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R. M. T. Raja Ismail, M. A. Ahmad, M. S. Ramli, R. Ishak, and M. A. Zawawi Citation: AIP Conference Proceedings 1337, 118 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3592452 View online: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3592452 View Table of Contents: http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1337?ver=pdfcov Published by the AIP Publishing

This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation.aip.org/termsconditions. Downloaded to IP: 201.3.155.65 On: Sun, 01 Dec 2013 18:55:25

Extensive results that validate the theoretical derivation are presented in the time and frequency domains. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation. the results are evaluated with varying payloads of the gantry crane. Moreover. Keywords: Double-pendulum gantry crane. Moreover. M.edu.edu. In this study. doi: 10. the investigation on the effects of payload on the dynamic behaviour of the two-link flexible manipulator system has been presented. Research on the dynamic modelling of a system is crucial before any controller can be implemented to the system. the study of the dynamic modelling of the other vibratory system incorporating payload is also has been reported.edu. A.my. Under certain conditions. Then. hook swing angle and load swing angle responses of the system and the power spectral density (PSD) are obtained in both time and frequency domains. A dynamic model of the system incorporating payload is developed and the effects of payload on the response of the system are discussed. dynamic modelling.edu.1063/1.155. l1 and l2 are the cable length of the hook and load.org/termsconditions. 1: Description of the double-pendulum gantry crane system. 118-122 (2011). ruhaizad@ump.9]. Dynamic model and controls of double-pendulum gantry crane has been reported in [1. Fig.edu. Raja Ismail. respectively are given by Proceedings of the Fourth Global Conference on Power Control and Optimization AIP Conf. 1337.00 118 This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. R. In [5. mashraf@ump. The cart. the cart. respectively. This paper presents a generalised modelling framework that provides a closed-form dynamic equation of motion of a double-pendulum gantry crane system. the hook and load can be considered as point masses.2]. the problem is complicated when the payloads create a double pendulum effect. ș2 is the load swing angle. syakirin@ump. It is desired for the crane to transport the payloads to the required position as fast and as accurately as possible without collision with other equipment. Lagrangian method.my. 2. 3. In [7]. The underactuated mechanical system model that exhibits double-pendulum overhead crane and its control design is also investigated in [3. S. For simplicity. mohdanwar@ump. Pahang.DYNAMIC MODELLING OF A DOUBLE-PENDULUM GANTRY CRANE SYSTEM INCORPORATING PAYLOAD R.my Abstract The natural sway of crane payloads is detrimental to safe and efficient operation. To study the effect of payloads. Cart position. The simulation algorithm thus developed is implemented in Matlab. the total energy associated with the crane system needs to be computed using the Lagrangian approach [8. Proc. M. The tension force that may cause the hook and load cables elongate is also ignored. Ahmad.3. Downloaded to IP: 201. the modelling and reduction technique of doublependulum oscillation has been studied. Universiti Malaysia Pahang Lebuhraya Tun Razak. M. T. hook and payload position vectors.6]. Malaysia rajamohd@ump. Kuantan. ș1 is the hook swing angle.aip. the hook and the payload can be considered as point masses. 26300. Simulation results are analysed in both time and frequency domains to assess the accuracy of the model in representing the actual system.65 On: Sun. mh is the hook mass and mp is the payload mass. the EulerLagrange formulation is considered in characterizing the dynamic behaviour of the crane system. Ramli. and F is the cart drive force.my. Zawawi Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. where x is the cart position. The EulerLagrange principle is used to derive the dynamic model of the system. This paper presents dynamic modelling of a double-pendulum gantry crane system based on closed-form equations of motion. Based on Figure 1. the work presents the effect of payloads on the dynamic behaviour of the system. The Lagrangian method is used to derive the dynamic model of the system. mc is the cart mass. Dynamic Modelling of the Double-Pendulum Gantry Crane System To derive the dynamic equations of motion of the double-pendulum gantry crane system.3592452 © 2011 American Institute of Physics 978-0-7354-0893-7/$30. the cart friction force is ignored. 01 Dec 2013 18:55:25 . The Double-Pendulum Gantry Crane System The double-pendulum gantry crane system with its hook and load considered in this work is shown in Figure 1. 1. Introduction Gantry crane works as a robot in many places such as workshops and harbours to transport all kinds of massive goods. The cart and the payload are assumed to move in two dimensional only.my. A.4]. Ishak and M.

