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2 Fully Developed Flow in a Circular Tube Fully Developed Flow in a Circular Tube Equation (5-117) is the appropriate x-momentum equation for fully developed laminar flow in a circular tube. This differential equation is entered into Maple:

> restart; > ODE:=-dpdx+mu*diff(r*diff(u(r),r),r)/r;

d2 ⎛ d ⎞⎞ ⎞+r⎛ ⎜ ⎟ u ( r ) μ ⎜⎛ u( r ) ⎟ ⎟ 2 ⎜ dr ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎜⎜ d r ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎠ ODE := −dpdx + ⎝ r

**Maple will identify the solution using dsolve command:
**

> us:=dsolve(ODE);

dpdx r2 us := u( r ) = + _C1 ln( r ) + _C2 4μ

or: u= r 2 dp + C1 ln ( r ) + C2 4 μ dx (5-146)

The constants of integration, C1 and C2, are obtained by enforcing the boundary conditions. The velocity must remain bounded at the center of the tube; substituting r = 0 into Eq. (5-146) leads to:

ur =0 = C1 ln ( 0 ) + C2

(5-147)

**which can only be bounded if C1 = 0. This result is substituted into the Maple solution:
**

> us:=subs(_C1=0,us);

us := u( r ) =

dpdx r2 + _C2 4μ

The no slip condition is enforced at the tube surface: ur = D / 2 = 0 (5-148)

where D is the diameter of the tube. The value of C2 that satisfies Eq. (5-148) is determined symbolically and substituted into the solution in Maple:

> us:=subs(_C2=solve(rhs(eval(us,r=D/2))=0,_C2),us);

E14-1

(5-149) is a parabolic velocity distribution that is zero at the wall and reaches a maximum value at the centerline.2 Fully Developed Flow in a Circular Tube us := u( r ) = dpdx r2 dpdx D 2 − 4μ 16 μ Therefore.2 as: (5-153) E14-2 ..4. (5-151) is carried out in Maple: > um:=int(rhs(us)*2*Pi*r. Therefore. the fully developed velocity distribution in a round tube is: u= r 2 dp D 2 dp − 4 μ dx 16 μ dx (5-149) The pressure gradient will be negative in the direction of flow.E14: Section 5. (5-149) in order to express the velocity distribution in terms of the mean velocity: ⎡ ⎛ 2 r ⎞2 ⎤ u = 2 um ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎝D⎠ ⎥ ⎦ The friction factor for an internal flow is defined in Section 5.1. The mean velocity is defined in Section 5.2 as the single velocity that represents the flow rate: um = V Ac (5-150) The mean velocity can be obtained by integrating the velocity distribution over the tube crosssectional area: um = 1 Ac Ac ∫ u dA c (5-151) The integral in Eq.1. Eq.r=0. dpdx D 2 um := − 32 μ Therefore: D 2 dp um = − 32 μ dx (5-152) Equation (5-152) is substituted into Eq.D/2)/(Pi*D^2/4).

3. laminar flow in a circular tube presented in Section 5.2 Fully Developed Flow in a Circular Tube f =− dp 2 D 2 dx ρ um (5-154) Substituting Eq. (5-154) leads to: f = 32 μ um 2 D 2 2 D ρ um − dp dx (5-155) or f = 64 ReD (5-156) which is consistent with the friction factor for fully developed.4. (5-152) into Eq. E14-3 .2.E14: Section 5.

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