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Threshold 1990

Threshold 1990
Council of Europe Conseil de I'Europe

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J. A. van Ek and]. L. M. Trim

CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS

M. USA 10 Stamford Road. no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press and the Council of Europe.P U B L I S H E D BY T H E P R E S S S Y N D I C A T E O F T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F C A M B R I D G E The Pitt Building. United Kingdom CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS The Edinburgh Building. Cambridge A catalogue record for this book is availablefrom the British Library Library ofcongress Cataloguing in Publication data appliedfor ISBN 0 521 56706 8 paperback . Trumpington Street. United Kingdom 40 West 20th Street. Oakleigh. Trim 0 Council of Europe 1991 This revised and corrected edition first published 1998 0Council of Europe This book is in copyright.L. Austrailia First published as Threshold 1990 by Jk van Ek and J. Cambridge CB2 2RU. Melbourne 3166. Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press. NY 10011-4211. Cambridge CB2 IRP. NewYork. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements.

V Table of contents Page Preface Introduction The objective: levels of specificity The objective: general characterisation The objective: extended characterisation The objective: components of the specification Language functions General notions Specific notions Verbal exchange patterns Dealing with texts: reading and listening Writing Socioculturalcompetence Compensation strategies 13 Learning to learn 14 Degree of skill 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 4 10 1 1 12 22 27 48 59 82 88 92 94 103 107 112 115 125 157 178 APPENDICES A Pronunciation and intonation B Grammatical summary c Word index D Subject index .

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Preface Threshold is the latest. It then made recommendations as to the language needed to express functions and notions concerned. consciously and explicitly. The Threshold Level has been used on a large scale by the designers of syllabuses of all kinds: for curricular reform. Since 1975. large-scale educational systems have to base their provision on learners’ common needs. Functional and notional categorisation has been fully assimilated into the established framework of language learning and teaching. was that the apparatus of sentence formation. as has the framework of . but as means to communicative ends. The selection of situations and topics. for textbook writing and course design. or argue about. in principle. and to conduct the necessary business of everyday living when abroad with a reasonable degree of independence. rather than the error-freeperformance of formal exercises. What was revolutionary for language teaching. or by the freer use of words in grammatical constructions. for examination development. Communicative effectiveness becomes the criterion by which the learners’ success (and that of the teaching programme) is to be judged. first published by the Council of Europe in 1975as part of a project to investigate the feasibility of a unitlcredit system for adult language learning in Europe. The Project Group set out to develop conceptual and planning instruments to assist teachers and course planners to analyse the needs of the learners towards whom they had responsibilities and to set. corrected and reset version of The Threshold Level by Dr. be as diverse as the learners and the lives they lead. and in general conduct personal relations in daily life. exchanging information and opinions on everyday matters in a relatively straightforward way. however. The Threshold Level was the first attempt to set out in systematic detail just what such an objective implies in terms of the situations the learners might have to deal with and what they should be able to do by means of language in those situations . van Ek. whether through the set formulae in which every language abounds. extended. J. the grammar and lexicon. A. appropriate learning objectives. The effect was to ‘convertlanguage teaching from structuredominated scholastic sterility into a vital medium for the freer movement of people and ideas’with an emphasis on the use of language in direct person-tu-person encounters. has stood the test of time reasonably well. However.what feelings and ideas they would need to express. were not seen as ends in themselves. By far the largest single group of language learners everywhere consists of people who want to prepare themselves to communicate socially with people from other countries. with the associated specific notions. Learning objectives will. thoroughly revised. or ask about.

Spanish. It was. Lebanese. I1 Levels (1987). On the basis of these preliminary studies. co-ordinated by the Project Adviser. Norwegian. Danish.These versions have not been mere translations. Galician. A. French. Users have invariably adapted it accordingly and have always felt free to use their own judgement. In each case the priority objectives have necessarily taken account not only of the semantic categories obligatorily represented in the grammar of the language concerned. Portuguese. learner. was concerned with the personal and social development of the learner. Italian. Working teams were set up. In 1979 it set up a working party to consider an overall model for the specification of language learning objectives more complex than those set out in the threshold level documents. Coste. Chapter 6 . van Ek was commissioned to organise the various elements into an overall model for the specification of language learning objectives. His study: Objectivesfor Foreign Language Learning was published by the Council of Europe in two volumes: Vol. Maltese.linguistic competence . One. analogous descriptions have been published for Basque. The second. It is most likely that others will follow. Dutch. The papers produced were published by the Council of Europe in 1984. The Threshold Level is not itself a syllabus but a statement of objectives. he presents a Frameworkfor comprehensive foreign language learning objectives distinguishing the following components: communicative ability: . the researchers concerned have frequently contributed new ideas to the development of the basic model. apparent to the Project Group responsible for the Council of Europe Modern Languages Projects 4 and 12 that the existing model for the specification of objectives did not exhaust the objectives which language learners should set themselves. In addition. but also of the differences in the cultural concept. as Towards a more comprehensiveframeworkfor the definition of language learning objectives. Friulian.In Vol. Russian. German. co-ordinated by D. Holec. I Scope (1986)and Vol. taking into account the development of the individual as a communicator.discourse competence . Catalan. Over the years. Those for Greek and Irish are approaching completion and work has started on Czech and Hungarian. Estonian. and to consider the nature and educational implications of each of its components. however. together with analytical summaries by the c o ordinators and a 'consolidated report' by the Project Adviser. I. adding and subtracting categories and exponents as they have seen fit.2 P R E F A C E general notions and functions less closely tied to particular situations. Latvian.Lithuanian.sociolinguistic competence . J. Swedish and Welsh. social subject and person. was concerned with the development of the learner as a communicator and as a learner. co-ordinated by H.

It will. collectively. which was undertaken in 1989-90 and published as Threshold Level 1990.’ J. BBC English and the British Council. the Council of Europe commissioned a thorough revision. M. A. Among its priority themes in the area of language learning and teaching methodology was ‘revising the original threshold level specification as applied to English to take account of developments in the 15 years since it was conceived as a first pioneering experiment’.socio-cultural competence - social competence optimal development of personality: . “Thank you all”.cognitive development .This edition is closely based upon that publication. A number of institutions concerned with the promotion of English as a foreign language: the British Council. L. Accordingly. directly or indirectly. We should like to take this opportunity of thanking them warmly for this. . We wish here to aclcnowledge our indebtedness to L. have contributed to our study is so large that we can only say to them. Alexander for his contributions to the original specification.affective development Following the successful completion of Project 12 in 1987.the Council for Cultural Cmperation of the Council of Europe launched a further Project: Lunguage learningfor European citizenship. the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate and BBC English expressed their readiness to support the work of revising and extending both The Threshold Level and Waystage. G. Trim Acknowledgement The Council of Europe wishes to acknowledge the important financial contribution made to this work by the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate. echoing van Ek’s Introduction to the 1986 volume: ‘one of the results of many years of intensive collaboration and genuine interaction with colleagues from several European countries brought together in the framework of successive modern language projects of the Council of Europe. be seen that the present work is. van Ek J.strategic competence .P R E F A C E 3 . The number of those who in some way or other. however. but the opportunity has been taken to make corrections and to improve the presentation.

and. their motivation is assumed to be practical rather than academic.those who have acquired some familiarity with the foreign language but feel they need a fresh start). It cannot.It has to provide for contacts with native speakers of English as well as with native speakers of other languages who use English as an international medium of communication. And. in fact. Finally. if so desired. which in the late 1970s and early 1980s actually attracted such numbers. finally.They are interested in acquiring a general basic ability in English even though. there are hundreds of millions of people for whom English is the key that may unlock the door of the space assigned to them by birth and upbringing. it has to be manageable within a reasonable time by at least the large majority of those who are prepared to make a genuine effort. It is for this target group that Threshold Level 1990 has been developed. A command of this language will enable them to extend their mental horizons beyond almost any geographical or cultural limitations. also physically to cross the threshold into the world outside. however large this minority . individually. 2 Criteria An objective designed for such numbers as referred to above has to be flexible enough to allow of a large variety of concretisations in accordance with the specific circumstances of different groups or individuals. They will be genuine beginners or swalled ‘falsebeginners’ (i. therefore.4 Introduction 1 Target Group Spread all over the world. each of them may have their own specific needs and wishes and many of them may eventually want to go much further than this basic level.e. directly cater for such needs and interests as are shared by only a minority of this group. It has to be suitable for utilisation in the design of courses for mass audiences as well as in the development of learning materials tailored to satisfy the needs of small groups or individuals. An objective for a target group as large and varied as the one we have in mind is necessarily based on assumptions as to what communicative needs the members of this group are likely to have in common. hundreds of millions are prepared to make an effort to this purpose has been shown by the success of the BBC’Smulti-media course Follow Me!. That.

Collectively. In this respect. they constitute the general basic ability which we have attempted to describe and specify in this objective. In using English for professional purposes. then. Threshold Level 1990 is also an appropriate objective for those who wish to be able to use English particularly for professional purposes. the ability to use English. in the present section.are included in Threshold Level 1990. this ability is required by all those who wish to use English with a certain measure of confidence in a range of ‘normal’ communication situations. the writing component may be . to express reasons why and conditions under which something may come to pass and to understand others doing so. Also. first and foremost. At the same time. and to express them. text types of a professional nature may be added to the reading component. on behalf of those who wish to learn English particularly for professional purposes. preferences. And then. i.Yet. In our view. it has further potential. All these elements of communicative ability .e. they will also need experience in coping with the inevitable occurrence of situations which overtax their linguistic or sociocultural resources. in situations for which it is never possible to predict exactly what one will need to be able to say or write and what one will be required to understand. Through its comprehensive system of categorisation and the opensndedness of the various specificationsit offers virtually unlimited possibilities for such expansions as may serve the purposes of particular sub-groups of the target population. Not only may the various categories be separatelyexpanded. Thus. 3 Adaptability By way of exemplification we shall consider. the ability to use English for professional purposes is. As a general objective Threshold Level 1990 does not specifically cater for the needs of this sub-group.and many more . present and future events. etc. people will have to be able to ask questions and to provide information. they will have to be familiar with certain social conventions and common assumptions inherent in manners of expression in the English language. no less than for any other purpose. to elicit opinions. However. for instance. and they will need to be aware of how cultural differences may be reflected in communicative behaviour. of course. namely those who will have to use the foreign language particularly for professional purposes.I N T R O D U C T I O N 5 may be. to refer to past. but several of them contain slots for the insertion of further (sets of) elements. views. it would fall short of its purpose if it did not at least provide a framework in which any expansions required for such sub-groups might be harmoniously accommodated. the relevance of Threshold Level 1990 to the needs of what is likely to be a substantial subgroup of the overall target population.

and how many of them. etc. through the contacts it provides with another culture. How this flexibility is to be exploited. the topic specification may be supplemented with further topics of professional interest. For the learning of a foreign language is an educational experience which may benefit the learners in several different ways.The main difference is that now those . not only in the foreign language but also in their native language. The Threshold Level in a European unit/credit systemfor modern language learning by adults. etc. Strasbourg 1986. If viewed in the perspective of permanent education. it may prepare them to function more effectively in social contacts. as well as on the educational views of those who provide the course and/or of those who take it. Objectivesfor Foreign Language Learning. VoZ. depends on the educational context in which the course is offered and/or taken. foreign language learning may contribute to the development of the learners’ understanding of the complexities of personal interaction. 4 Flexibility As was also claimed in the previous section. In this respect it corresponds to its predecessor. play an essential role in widening the learners’ horizon. If undertaken as part of an overall educational programme. depends to a large extent on the educational context in which the learning of the foreign language takes place and the effects that this learning is meant to produce.6 I N T R O D U C T I O N expanded as required.Which of these learning effects. a foreign language course may equip the learners with skills and insights that will facilitate the subsequent expansion of their ability in the foreign language or the subsequent learning of one or more other foreign languages. first published by the Council of Europe in 1975. are explicitly or implicitly aimed at in a foreign language course. Many more of the potential benefits of foreign language learning are listed in van Ek. in stimulating their awareness of the potential validity of different value systems. categorising and expressing experience. foreign language learning may. If pursued in a social context. 1: Scope. 5 What is new in Threshold Level 1990 Threshold Level 1990 is designed to fit into a wide variety of educational contexts and to suit a wide variety of learning aims. and open-ended lists within the topics can be filled in accordancewith the needs and interests of particular learner groups. Threshold Level 1990 has a high degree of internal flexibility. of different ways of organising.

Thus. that in practice this will not appear to be the case.Some of the improvements have been designed to make the specification more accessible.They include rearrangements in the classification of the language functions. the addition of two new categories of language functions. such as the explicit treatment of selected intonation patterns. and the introduction of several open-ended items in the list of specific notions. and a ‘learning-tdearn’component. As authors of a new threshold-level version we are particularly indebted to all those who. 6 Learning load Threshold Level 1990 has more components than the old one and in some cases . The new components are largely concerned with the acquisition of strategies and the development of insights and awareness. compensation strategies. At first sight. for instance. since the original version for English came out. In addition. it might seem as if it represents a heavier learning load. however. Such changes and additions as distinguish Threshold Level 1990 from its predecessor result from experiences gained in various applications of the original version and from the further development of insights into the nature of communicativeability and implications of this for educational practice. Threshold Level 1990 includes discourse strategies.I N T R O D U C T I O N 7 components of communicative ability which particularly allow it to be related to a wider educational context are identified and explicitly incorporated into the objective.Their incorporation will have a qualitative rather than a quantitative effect. a sociocultural component. It does not necessarily increase the number of learning items.It will also mean that learning tasks will have to be made .it requires more of the learners than its predecessor did. Based on the same model. then. Much of this we owe to the rich literature bearing on ‘communicativelanguage learning and teaching’ that has been produced in the last 15years or so. It will involve. ‘structuring discourse’and ‘communicationrepair’. have undertaken the development of parallel versions for other European languages. the selection of texts not only for (pragma-)linguistic relevance but also for sociocultural relevance or for relevance with regard to ‘coping strategies’. a redesigned grammatical summary and the provision of a subject index. each of these versions bears witness to the application of fresh insights to the specification of communicative objectives. but it will affect the presentation and practice of these items.particularly ‘reading’and ‘listening’. it contains numerous major and minor improvements in the specification of those categories which were already distinguished in the original Threshold Level as well as certain adjustments reflecting differences in assumptions as to foreign language needs in the 1990s as compared to the 1970s. Other changes are of a more fundamental nature. It is our assumption.

.. 1 Foreign Languages in Adult and Continuing Education.or the intensive practice of ‘receptive skills’ .. Bonn-Frankfurt 1987. The increased flexibility of Threshold Level 1990 makes an assessment of the learning load in terms of ‘an average number of learning hours’ even more difficult than it used to be.’ It concerns the development of sociolinguistic awareness and appropriate strategies and consists of three steps: exposure to a variety of situations in which such features as participant roles. Specificationsfor Stage 3 Level ofthe International CertiJcate Conference Language Certificate System: English. significantly influence the choice of language-forms. compensation strategies and learning-tolearn. In fact. what we propose in Threshold Level 1990 is much more in agreement with current educational practice than the more modest requirements of the original Threshold Level. Deutscher Volkshochschul-Verband e. On the contrary: it is increasingly recognised that frequent exposure to texts . reflection. In these cases various concretisations are possible in accordance with the needs and interests of individual learners or groups of learners.a I N T R O D U C T I O N transparent enough for the learner to understand how the performance of these tasks may contribute to the achievement of his or her aims. The promotion of the development of various types of insight and awareness will require the introduction of teaching/learning procedures which are not yet commonly found in language courses. One such procedure is described in the recently developed ‘Stage 3 level’ brochure of the International Certificate Conference. The nature of these concretisations may very well affect the weight of the overall learning load and consequently the number of hours required to master it. we assume. The introduction of such a procedure into a language course. If pressed to give a general indication.V. No more do higher demands with regard to ‘reading’and ‘listening’ necessarily increase the actual overall learning load. third draft. will make learning more effective rather than more demanding. discussion.will contribute substantially to the efficient development of productive ability as well. communicative goal. etc. This is particularly due to the inclusion of a fairly large number of open-ended items in the list of topic-related specific notions and to the comparatively low level of specificity in the description of such ‘new’components as sociocultural competence. stimulating awareness of this influence through observation. involving the learner in similar situations for active practice. setting.

enabling them to operate in the foreign language with the same measure of freedom as Threshold Level 1990 is meant to provide. in a separate publication. Also. 7 Waystage 1990 The estimated learning load for Threshold Level 1990 may appear to be very formidable indeed. We therefore provide. we would not wish to maintain that the achievement of a lower level of communicative ability than Threshold Level 1990 could not be very much worthwhile to learners. we can only say. It is a coherent objective in its own right. that we assume the learning load for Threshold Level 1990 to be similar to that for its predecessor and that there is some evidence that. .to reach the older objectives. And it is not unreasonable to expect that many of those who have first reached the lower objective may be encouraged by the experience of successful learning to undertake the further learning effort that will take them to Threshold Level 1990. particularly to learners with only little educational experience.For beginning learners who are unable or unwilling to commit themselves right from the start to the expenditure of time and energy required for the higher objective. The learning load of Waystage 1990is estimated to be about half of that required for Threshold Level 1990.Waystage 1990 may be an acceptable alternative. it is our aim to encourage people to learn a foreign language rather than to deter them from doing so.Yet. at this stage.is based on the same model and contains the same components. a less demanding objective under the name of Waystage 1990. offering the learners a level of ability that may serve many of their language purposes without.including independent work . however. absolute beginners need an average of 375 learning hours . with adequate guidance. Waystage 1990 has been derived from Threshold Level 1990.I N T R O D U C T I O N 9 nevertheless.

curriculum planners. or at three levels of specificity: 1 General characterisation 2 Extended characterisation 3 Specification The general characterisationis meant as an overall description for rapid orientation. The specification is a fully detailed description meant for course designers. etc. including the learners themselves. test constructors. .10 1 The objective: levels of specifilcity The objective will be formulated in three stages. The extended characterisation is a detailed description for all potentially interested parties.

using English as a common means of communication. requiring the understanding of the gist and/or relevant details of written or spoken texts. including practical transactions in everyday life. when encountering written or spoken texts in the foreign language. . particularly: situations. or temporary residents in. the learners will be able to use the foreign language in such a way as to cope with the (principallylinguistic)requirements of those situations they are most likely to find themselves in. when dealing with foreign visitors or temporary residents in their own country. requiring a largely predictable language use. including those made in business contacts. a country where the foreign language is used for general communication purposes. in contact with native or with non-native speakers of the foreign language in another foreign country. enabling the learners to establish and to maintain social contacts.11 2 The objective: general characterisation As temporary visitors to. situations involving indirect communication. situations involving personal interaction.

