FEA
� � Cargo / ballast tank area Cargo / ballast tank area
� � Hopper knuckle connection Hopper knuckle connection
� � Mooring structure and hull integration Mooring structure and hull integration
� � Riser porches and supporting structure Riser porches and supporting structure
� � Topsides support structure and hull integration Topsides support structure and hull integration
� � Flare tower support structure Flare tower support structure
� � Access tower support structure Access tower support structure
� � Offloading station support structure Offloading station support structure
� � Main crane pedestals and support structure Main crane pedestals and support structure
� � Helideck Helideck structure structure
� � Additional locations depending on vessel Additional locations depending on vessel
function and owners requirements function and owners requirements
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sFatigue Life Fatigue Life
Factors of Safety Factors of Safety
Substantial consequences of failure are defined as loss of life,
uncontrolled outflow of hazardous products, collision or
sinking and should include for progressive failure scenarios.
Note 1 Note 1 : includes external components which can be dry inspected / repa : includes external components which can be dry inspected / repaired. ired.
Note 2 Note 2 : includes external components below the minimum operating draft : includes external components below the minimum operating draft
which can only be inspected in water , but dry repairs could be which can only be inspected in water , but dry repairs could be carried out. carried out.
Inspectable/
Repairable
Fatigue Life Factor
Consequence of Failure
Non-substantial Substantial
Yes, dry
(see note 1)
1 2
Yes, wet
(see note 2)
2 4
No 3 10
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Typical Critical Areas Typical Critical Areas
Process Supports Process Supports
Stress Concentration Stress Concentration
Misalignment Misalignment
Welding Welding
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FPSO Fatigue Enhancement FPSO Fatigue Enhancement
Details (conversion) Details (conversion)
Examples of modification to hull longitudinal connection details Examples of modification to hull longitudinal connection details
Additional lug Additional lug
Longitudinal/Transverse frame Longitudinal/Transverse frame
connection connection
Additional Additional
bracket bracket
Longitudinal Longitudinal
Transverse frame Transverse frame
Shell plate Shell plate
Addition Addition
al al
bracket bracket
Transverse frame Transverse frame
Longitudinal Longitudinal
Shell plate Shell plate
Transverse frame Transverse frame
Longitudinal Longitudinal
Shell plate Shell plate
Additional Additional
bracket bracket
Within cargo and ballast Within cargo and ballast
tanks tanks
Item Item
Exten Exten
t t
Bottomand side shell (up to Bottomand side shell (up to
limit of wetted area) limit of wetted area)
Bilge area Bilge area and and side shell side shell
(up to limit of wetted (up to limit of wetted
Additional Lugs Additional Lugs
Additional Additional Bkts Bkts
area) area)
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Green Seas Green Seas
� � Rule Rule
requirements requirements
� � Model testing Model testing
� � Pressures Pressures
� � Breakwater Breakwater
� � Drainage Drainage
typ typ. .
8 8 - - 14m 14m
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Bottom Slamming Bottom Slamming
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Sloshing in Cargo Oil Tanks Sloshing in Cargo Oil Tanks
� � Tank Size Tank Size
� � Hull form Hull form
� � Environment Environment
� � Natural Periods Natural Periods
� � LR FLUIDS LR FLUIDS
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Typical Hull Protection System Typical Hull Protection System
High High
performance performance
coating coating
High performance coating + High performance coating +
cathodic cathodic protection system protection system
Water Water
ballast ballast
Max. W.L. Max. W.L.
Min. W.L. Min. W.L.