i ¹ ª º 0 « » G (q ) = «( m h + m p ) gl1 sin θ 1 » « m p gl 2 sin θ 2 » ¬ ¼ (9) (4) After rearranging (6) and multiplying both sides by M −1 . C(q.3 . respectively.3. P of the whole system are given by K =K cart +K hook +K payload P = P hook + P payload From (5). Centrifugal-Coriolis terms. 01 Dec 2013 18:55:25 . and are defined as ª mc + mh + m p « M (q ) = « ( m h + m p )l1 cos θ 1 « m p l 2 cos θ 2 ¬ ( m h + m p )l1 cos θ 1 ( m h + m p )l12 m p l1l 2 cos(θ 1 − θ 2 ) where g is the gravity acceleration. − l1 cos θ 1 − l 2 cos θ 2 ] d § ∂L · ∂L =F . From (4). q )q + G (q ) = F (6) where K 1 1 1 = m c rc2 . 0 ] rh = [ x + l1 sin θ 1 . In order to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the system incorporating payload. a set of three equations is obtained that is 119 This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. 2. Then. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation. q) ∈ ℜ 3×3 . the value of mp is varied from 1 kg to 10 kg. K and potential energy. the Lagrangian of the system is obtain as L = K −P º » m p l1l 2 sin(θ 1 − θ 2 )θ 1 » » 0 ¼ − m p l 2 sin θ 2θ 2 (8) (3) Then. P payload = − m p g (l1 cos θ 1 + l 2 cos θ 2 ) . − l1 cos θ 1 ] r p = [ x + l1 sin θ 1 + l 2 sin θ 2 .155. K hook = m h rh2 . K payload = m p r p2 . dt ¨ ∂θ 1 ¹ © 2 · ∂L ¸− ¸ ∂θ = 0 2 ¹ (5) The total kinetic energy. one obtains q = M −1 ( − C q − G + F ) where q is the state vector and F is the control vector which are defined as q = [x θ 1 F = [F 0 (10) θ 2 ]T 0] T where M −1 is guaranteed to exist due to det(M ) > 0 . and cart G(q) ∈ ℜ 3 represent the inertia. and gravity. the Euler-Lagrange formulation is used that is d dt § ∂L ¨ ¨ ∂q © i · ∂L ¸ ¸ − ∂q = Fi . where the matrices M(q) ∈ ℜ 3×3 .aip. q ) = « 0 «0 ¬ − ( m h + m p )l1 sin θ 1θ 1 0 − m p l1l 2 sin(θ 1 − θ 2 )θ 1 (1) P = − ( m h + m p ) gl 1 cos θ 1 − m p gl 2 cos θ 2 (2) Using the Lagrangian approach. Downloaded to IP: 201.org/termsconditions.65 On: Sun. ¨ ¸− dt © ∂x ¹ ∂x d dt § ∂L ¨ ¨ ∂θ © 1 · ∂L d § ∂L ¸− ¨ ¸ ∂θ = 0 .rc = [ x . In this study the values of the parameters are defined as tabulated in Table 1 [1]. 2 2 2 P hook = − m h gl1 cos θ 1 . the dynamic model of the double-pendulum gantry crane system can be expressed in the form of matrices such that M (q )q + C (q . i = 1. where F denotes the control force inputs acting on the x-direction of motion. the total kinetic energy and the total potential energy are obtained as K = 1 ( m c + m h + m p ) x 2 + ( m h + m p )l1 cos θ 1 xθ 1 2 1 1 2 2 θ2 + m p l 2 cos θ 2 xθ 2 + ( m h + m p )l12θ 12 + m p l 2 2 2 + m p l1l 2 cos(θ 1 − θ 2 )θ 1θ 2 º m p l 2 cos θ 2 » m p l1l 2 cos(θ 1 − θ 2 ) » (7) 2 » m pl2 ¼ ª0 « C (q .