Chapter 12). 1. Learners should be able to understand and answer questions concerning: personal identification (cf. etc.1. etc. 1.1 Contacts with officials In all contacts with officials learners should be able to ask for repetition. 4 Police. real or toy weapons.) 1 . etc.1.1 Immigration Learners should be able to understand and complete necessary documentation.12 3 The objective: extended characterisation 1 Learners will be able to cope with transactional situations of everyday life requiring a largely predictable use of language. Learners should be able to understand and answer necessary questions concerning: whether they have dutiable items to declare the contents of their luggage and the value of items where they have come from and where they have acquired items of property whether items are for personal use or as gifts or for commercial use 1.g.3 Security officers Learners should be able to understand and answer questions covering: the contents of their hand-baggage whether their baggage contains specified items (e.1. electronic equipment.12) the duration and purpose of their visit 1. 1 . of any information. questions or documents not understood. and should be able to ask for the services of an interpreter and/or legal adviser in case of serious difficulty (cf. traffic wardens. understand and answer questions concerning: . Learners should be able to: .l-1. clarification and explanation.l.2 Customs officers Learners should be able to understand and complete necessary documentation.Chapter 7.

2. assault. type and size of rooms . about accommodation to rent.their recent actions . repairs and maintenance as required make oral and written complaints to landlord .g. etc. e. 2 .details of any vehicle they drive .personal identification .local taxes. or on arrival at a hotel.. complete registration forms complain and secure rectification of poor service.an accident.the charges. 1 .the cost (perweek. query bills. complete departure procedures. guest house. etc.2 1.the number.g. water. electricity. malfunctioning equipment. camp site. etc. month or year) and terms of letting .) summon police assistance in the case of emergency (e. 2 Accommodation for temporary residents Learners should be able to: enquire. .) (See also 1.g. gas. etc.their intentions and reasons for acting apologise and ask for understanding of their position in case of minor infringements of regulations ask questions and understand the answers given regarding regulations (parking. robbery) 1.) Accommodation for visitors Learners should be able to: book accommodation by letter or telephone enquire about the nature and availability of accommodation in travel agents.the arrangements for repairs and maintenance make and confirm inventories of contents and their condition make arrangements for and supervise household removal make arrangements for services.details of any property lost or stolen .1 Arrangements for accommodation (See Specific Notions 2.11‘Findingthe way’.1-6. furniture and household equipment) .public access to buildings. in writing or speech.3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N 13 . etc. services and amenities provided (e.

etc. return faulty. etc. food.14 3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N 1. menus. conditions of travel) order. 1 . timetables. etc. query and pay for tickets (e. refund. dates).g. departmental stores. enquire whether service and tax are included query and complain of slow service. single or return. ask for a (particular)table order food and drink ask and understand answers to questions on the nature and preparation of dishes ask for bill. times. poor food. etc. magazines. types and conditions of sale of tickets) enquire as to cost.g. 5 Using public transport Learners should be able to: read publicised information (e. etc. 1 . . buses.3 Arrangements for meals Learners should be able to: read and understand advertisements of restaurants. etc. cost. etc. etc. discuss the relative merits of accommodation. waiting time.duration. of planes. route. overcharging. ships.destination.g. trains. routes ofjourneys discuss relative merits of different means of transport and companies (e. ask whether goods are available and where they are to be found discuss the nature and relative merits of particular choices of goods negotiate prices and understand conditions of sale make payments and if necessary query prices. for shops and consumer goods read for gist simple explanatory documentation on the nature. use and conditions of sale of goods read signposting in supermarkets. addition of bills. class of travel. enquire as to location of gates/bays/platforms/quays.reserve seats. etc. etc. 4 Shopping:buying consumer goods Learners should be able to: read advertisements in newspapers. prices. inappropriate or unwanted goods and negotiate replacement.

parcels.g. report loss of or damage to luggage and property 1.first and second class. 8 Visiting public places (museums.) 1.) enquire about opening times.) 1.1 Using public services Post office Learners should be able to: read simple published regulations. counter signs. brochures of particular institutions.4. Finding the way. discos.Contacts with police. (e. etc. water. etc. registered and express post. and 1. or purchase at time of admission enquire about facilities and amenities (toilets. position and nature of seats book tickets in advance.7 Using information services Learners should be able to: make personal and telephone enquiries 1 . stadiums. posters. handbills. for specific information enquire about postage rates. etc.9. etc. and their terms and conditions Using private transport (car) Leaners should be able to: read. traffic warden. etc. prices of admission. programmes. letters.6 (fortemporary residents) enquire about the existence of special rates. telegrams and fax facilities) .3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N 15 register luggage for despatch. oil. postcards.1.theatres. destination categories. (newspaper entertainment guides.9 1.11. use left luggage facilities. etc. air and services at service stations report and secure repair of mechanical faults and breakdowns exchange necessary car and insurance details in case of accident (Seealso 1. performance times.) Learners should be able to: read publicised guides to tourist attractions. query and complete documentation for car hire read mandatory and advisory official road signs obtain petrol. etc.refreshments.

teaching. postal and money orders complete customs declarations. etc.9. specialisms. signposting of hospital departments.26. credit cards. registration forms. canteen meals. at mealtimes.) 1.ofARELS.16 3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N purchase stamps.2 Telephone Learners should be able to: read instructions on use of telephone consult telephone directories (including yellow pages) use telephone directory enquiries (Seealso Language Functions 5. British Council and particular teaching institutions and language schools) and follow admission procedures understand and use target language as medium of instruction and as language of social interaction in English language classes and among learners during breaks. 1 As students: learners should be able to: . etc. currency regulations and exchange rates) enquire about exchange rates for notes/travellers’ cheques enquire about use of cheques. 1 . study facilities. etc.g. set up and use bank accounts 1 . accommodation.21-5.consultation hours. 4 Medical services Learners should be able to: read notices (e. report and discuss problems relating to learning.9. 1. social activities.3 Bank Learners should be able to: read public notices (especiallyservice tills. etc.g. 1 0 .10 Educational services (fortemporary residents) read brochures (e. 9 . (for temporary residents) enquire about. instructions to patients) ask for hospital or general practitioner appointment (by telephone) explain nature of complaint and answer questions on place and nature of ache or pain and other symptoms understand instructions for treatment at the time and subsequently obtain medication from pharmacist 1.

from employment agencies)about the nature.3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N 17 discuss and enter for examinations read examination regulations.g. etc.11 Finding the way Learners should be able to: read maps (road maps. equipment required) make day-today arrangements for school attendance read simple notes and reports on children’s progress attend parent/teacher meetings to discuss children’s progress 1. the destination of a bus or train. and other direction signs and instructions) enquire from officials. tube and bus networks.job description.g.1 As temporary residents learners should be able to: seek work permits. as required enquire (e.g. 2 As parents: learners should be able to: enquire about arrangementsloptions for the publiclprivate education of their children (e. types of school.12 Communicating at work 1. dates of terms. length of notice) read employment advertisements write letters of application and attend interviews giving written or spoken information about own personal data. etc. train. entry requirements. 1 0 . pay. where a particular road or railway line leads to. rubrics and questions 1 .12. colleagues and subordinates . hours of work. service station staff or members of the public how to get to certain destinations. qualifications and experience and answer questions about them understand and follow joining procedures understand and ask questions concerning the tasks to be performed on starting work understand safety and security regulations and instructions report an accident and make an insurance claim make use of welfare facilities communicate appropriately with superiors. free time and holidays. availability and conditions of employment (e. cost. give similar information to others 1.

and to understand the expression of.13 Private hospitality (SeeLanguage functions. known or newly met. sports and social clubs.) 1.2 as guest.ia 3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N participate in the social life of the enterprise or institution (e.1 as host. opinions. a learner should be able to assist an English-speaking (nativeor non-native)person with the tasks listed above. to: reply appropriately to accept or decline spoken and written invitations exchange greetings with host and other guests. views.13. socialising.12. canteen. to: issue an invitation.13. making or confirming travel arrangements as required 2 In the sphere ofsoaal interaction the learner has the ability: to exchange information to express. wishes to agree upon and carry out ccloperative actions The above in relation to topics of personal and of general interest.g.2 As a member of the host community. written or spoken greet and introduce guests explain about features of domestic arrangements follow social routines and exercise socialising functions exchange information and opinions on personal and social themes receive or exchange souvenirs or small gifts say goodbye to guests and react appropriatelyto expressions of appreciation 1. etc. 1. emotions. whether introduced or not follow social routines and exercise socialising functions exchange information and opinions on personal and social themes offer flowers or small gifts express appreciation of hospitality given take leave. particularly: personal life and circumstances . attitudes.) A learner should be able: 1.

choosing degree of formality/informality. e. provided with titles. touching. in accordancewith normal conventions of politeness. contact ending. 3 The learner can understand the gist and/or relevant details of written and of spoken texts which have the following characteristics: they are relevant to the situations listed under (1) above or to the topics under (2) above they have a clear structure. other than ‘generalEuropean culture’ they are produced in an easily accessible form: .g. etc.written texts are clearly printed and.) . both conceptually and formally the information contained in them is exclusively or mainly offered explicitly their understanding requires no or only little familiarity with a foreign culture.kissing.). (See Chapter 11. current events weather languages. significant roles of gesture and mime. see Chapter 7. linguistic:verbal ways of drawing attention. non-linguistic: physical contact (hand-shaking.3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N 19 living conditions trade. when appropriate. places.turn taking. shopping. language problems For details. profession. in the standard pronunciation or a close approximation of this.spoken texts are produced with minimal acoustic distortion. . etc. prices eating and drinking social relations politics. ways of addressing.. illustrations etc. and at a speech rate which is in the lower range of what is normal 4a In connection with (1) and (2) above the learner is familiar with relevant social conventions. Specific Notions. paragraphing. regions. etc. occupation education freetime activities travelling. language learning. sights consumer goods.

the culture of the major.and.) eating and drinking rituals acceptance and refusal rituals 5 In connection with (3)above the learner can use appropriate interpretation strategies both as a reader and as a listener. strategies for ‘getting one’s meaning across’ in spite of inadequate command of the linguistic code strategies for deriving meaning from texts in spite of the occurrence of unknown elements strategies for enlisting the communication partner’s help in solving communication problems . acceptable conversation topics.20 3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N b In connection with (2) the learner is. etc.g. such discourse markers as the placing of emphasis. bolding. e. paragraphing). This may involve determining the audience for whom the text was produced and the attitudes and communicative intentions of the author. engaging a communication partner’s ccmperation in filling a gap in one’s know-how appealing to tolerance of a foreigner’s ‘awkwardness’. etc.etc. as well as drawing inferences from what is explicit in the text making use of clues such as titles. or one of the major. distinguishing main points and secondary points distinguishing fact from comment identifying relevant information. italicising. structurally relevant pauses.e.g. countries where the language is used as native language). typographical devices (e. illustrations. visiting rituals (appropriate time for arriving. moreover.g.g. e. familiar with relevant social rituals. present giving. e. underlining. particularly those affecting: everyday life living conditions interpersonal relations major values and attitudes 7 The learner can use techniques and strategies for coping with demands of situations which go beyond hisher non-linguistic and/or linguistic repertoire. in oral texts. tone of voice. 6 The learner has some familiantywith characteristic features of the foreign culture (i.

3 E X T E N D E D C H A R A C T E R I S A T I O N 21 using appropriate aids such as dictionaries. . and other reference materials. word lists. grammars.

these demands have . In order to do this in any useful way we have to try and determine in what situations they are most likely to use the foreign language. Our starting-point is the situations in which the learners are most likely to find themselves. Determining all this . so that the basis for the present specification is a more solid one than for the earlier one. Each situation will make its own demands on their communicative resources. This is just another way of saying that the Threshold Level is a general objective only. but. moreover. we can make an attempt to identify those things that all of them are at least very likely to need or wish to be able to do in the foreign language. our knowledge of the world. and it is to be found in the choices made in those course materials with a communicative orientation that have been produced in the last 20 years or so. In fact. it should be constantly borne in mind that these assumptions are made with regard to what the members of a very large target group are supposed to have in common and that the undoubtedly considerable individual differences among these members are deliberately left out of account. the assumptions made in the original l'hreshold Level would seem to have been widely upheld. Yet.The question is now how this may be most usefully specified.22 4 The objective: components of the specification A communicative approach aims to enable the learners to use a foreign language for their own purposes. in a way. the information on this that is available now is by no means negligible. They are never fully predictable. In the preceding general characterisation and particularly in the extended characterisation we described the Threshold Level objective. a matter of guesswork.is. one that is never to be regarded as fixed and closed but as something to be used flexibly and creatively. What these purposes are. At the same time. the circumstances.we can make at least better educated guesses if we make use of our collective experience. however heterogeneous it may be. the needs and interests of the learners themselves. It may be found in numerous studies that have appeared since the Threshold Level was originally published. how it may be broken down into a coherent set of elements that may serve the purposes of those for whom the specification is meant. depends on the personality. and of whatever amount of consensuswould appear to have been .especially if we want to arrive at a fairly detailed description . and what matters they are most likely to have to be able to deal with in the foreign language.explicitly or implicitly achieved. and. starting from a particular target group. what roles they will play in these situations. However. By and large.

as an end in itself. A notion such as ‘timetable’. denying. the ability required in most communication situations. The first component of our specification is a list of those language functions that the members of our target group are most likely to need to be able to fulfil. the concept of ‘lateness’. expressing feelings.on the other hand. etc. We refer to these things as ‘language functions’ and we say that in saying. In fact. apologising. to do with language the kind of things one needs or wants to do with it. is a list of the kind of things people may do by means of language. Language functions are not fulfilled in a void. thanking. and . An economical description. to place. then.Among the notions we distinguish ‘general notions’ and ‘specificnotions’.4 C O M P O N E N T S O F T H E S P E C I F I C A T I O N 23 a lot in common. ‘I’m sorry’ people fulfil the language function of apologising or of expressing regret. to quantity or quality. enquiring. then. A communicative approach does not consider knowledge of the language . we apologise for or express regret about something. ‘specific notions’. These are things such as describing.however desirable this may be . Its goal is the ability to use language.The concepts that we may refer to while fulfilling language functions will be indicated here as ‘notions’.this will largely be a matter of concrete vocabulary items. with regard to nothing. to express relations between entities. even though we may not mention this explicitly because it is sufficiently clear from the context in which the utterance is produced. . The notions involved in this will be listed in our second component as ‘general notions’. we explicitly refer to a particular concept. The starting-point of the specification of our objective. If. for each situation envisaged. will be the subject of by far the greater part of our specification. there will be only one component that is directly concerned with specific situation-related ability. is likely to be expressed only in a situation of people dealing with ‘travelling’. the specific ability required to function adequately in it. for instance. In this third component we shall also give general indications as to what people will be supposed to be able to do in each of the situations or with regard to each topic included here. Such indications facilitate and justify the selection of those notions which may be thought particularly relevant to the members of the target group. General notions are such as may be expressed in almost any situation and specific notions are those which are likely to be expressed typically in particular situations only. of what the learners need to be able to do. If we say ‘I’m sorry’. In most situations the need may arise to refer to time.as is to be expected . we were to say ‘I’m sowy for being late’. The general ability. etc. Such situation-related or topic-related notions will be listed in our third component. however. will specify the components of this general communicative ability plus.the notion of ‘potatoes’is most likely to be expressed in connection with ‘eating’ or with ‘agriculture’. something which requires what we may regard as general communicative ability.

will fall short of the . Yet. the predictability of these combinations and sequences is highly limited. and it has fully proved its value for practical purposes. to a certain extent. it may be argued that certain language functions may just as well be interpreted as expressing notions and that for certain notions the choice between ‘general’and ‘specific’seems to be an arbitrary one. skills and insights. there are certain features and patterns that occur more or less regularly. These conventions are part of the sociocultural context in which the language concerned is used as the medium of communication.called ‘socioculturalcompetence’ (Chapter 11). The fulfilment of language hnctions and their sequencing will. be governed by the social conventions which are observed in a particular language community. One of the differences between the present objective and the original Threshold Level is the stronger emphasis on the ability to deal with printed texts and with spoken texts produced by media. and some familiarity with them is indispensable for effective communication. In many real-lifecommunication situations the learners’ resources. This ability is listed as item 3 in the ‘extendedcharacterisation’.because it may be convenient to have a survey of what may be expected of learners at this level. We also include a short chapter on writing (Chapter 1 0 ) . In general.Because of this stronger emphasis we include in our specification a separate chapter on ‘dealingwith texts’ (Chapter9).24 4 C O M P O N E N T S O F T H E S P E C I F I C A T I O N Before passing on to other components of our specificationwe wish to point out that the above distinctions between functions and notions on the one hand and between general notions and specific notions on the other cannot always be made with full consistency. This context may have a strong influence on what people express and how they express it.Yet. It will be dealt with in a separate chapter of our specification. in terms of knowledge. or at least awareness of its potential significance. Even at Threshold Level some familiarity with this context. rather than having to collect this from several different parts of the specification. it does ensure the fullest possible coverage.and a more general treatment particularly with regard to dialogues will be given in the chapter on ‘verbalexchange patterns’ (Chapter8). The breakdown of language use in terms of the fulfilment of certain functions with regard to certain notions may obscure the fact that in actual communication situations these functions are rarely fulfilled in isolation. There is no denying that our system of classificationhas its shortcomings. A number of these features are included in our list of language functions under ‘structuringdiscourse’. Usually a communication situation will require the fulfilment of general functions in various combinations and sequences. Thus.is essential to effective communication.