HPC HPC
+ +
SA SA
HPC HPC
Coating Coating
NB : Impressed NB : Impressed
current system current system
not allowed in not allowed in
Cargo oil Cargo oil
tanks tanks
Coating Coating
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Fabrication Tolerances and Welding Fabrication Tolerances and Welding
� tolerances should be in accordance with
good shipbuilding practice, and agreed with
LR
� special attention given to fatigue sensitive
areas
� enhanced NDE levels will be necessary for
identified fatigue sensitive areas
� assumptions used in analytical fatigue
assessments to be consistent with
construction
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NDE Testing of Welds NDE Testing of Welds - - general general
� � Intersection of butts and seams & section welds Intersection of butts and seams & section welds
� � Butt welds in plating Butt welds in plating
� � Seam welds in plating Seam welds in plating
� � Bilge keel butts Bilge keel butts
� � Structural items fabricated with full/part penetration Structural items fabricated with full/part penetration
welding welding (hopper knuckles, (hopper knuckles, sheerstrake, hatchway coamings)
� � Penetrations & attachments to hull Penetrations & attachments to hull (sea inlets, piping, anode (sea inlets, piping, anode
supports) supports)
� � Moonpool Moonpool integration structure integration structure
� � Topside support structure connections to hull structure Topside support structure connections to hull structure
� � Additional requirements for low temperature operations Additional requirements for low temperature operations
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FPSO some
In-service feedback
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FF1 FF1- -3c 3c
Some Design Life Issues Some Design Life Issues
� Holistic approach for project / good
communications
� Design for required service
� Compatibility of hull structural, systems and
topsides interfaces
� Production equipment for required service
� Marine equipment robustness, particularly
cargo/ballast and control/electrical systems
� OIWS requirements and corrosion protection
� Access arrangements
� Provision of spare parts
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Design Design- - Frequent areas of concern Frequent areas of concern
� Marine/offshore regulations and practices
� Topsides structure supports (alignment, motions)
� Hull vibration
� Crane specification and integration with hull
� Corrosion - general
� Access and escape routes compatibility
� Hazardous area and classification interfaces
� Piping systems (compatibility/flexibility)
� Topside equipment / motions / helicopter operations
� Marine / Topside system integration
� Use of GRP / FRP, pipework etc
� Wave impact and green sea loading
� Rudder and steering gear
� Laydown areas
� Effect of exhaust (heli-operations)
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Design Issues Design Issues - - Interfaces Interfaces
� � Interface Management is a critical influence on Interface Management is a critical influence on
project success project success
� � LR Project Manager provides interface between LR Project Manager provides interface between
design and class/certification processes design and class/certification processes
� � Technical interfaces to be developed include: Technical interfaces to be developed include:
� � Escape and access routing Escape and access routing
� � Hazardous area definition Hazardous area definition
� � Venting arrangements (clear of hazardous areas and for inspectio Venting arrangements (clear of hazardous areas and for inspection n
activities) activities)
� � Power generation and supply systems, normal and backup Power generation and supply systems, normal and backup
� � Bunding Bunding/prevention of spillage to main deck /prevention of spillage to main deck
� � Control System and alarm circuits Control System and alarm circuits
� � Crude oil pumping and piping system between vessel, process and Crude oil pumping and piping system between vessel, process and
offloading systems, including materials offloading systems, including materials
� � Fire Water, Cooling and Injection Water Fire Water, Cooling and Injection Water
� � Heating system, Compressed air supply Heating system, Compressed air supply
� � Topsides structure alignment at integration with deck Topsides structure alignment at integration with deck
� � Deck crane integration with hull structure Deck crane integration with hull structure
� � Mooring system integration with hull structure Mooring system integration with hull structure
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Structural Inspection Structural Inspection
� � Carried out on location Carried out on location
� � Provides detection / monitoring Provides detection / monitoring
capacity capacity
� � Annual, intermediate & major Annual, intermediate & major
surveys surveys
� � Major survey (5 years or continuous) Major survey (5 years or continuous)
� � IWS in lieu of dry docking IWS in lieu of dry docking
� � Internal survey Internal survey
� � cleaning & gas freeing cleaning & gas freeing
� � access arrangements/safety access arrangements/safety
� � lighting/ventilation lighting/ventilation
� � loading conditions loading conditions
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FPSO Incident History Examples FPSO Incident History Examples
� Hull Structure
� Shuttle tanker collision
� Bow Wave Impact Damage
� Tank Overpressurisation
� Seawater caisson
preferential Corrosion
� Integration of surface and
subsea corrosion protection
� Rudder/steering gear
� Marine Equipment
� Corrosion in cooling and
heating systems due to poor
fluid chemistry control
� Material problems on
seawater systems
� � Topsides Topsides
� � Vibration induced failures Vibration induced failures
� � Inadequate application of Inadequate application of
PFP PFP
� � Gas Turbine problems Gas Turbine problems
� � Produced Water Produced Water
Corrosion Corrosion
� � Damage due to wave Damage due to wave
impact (green water) impact (green water)
� � Cargo Venting System Cargo Venting System
failure failure
� � Pipework and Production Pipework and Production
Train Leakage Train Leakage
� � Riser / turret connections Riser / turret connections
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (:ï)
:,ï
International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
© :cc, OGP
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OGP Marine Risks Workshop Proceedings
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FPSO Incident History FPSO Incident History
Statistics (Reported) Statistics (Reported)
Ref : 22 vessels, approx 10 years of records Ref : 22 vessels, approx 10 years of records
See also See also Quantified Frequency of shuttle tanker collision during offtake Quantified Frequency of shuttle tanker collision during offtake operations operations, IMCA , IMCA
Vessel
System
Nature of Incident No. of
Incidents
Hull Structure failure in heavy weather 1
Other structural failure 3
Collision 6
Topsides Structural failure in heavy weather 3
Process equipment failure 2
Fire 0
Machinery Engine Room fire 2
Engine Room power failure 1
Main engine failure 1
Rudder / steering gear failure 3
Other Hydrocarbon release 2
Explosions 0
Loss of anchor(s) 1
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Vibration Damage Vibration Damage – – flare stack flare stack
Vortex vibrations @ Beaufort 4 Vortex vibrations @ Beaufort 4 - - 5 5
View A
View B
View A
View B
Turret Deckhouse
Brace on Port Side -
cracked over 180
o
at
connection to forward
chord.