a same control design can be used for several systems although they have different payloads.8 1. it is noted that the resonance frequency of the system which determines the frequencies of both hook and load swing angles was affected by variations in the payload. It demonstrates that the resonance modes of vibration of the system shift to higher frequencies with increasing payloads. Simulation Results In this section.8 0. This shows that. 2: Response of the cart position. these resonance frequencies do not affect much on the system since the mode 1 frequency is the dominant mode to the system.6 1. even though the payload is varied from 1 kg to 4 kg and has the same frequency of 0. various payloads of up to 10 kg weight were simulated. 120 This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract.4883 Hz when the payload is varied from 5 kg to 10 kg.6 -0. Besides. By comparing the results presented in Table 4. in order to Fig. the system has the same resonance frequencies of mode 1 that is 0.2 -0.65 On: Sun. 2 1.6 0. Downloaded to IP: 201.4 Hook swing angle (rad) 0.8 m-s–2 decrease the oscillation of the system.6 0. Table 2 summarizes the relation between payload and the cart position response. However. This result is significant since one does not have to redesign a controller if the payload is varied within the specific range. The hook swing angle and load swing angle responses of the system with the power spectral density (PSD) are obtained and evaluated.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (s) 14 16 18 20 mp = 1 kg mp = 5 kg mp = 10 kg 4.3662 Hz. It also shows that both hook and load swing angles have the same resonance frequencies of mode 1. Figure 2 shows the response of the cart position for various payloads. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation.4 0.155.8 0.Table 1: Parameter of the double-pendulum gantry crane Symbol mc mh mp l1 l2 g Parameter Cart mass Hook mass Payload mass Hook pendulum length Load pendulum length Gravity acceleration Value 5 kg 2 kg 1-10 kg 2m 1m 9. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the hook swing angle and load swing angle responses respectively with various payloads. 0.8 mp = 1 kg mp = 5 kg mp = 10 kg 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (s) 14 16 18 20 Fig 3: Response of the hook swing angle.2 0 -0. Table 3 shows the relation between payload and both hook and load swing angles.aip.4 -0.org/termsconditions. applied at the cart of the gantry crane. System responses are verified by undertaking computer simulation using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration method for duration of 20 s with a sampling time of 1 ms.4 Cart position (m) 1. the hook and the load swing angles have different resonance frequencies of mode 2.3.2 1 0. simulation results of the dynamic behaviour of the double-pendulum gantry crane system are presented in the time and frequency domains. It is noted that the average final position of the cart decreases and the chattering of the final position increases with increasing payloads. Besides. To demonstrate the effects of payload on the dynamic behaviour of the system. It is due to the sway of the payload is always follow the oscillation of the hook. 01 Dec 2013 18:55:25 . A bang-bang signal of amplitude 10 N and 1 s width is used as an input force. It is shown that the oscillations of the hook swing angle and the load swing angle decrease with increasing payloads. Table 4 summarizes the relation between payload and the resonance frequencies of the system. accelerate and then decelerate and eventually stop at a target location. initially. Figure 5 and Figure 6 show the corresponding PSDs for both hook swing angle and load swing angle. A bang-bang force has a positive (acceleration) and negative (deceleration) period allowing the cart to.