)play only a secondary role. for a prescribed grammar + vocabulary. For this reason we add recommended ‘exponents’(linguisticrealisations)to the various language functions and to the notions.These are exponents that. therefore. Apart from this. the learners will be confronted with many other language forms. Successful communication will then depend on the learners’ skill in coping with these requirements in spite of the inadequacy of their resources. the only thing which we feel it is justified to do in this respect is to give some guidance as to how learners might be able to do all the things specified not only effectivelybut also as economically as possible in terms of the learning load involved. They may provide useful guidance. In the specificationof the Threshold Level actual language forms (grammatical structures. this falls outside the scope of the objective as described in the ‘characterisations’. particularly in . words. therefore. it may be assumed that learners who have some awareness of ‘howto learn’ are likely to ‘pass the threshold’ more readily than those who have none. Beyond these. the degree of formality/informaliQ recommended for Threshold Level learners is fairly neutral. Finally. the learners are very likely to be confronted with by communication partners but that they will hardly be required to produce themselves. As the exponents will show. Strictly speaking. and how they do these things is not our prime concern. however. Yet. We shall. and they may be used as checklists. nevertheless. What is required at Threshold Level is that learners should be able to do certain things in the foreign language. With their limited familiarity with the ways language forms are used in the sociocultural context concerned.in the chapter ‘degreeof skill’(Chapter14).of certain quality criteria that are relevant to effective communication at this level. The same remarks apply to the word index and the grammatical summary added to the specification as appendices. In the lists provided exponents are marked 0. etc. include a chapter on ‘compensationstrategies’ in our specification(Chapter 12). to add a ‘learning-telearn’ component to our specification (Chapter13). The exponents marked 0 have a high degree of predictability. we think. With regard to this we confine ourselves to an indication . we shall pay attention to ways in which the experience of learning a foreign language may be exploited in order to benefit the learners as learners. but there their role ends.If. they give a concrete indication of the degree of formaliQ/informaliQ envisaged. learners are well advised.4 C O M P O N E N T S OF T H E S P E C I F I C A T I O N 25 requirements of these situations.there should be a need for more marked registers. We do not consider it out of place. we feel. These exponents are not to be mistaken. to avoid extremes both in the direction of formality and in that of informality. 0 thus means that the learners should at least be able to understand these language forms if used by others. the appropriate exponents can always be added.

Because of the low degree of predictability of these forms. . no attempt is made to provide any further guidance in this document.26 4 C O M P O N E N T S O F T H E S P E C I F I C A T I O N connection with item 3 of the ‘extended characterisation’. Such an attempt would also be futile in the light of the emphasis that is placed here on the selfhelp strategies that are supposed to give the learner access to texts containing unknown elements.

57 moral The lists of functions under each category heading are the result of a process of selection.23-2. The principle of selection has been throughout that the functions selected should meet the most likely and urgent needs of the learners and that together they should not exceed an average learning load of two to three years for courses of average intensity. etc. be able to understand all the options provided when they are used by other people.28 volitional 2.15-2. entirely acceptable for learners to decide not to use the full range of alternatives given.14 2. i. etc. They are fulfilled directly if an exponent is used in its conventional meaning.e. In many cases more than one way of expressing a given function is suggested. of course.e. Language functions may be fulfilled directly and indirectly. however.5-2. has been used sparingly to indicate that a particular option. factual: knowledge. . factual: modality 2.4 2. 35-40 weeks a year. though likely to be encountered in contact with native speakers.1-2. is felt to be of lower priority in the learners’ productive repertoire.for receptive use only.27 5 Language functions Introduction In the present specification the language functions -what people do by means of language .are listed in six broad categories: 1 imparting and seeking factual information 2 expressing and finding out attitudes 3 getting things done (suasion) 4 socialising 5 structuring discourse 6 communication repair The second category is by far the most comprehensive and is subdivided as follows: 2.29-2. i. The symbol 0. It is. They should.22 factual: agreement. two to three hours per week.50 emotional 2.51-2.

1.4 1.The possibilities for the indirect fulfilment of language functions vary in accordance with the situational and the linguistic context of a communicative act. with contrastive stress 'This is the .owner of the .3. The " animal over .1.there I is my .shut.4 1. them the + NP/this. The exponents we propose.we.2 (correcting a positive statement) (e. an attempt to do so might lead to highly unnatural language use. it. those (+ NP) +be + NP 'This is the . This does not mean that the indirect fulfilment of language functions should be avoided in course materials designed for Threshold Level. 1. him.3 1. that.1. 1.) No (+ tag) 'No it "isn't. you. they + be + NP 'He is the .restaurant.3 It is + me.2.2.1 .9. these. are on the whole those which may be considered to fulfil the functions concerned directly. you.Italy. therefore. On the contrary.1 and 1.in its conventional meaning fulfilling the function of 'reporting' .says the 'shop is . whereas 'It's getting late' .28 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S in the meaning that would normally be assigned to it if it were used in isolation.1 1.1 correcting As 1.3.letta 'isn't in "Italy.1. Language functions for Threshold Level including recommended exponents 1 1.) Yes (+tag) 'Yes you " did.2 1. 1.her.left.train 'has .dog.2. us.think + complement clause He . The . these.may serve the same purpose indirectly. negative sentences Va.bedroom.left. (correcting a negative statement (e.3 1.2 1. This variation is such that a systematic description and selection on behalf of our objective is not possible. that (one) 1.3.g. he. I.bedroom.2 NP + say. those 1. reporting (describing and narrating) declarative sentences The 'train has . We 'didn't go to 'London. she.1 Imparting and seeking factual information Ident ify ing (def ining) (with suitable gesture) this (one). Valletta is in .3. You should go now' fulfils the function of 'advising others to do something' directly.

4.this? 'Which .happen?) At '6 p.say .2 declarative sentences with high-rising intonation You 'saw him? 1.5.member.1.rive? (place) where? 'Where is my .1 (for confirmation) Yes.3 (seeking identification) See 1.3. 2.rect.4.1.make an .tell me the .1.No.6 I ('quite) a.table.see him? 1.2 (place) ('Where's my .5.5.purse? (manner) how? 'How do you .4.5.4 1.is.5 .5 (reason) ('Why are you .guests ar.1 1. clauses.1.1. I he .) seeking identification (person) who? 'Who is .work 'hard.5.drive?) 'Not very ..4. phrases and single words 1.3 (manner) ('How do you . expressing agreement with a statement 2.wear tonight? (event) What happened? answering question 2.4.2 1.do. I he .5.1 2.2.that? 1. 1.4 (degree) ('How .1.omelette? (degree) how fir/much/long hot. I we .? 'How .1 (time) ('When will it .3 statement and question tag They .1 interrogative sentences 'Did you .Yes.1.far.way to the .Certainly.1.2 2.2 1.lost the .3 .York? (reason) why? 'Why did you .6.2. 2 Expressing and finding out attitudes factual: agreement.1.2.box?) 'On the .2.far is it?) 'Not very .6.right.4. In'deed.3 2. etc.6.gloves are . 1.here?) (because +) declarative sentence Beecause I am a .far is it to .fast.S L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 29 1.5.1.1.5 positive statements (with intensifying do) You "did .1 Yes (+ tag) . 1.1.didn't they? 1.gree. 'That's.4.suit will you .these? (thing) what? which + NP? 'What is .isn't. etc. 1.go to -London.4 2.5 2.Yes. 1. I .3 for information 1. asking (for confirmation) 1.2 Please(canyou)tellme+ subordinate clause/ + NP 'Please can you .m. (for information) declarative sentences.2.station? 1. (with a positive statement) (You .2. No (+tag) .2. .1 2.5.4. 1.2 Of purse.1.that? (possession) whose + NP? 'Whose . 2. E'xactly.1 wh questions (time) when? 'When will the . 'That'scor.match.

4.1.isn't she? + NP? 'Do you .2 I think (+ positive statement) I . etc.1 No (+ tag) (You 'can't .why he did that? 'Don'tyou agree (+ that clause)? 'Don't you a-greethat she is {beautiful? Do(n't)you think + complement clause 'Don't you -think it's .4 (. I 'didn't .7. 2.6. never.30 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 2.left).so.3 Do you know + complement clause? 'Do you .4.1.1.why (she .2.1. (with a positive statement) 2.2.6.1 2.1 I ('don't) .2 + of + NP? 'Have you .2 enquiring about agreement and disagreement statement + question tag She is 'French.2 Of \course.3.2.6.or not + ever.1 No (+ tag) ('Spinach is 'horrible.there).died? 2. You are 'wrong(.know .3.2 'Not .5.1.1.6.2.3 'Certainly.3 + NP I 'know .right.7.2 I 'know she 'left.4.stop 'now. 2.know that she is -dead? 2.Mrs 'Thatcher.7. factual: knowledge.2.1. No (+ negative tag) (You 'saw me -there.5 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2.3 2.not.2.nobody.Yes) I 'think/be'lieve.5 I be'lieve.3 'Certainly.isn't 2. 2.2 2.nothing.5 2.not. I we 'can't.anything) I -saw .6.1. 2. I 2.lives? 'Do you .)'No it .6. enquiring whether someone knows or does not know a person.1 Have you heard + complement clause? 'Have you -heard that the .1 2.2 denying statements (with a negative statement) That 'isn't 'true.4.) 'No I "didn't.6.know where he .4. 2.1.3 expressing disagreement with a statement I 'don'ta'gree.7 2. 2.2.4.1 2.2.so.7. 2. nothing.Kenya? + wh (+ clause)? 'Do you .4 (No)I don't"think so. 2.5.5.2 2.not.5.) 'Yes it "is. 2.7.nowhere.President has .heard of an-opera called 'Die .1.1 2.6 (with a negative statement) 2.2 2. Negative sentences (with not. That's 'not. + wh (+ clause) 2.know + complement clause 2. 2.1 Yes (+ tag) (To-morrow'isn't "Wednesday.2. I but I 'don't .2.1 2.4 2.1. thing o r fact 2.) 'No.4 I 'don't 'think so.4.1.think he 'will -come.Nachtschwalbe'? .4 2.know . 2.6.5.3. I .not.1. stating whether one knows or does not know a person.2.nice? 2.2.know .anywhere. thing or fact 2.anything.5. anybody.see .

saying "that. .7.1.4 2.Mont . thing or fact or action I (don't/can't) remember + wh clause 'Do you re-memberwhere you .3. 1 .9.get.know where he .put my .6.2 (certain'ly) He will 'certainly be .lives.3 + wh clause 'Have you .1 2.2 + NP 'Have you re-memberedher .don't you? 2. + don't you? You .know .back. 'don 't you? 2.7.1 + complement clause. + to + VPinf 'Have you re.1 Da(n't)you remember? Do(n/t)youremember 2.1.passport.lock the . I have(n't)forgotten 2. 2.heard what -happenedto.gave it .Blanc.2 2. I .2.cat? 2. thing.James was .there.where I . 2. I have for'gotten my .3.9 2.7.3.7.lose.9. enquiring whether someone remembers or has forgotten a person.don't you? + wh clause. 1 + NP I 'haven't foregottenyour .2 2.3.3 + VP gerund 'I have 'not formgotten . 2.door.3.2.left it? 2.4 2.1.3 + complement clause I re'member that he .7.1 +to + VPinf I've for'gotten to .too? + VP gerund I 'don't remember .9.3.birthday? expressing degrees of probability in {Spain.pri? H a v e you remembered 2.climbing . probably 'They will 'probably .2 2. .7 stating whether one remembers or has forgotten a person.1 2.7.3 Youknow you? You 'know it's .3 + complement clause 'Don't you re-memberthat . + don't 2. + wh clause I 'can't re-member.handbag.7.3 2.six o'"clock. .James.3.8.3 I for.8.8.4 2.6.8.6.last might? 1 2. . + don't you? You .7.6. (not)(very)likely It's 'not very "likely. 1 possibly but they may "possibly 'win.1 + NP 'Do you re-memberCa.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 31 2.7.1 2.8. fact or action 2.3 2.2.2.8 + wh clause I've for'gotten where it 'is. .home .4 + VP gerund 'Don't you re-membercoming .2 2.8.8.2 + NP.4 + NP I re'member our .holiday 2. 2.6.Mrs .1.1 2.8.2.birthday.7.day? 2.3.8.9.membered to -feed the .2 2.3.there.7.

5.Italy.9 + high rising intonation The mu.1 1 certainly (in declarative sentences) She is 'certainly .1.13 2.ist.1 1.6 impossible .run is in .sleep .7 2.9.7 declarative sentence +tag with low fallinghigh falling intonation You're 'Polish.likely to .shoes I are neces'sarily ex. 2.2 I am (quite)certain/sure (+ complement clause) I am 'quite ..1 3.likely to be . NP + be + certain/likely+ t o + VPinf 8 The mu-seum is 'certain to be .1 1. 2.casso.1. 2.rain? 2.10.1 1 2. I 'aren't you? 2.13.1.closed.5 2.boring.pensive.sure I that 'Stalin .12 enquiring as to necessity (including logical deduction) 2.died in .32 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 2. I 2. 2. but 'not im.1.13. ~ expressing or denying necessity (including logical deduction) 2.isn't it? 2.thirty. I Isthink. 2. It is certain/probable/likely/ possible/impossible + complement clause It is 'likely you will .sarily .1.1 1.1 necessary/necessarily(in interrogative sentences) Is 'that neces.13.3 NP + need not + inf 'Classical . 2.4 sentences in 2.mix? 2.did .2 must + NP + VPinf? "Must .pass.10.3 declarative sentences with stressed do.13.therefore 'I ex.black or .1 (not)necessary/necessarily 'Good .3 Will/must/may/can+ NP + VPinf? 'Can .10 2.. 2.oil and .8 NP will/must/may/can/cot + VPinf That .4 soltherefore + declarative sentences 'I am .so? 2.6 Iknow+ thatclause I 'know I.12.9.not be .9.post the .1.13.1 1.seum is 'certain to be dosed? 2.things be .2 NP + must/cannot + VPinf People 'must .Spain ' not France.2 tentative assertion . 2.10.13.1 be + NP certain/likely+ to + VPinf? 'Is the .white? 2. I .1 confident assertion (positive or negative) 2.4 declarative sentences (+ tag) (with low falling intonation) 'Ankara is in .over .water . be or auxiliary I .13.13.possible.Turkey.letter.10.true? 2.12.story .2.2 Is it certain/probable/likely possible + complement clause? 'Is it .music I 'need .5 declarative sentences (+ I think/supposeunstressed) 'Rome is in .painting 'cannot be by Pi.sometimes.9.thinking 1 . enquiring as to degrees of probabiIity expressing degrees of certainty 2.19.

