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07/01/2013

MODELS OF QOS
• Identifying Models for Implementing QoS
• Introduction Models for Quality of Service • BestEffort • IntServ • DiffServ

Three Models for Quality of Service
• Best-Effort: No QoS is applied to packets. • IntServ: Applications signal to the network that they require special

QoS.
• DiffServ: The network recognizes classes that require special QoS.

Best-Effort Model

• Internet initially based on a

best-effort packet delivery service • The default mode for all traffic • No differentiation between types of traffic • Like using standard mail

It will get there when it gets there.

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) • Provides multiple service levels • Requests specific kind of service from the network before sending data • Uses RSVP to reserve network resources • Uses intelligent queuing mechanisms • End to end 2 .m.) + Benefits: • Highly scalable • No special mechanisms required – Drawbacks: • No service guarantees • No service differentiation IntServ Model • Some applications have special bandwidth or delay requirements or both • IntServ introduced to guarantee a predictable behavior of the network for these applications • Guaranteed delivery: no other traffic can use reserved bandwidth • Like having your own private courier plane It will be there by 10:30 a. IntServ Model (Cont.07/01/2013 Best-Effort Model (Cont.

policy object) • Signaling of dynamic port numbers (for example.07/01/2013 IntServ Model (Cont. H.) + Benefits: • Explicit resource admission control (end to end) • Per-request policy admission control (authorization object.to sevenday ground delivery? 3 .323) – Drawbacks: • Continuous signaling because of stateful architecture • Flow-based approach not scalable to large implementations such as the public Internet (can be made more scalable when combined with elements of the DiffServ model) DiffServ Model • Network traffic identified by class • Network QoS policy enforces differentiated treatment of traffic classes • You choose level of service for each traffic class • Like using a package delivery service Do you want overnight delivery? Do you want two-day air delivery? Do you want three.) • RSVP QoS services • Guaranteed-rate service • Controlled-load service • RSVP provides policy to QoS mechanisms IntServ Model (Cont.

) + Benefits: • Highly scalable • Many levels of quality possible – Drawbacks: • No absolute service guarantee • Complex mechanisms INTEGRATED SERVICE MODEL IntServ Model • IntServ provides end-to-end QoS service for applications.07/01/2013 DiffServ Model (Cont. 4 . • RSVP mechanism is used to provision end-to-end QoS treatment. • CAC is used through the network to ensure resource availability.

) • RSVP supports the following messages: • PATH • RESV • Error and Confirmation • Teardown IntServ Model (Cont.07/01/2013 IntServ Model (Cont.) • There are three types of QoS services offered by RSVP: • Best Effort • Guaranteed rate • Controlled load RSVP Components 5 .

07/01/2013 RSVP Interface Queuing Enabling RSVP • Enable RSVP • Router(config-if)ip rsvp bandwidth [interface-kbps] [single-flow-kbps] • Disabling Reserving Interface Resources • Router(config-if)ip rsvp resource-provider none • Disabling Packet Classification • Router(config-if)ip rsvp data-packet classification none IntServ and DiffServ Integration 6 .

DSCP Encoding • DiffServ field: The IP version 4 header ToS octet or the IPv6 traffic class octet.07/01/2013 Differentiated Services Model Differentiated Services Model • The Differentiated Services model describes services associated with traffic classes. • The goal is scalability. • The core only performs simple “per-hop behaviors” on traffic aggregates. when interpreted in conformance with the definition given in RFC 2474 • DSCP: The first six bits of the DiffServ field. • Complex traffic classification and conditioning is performed at the network edge. • No per-flow state in the core. used to select a PHB (forwarding and queuing method) 7 . resulting in a per-packet DSCP.

af3.) • EF PHB: • Ensures a minimum departure rate • Guarantees bandwidth (The class is guaranteed an amount of bandwidth with prioritized forwarding.) • DSCP value “101110”: looks like IP Precedence 5 to non-DiffServ- compliant devices • Bits 5 to 7: “101” = 5 (Same three bits used for IP Precedence) • Bits 3 to 4: “11” = drop probability high • Bit 2: Just “0” Per-Hop Behaviors (Cont. • Default PHB (FIFO.07/01/2013 Per-Hop Behaviors • DSCP selects PHB throughout the network.) • Polices bandwidth (The class is not allowed to exceed the guaranteed amount―excess traffic is dropped.) • AF PHB: • Guarantees bandwidth • Allows access to extra bandwidth. if available • Four standard classes (af1. and af4) • DSCP value range: “aaadd0” • Where “aaa” is a binary value of the class • Where “dd” is drop probability 8 . tail drop) • EF Expedited Forwarding • AF Assured Forwarding • Class-Selector (IP Precedence) PHB Per-Hop Behaviors (Cont. af2.

The manner must be specified.” 9 .) • Each AF class uses three DSCP values. minimum amount of forwarding resources (buffer space and bandwidth) per AF class. • Each AF class is independently forwarded with its guaranteed bandwidth. • Congestion avoidance is used within each class to prevent congestion within the class.) • A DiffServ node must allocate a configurable.07/01/2013 Per-Hop Behaviors (Cont. • Excess resources may be allocated between nonidle classes. Backward Compatibility Using the Class Selector • Class-Selector “xxx000” DSCP • Compatibility with current IP Precedence usage (RFC 1812) = maps IP Precedence to DSCP • Differentiates probability of timely forwarding (xyz000) >= (abc000) if xyz > abc • If a packet has DSCP = “011000.” it has a greater probability of timely forwarding than a packet with DSCP = “001000. • Reordering of IP packets of the same flow is not allowed if they belong to the same AF class. Per-Hop Behaviors (Cont.