Proposed
reinforcements - two
lateral braces.
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (:,)
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OGP Marine Risks Workshop Proceedings
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Mooring System Installation Mooring System Installation
� Problems Experienced
� Handling equipment failures
� Wire ropes
�Poor tension control
�Loops formed
�Bird caging
� Chains
�Lack of straightness
�Installed with twist
�Tangles & breakage
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Results from a Structural Survey Results from a Structural Survey
Example of Defect Example of Defect
Area Area
shown shown
Cargo/ballast tanks Cargo/ballast tanks
Defect Defect
B B B B
Locations Locations
on Side Shell on Side Shell
B B B
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (,c)
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International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
© :cc, OGP
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OGP Marine Risks Workshop Proceedings
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Typical Damage Typical Damage
Side shell longitudinal connection Side shell longitudinal connection
Crack Crack
Crack Crack
Shell Shell
longitudinal longitudinal
Shell Shell
plating plating
Face bar Face bar
Web frame Web frame
stiffener stiffener
Broken welding Broken welding
Web frame Web frame
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Examples of Internal Welded Examples of Internal Welded
Repairs Repairs
Side shell Side shell
Bulkhead Bulkhead
stiffener stiffener
Side longitudinal Side longitudinal
Fracture Fracture
locations locations
Transverse Transverse
bulkhead bulkhead
Stiffener Stiffener
Side shell Side shell
Pillar Pillar
stiffener stiffener
Additional lug Additional lug
Backing bracket Backing bracket
Side shell Side shell
Side Side
longitudin longitudin
al al
New New
longitudinal longitudinal
section section
Bulkhead Bulkhead
stiffener stiffener
Transverse bulkhead Transverse bulkhead
Additional Additional
radius bracket radius bracket
Stiffener with Stiffener with
soft toe soft toe
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (,:)
:o:
International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
© :cc, OGP
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OGP Marine Risks Workshop Proceedings
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Internal Repair Internal Repair - - Non Non- -Welded Welded
Hole drilled at crack Hole drilled at crack
termination termination
Bolted plates Bolted plates
Stiffener Stiffener
Frame Frame
Longitudinal Longitudinal
Facing Facing
plate plate
C
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Transverse Transverse
web frame web frame
Crack Crack
Local weld Grinding Local weld Grinding
Section of hull Section of hull
External girder External girder
reinforcement reinforcement
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End of LR
End of LR
Presentation
Presentation
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (,:)
:o:
International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
© :cc, OGP
:o,
OGP Marine Risks Workshop Proceedings
© :cc, OGP
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LR Contact Details LR Contact Details
Bob Boon
Business Development, Oil & Gas, London
Tel : 020 7423 2248
Fax : 020 7423 2066
e-mail : bob.boon@lr.org
Rob Potthurst
Offshore Floating Units, London
Tel : 020 7423 2314
Fax : 020 7423 2066
e-mail : robert.potthurst@lr.org
Tanker Conversions to FPSOs - Rob Potthurst, Lloyd’s Register (,,)
:o¡
International Association of Oil & Gas Producers
© :cc, OGP
:o,
OGP Marine Risks Workshop Proceedings
© :cc, OGP