2.1 3. I but I 'think he has al-ready .1 5 expressing obligation 2.3 complete uncertainty 2.silk? 2.4 I (don't)thinkfbelieve + that clause I .3 NP + be unable to + VPinf 'John is un.13. 2.sure what he 'wants.Bade is in .speak it . 2.home before .real .13. 2.3 I'don't "thinkso.2.19. 2. .come.midnight.Switzerland? factual: modality 2.rect.3. 1 .fill in this 'form . 2.17.14.2.3.17. 2.1 interrogative sentences and wh questions corresponding t o 2.now? 'When -have we to .15 'Must we .1 3.2.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 33 2.18 enquiring about ability or inability to do something 2.3.2.gone.16.1 interrogative sentences and wh questions corresponding to 2.3 I wonder + ifclause/wh clause I 'wonder why they . 2.2 I'mnot(atall)sure(+if clauselwh clause) I'm 'not at all .ride a .London by .14.go to .1 3.1 I don't know (+ ifclauselwh clause) I 'don't -know if he will .quite "sure.1 NP +be(not)allowed 'Smoking is a1.speak .3 How sure are you + that clause? How .6 declarative sentence + I 2. I I .2 Do you (really)thinybelieve suppose + that clause? 'Do you . 2.leave? 2.think this is .comingon 'Thursday.16 enquiring about obligation think (withrising/ falling-risingintonation) He's 'French.13.13.7 declarative sentences + tag with low-rising intonation You're .1 NP + =(not) + VPinf I can under'stand . 2.right.food is . 2.sure the .been -here.1 7.able to .19 enquiring about degrees of certainty 2.14 2. 2.think.1 Are you (quite)sure (+ that clauselif clauselwh clause 'Are you .13.2.5 I'm not (quite)sure.well.1 5.17 'Can you .read .cooked? expressing that something is or is not permitted.able to .Spanish 1 but I 'can't .1 3.don't -think he has 'ever .13.yet.horse.horse? 2.2.lowed.2 perhapslmaybe (also in declarative sentences) 'Maybe you're .17 expressing ability/inability t o do something 2.13.aren't you? 2. but + declarative sentence I'm 'not .2.2 NP + be (not) able to + VPinf I am 'able to .14.Spanish? 'Are you .1 toseem The translation 'seems to be cor. 2.18.ride a .1 NP + have tolmust + VPinf We 'must be . or permissible 2.sure are you that .car.

please I .1 NP + be + going to + VPinf I'm 'going to . . 2.2 You .4 NP + be thinking of + VP gerund We are 'thinking of . -please.late.6.go t o A.park here?) 'Not until . 2. .right.hands.5 (please)may I (+ VPinf) 'Please may I .do)? 2.6 Of .23.grass.23 expressing wantddesires 2.Yes.No.26 withholding permission 2.want to . please I 'want to -goto the .4 'That'sall .34 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 2. 2. 2. 2.toilet.tends to .rnerica.have my . 2.1 9. 2.26.new .walk on the .25.20.buy a .2 1.22.on? 2.suit .later. 2.25 . 2.23.3 Do you want + NP/ + to + VPinf 'Do you .21. 2.driving to .25.cream 2.23.4 I'm sorry (+ but clause) I'm "sorry.wash my .25 granting permission 2.2 1.do.6 Can I have + NP (please) 'Can I . 2.1 interrogative sentences and wh questions corresponding to 2.right if I .please? 2. 2.2 NP + will + VPinf 1'11 ex'plain .3 Is it all right (+ if clause)? 'Is it all .25. 2.m. 2.23.5 It is not allowed/permitted Not + adverbial (nowltonight) herelin this country etc.4 I want + to + VPinf.1 I'd like + NP I'd 'like an .3 I want + NP.23..please.24.bill.20 volitional 2.Turkey.car.want a 'cup of .20.24 enquiring whether something is or is not permitted or permissible (including seeking permission) 2.22.22.23.can't. 2.lazy.mind if I . 2. 2.like (to .2 NP + be (not)permitted @ Pho'tography is .22. 2.3 NP + intend@) to + VPinf 'Ann in.22 expressing intentions 2.2 'Certainly. 2.) ('Can I .21.22.25.2 I'd like + to + VPinf I'd 'like to .20.cake? 2.24.4 Peoplelyouare not supposed to + VPinf 'People are 'not sup-posed to . 2. 2.1 Can/may+ I/people/one+ VPinf? 'May I .21.2 1 enquiring about wanWdesires 2.30 p.smoke? 2.19.sit .1 'Whatwould you .course.right.in? 2.3 People/You/can/may/must not + VPinf You must Inot be .2 Wouldyouiike+ NP/+to+ VPinf 'Would you -like a .1 . I but it's 'too .21.tea.1 9.thedral. enquiring about intentions 2.ice.quiteall .have a .2 Do you mind (+ if clause)? 'Do you .down? 2.3 I'm a'fiaid pot.try the .come .1 .5 That's .3 'Please.drink.not per'mitted in the ca.24.

feeling('very un.much.not a't all .30.good. I 'hate .fly .33 expressing dislike 2. 2.4 I'm 'very.29.happy? 2. 2.go by .3 I'm/I feel so 'happy! 2.very .late.32.3 1.people.29 expressing pleasure.30.glad to .like 1 .nasty. 2.34.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 35 2.coffee is 'very .tea.4 I don't likelenjoy NPNP gerund (verymuwat all) I 'don't .dear! 2.31.fer? 'Where would you .4 'Areyou .here. 2.go.27.2 How 'nice! 2.tall .feel very/a.happy/.coffee I than .1 That's 'lovely/'wondew'great! 2.33.rather .there.27 expressing preference 2. 2.pleased? 2.3 I('d)rather (not)+ VP I'd 'rather .33.1 Ugh! 2. 2.feeling? 2.5 I hate + NPNPgerund 2.3 I .33.cats.28 enquiring about preference 2. 2.coffee to -tea? 'Which do you pre.like to be .3 Adj or Adj? 'Black or .2 'Howare you .2 I 'don't . happiness 2.27.28.27. 2.hurting . 2. 2.34 enquiring about likes and dislikes gerund 'Do you emjoy .sweet .4 I('d)rather VPinf (than+ contrastive element) I'd 'rather .3 I love NPNP gerund I 'love .32.29.Oxford? 2.1 interrogativesentences and wh questions corresponding to 2.31 enquiring about pleasure/displeasure happinesshnhappiness 2.tea. 1 'How.1 Do you like/enjay NPNP . 2.28. 2.drink .feel/am.27.milk is .1 If'd)prefer + NP 1 to + VPinf I'd pre'fer to .coffee? 2.33.6 I'd hate/I wouldn't like + to + VPinf I 'wouldn't .2 NP + be not (very/atall) nice/pleasant That's . 2.3 NP + be + nasty/horrible 'Sour .5 I'm (very)glad/deLighted(+ thatclause to + VPinf) I'm 'very .miserable.30 expressing displeasure.ballet? 2.33.32. unhappiness 2. 2.31.train.32 expressing liking 2.areyou? 2.27 'Do you pre-fer .white? emotional 2.see you .29.3 1 .nice.2 I prefer + NP + to + NP 2.pleased.29.29.not . I pre'fer 'hockey I to .33.happy.riding .1 NP + be (very)good/nice/ pleasant This .3 'Areyou .1 'Oh . 1 'London or .30.football.28.2 I likelenjoy + NPNP gerund (verymuch) I 'like .2 NP or NP? 'Tea or .

39 expressing lack of interest 2.39.2 I am boredm NP) I am 'bored I by .3 I am notlnot very/notat a l l interested in NPNP gerund I am not a't all .3 demonstrative ice good/n .2 I'm not satisfiedhappy (withthis + NP) I'm 'not .like .35.right (.interested 1 in .3 'What do you .35.greatly.39.37. 2.36. 2.nough.stamps.do.music? 2.like .yet.4 I am (very)interested in NPNP gerund I am 'interested in .now).36. 2.35.36. 2. 2.39.38.find our .5.5 NP interests me (greatly) 'Greek .36. 2.38 expressing interest 2.right .37 enquiring about satisf action/dissatisfaction 2.36.35.do. 2.had in . 2.3 'How .8 That is 'not .5 It doesn't matter (+ that dauselif clause) It 'doesn't .Sport does 'not .want(ed)/ .going a.broad.want this +soup.4 I don't like/want NP l i k ethis I 'don't .interest me .t all.mind.not.good e.work.1 declarative sentences 2.V .mind.5.That's 'good.1 Are you satisfied/happy (with 2.4 ("his is) 'just what I .men .37. 2.2 Is 'that .6 'What is the .need/.hadin .39.35. 2.5 (following dissatisfaction) 2.Is it 'all.4 'Isthis what you .34.playing \pop . t be (very) 2.politics I on -T.1 'That is . The 'T.5 Howdoyoulike/find NP? 'How do you .meant/.36.now)? 2. . . 2.cold.right (.meant/.2 'Fine! 2.doesn't .5 Demonstrative be not right (Yet) This is 'not .matter 1 if it 'rains or . 2.38.coffee like -this? 2.hadin . 2.cabbage like sthis.1 'How .interesting! 2.37.2 Do youlike NP like this7 'Do you . 2. 2.35.38.like .34.3 'That will .old .interest me a.nough.so! 2.35.37.5.7 That will 'not . 2.boring! 2.mattel? 2.fridge.need/.better.4 That is ('good)e.38.beer? 2.soup is .V.3 . 2.3 I don't like/want this (+ NP) I 'don't .6 Demonstrative be not want I want(ed)/hadin mind/meant These are 'not what I .36 expressing dissatisfaction 'This .35.want(ed)/ .happy with this .meal? 2.1 'Good! 2. 2.37.35 expressing satisfaction + NP)? 'Are you {satisfiedwith your .4 NP does not interest me (very muchlat all).5.39.36 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 2.38.35.like? 2.36.36.2 It's ('quite)all .37.2 How do you like NPNP gerund 'How do you .1 'Really! 2.mind? 2.

41.42.44.8 It surprises me + that clause 0 It sur. 2.weak.44.47.40. 2.2 Do(es)(n't)NP interest you? 'Does pho.1 'Help! 2.like.1 Are you afraid/frightened (of NPNP gerund)? 'Are you a. 2.2 Is 'this/'that .41.7 I don't mind (+ that clause/ if clause) I 'don't .44.1 'What a sur.41.mind 1 if you (smoke.47. 2.4 'Well.1 I ('do)'hope . 2. 2.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 37 2. 2.tog raphy 4 nterest you? 2.1 Does 'that sur.came to .pity I that they 'can't have . 2.so.3 'myousur.41. 2.46.that! 2.46.children.prised I that I .46.40.45.43.42 giving reassurance 2.1 Well? 2.3 I (do) hope + that clause.7 Fancy + VP gerund 0 'Fancy .Christmas.pity! 2.there.prising! 2.2 'Don't be afraid.43. 2. 2.1 What a pity + that clause! 'What a .5 'That is sur.46.2 expressing disappointment expressing surprise 2.dark? .that.39.swimming at .41.man.45.prising! ' msurprised (+ that clause/to 2.1 Are(n't)you interested in NPNP gerund? 'Aren't you 'interested in .what? 2. 2.3 'Fancy .42. 'thisl'that .4 I hopelam hoping + to + VPinf I 'hope to be-comea .foreign {languages? 2.4 It's ('quite)d l . 2.about surprise 2.worried about Joan.39.3 I'm afraid (+ that clause/ to + VPinf/of + NP) I'm a'fraid of .2 I'm 'frightened. 2.2 I ('do)'hope {not.what you ex(pected7 2. 2.doctor.that .pected.care 1 if it is 'foggy or .41.44.3 'Don't .fine.2 That's a ('great).41 2.see you? 2.43 enquiring about fearlworry enquirina .stays 'fine. I 'hope it .fraid of the . .is a sur-prise! 2.1 'There.6 I don't care (+ that clause/ if c Iause) I 'don't .2 'So .48 expressing lack of surprise 2.47 2.right. 2. 2.prise! 'How sur.shame! expressing fear 2.worry.41.3 (It is) 'Just as I ex.8 Whatever you .47.6 I + VPinf) I'm sur'prised I to 'hear .43.44 expressing hope 2.45 enquiring about interest or lack of interest 2. 2.4 I ' m (rather)worried (about NP) I'm 'rather .40 2.41.46 'What a .say/.prised (+ that clause) 'Are you sur.dollar is \so .48.39.42. 2.prises me I that the .priseyou? 2.47.

51.sorry. 2.kind/ nice/good of you (to + VPinf) It was 'most .3 'Do you approve (of + NP/ VP gerund) 0 'Do you ap.living in . 2.52.50.1 Tut-tut (clicks) 2.done moral 2. 2.pleasure.giveme.55. 2.55 reactingto an expression of gratitude expressing disapproval 2. 2.worryingyou? 2.mind? 2. 2.thanks! 2.good 2. 2.56.find .56 offering an apology enquiring about approval/disapproval 2.State? 2.call.kind of you I to 2.49.4 It 'doesn't .53.1 NP be not supposed to + VPinf You are 'not sup.Welfare .4 What do you t h i n kof + NP/ VP gerund? 'What do you .1 'Sorry! 2.53.3 I'm 'so . 2.52.2 'IS *this d l .2 'Not a.3 Is 'something .52 accepting an apology 2.2 That'slit's 'not very 'good/ 2.48.grateful . 2.7 (for disturbing somebody) I 'beg your .55.t all/a .health? 2.5 I a.51.done.50 expressing approval 2.51 -4 'Please for.think of .worried about your . 2.t all.1 'How's .38 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 2.54.this? 2.3 'That's all .sorry! 2.to you I for .do that.52.52.51.3 I t w t was ('very/'most) .56.53 .6 For.51. 'nice.54.1 ('very) .bit.1 -Thank'you. 2. 2. 2.3 'Well .5 It 'doesn't .pologise.4 I ' m very grateful to you (for NPNP gerund) I'm 'very .52.light? 2.matter.56.51.49 expressing gratitude expressing moral obligation 2. 2.matter a.pologise.2 Are you worried (about NP)? 'Are you .54.cuse me .2 That's 'quite -allBright.2 ('Many). 2.6 I 'do a.4 'Is there .England? Ex.2 NP should (not)/ought (not)to You 'ought to .1 'Not a.slowly.3 You 'shouldn't doDave . 2.much('very .1 'Thank you ('so .51 "that.deed) 2.bout it.somethingon your 2.prove I of the .56.49.telling me a.52.right.5 Howdo youfmd NPNP gerund? 'How do you .get it.50.drive more .pardon. 2.50.55. .posed to .48. 2. 2.cricket? 2.49. 2.56.54 .t all. 2.48.2 I am ('very).49.please.much(in.3 It's a .51.2 (That's) 'fme/'excellent.

3.6 I'm (so/very) sorry to + VPinf I'm . I'd + VPinf If 'I were 'you I I'd 'phone him . 2.2.noise .6 3.home? We might (perhaps) + VPinf We might per'haps .dance? We could + VPinf We .57.5 I'm (so/very) sorry about NP I'm so 'very .please. 3.1.dea.3.2 3.Yes.young.shame! 2.5 suggesting a course of action (involving both speaker and addressee) Let's+VPinf! 'Let's \go! Shallwe+VPinf? 'Shall we .2.4.4 3 3.careful.kind as to .down..57.working so .1 Decidin on courses of action ( uasion) B 3.3.3 'Can I have my .7 3.2.57.1.1.4 .3 3.please.died so .left the /party.4 3.1. Why not + VPinf? 'Why not .6 3.57. sympathy 3.talking.2 3.now.57.less . Would/could you (please) + VPinf? 'Could you .door? Would you be so kind as to + VPinf 'Would you be so .not? (That's a) 'Good i.4 I'm (so/very) sorry (+ that clause/if clause) I'm 'sorry if I "hurt you.4 3. 2.shirt .wait? Kindly + VP imperative + (please) 'Kindly .sorry 1 about your \iIIness.3. 2.dinner? 3.2 3.4. 2.dear requesting someone t o do something Please + VP imperative 'Please .could 'go for a 'walk.4.1 'What a .ask them to .walking .washed? advising someone t o do something You should + VPinf You should 'go to the pol.1 3.2 What apity(+ that clause) 'What a .1 3.3 3. Jet's. 'Why .57 expressing regret. 2.2. 3.1. 'All .3 It's a(great)pity(+ that clause) It's a 'great .2 3.sorry I to -hear you are . VP imperative +please 'Stop ..stop .1 3.make .fly there? 3. Would you mind + VP gerund 'Would you .pity I 'Peter .going a. What/How about + NPNP gerund 'How about .1 3.sit .1.3. 2.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 39 2.3 agreeing t o a suggestion .4 3.57.4.opening the .57.3 3.right.hard? If I were you.1.window? Can I have + NP + VP past .2 3.ice. .5 3.mind .6 Why don't you + VPinf 'Why don't you . Whydon'twe+VPinf? 'Why don't we . You ought to + VPi nf You 'ought to be more .pity 1 he .go by 'train.please dose the .7 'Oh .way.3.3.

peeled . .2 3.2 3.milk to.on (+ VP imperative) 'Come . 3.5.3 It's very good of you + but clause It's very "good of you.1 3. Now then (+ VP imperative) 'Now . passive sentences (esp.flour. instructing or directing someone t o do something 3.1 1 Mind + NP 'Mind your "head! declarative sentenceswith implication That .nice .7.please.eggs and .8 3.nice.1 accepting an offer or invitation 'Come. 3. (Be careful not to cut yourself.hand?0 .give you a .3 Do + VPinf 'Do have .wife is .please? offering assistance 'Letme .come .knife is 'sharp.10. .12. 3.9.1 'No .gether.gether.3 3. 3. 3.then.with you.4 Unfortunately I can't + VPinf Un'fortunately 1 I 'can't .6 3.4 'Can you .1 (How)Would you like to + VPinf? 'How would you 4ke to come 'sailing? 3. . 3.8.1 1.7.6.sembled 1 by 'bolting the .help.7.like/love to.4 I'd be glad to + VPinf I'd be 'glad to .come to .1 0.12 You + VP (simple present) You .1 2.ill.5 warning others t o do something or t o refrain from doing something VP imperative with fallinghising intonation Be "careful! Look "out! 3.2 3. 3.manage? inviting someone to do something 3.eat .9 3.5.one of .swim? 3. 3.7 I'd . 1 'keep (trying.6. 3.2 'Thank you.3 'Can/'Could you .with us.thankyou.10.9.2 What/How about + VP gerund 'What about a . @ requesting assistance 3.9.12.helpyou? 'Can I .9.6 .1 1.take a 'freshly .me.cheese. in written instructions) The 'kit is as. 3.3 3.1 1.parts to. I but my .1 'Yes.mine.12.dinner .1 1.1 1.) encouraging someone t o do something 3. 3.come.2 declining an offer or invitation 3.5.2 (I'm "sorrybut)I can't + VPinf I'm "sorry I but I 'can't . I 'don't .1 3. 3.1 1. imperative sentence 'Mix the .4 You must + VPinf You 'must .40 S L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 3.pleasure.1 3.3 That will be 'very.1 1.4 Don't + VPinf Don't 'cut youraself.10. 3.5.1 3. 3.on.helpyou! 'CanI .Right.7 3.stop.10 3.5 With .onion.