4063 ±0.4883 1.4883 1.5 2 2.3662 1.1 0.5472 ±0. A closedform finite dimensional dynamic model of the system has been developed using the Euler-Lagrange approach.343 0.5049 6 1.5 5 mp = 1 kg mp = 5 kg mp = 10 kg Fig 5: Power spectral density of the hook swing angle.3.3791 7 ±0.5 4 4. 30 20 10 PSD of the hook swing angle (dB) 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 0 0.3630 2 1.4883 1.709 0.4883 1.3662 1.3493 ±0.4883 1.465 10 0.3049 ±0.4883 1.4132 ±0.2813 ±0. 30 20 10 PSD of the load swing angle (dB) 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 0 0.5 3 Frequency (Hz) 3.aip.4883 1.5 1 1.3831 3 1.3080 ±0. Conclusion Investigation into the development of a dynamic model of a double-pendulum gantry crane system incorporating payload has been presented.465 5.5102 Table 3: Relation between payload and hook and load swing angles Payload Hook swing Load swing (kg) angle (°) angle (°) 0 1 ±0.9920 ±0.2305 ±0.099 2 0.2 0 -0.155.5091 9 1.3982 6 ±0.2919 ±0.6 Load swing angle (rad) 0.4883 1.221 6 0.465 0.4228 4 1.8521 ±0.465 0.4929 5 1.65 On: Sun.3662 1.4883 1.8826 2 ±0. Downloaded to IP: 201.4 0.221 0.6063 ±0.3244 9 ±0.3431 8 ±0.2333 ±0.221 4 0.343 0.4883 1.3662 1.4883 1.8419 ±0.6140 4 ±0.709 0.5 5 mp = 1 kg mp = 5 kg mp = 10 kg Fig 6: Power spectral density of the load swing angle.3662 1.343 9 0.587 0. 01 Dec 2013 18:55:25 .5100 10 1. The derived dynamic model has been simulated with Fig 4: Response of the load swing angle.5075 8 1.5 2 2.6940 ±0.2 -0.2902 Table 4: Relation between payload and resonance frequencies of the double-pendulum gantry crane system Resonance frequency (Hz) Payload Hook swing angle Load swing angle (kg) Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 1 Mode 2 0 1 0.4883 1.7418 3 ±0.7219 ±0.221 3 0.3770 ±0.5 1 1.3007 10 ±0.6 -0.099 0.5057 7 1.5 4 4.3662 1.5154 ±0.3662 1.221 5 0.8 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Time (s) 14 16 18 20 mp = 1 kg mp = 5 kg mp = 10 kg Table 2: Relation between payload and cart position response Payload Average cart Oscillation (kg) position (m) (m) 0 1 1.5 3 Frequency (Hz) 3. 121 This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract.org/termsconditions.3662 1.343 0.343 8 0.221 7 0.5319 5 ±0.4 -0.8 0.9151 ±0.9145 ±0. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation.

Moreover. W. T. Q. Robot Modeling and Control.bang-bang force input. 2004. 422-427. Dynamic Modelling of a Two-link Flexible Manipulator System Incorporating Payload.3. pp. Mohamed and N. and System. Kim and W. M. 1999. The 8th International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control. International [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Journal of Control. Of the Third International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. These results are very helpful and important in the development of effective control algorithms for a double-pendulum gantry crane system with varying payload. Proc. Double-pendulum-type Overhead Crane Dynamics and its Adaptive Sliding Mode Fuzzy Control. [3] D. W. 122 This article is copyrighted as indicated in the abstract. 423-428. Reduction of DoublePendulum Bridge Crane Oscillations. Reuse of AIP content is subject to the terms at: http://scitation. No. No. A.155. Automation. Vol. Hutchinson and M. W. 1997. Singhose. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 2006. Spong. Underactuated Mechanical Systems. 792-801. GA-based Composite Sliding Mode Fuzzy Control for Double-pendulum-type Overhead Crane. Kenison and W. References [1] D. S. M. Spong. 2008. 32. D. 2006. Yi. 2005. 2006. B. Vol. Q. hook swing angle and load swing angle responses of the gantry system have been obtained and analysed in time and frequency domains. Yi. 6. 6. Hambali. Guo and J. Zhao. P. P.org/termsconditions. Control Problems in Robotics and Automation. M. Z. Ahmad. Singhose. New Jersey: John Wiley. D. Dynamics and Stable Control for a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems. 1999 IEEE Conference on Control Applications. Liu. M. pp. 35-43. Guo and J. London: Springer-Verlag. Vidyasagar. W. 3. The cart position. W. 3rd IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications. 300-305. 1. T. Q. Q. Liu. [2] D. P. pp. Yi and D. Input Shaper Design for Double-pendulum Planar Gantry Cranes. pp.aip. 2008. Liu. Liu. 96-101. Springer Berlin. Guo and J. 01 Dec 2013 18:55:25 . Yi. P. Downloaded to IP: 201. Acta Automatica Sinica. T. pp. Guo and J. pp. W. Dynamics and GA-based Stable Control for a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems.65 On: Sun. T. the effects of payload on the dynamic characteristic of the system have been studied and discussed.

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