2 Can I have + NP.Good.thankyou I and 'haw are .3.0 greeting people 'Hal.1 "so-so.1 4. 3.you to .4.12.1 4.13.morning.2.that .tonic. Dr.23-28.1 (I'm)'fine . 1 'How are you? .14. 'HalJo.Prior.2.like a 'gin and . etc.evening (more formal) when meeting a friend or acquaintance 'How.Mrs .Smith.1 (I'd like) NP + (please) I'd . introducing someone to someone else formal 4.day? addressing a customer or a member of the general public formal: Sirmadam That will be '35 .2 4.8.want. I 'Howare you? 4.1.14. dear? informal: no address form 'Seventy-five .5.John. .lo .you? 3.14.3.better.7.1.morning/after\noon/ . popular.(i nforma I) I 'say .2.1 Will you + VPinf (afterall) 'Will you be 'coming to .13 4.2 address form + I'd like you to meet (+ honorific) +first name +family name 'Mrs Ale.cake? 3.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 41 3.1 4.) 4.1 address form + may1 introduce + honorific +first name +family name Pro'fessor .7.piece of .pounds.1.2 4.please.1 4.3 4.lo.8.dinner after .5 4.Jonathan .2 4.thankyou. if in normal health 4. etc..me.one? (See also volitional attitudes 2.meet . (please) 'Can I . .1 "Well.1 asking someone for something addressing a friend or acquaintance first name 'Hal.g.3 4.7. familiar: Dearmve 8 'How many do you . Miss + family name 'Good . .4.have a .4.1 Ex'cuse. I I'd 'like you to ..Jones.4.4 4.all? 3.1.1 'Much.keeping?8 replying t o a greeting from a friend or acquaintance 4.2 4.4..7 4 4. I 'how are you \keeping? 3. if recovering from an illness.well . Mr.5 I'm afraid I can't + VPinf I'm a-fraidI 'can't .pence. .4.leave the .4.1.1 Socialising attracting attention 4.please. I 'may I intro.you? 4.8.6.Browning? 4.1 4.2 (I'm)'very. Professor.areyou? 'Howare you .1.3 if in poor health. Sir.3 Please may I have + NP 'Please -may I .2 4. enquiring whether an offer or invitation is accepted or declined 4.duce Dr -Anthony .dog.1 addressing a stranger honorific (e.have .thankyou.3.3 4. Mrs.8 4. 3. 1 'Howare .1.xander.2 4. I 'how are .14 4.6 4.

week etc. 4.Whatdo you .morrow/next.5 'Let me .1 'Good.put it? 5..2.YO u .2 "Sorry. 12.2 informal 4.2 as participant in a meeting 5..1 4. or when someone is introduced to you formal 4.1 'Bye.2.1 'Pleased to .2 Your('very).1.2-2'Hel.2.lo! 4.1. 5..12.. 1 .2.1.12.2.1.'just a .3 4.1.3.. 1 0 .say.42 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 4.3.3(I'll) be . 5.thingumajig@ correcting oneself .3 5.try/. 1 1.done! 4 ..1 address form.9 when being introduced to someone. 1 1.meant to .gentlemen! 5.4 That's 'not (e.6 . .2. 1 Structuring discourse opening (See also Language Functions 4.3 ..) 5.2 'Cheeri.12. I 'meet !Bill.2.now 5.o.2.mean .3 4 .1.call it? 5. 12.good .2.1 'Ladies and .9.2.5 . 1 'Good .2.2. .groom ! 4.2.seeingyou (to. 5.3.1..2 informal 4.Cheers! 4 ..4 .9.2..12 taking leave 4.3. 5.3..What's its/his/ber .1 'How do you .3.2 first name +meet +first name 'Jenny..do? 4.gain.. I .4.think 5.now 'let me ..3. 1 -2.2'Chair(. 1 Con'gratuJations! 5.6 or .1.1.bride and .3.xadly)what I .2 'Well .3 5. 'How shall I .2 informal 4..10. 4.2.9..12.1 'Mrl'Madam .name? 5.Chairman 5 .morning/after.Well .1 hesitating looking for words 4 .sta. 'what's the .2.1.1.3 Here's to)+ NP 'Here's to the .3.1.12..3. 5 5 .8.2 (for forgotten name) 5.2.1...know .9.person)0 5.8.bye! 4 .10 congratulating someone 5..1. .. this is + first name +family name 'John I 'this is .2.2.2.12.3 if you are not expecting to meet again 4 .noon/ 'night.1 on formal occasions 5 .wordfor it? 5.2...2.2 5.rt a. .1 formal 4. 5.1.moment 5.1 .1 . 'Jane I 'this is .Hargreaves. 1 .3 informal 5.meet you 4..John ..No.bye. 11 proposing a toast 4 ..ler .8 .Smith.1 5.9.1 .1. 5.2 .8... .2 Ahem (sound of clearing one's throat) 4.rather .Jane .health.2.Right! 5. 11. 4. 4.

that is to .cakes are e'specially . 5.problem of pol.8..9.) In the 'first .3. 5.picture I I 'like .3 I'd 'like to .5.3. .3 ..gether I 'flour and 'milk and . I in the "second ..1 5.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 43 5..9. I 'smoking is ..4...7..1 As 'I . changing the theme .8 5.and .8.. exemplifying 1 summarising 5. 5. special phrases: 5.2 5.lution.fact I that 'fire is .murderers..1 especially These .say .2 use of bolding This is most important...note I that we are ..6..place.door. 5.. in "brief.8.else .2 t o 'change the ..3.g.1 use of stress That's 'wonderful! 5. 5.) emphasising in speech 5. I 'think we should ...1 ..5.eggs.10...4.2 First . I 1 5.3 it is important + that clause (not)to + VPinf It is im'portant to dose the ...3 use of capitals Do NOT park here.8. 5.very . 'First . 5.3 5.4 For one thing .8. In 'my opinion.4. expressing an opinion in hand..1.dangerous.go now.. 'Mix to.2 I'd like to say something about + NP I'd 'like to say .1 to 'sum.2..3 As 'I see it.bill. I it 'smells un. 5.8. 5.4 5.2 word order Now "this .and .1.5 I must stress the fact + that clause I must 'stress the .and so on (written etc..subject ..order.3 5.2 5.pleasant.7 5.(etc.) For instance . I . I 'terrorists are I n 'my 0-pinion.10 5.see it I .4.1 5.2 (please)note + that clause 'Please .nice.1 use of italics Cairo is the capital of Egypt...1 'something.something about the . 'then . For "one -thing 1 she is too .4 Now this is important.Mondays.6 5.10..10.bad for you. I for a'nother she is 'not in. .8.1 I 'think ...4. .for another .6. 'then .boring.8.. 5.9 5. introducing a theme 5.8. 5.or type-written texts: 5..then .8.telligent e-noughfor .8. 5.8.. 5.pay the .7.2 5.young..up . I 'most T V :.closed on .. enumerating i n the first place in the second place . . in printed texts: 5.1 use of underlining He is verv unreliable..7 5.programmes are .something .4.. 5.say .else.8...6.(written e.3.8. For example .5 5.6...this -job.8.7.5.much.4 5.place.eat..then .

14. 5.4 . (See also Language Functions 2.2 'Just a .) telephone 5.17.12.1 'Finally.No. 5. 5.13.20.3 In con'clusion.go .else.ask you .finish.22.2 a t the end of a conversation 5. 5.1 'After you.2.1 personal name + here Mar'cel Le.lo this is 'Mary .1 3 .all.2 when initiating a call 5.say .. .14.13..44 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 5.Oxford 'five oh .1 2 5.Oh.4 'AsI was .17. .minute. 5.your o.Schmidt.21.3 'Please . 5.something7 5.19.stand on + t h i s 5.1 1 asking someone to change the theme 5.1 9.3 . 5.17.13.1 6. I'm 'sorry but . 5.5 .Quiet.14.. it's been 'nice . 5.1.one. 5.1 6 giving over the floor 5.21 .21.14.21.1 I'd 'like to .think? 5.21.means.Yes/.21 interrupting 5.1 on answering a call 5..pinion/.I say .I I should 'like to .something encouraging someone to continue indicating that one is coming to an end .blanc .. showing that one is following a person's discourse 5.1 a t the end of a speech 'Thank you for your at.1 a person . 5.talking to you.on.12.1 9. 5.1 Sh! 5.1 1.2 'What is .1 I .1 5 opening 5.1 Ex'cuse.1 telephone number .saying .21.me.13.22 asking someone to be silent 5.15. 5.speaking.moment .here.1 6.please! 5. .1 2. 5..3 'May . (See also Language Functions 4.20.1 'Do . 5.18..2 This is + personal name This is 'Gunther .1 Well.5 In'deed.come in . 5.18 5.I .1 'One .2. 5.see.14 5.1 'Whatdo you.please. 5.20.12. 5.Smith .3 'Where do you .two -double .let me .2 'May ..2 Hallo (this is +) personal name + speaking 'Hal.20 closing 5. 5..matter3 5.Really.2 .2.2 To "finish.2 . 5.21.4 'No.tention..1 3.1 3.Uh-huh.17 indicating a wish to continue asking for: 5.1. 5.here? 5.17.1 9 asking someone's opinion 5.view? 5.2 By .> 5.1 5.

5. 1 .3 6 . 1 asking for confirmation or understanding 5.stand. 1 asking for a repetition of a word or phrase (sorry +) wh question "Sorry. etc.speak to (George. 5.23.2 if name is not known 5.mean? 6.1 Yours faithfully .say that a'gain (. .4.2 following 5.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 45 5.hear me? 5..28. announcing new call 1'11 'call .please.28 closing Doyoumeantosay+ that clause? 'Do you mean to .1. 5 .still)'there? 5.2.28.2 'Can you .. 1 following 5.24 asking whether you are heard and understood 6.back/a\gain.24.2 'What did you .please? 6 .6) Dear Professor Jones. 6. 'what did you -say his .I 'don't under.1 5 . 6. 1 6.anglophile .1 Dear Sir/Madam 5.1 if name is known 5.name was? 6 . 2 8 .6 6 . .22.22.5 6 . 2 8 .1 ( I 'beg your) 'pardon? 6.1 'Hold the .27 opening asking for confirmation of text 'Did you say (anchovies? 5.please? 6.2 Could you put me through to + personal name + please 'Could you .2 extension 5.27.1.22.put me .Mr (Oakham.4 'Could you re'peat that .please)? 6.4..say that they .2.23. 1 Yours sincerely .2. 6 Communication repair (See also Chapter 12: CompensationStrategies.line.24.please.1.evening.) 5.27.please? 6. 2 3 asking someone t o wait 6.good? .l "Sorry.27. 5.2 signalling non-understanding asking for repetition of sentence 5.. 5.28.25 giving signals that you are hearing and understanding See Language Functions 5.1 extension + number + please Ex-tension'one oh \six.3Love (from).2 (sorry+) wh did you say 5..2.throughto .live? 5.6.13.1.1-2 (With)best wishes .2 'Just a . 6 . 3 .27.5.. 5. Language Functions 4.1.later/this .1 (CanI speak to)+ personal name + please? 'Can I ..1 Dear + address form (d..moment.1 Did you say: X? 6.27.1. 4 5.1 'Are you (. -please? 5. .3 ('Sorry) 'could you .2.please.27.26 + interrogative clause "Sorry.. 1 (Sorry)Whatdoes X mean? 'What does .2.2 What do you mean by X? 'What do you -mean by .2.say .aren't (corning? asking for clarification 5 . 5 . 'where does she . letters 6.3.22.

6 6.10.. I 'don't .1 1 'Couldyou =.10 6.please? expressing ignorance of a word or expression (See also Language Functions 5.was: 'Don't . .spell that.10.3 What is X? 'What is .stand (. er .now)? 6..please? asking for something to be written down 6. . . I 'don't .12.1 2..4 asking if you have been understood 6.) 6.please? asking someone to spell something er...1 3.13.please.2 6..know .9. 6.14..9. .1 2..1 alsome kind/sort of + generic term 'some kind of .word i n .grass.7 6.3 6.5 .make with \eggs 6.2 X (repeated more slowly and without phonetic reduction) 6. It's a .1 X (simply repeated as spoken) They'll .1 3.spell that.1 1.please..2 'Do you under..said that I was 'very ..kicking the .English? 6. 6.said \seven .4 6..6.10.1 1.1 'Isthat .8 6..1 3. appealing for assistance 6.know.English for .what you .6.1 ('Canyou -speak)'more .1 3 repeating w h a t one has said 6.7.2 'Not so ..write that .tired. 'Couldyou ..9 6. .vista in .come at '5 o.1 What is the English for + (native language word)? 'What is the .1 6.4 What I said was X 'What I .14 6.walk on the . I .1 6.10.fast.please? 'Howdo you .3 somethinglgeneric term + relative clause 'something you .say it..10. 6.46 5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 6.2 something like + related term 'something .What do you callit? .€mow the ...cabbage 6.hundred.14. In "German we .call it.1 6.2 6.9.4 I 'don't .8. 6.2 What is (native language word) in English? 'What is framboise in .10.funghi? 6.down for me.Kreuz. In (native language) we say .you know . h o w to .like a .say Ver. 6.English. 6. er .know .found a ..9.now)? .2. 6. asking someone t o speak more slowly ..'clock.13.7..bucket? 6.3 How do you say (native language word) in English? 'Howdo you say . .English? 6. 'you .animal I 6.slowly.dienst .basta la .plain that.5 I saidthat + indirect speech form or close paraphrase 0 I .said .1 2 paraphrasing 'Couldyou ..3 IsaidX I .clear(.

Cross per.G.1 6.1 5 spelling out a word or expression 6.1 Do you mean X? 'Do you mean .raspberry? 6.H.1 6 .2 Perhapsyoumeanx? Per'haps you -mean ..G.3 You spell it: .4 6.H.haps? supplying a word or expression .E.5 6.0. 6.1 6..N.R.I.16.Y.U.15..2 X is spelt: Tough is spelt T.5 L A N G U A G E F U N C T I O N S 47 6.K.1 6.mushroom? 6.3 I think you mean X? I 'think you . 6. X (perhaps)? ..0.1 spelling out English letter names M.1 5.15. 6.T.Service . You spell it B.mean a .badge.

General notions for Threshold Level including recommended exponents 1 1. there.new . not there.the lexical item among is the exponent of the notion among.dress. Strictly speaking. to become.1 Existential existence.2 presence. in general.this would have led to almost constant duplication without any practical gain. people deal with by means of language.3 There is + NP There’s no + NP There isn’t any + NP availabilitH non availability to have (got) .48 6 General notions Introduction The list of general notions is derived from a consideration of what.we should have presented each notion and its exponent@) separately.) 1. away 1. ofwhat concepts they may be likely to refer to whatever the specific features of a particular communication situation may be. absence here. but since the large majority of the notions would then have to be referred to by means of the corresponding exponent . not here. non-existence There is + NP There’s no + NP There isn’tany + NP the verbs to exist. We present the general notions under eight headings: 1 existential 2 spatial 3 temporal 4 quantitative 5 qualitative 6 mental 7 relational 8 deixis The following list indicates the subclasses of the notions selected and presents the various notions in the form of their exponents. to make (as in: She ‘made a .

to come along 0.away f r o m the following verbs: to bring. off. t o take away. to start to move (as in: The .).after .now.4 occurrence.shoes do you . among 6.before (as in: 'A .foot.4 motion the following verbs of motion: to arrive. thick.).stopped. in the neighbourhood (of)0. to come.).in front of. these those 2.8.. to carry. on.1 dimension fa size size (as in: 'What . to follow. millimetre.)..to stop (as in: The 'train . to lie down.coat .5 direction to happen 2 2.). to put (as in: 'May I put my .at.). to hurry.s m a l l . at the end of. at the side of. straight on. east (as in: He .to.miles.8.8 2. wide length centimetre.). next to. in. under. outside (in) the east/north/south/west to have been to (as in: She has . narrow 0. (to the) right.yard 2.).A. for 0 (as in: He is 'leaving for .miles away. (to the) left.) far (away)from.Slough? the following adverbs: away. beside 0. below 6. everywhere. through.to come + to NP (as in: He 'came to the . non-occurrence 2.going . inside. somewhere.B 1 is 'five . inside 6.round. I iver. south. tall. into.to pass (as in: You 'pass the .last. kilometre. high. west the following prepositions: across 0. opposite. fmt (as in: 'John .6 origin from (as in: We . last (as in: 'Peter . to run.between. (not)anywhere. metre.3 distance (as in: The 'distance from .been to 'Paris.near.first. that. towards 0. between. back.east.went .railway .) 2.car 'did not .).) t h i s .came . to go.comes before \B. t o turn (as in: 'Turn .) 2.to pull to push.down?). inch.behind.).7 arrangement 2. where + sub-clause0 distance direction In 'which di-rectionis .going . where?.along.in.short. mile. up (as in: 'Are you .large 0.take?) the following adjectives: big.came .6 G E N E R A L N O T I O N S 49 ready (as in 'When will it be .house..1 Spatial location the following adverbs: here.away (as in: It is 'two .station.ready?) 1. north. to stand s t i l l 0. to to get up. up 0. nowhere.2 relative position the following prepositions of position: above 0. down (as in: 'Are you .to leave (as in: We have to (leave .2 .up?).low. to take (as in: 1'11 'take it to your .) 2. thin.room. before 0.came from (London. out of 2.rnove. from. over. deep.. among. there.out.in the centre of. to send. to walk after (as in: '6 comes .). outside.).A to .Rome.left at the . past.here?).against. down 0.size .

) cold.to get cold/hot/warm 3 3.3 indications o f time time (as in: 'What .for (as in: for 'three . minute.Easter .4 June (written) 1 June 1989 Christmas. to freeze.7 temperature temperature (as in: The . then.m.1518 (fifteen eighteen) at 3. to take (as in: It .week. 0 noon 0. morning.high I for ..).long is it?). tomorrow.clock).until 0.time). duration prepositions: during.6 space big. weekend. by@ (as in: by 'three o'.). 02. night.summer.) to last (as in: It .lbs. short (as in: a 'short .days a..takes 'three . ton(ne) the adjectives light and heavy 2.want a 'light . in .midnight 0 1500 (ffieen hundred).meal) .room .past (three).here I till 'three o'.3 pressure heavy.here. in '1 98. tonight lasqnext +week/ monthbear prepositions: at (as in: a t 'three o'. degree. at . since (as in: since '1 94. not . (to)heat.. the day after tomorrow this morning/afternoon/ evening/week/month/year. evening.days.8..8..midnight). century season.yesterday.hours).1 Temporal points of time (three)o'clock (five)to/past (three) a quarter tolpast (three) (sixteen)minutes tolpast (three) half past (three) (3) a. (as in: 'during the .. summer. day. winter afternoon. 3. till.8. i n (as in: in 'three .Sunday.holidays). in the on (as in: on ./p.8.zero.blanket.9). low 2. litre. quick (as in: a 'quick .). second. hour.) adjectives: long (as in: a 'long . quarter of an hour.hours. year. cool.m..5).5 fortnight.50 6 G E N E R A L N O T I O N S long (as in: 'How . holidafls) the names of days of the week. high.) 2.hot. light (as in: I .lasts 'three . soon. on the 'first of June) dates: (spoken) the first of volume gallon. short 2. month. at 'twenty .kilo.hours. names of months 3.4 weight to weigh weight gram(me)s.time is it?) now.time). warm to boil. pint 2.week. in a .till (as in: He 'won't be . zero (as in: It's 'ten degrees below . spring.go) today. half(an) hour. when?. autumn.have 'plenty of . . the day before yesterday.me.clock.autumn.clock.2 divisions of time moment.temperature is 'too .8. small room (as in: You .ago (as in: 'two . to burn.

) 3. .etc..) soon in (as in: in 'four .the day before yesterday. (as in: He is 'still .went to the .formerly..) delay 3 .come .) late (as in: We'll .).layed.show.have to 'hurry.17 at the same time 3.).drid. I 'then we -travelledto Gib. 6 present continuous of verbs of motion simple present (with adverbials of future time) (as in: We 'leave at . etc. There's an 'early . I we are 'late.Mondays.8 posteriority after + NP/sub-clause past reference past continuous simple past afterwards.) an teriority present perfect (as in: 1 'haven't 'seen .midnight.Scotland. then (as in: 'First we .) delay.while + sub-clause0.went to Ma.Paris.yet?: He 'hasn't . seldom 0.. (as in: There will be a de. still. 3.twice.) already (as in: I have al'ready .lay.train on .train. never. 9 sequence first (as in: 'First we .) to be delayed 0 (as in: The 'train will be de. later (on) later than .miles/kilometres per hour 3. We . rarely..done it..12 present reference present continuous simple present present perfect at present.raltar. now. tomorrow. fmally (as in: "Finally 1 we .) past perfect (as in: I 'hadn't .) yet (as in: 'Has he . slow . .lately 0.) before + NP/sub-clause before (as in: I'd 'never .been to . (not)often. .. later on 0.John I .6 G E N E R A L N O T I O N S 51 3. 3. next 0 (as in: 'What did you .7 tonight.last week/month. today.next?).10 when + sub-clause0.done it. the day after tomorrow.1 1 future reference NP + be going to ..drid.in the end 0. yesterday. recently 0.sometimes. 3.weeks) next week/month/year/Sunday.).13 earlier than .back. NP+ w i l l .16 afterwards 3.come . once.went .late .) this morning/afternoon/year etc.yet. I've .working.14 reference without time focus simple present (as in: 'Edinburgh is in .5 earliness early (as in: You are 'early. 3.yet.later..late for the .1 5 later (as in: The 'train will come .done it before. 3.just.do . frequency always. as soon as + subclause 0 simultaneousness speed fast.) lateness 3 . this afternoon 3. We were 'too .(hardly)ever.went to Ma.

52

6

G E N E R A L

N O T I O N S

usually

3.25

daily 0,weekly 0,monthly 0
(as in: There are 'daily ,flights.) once every day 0 ...times a/perweewmonth, etc. on weekdaysISundays,etc, every week/Sunday,etc.
3.18

cessation to end 0.to finish 0,to stop (as in: The .game will 'stop at ,six; He 'stopped {talking.) till, until 0,to (as in: from '9 to ,I 2) stability to remain8 (as in: 'How .long will you re.main ,here; 'Will it re.rnain ,dry today?),to stay (as in: I will 'stay here for a ,week; It 'won't .stay .dry for "long.), to keep (as in: 'How .long will this .milk .keep ,fresh?), towait (as in: We .had to .wait .only 'five ,minutes.) change, transition to become (as in: 'Sugar has become ex,pensive.), to change, to get 0 (as in: He's .getting ,old.), to turn (as in: The .leaves .turned ,yellow.) suddenly ...

3.26

continuity present continuous past continuous present perfect (as in: I've 'lived .here for .two ,years.) to go on (as in: It will .go on for 'five ,years.) intermittence not always,sometimes,on and
Off

3.19

3.27

3.20 3.21

permanence always,for ever,for good

for + NP (as in: You can 'have
my .car for a (week.) not always present continuous past continuous (as in: He idwas .living in 'Scotland for .some .months.)

temporariness

4
4.1

Quantitative
number singular/pl uraI cardinal numerals ordinal numerals another (as in: 'May have a.nother .cup of ,tea, please?), about (as in: I have a-out ,f25.) quantity the following determiners: all, a lot of, any (also: hardly any, not any),both, each, enough,

3.22

repetitiousness again, many times, twice, several times 0,again and again
uniqueness

3.23 3.24

(only)once
commencement to begin e,to start (as in: The 'game .started at ,seven; He 'started to ,speak.) to go ...(as in: 'Let's .go ,sailing.) since (as in: I've .been here since '7 a.,m.), from (as in: I .work from '9 to ,12J

4.2

(a)few,(a)little, many, more, most,much,no, several, some half(as in: 'Give me ,half of it; 'Give me the ,other .half; 'Give me .half a ,bottle.) at least (as in: I .need at 'least $5.)

6

G E N E R A L

N O T I O N S

53

a bottle/box/cup/glass,packet/ piece, etc. of ... See further General Notions
2.8.

to listen, to listen to nouns: noise, silence 0, sound adjectives: loud, silent 0, soft, quiet
5.1.6

4.3

degree comparative and superlative degrees of adjectives and adverbs enough (as in: 'good e,nough), too very ... a bit (as in: a 'bit ,better; a 'bit ,tired) 0, a little (as in: a 'little ,better; a .little ,tired), a lot (as in: a 'lot ,better) 0, much (as in: 'much ,better), almost, hardly 0, quite (as in: 'quite ,old), rather (as in: 'rather ,old), so (as in: I'm 'so ,sorry!) such0 (as in: It was 'such 'fun! He is 'such a 'nice .boy!) even (as in: I've 'even .paid
...I

taste to taste (as in: 'How does your ,soup .taste?; 'Would you .like to .taste ,this?) taste (as in: I 'don't .like the ,taste.) adjectives: bad. nice, bitter, salt&), sour, sweet smell to smell (of)(as in: The 'food .smells 'good; 'Can you .smell ,gas?; It .smells of ,paint.) smell (as in: The .flower has a 'nice ,smell.), odour0, perfume 0 adjectives: bad, nice, pleasant, unpleasant texture adjectives: hard,rough, smooth 0,soft strong, weak 0 colour colour adjectives: blue, black, brown, green, grey. orange,red, white, yellar,light (as in: a ,light .colour; 'light ,blue), bright, dull, dark (as in: a ,dark .colour; 'dark ,blue)

5.1.7

'f5.)

5.1.8

5
5.1 5.1.1 5.1.2 5.1.3

QuaIitat ive
physical
shape adjectives: round, square dimension See General Notions 2.8. moisture, humidity
5.1.9

dry,wet, damp, moist to dry,to (make)wet
5.1.4

visibility, sight NP + can(not) see + NP NP + can(not)be seen 0 to look (as in: 'Don't .look "now!), to look at, to watch adjectives: dark,light, (in)visible audibility, hearing NP + can(not)hear + NP NP + =(not) be heard 0

5.1.10 age age 0 I am (years old)

...

5.1.5

How old are you (is helshe, etc.)? adjectives: new, old, young nouns: adult, baby, child month (as in: Her .baby is 'six .months ,old.), year
5.1.11 physical condition adjectives: alive, a l l right,

54

6

G E N E R A L

N O T I O N S

better (as in: He .got ,better.), dead, ill, well in/out of order 0 (as in: The 'telephone is .out of ,order.) to look (as in: You .look 'very ,well.) to break, to cut (as in: I've 'cut my ,finger.), to (be)hurt, to die, to fasten, to tie, to repair, to put right
5.1.12 accessibiIity to close (as in: The 'shop doses at ,six.)

noun: quality adjectives: bad, worse, worst

poor good, better, best; excellent, fine, nice adverb: well (as in: He can .write .English -very ,well.)
5.2.3

rightness, wrongness NP + should (not)+ VPinf NP + ought to + VPinf adjectives: right, wrong acceptability, unacceptability That's all right. That's fme/nice. I don't like it. I cannot accept ...0 I'm against ...@ adequacy, inadequacy NP + be a l l right NP + be (not)enough That will do. t D desirability, undesirability to like See also Language Functions 2.32-2 -36. correctness, incorrectness adjectives: better, correct 0, incorrect 0,false 0,right, true, wrong, OK to be right, to be wrong, to put something right, to make something better successfulness, unsuccessfulness to fail, to succeed,to try failure, success 8 (un-)successful utility, inutility (not)useful. useless 4 B NP + can(not)use ...

5.2.4

to get at, to open, to reach adjectives: closed, open
5.1.13 cleanness

to clean,to wash, (to)dust 0, (to)polish 0 adjectives: clean, dirty
5.1.14 material nouns and adjectives: cotton 0,glass, leather,

5.2.5

metal, nylon, paper,plastic, silk, silver nouns: wood, wool made of wood, wooden 0. made of wool, woollen 0 material
5.1.15 genuineness real (as in: Ils this ,real .leather?) 5.1.16 f uIIness adjectives: empty,f u l l(04 to ffl

5.2.6

5.2.7

5.2.8

5.2
5.2.1

evaluative value, price How much + be ... ? (as in: 'How .much are .these ,shoes?) to cost e noun: price adjectives: cheap, (inkxpensive,high, low quality

5.2.9

5.2.2

5.2.10 capacity, incapacity NP + can(not),.. NP + wilywon't ... NP + be able to ...

13 facility. to speak.7.6 G E N E R A L N O T I O N S 5s 5. to wonder d no doubt 0 See also Language Functions 2. means 7.2.) factitive as object (as in: She .2 (not)important unimportant0 5.. manner.century.to apologise 0.book. unimportance 7.3.2.book.3.to tell..hard.wife.shirt .2.3.made a 'new .) objective as subject of passive 0 (as in: The 'door was .1 in this way.to be certain0.to ask.washed.) dative in to adjunct (as in: He 'gave the .John.ticket to my .2.9 7.slowly. Section 2. 6. who .1 1 importance.@ well .opened the . to know. abnormality normal.given a .4 expression to answer.8. like this 0 by means of . to forbid 0.3. h&d 0 (as in: His .Guests are re.) dif€kulty0 6 6. to talk.English is 'hard to under. strange.0 by + Ving as 0 (as in: They 'use it as a .stand.) dative as subject of passive @ (as in: He was . actionlevent relations agency agent as subject agent in by adjunct (passive) 0 agent in emphatic: It was X 7.question.3 7.fork.5 7.6 statement 7 7. temporal relations See General Notions 3.3 to believe.5. 7.built in the 'thirteenth .door.) benefactive benefactive in for adjunct (as in: I have 'bought this for my .8 7.3.to request 0 (as in: .3.key. difficulty easy. to recommend0.desk.3.3.thedral I was .5-2. to say.12 normality.2. difficult. quickly.).to be sure.1 Relational spatial relations See General Notions 2.opened by .) causative to have (as in: 'Can I have my .2 7.please?) place See General Notions.2.quested to 'leave their .) factitive as subject of passive 0 (as in: 'This ca.to laugh.keys at the .14.to hope..) instrumental instrumental in with adjunct (as in: You can 'open the . ordinary 0 5.13-2. hoM. time See General Notions.2.2.door with .3.) dative dative as indirect object (as in: He 'gave me a . to thank to write nouns: answer.to think.dress. .to invite 0.this . to remember.2 7..14. fast hard (as in: We .) adverbs: badly.4-3.brother.7 7. 2. Section 3.1 Mental reflection objective/factitive objective as object (as in: 'John .6.).3.have to -work 'very .

went..).) not so . possession possessive adjectives (my.) also..harder than his .too.7 to .car. group (as in: a 'group of .6 then .).) correspondence in addition to the exponents of 7.1 logical relations equality..travel here without a .4.pair of ..5 much. also...etc. another (as in: 'Give me a..0 the purpose is ..5 7.is .0 7..buy a .3 disjunction or inclusion/exclusion with (as in: We are 'going to . 'John .too (as in: 'John is leaving 1 'too.) except 0 (as in: We 'all .passport.too (as in: John is . (as in: 'This is .7 because + sub-clause. so . own (as in: This is my 'own ..class.take him .4. to give.so . as subject (as in: 'Mine is ...6 7.big as his ....friends) 7.to have (got)(as in: I have (.2 and.4 7.) possessive relations together pair (as in: I 'want to .5.keep this?).) i n order to .got) a 'small .) possessive pronouns (mine. I so he 'did not .shoes. yours. 7 because + sub-clause since + sub-clause the reason is .).better. other.6.leaving I ..as 0 (as in: He is 'not so . (as in: He .) to belong to .6. to get (as in: I .6.(as in: He 'came to ...2 7.) the re'sult.. etc.) superlative degree (as in: He is the 'tallest .brother.like an 'orange.ate too reason why .help purpose me.mine.feel ...swim I 'either.ill.d 7.) genitive singular of personal nouns of adjuncts with adjuncts.56 6 G E N E R A L N O T I O N S 7.works .1: like (as in: It's .6.) comparative degree + than (as in: 'John is .without (as in: We are 'not .4.owner 0.that 0 (as in: He ate 'so . to keep (as in: 'May I .) cause why .else?)..).) 7.brother.4 7. except John.to own 0.else (as in: 'Anything .) 7.) to differ 0 difference 0 different (from). without adjuncts (as in: You 'cannot .got a 'nice .).older than his .1 ownership.) as ..6.book..book.1 contrastive relations 7..as 0 (as in: He is as 'big as his {brother...).but..nother (=different) . not .6. as + sub-clause 0 effect 7.well.with us.brother.).either (as in: 'I cannot .0 7. your.8 condition if+ sub-clause .out him.6...0.going with.boy in the .. as well as 6.6.. inequality conjunction (not)the same (thing)(as .present from him.much 1 that he 'fell .

train . omission of relative pronounO reflexive/emphatic pronouns: my. these. that @.home..what.what.) 8.want .1..a l l (as in: They ‘all went . something.an indefinite pronouns: someone.) definite article: t h e interrogative pronouns: who. persons involved).1. (not) . time.hurt myself. both (as in: They ‘both went .g.come?vs.anyone. each.place. definite non-anaphoric personal pronouns (subject forms and object forms) possessive adjectives: my.9 focusing about (as in: I ‘don’t .take it. referring to an item already mentioned) (‘Why don’t you . possessive pronouns as complement (as in: ‘This is .). such independent relative pronoun: what (as in: ‘What you . yourself. etc.. whom 8 whose 0.1. (not) .).want ‘all of it.true. nobody. it’s ‘yours. someone).1 pronouns relative pronouns: who.need them.help him.).any infor. anybody. your.self .) 8.e.mation on .wanted to ’he1p.m he. Deixis may be definite or indefinite (hevs.both of them. I and I .) demonstrative adjectives and 8. everything.home. so (as in: He ‘wanted to .did.) substitute-verb: do (as in: He ‘asked me to . now. . everyone. those.war. only (as in: I ‘only .non-anaphoric or anaphoric (i.out I but he ‘didn’t .) reciprocal pronoun: each other definite article: the adverbs: here.talk about the .) demonstrative adjectives and pronouns: t his.say so..2 indefinite indefinite article: a. 1‘11 ‘buy those .. etc. o n (as in: I ‘cannot .6..which. which anaphoric personal pronouns (subject forms and object forms) possessive adjectives possessive pronouns as complement (as in: ‘You .) 0. nothing.want to .better. (as in: I .services.whose 0. whom 0. then. I . ones (as in: I ‘like the ‘red one. somebody. no one.say is .2 8. there. I .) a Deixis Deixis involves referring or identifylngby means oflinguistic items belonging to closed sets the reference ofwhich i s dependent upon the context o f the utterance (e.) prop word: one.books 1 because I . that.anything. (not) . everybody. I’ve ‘done it my.self.give you . which interrogative adjectives: whose 8.go .) possessive pronouns as subject 0 (as in: ‘Mine is .6 G E N E R A L N O T I O N S 57 7.

(not).government?. thing (as in: 'What do you .) 8.present.you (as in: It's a 'nice .think about the .58 6 G E N E R A L N O T I O N S some (as in: 'Some of them -went .night?) .came.persons . There are 'five -people. adverbs: somewhere.call that .).raining.man .anywhere.going to -doto.).nowhere..man 8 (as in: There were "animals .) people (as in: 'What do -people .here I be'fore . sometimes.).2.modern .thing?).record 1 if you "like .) indefinite determiners: See General Notions 4.home. it (as in: It's .never.music..present. always semi-deictics: person (as in: There are 'five . do (as in: 'What are you . everywhere.

The specification contains several openended items indicated by italics (e.Alternative exponents of essentially the same notion are presented thus: first name/Christian name/forename/givenname.buying something in a shop) as well as to topics for communicative interaction (e. environment 3 daily life 4 free time. To facilitate reference.In these cases we leave it to materials designers.59 7 Specific notions Introduction In the followinglist the specific notions for Threshold LeveZ are arranged under 14 themes: 1 personal identification 2 house and home. entertainment 5 travel 6 relations with other people 7 health and body care 8 education 9 shopping 10 food and drink 11 services 12 places 13 language 14 weather The themes may relate to the situational context in which particular transactions may take place (e.names ofocnrpations). talking about shopping facilities). In the same way as the general notions. In such a case the learner should be able to use at least one of them productivelybut to understand all the others. teachers and learners to identify those specific notions. the specific notions are further arranged under subthemes.g. if .g.Under the title of each theme an indication is given as to what learners at Threshold Level may be expected to be able to do with regard to it. the specificnotions are indicated by means of their (recommended)exponents (see the introduction to the list ofgeneral notions). These indications are necessarily incomplete and are to be supplemented from other components of our specification.g.

..write/spell your ... say when and where they were born... to sign 8 signature @ letter ‘What‘s the ..Bill... 1 Personal identification The learners can say who they are..call him $Bill. state their age. state their likes and dislikes.... however..live in the .live at ‘number fif........ in our view... e. which suit their own purposes. sex..... street number I .........g... state their address..dress? names of roads etc... which. say whether they are married or not... a list of them preceded by ‘e.... spell their name...’It should be understood..60 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S any...name? names of letters of the alp ha bet to call We .g. square. in a number of cases. describe their family..last .. say what other people are like: elicit/understand similar information from others... they are not meant as recommended phrases for inclusion in course materials.... Specific notions for Threshold Level including recommended exponents . to belt0 be called He’s (...1 name name first name/Christian name/forename surname/familyname initials @ M r .2 address to live ‘Where do you .... Miss ... if any..These illustrative sentences have no other role than clarification of the meaning of the word involved.live? address ‘What’s your ad..name? 1.called) ..teen country I .. road. say where they are from. In order to provide some guidance as to those notions... state their nationality. 1.country . what they do for a living.letter of your .g. park......tip under ‘eating and drinking out’)or it is clarified by means of contextualisation (e.. that the notions in such lists are merely offered by way of suggestion and have not got the status of definitely recommended ones.. might be primarily considered we add.. the meaning intended usually follows from its inclusion under a particular subtheme (e... If a word may be used in different meanings.. Ms ..g... state their religion.. Mrs . give their telephone number. (writing) to writelto spell ‘How do you .letter: What’s the last letter of your name?).....

3 telephone number (See also Specific Notions 11. Cologne.. the United States names of cities e. 7 marital status names of countries e.. Basle. school. shop names of occupational activities 1 .7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 61 townlcity village 1 . Britain.2. butcher. 9 1. Copenhagen. Russia. typist. busi nesswoma n. soldier. Germany.4 1 . office worker names of places of work e .) telephone 'Have you 'got a . sex 1 . tradesman. Dutch. secretary. shopassistant.g. off ice..g. I'm from .. grocer. baker. greengrocer. Athens.telephone? to callftophone/toring up telephone number 0 (pronounced [au]in telephone numbers) date and place of birth to be born I was 'born in . 1 0 1.g .London. The Hague. 8 nationality nationality0 names of nationalities e. civi I servant.g. factory. Brussels. German.. Spain. businessman.g. farm worker.1 . clerk. fa rm. Lisbon. Cypriot.. Florence. date place birthday names of the months the required numerals age See General Notions 5.lo.0 occupation job/occupation/profession to do What do you do (fora living)? names of occupa tions e. French.London on . 6 sex 0 man woman boy girl male 0 female 0 gentleman (as on lavatory doors)0 ladies (as on lavatory doors) 0 . Swiss foreign foreigner origin to be f r o m . Vienna (noqun-)mafiied single 0 divorced separated0 widowed 0 widow widower 1 . salesman. saleswoman. nurse. teacher. h0 s pita I. American. Switzerland. labourer. doctor/p hysician.from? to come from .5 1 . 'Where are you .

Christianity (Christian. sister.woman/ etc .. disposition What sort of . mother.) There are 'three .man/..sort of . Islam (Muslim). to work (as in: I . grandmother. Catholic.family? 'Have you any . grandfather. aunt. 1.62 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S e.is hels he? kind He is a 'very .work in an 'office. daughter.1 5 lazy@ (un-)intelligent 6) (un-)generous physical appearance tall short fat thin 1.kind 'person.7 'What .11 likes and dislikes See Language Functions 2. objects of likes and dislikes t o be derived from other themes.work? 1. to teach. Judaism (Jew).g.32-34.services on . uncle religion religion 0 names of religions e. character.14 family family 'Have you 'brought your .13 worker/employee boss/employer manager f@company to work 'Where do you ..Sundays.. to buy.12 god God to believe in . father. nice good bad (un)pleasant quiet 0 active @ 1. grandchild. Protestant).g. atheism (atheist) 1. brother. church cathedral 0 temple 8 mosque 0 service 0 Slim Pretty beautiful plain ugly dark (-haired) fair (-haired) bald . Orthodox.g.family? parentslfatherand mother child baby husband wife names of relatives e./. cousin. to sell.

stairs. to turn on 'Turn on the .....let.down...7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 63 . Iavatory/toilet/w.....stairs. describe regions and natural environment...4 accommodation.room . 2 House and home... environment The learners can describe a house or flat and the rooms in it. bed.....building.. bathroom. 'Let's go down... services and amenities.. names of rooms e.light .please...c.floor.stairs... curtain. ..g.rent.. 'Let's go up..sale.... chair..rooms I on the 'ground ... desk... living-room floor The "bedrooms I are on the 'first cost (See also General Notions 5.flat I in a 'big . table I 'have a .3 house flat apartment 0 building furniture. kitchen.......room is 'f 55 per .off.floor...2 blanket pillow sheet quilt 2..... We have 'plenty of ..here.. . l i f t window door W a l l cupboard garden heating central heating telephone water on The 'heating is . 2... (un-)furnished to buy to rent 2... rent to let 'Rooms to .stairs..g.2... cost.. for sale 'House for . rooms room We have 'two . 2.. bedroom....... exchange views on these matters..5 services electricity gas upstairs The 'bathroom is up. lamp.1 types of accommodation 2..on. obtainlunderstand similar descriptions and references from others.. basement 0 stairs downstairs The 'kitchen is ........week... included 8 'Water is included in the .. bedclothes furniture names of pieces of furniture e.. Off The 'heating is . refer to furniture and bedclothes. cellar..1 ..) price to be The .

see the 'tops of the .mountains. trees.country I there are many .clothes down. dog. fly. sheep plant tree flower bush names of plants.factories.part of the . horse. bird.heating? 2. area Q farmland 0 industry Q farm factory fields forest/wood hill animal Pet names of animals.part of the -country I is 'quite . flowers e. 2.flat. insect. fish. pine lake valley mountain . insects e.7 region part of the country In "our . bottom We could . grass. pig. flat "Our .week. fish. birds.g.see the 'bottom of the . goat. cow. daffodil.turn off the .stairs.64 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S to turn off 'How do you .g. cat. 2.6 amenities bath shower fridge television radio Canal river sea seaside Q coast Q beach island water land top We could . fuchsia.cleaned 'twice a .lake. oak.8 flora and fauna garage washing-machine to clean The -roomsare . to wash You can 'wash your .

days off We have 'two . . . to cook I'll 'cook din. Section 4. . .g. . . 3. . .job. .1 a t home (See also Specific Notions.week.meal I 'every . . . . obtainlunderstand similar information from others: exchange views on these matters. . . . .5 to become I 'may become a .off a .7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 65 .pot of . . supper to stop . .3 income to make 'Shall I . . . . . tea.2 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .week. .Saturdays. . breakfast. . . . . . income/salary/wages to earn pension grant8 allowance 8 to go shopping to go to school to go to work to come home to go to bed to go to sleep spare time 3. . prospects 3. .make a . lunch. . . . . . . can give information about income. etc. . . dinner. . . . . 4 schooling See Specific Notions. .doctor. at home and at work. .ner for you. . names of meals e. . . . . .days .tea? to wash up to clean I d e a n the . . Section 8. . to be free We are 'free I on . . 3 Daily life The learners can describe their daily routines. schooling and prospects. . . atwork (See also Specific Notions 1.day. . colleague (on)strike unemployment social security/socialbenefits 3. .windows 'once a .work break holiday@) canteen free We get a 'free . .10. . . .) to wake up to get up to wash to take a bath to take a shower to get (un-)dressed to have breakfast. . .) working hours to start work to learn to study to qualify as to apply (for) I 'won't apply for "that . . .

... modern music.. actor.. 4 Free time. pop music to show 'What are they -showing on T.... actress. public entertainment and private pursuits. classical. I 'always .play your . film...g.. revue..g. news.. concert. folk. ballet.. entertainment The learners can say when they are free and what they do in their spare time. TV.... current affairs.. film.) hobby names of hobbies e..g.. violin... disco..32-34. guitar . commercials cassette recorder cinema. e.....g..1 hobbies and interests (See also Language Functions 2..go for a .66 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S . opera...walk I on . piano.. comedy. disc jockey.... mass media. politics.Sundays. etc. carpentry.g...g.3 tape recorder tape cassette walkman 0 video recorder videotape record/gramophone record record player CDlcompact disc CD player to play 'Let's ...new .g. ballet dancer.. cinema...six... 4. theatre names of places for public entertainment concert. sports to go for . music.. documentary......1 leisure to be free I'm 'free ... floor show... musical. (film) star. sports and reading: obtainlunderstand similar information from others: exchange views on these matters: make use of entertainment facilities. 4. free timelspare time/leisure holidafls) to go out 4. radio to listen to (theradio) television/I'V to watch crv) cable television 0 network programme names of radiollv programmes e. gardening. knitting.....V to-night? 4...... theatre names of public performances e.. song names of types of music e.4 radio. quiz. etc. show names of types of performers e... circus.. photography.. particularly with reference to hobbies and interests... singer names of musical instruments e. sailing names of fields of interest e... cabaret.after .. musician. jazz... drama..... films. pop star. night-club. collecting stamps..g.. fishing.record.. flute. computers..

hockey.seats in the . (playing-)cards gallery.get the . (horse) racing. ticket office 0 booking office 0 afternoon performance 0 matinee 0 seat 4. (lawn) tennis. short story. Poem names of types of books e.six.seats at the .tar. riding.5 4. swimming to play I've 'never 'played .front. photography.g.Hamlet? She +plays the gui. hockey.6 open 'Open on .picture of a . museum SPOWS) names of sports and games e.back. sculpture Programme 'Shall I -buy a . rugby.seats in 'row .please. museums.playing . etc. closing time intellectual and artistic pursuits to read to study to learn book story r o w0 We . painting. ticket '1'11 .7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 67 to dance to Play 'Who is .Sundays 1 2-5 p.tickets. opening-hours0 closed to close The mu.m.have .seum 'closes at .five. names of art forms e. football.g. chess. biography.bridge. skiing. detective story. cricket. snooker. centre back 'Two . spy story. to sing performance.7 sports exhibitions. novel..c.g. thriller bookshop library to write to make He 'made a . baseball. . front We have . entrance 0 exit8 emergencyexit 0 cloalcroom 0 lavatory/toilet/w. art gallery0 exhibition 0 art picture/painting sculpture 0 modern old antique 0 to watch race to race .programme? interval 8 4.

stadium ball article picture advertisement Page reporter/journalist to read .S....A...1 public transport to go 'How can I ...flight is from 'terminal .France I in '6.. 5.....draw.......5 1 has 'just ar.. to board stewardess/hostess bus coach bus stop driver train underground 'Let's ...lo. newspaperlpaper magazine 'Let's .... 4.... etc..Flight 'KL 17..rived..... 5 Travel The learners can use and refer to means of transport: travel by road. sea and air for business and holiday purposes.....8 to lose draw The 'game . rail....change at 'Sheffield.Liverpool? to travel traveller 0 passenger 0 to travel by air.ended in a .. (railway)station railways 0 platform Our .football .leaves from 'platform .train.... En'joy your {flight.... to check in boarding-passt B flight 0 .ground... press player team club field ground We 'live near the ..have to ........York I is from 'gate ..lo..... bus.. . charter flight 0 to fly security (as in: security check) 0 gate 0 The 'flight to .take the ..buy some maga.underground....68 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S game to win against We 'saw ....train ..zines..England against ... journey aeroplane @ plane airport airline terminal Your .....New . to change For 'Leeds 1 you .go to ....

3. 5.rent a "car.Brighton. class I 'always . cab driver 6 booking-office to book time table fare 6 'What's the .7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 69 connection 8 We'll 'miss our con'nection 1 to 'Reading! fast t r a i n slow train tram tram stop boat ferry 6 ship 0 quay cabin harbour@ taxi/cab taxi rank. motor cycle. business class tourist class 6 to smoke waiting-room lounge arrival 8 departure @ luggagebaggage lost property office 0 travel bureau 6 information office @ information desk 0 enquiries 0 restaurant refreshments 6 bar delay 0 to be delayed 6 to cancel 'Has our .travel .children single 'Two .singles to .g.fare to .second -class.8 and 1 1*9. car. van to drive driver to ride cyclist to hirelto rent We could 'always . lorry. bikehicycle. return A re'turn .) names of vehicles e.Liverpool? ticket adult 'One .cross "here! corner traffic lights .flight been (cancelled? 5. scooter.3 traffic street 6 oneway street 0 road main road motorway bridge crossing level crossing 8 roundabout 0 to cross 'Don't .ticket is 'cheaper I than .adult 1 and 'two . 11.two (singles.please./cabrank taxi driver.2 private transport (See also Specific Notions 5. .

to visit sights @ key to call 'Can you -call me at . cathedral. no parking. keep left. ruins.country .leave your . no waiting. inn. speed speed limit fine 0 You'll . turn right names of sights and buildings of interest e. danger 0 dangerous safe safety.desk.this .six. camp site. zoo abroad 'Are you . Australia. Europe 5. tent. safety belt 0 signpost to follow 'Follow the . turn left.message for me? hall lounge @ lift to press .have to .year? names of continents: Africa. exit.pay a .g. stop. pedestrian 0 map distance 0 to lose one's way common road-sign texts (reading only) e.g.foreign . keep right. -please? message 'Is there a . youth hostel single room double room f u l lboard halfboard 0 bed and breakEast balcony view 0 guest to book reservation e reception 0 desk 0 'Please .key a t the . to register 0 registration form 0 POUP We 'went with a .10. America. guest house.zone I you can .year? to a foreign country 'Are you .fine of 'f. one way.going to a .signs.only. cross now.broad .70 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S blue zone 0 In the 'blue . castle.this . Asia. give way.tourists.park for 'one .group of .5 5.going a.4 holidays journey trip tour guided tour 0 tourist tourist office (tourist)guide accommodation names of types of accommodation for travellers e.g. hotel.hour .

...this.... ....open your .bill.. duty-free0 duty 0 money to change I .fire 1 ..bag..2 invitations to invite invitation to make an appointment ... participate in social life. 6...... exchange information and views on these subjects with others.....7 entering and leaving a country frontierlborder to push 0 .....pay 'duty I on ... refer to forms of government and politics....change '500 .. to social affairs.want to ..want a .. refer to club membership...... to matters of crime and justice.7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 71 button 'Press the .clare? to open 'Will you ...8 locker @ travel documents document @ passport insurance driving licence @ ...dollars...Push I to 'open the .... flre In 'case of ......Pull I to 'open the ... 6 Relations with other people The learners can refer to personal relations.porter for your -luggage? 5......please? You'll 'have to ..... 5..please? receipt cheque to pay cash credit card immigration@ passport control @ visa @ customs to import a to declare 0 'Have you ...anything to de..floor.....button I for the 'third .1 relationship acquaintance friend boy-friend girl-friend lover partner stranger 6... of war and peace.. .door. to check out 0 bill 'Can I have my . to pull.. .......door.. deal with matters of correspondence. currency camera porter @ 'Do you .

criminal.6 crime and justice crime aiminal He is a .letter from her.. 6.servatives.owns 'many .72 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S to join 0 'Will you .come and .Wednesday..member? names of political parties e.factories. club membership club to steal member . socialist stamp airmail Pen pencil ball pointball peqbiro to send I'll 'send you a .lunch? to expect 0 We'll 'expect you at .g. to receivelto get I .party .4 right wing left wing leader He is the 'leader of the con. EU/EuropeanUnion NATO [ne~tau] 6. conservative..3 correspondence to correspond with to write (to) pen friend 0 .0 'Why don't you . meeting to meet We .see us toenight? Party to govern government parliament president We're 'having a 'party I to. liberal. to talk to dance present He .got some .@ letter envelope postcard note paper Paper 'Have you .got a .six.join us for .postcard.meet 'every . communist.paper for me? kine queen prince princess minister prime minister to elect 0 election to vote politics political Party 'Are you a . answer to answer 6. guest 6. state The .night.brought a 'present for me.state ..5 government and politics to visit to come and see .

7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 73 thief burglar. theft to rob robber robbery to kill to murder killer/murderer to kidnap kidnapper to hijack hijacker to rape witness 6 prison to punish punishment 6.garage.bomb into the .threw a . burglary. 1 terrorist terrorism drugs to take drugs addict alcohol victim police policeman policewoman police station to arrest law lawyer judge gun bullet bomb missile S P Y 6.8 social affairs issue 0 pollution jury court Poverty problem question welfare rich poor . war and peace peace disarmament Wal- to fight Y navy air force soldier officer enemy rape to shoot dY battle attack to attack defence to defend vict~ve defeat @ (nuclear)weapon 0 gun bomb to throw The 'kidnapper .7 .

.comfortable I ... tooth personalcomfort comfortable I'm 'quite ..... stomach....D.... e .... V...74 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S .. heart...cut my ...4 7. 7.. back. stating whether they feel well. chest....... The .. neck....laundry come .chair 'isn't very " comf ortable.. AIDS a. refer to matters of health and illness and describe what is wrong to a doctor or dentist. diabetes....... are hungry....g..please? to shave to wash I'd 'like to .. accidents health 0 ill tofallille to feel ill to be alivelto live dead killed disease illness 6 pain/-ache I have a . tired...2 toothpaste towel to cut 'Will you . exchange information and views on these matters. foot. lungs. hair..hair.. head.now.back ... leg.laundry .... report accidents.1 parts of the body names of parts of the body e. refer to matters of personal hygiene and obtain the articles required........yet? 7... feverltemperature to have a cold dizzy to feel sick to hurt names of diseases e. .. influenza (flu)... diarrhoea.wash before -dinner... arm.. etc.... hand.rest a -little.. hunger e hw3v thirst e thirsty tired to rest I'd 'like to . 7...headache.here? 'Has the . 'Can you . 7 Health and body care The learners can refer to matters of personal comfort.. refer to medical services and insurance..clothes for me? laundry6 'Is there a ..3 hygiene clean dirty brush comb razor sanitary towel 0 sassors soap toothbrush ailments.g.... sleepy to sleep to wake up tofeelwell to look well .wash these ..

.6 insurance to insure insurance third-party 'Do you have .. college.......finger............last (year........ to fill 0 This . etc. 8 Education The learners can exchange information and views on educational matters.....tablets a .. ambulance hospital ward 8 The 'patient is in the .etc... adult education .ward... lecture @ teacher master 6 professor student PUPS names of types of education e..take any .patient is 'waiting. 8. acadent to fall to break He has 'broken his . lesson course I 'took a -course in mathe.... lessons.. secondary school......1 schooling education to learn to take a course.... to be operated upon 0 tablet ..... to teach to train He (was) 'trained to be a ...leg..children's . school subjects and qualifications.7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 75 operation I 'had an ope'ration I . wound bandage/dressing diet 0 7. pill..g...time is your ap'pointment? to cut She has 'cut her .day.tooth was ....... patient 0 The .....) prescription 0 glasses 7.months a-go.nurse..matics..filled 'six .5 medical services dentist doctor nurse specialist chemist medicine 'Do you .medicine? to see a doctor (dentist. university. particularly types of education.hand.party (insurance? . primary school.......... appointment 8 'What .. to burn He has 'burnt his .third-..Take 'three .

..... 5...... fashion (See also General Notions 2.8-9.)turn 6 to show to wrap up 0 to change I 'want to ....2 subjects subject 'What .3 shop to go shopping supermarket department store 6 market self-service names of types of shops e. 9.. shoes. dress...ination I 'last . suit..... discuss prices. coat..right .twice..2 foodstuffs See Specific Notions 10... shirt.8.subjects did you ..8.9. skirt. greengrocer's. . For each of the following subthemes...1..1-2. hat.new . jacket...) clothes names of clothes e. particularly 2. trousers. see also under 5. grocer's... General Notions..5...watch? to try on to put on (clothes) to take off (clothes) to wear (clothes) smoking tobacco ........ 9. economics.1 and 5... baker's.. mathematics... stockings. blouse.1.1.. raincoats. 9 Shopping The learners can use shopping facilities. geography... tobacconist's sale I've 'bought 'this I at the . reading. underwear pocket Purse wallet handbag jewellery 8 watch 'Have you ..1.76 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 8.colour... physics... particularly obtaining foodstuffs. clothes. it is my (etc..year.4 clothes...... history...take at -school? names of school subjects e.got a .1 shopping facilities 9. exchange information and Views on these matters. tights.driving-.shirt.. household articles and smokers' requisites. I it is 'not the . to fail I 'failed my .5.g... 9. socks...g.3 qualifications diploma certificate 0 enamination final examination 6 entrance examination 6 test to pass I 'passed my exam.1...... computer science.test ..change this .g... arithmetic.1. science..2.sales. butcher's...14.. pay for things bought.1. writing 8.

breakfast..g.1.g.. cent.... etc.) to Pay to spend household articles fork knife spoon dish plate CUP Be 'careful......7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 77 Pipe agar cigarette ashtray to smoke no smoking 9. lunch..1 types of food and drink (See also General Notions 5.. beef....... also in a restaurant.. pork.... saucer bottle Pot glass money discount @ bank-notes coins credit card f (pound) P bemy) names of national currencies e.. mark 0 .. potatoes..g.. cauliflower.. turkey el33 .. hamburger..2. supper to have breakfast... cabbage... mushrooms.plate is 'hot. sole poultry. dinner.... 10. cafk. spinach chips salad soup meat names of kinds of meat e. dollar....... lamb... vea I names of meat products e. cod. I the .5 9... franc........1. mutton. 10 Food and drink The learners can refer to and order various kinds of food and beverage..g. course 'What's the ...... exchange information and views on food. tea...etc..6 jar jug matches string prices (See also General Notions 5.g. beans. names of kinds of poultry e. drink and places for eating and drinking.course? vegetables names of vegetables e. plaice..... chicken...main . carrots... sausage(s) fish names of kinds of fish e.g. peas..) to eat meal snack names of meals e..........g..6..

lemon. beer. fruit juice.like a . mineral water. nut.way? . grape.g.please. tea cream m i l k sugar drink 'Would you . water. apple.like a .2 cake pastry pie t a r t Mt names of fruits e.g.ice-. to grill. waiter waitress menu to choose to decide 'Have you de.78 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S omelette cheese dessert sweet 0 'Would you .like a .garden. to peel.cided . . orange.piece of . banana. to stir fresh.cream. soft drinks. pear.service in the . to mix.bill. 'Service is induded in the .take this a. freshly 10. to boil.piece of .cake? Slice (bread)roll sandwich toast butter peanut butter jam to drink coffee Pub bar canteen self-service helpyourself.chocolate? 'Chocolate . to bake.sweet? ice-cream vanilla chocolate 'Would you .drink? names of beverages e.yet? to order bill tip 0 service charge 0 to take away 0 'Can I . to serve service 0 'No . wine ways of preparing food e.like a .g. to fry. strawberry eating and drinking out snack bar coffee shop caf6 mustard pepper salt O i l vinegar flow bread piece 'Would you . raisin. orange juice.

3..passport.francs..car maintenance services and petrol stations. etc..police..... ~o**.) bank to change I'd 'like to -change '500 . See Specific Notions 7..3 telegraph telegraph 0 telegram word garage trouble engine trouble brake sender 0 fax 11. telegraph.1. to lose I've 'lost my . surgery..1. currency 0 11..2 telephone (See also Specific Notions 1.*..1 post (See also Specific Notions 6.. mail.... diplomatic services.* 11 Sewices The learners can refer to... diplomatic services 0 letter box collection0 posterestante 0 11..) 11.6.Bank. cheque travellers' cheque 0 petrol station (See also General Notions 2..... garage operator 0 to dial 0 out of order 0 11.5.4 bank (See also Specific Notions 9. bank...cheque.9 engine lights steering to help to repair to work My 'brakes ...don't +work.ac... telephone. consul consulate embassy ambassador0 11...5........ accoullf parcel p0-s to lend 11..8.1.8 hospital.7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S 79 .*~a*. medical services.11..) post O f f l c e to post postman.6 telephone booth 0 phone booth 0 callbox..... 11.1.count I with the 'Midland .cash this .) petrol station .5 police See Specific Notions 6..... enquire about and make use of postal services..7 11.6..1.3. to b o r n to cash I'd 'like to ....... I 'have an .

....... Swedish....2............ 13 Language The learners can refer to foreign-language ability and deal with problems of understanding and expression....1-6. understanding......1-2.......ask a ..g..... French.....5 and Specific Notions 1..............write .... not at all to translate translation to interpret dictionary question 'May I .....English ................ 12 Places The learners can ask the way and give strangers directions......1 climate and weather climate weather Sun s Y sunshine to shine rain rainy to rain ...... . 14 Weather The learners can understand a weather forecast and exchange information and views on climate and weather conditions....1 ability..... English........10 and General Notions 5........................ Spanish.............80 7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S petrol unleaded O i l o i l change 0 . See General Notions 2. Dutch...2 and 5..3. Italian...............2... 14..... Russian a little ........... to explain mistake names of languages e..... expression See Language Functions 6.............very .well...... German..........clear to me.. 13....question? clear It's 'not ........ In addition: language to read to speak to pronounce to understand to write well I 'cannot ..13.......................7 and 5.........

7 S P E C I F I C N O T I O N S a1 fog fow mist 0 snow to snow ice frost to freeze wind storm gale thunderstorm snowstorm lightning fine 0 It will be 'fine I to.shade? .rnorrow. mild shade 'Shall we -sit in the .

2 Sales person : ‘Yes? Customer Customer Customer Sales person : ’Cod.chips I . On the whole.a2 8 Verbal exchange patterns Exponents of single language functions may occur in isolation. In such exchanges the participants may mesh their contributions in accordance with certain conventions. Thus. at Threshold Level.’ Such more or less regularly occurring combinations may be referred to as patterns. Peck in an article called ‘Some ideas on teaching discourse synthesis’(the function labels are ours): 1 Sales person : ‘Yes? Customer Customer asking for wish (opening) expressing wish asking for payment (making payment) thanking (term i nation) asking for wish (opening) asking for preference expressing preference asking for preference expressing preference expressing further wish : ‘Haddock and . but I had to see my dentist first. in that a conversation may move in various directions. Sales person : . they may also be standardised.chips. that are relevant to Threshold Level learners in the light of the objective are variable.We may illustrate this by reproducing two examples of ‘predictablefish-andchip’ discourses provided by A. This may be said. however. however. Monologues may be thus patterned.vinegar.That‘ll be ‘f1. is not so much on monologues as on verbal exchanges between two.20 Sales person : {Thanks. The large majority of the verbal exchange patterns. And ‘saltand .Plaice.speakers.. of the typical greeting + response pattern occurring when two people pass each other in the street.twice. for instance. It is a characteristic of these patterns that they are variable. however. I or . Such sequences will usually exhibit certain regularities in the order of their elements..Large. and ‘Lookout!’ as a warning. With regard to oral communication involving contributions by the learner the emphasis. or more than two. involving only two or three utterances. expressing wish : . are obvious examples.small . J. ‘Stop!’ as an order. an apology will very often be followed by an explanation: ‘I’m sorry I’m late.plaice? : ‘Fish and .We then speak of verbal exchange patterns. Sales person : ’Large. I or . if only in that they may start with an utterance calling for attention and end with one signalling termination. Especially when they are very short. : (Gives money). function exponents are more likely to occur in sequences. : .

1 making purchases a) in a shop b) at a ticket counter. 3 making enquiries a) non-personal(where to go. snack bar. etc. They are particularly associated with the following communicative events. there is always a strong element of unpredictability as well.) b) personal (about name..exchangingviews. about various facilities and services. Communicative ability at Threshold Level implies the ability to play a part in verbal exchange patterns such as the ones illustrated above. conversation does not lend itself to a didactically meaningful . address.That’ll be ‘f2. When the more or less standardised patterns are broken. etc. etc.) 4 meeting people a) strangers b) friends. However predictable the occurrence of certain verbal exchange patterns in the above dialogue types may be. place of origin. 2 ordering food and drink restaurant. ticket from bus conductor. in fact. A number of dialogue types (which may. etc.30 Customer : (Gives money) asking for payment (making payment: non-verbal termination) Apart from the variability (by no means exhausted here) of the ‘fishandchips buying dialogue’. etc. They involve the occurrence of verbal exchange patterns with a certain measure of predictability.we note the occurrence of subpatterns as well as the integration of non-verbal turns. or even set aside completely. about opening hours.8 V E R B A L E X C H A N G E P A T T E R N S 83 Sales person : . acquaintances 5 asking and showing the way 6 asking and telling the time 7 inviting and reacting to invitation 8 arranging accommodation 9 proposing a course of action and reacting to such proposals 10 having a discussion agreeing/disagreeing. involve more than two participants) are explicitly or implicitly covered by our objective. where to eat. canteen.

together with their common exponents.’ Chapter 5 contains a classified list of the language functions. needing to be dealt with by repair procedures. In each case the services and/or goods must be identified. or even desirable. to attempt to spec@ the verbal interaction patterns to be used by learners (e. which are combined in verbal interaction. requiring no language. but instead a set ofwritten instructions must be followed. not even the most routine transactions of daily life are fully predictable. normally eliminating verbal interaction in favour of written instructions. involving different currencies. preferences to be expressed.g. or a perfunctory exchange. Each stage may be carried out through personal interaction involving more or less verbal interaction or by self-servicewith or without mechanisation. One wishes there were simply a ticket vending machine. in the form of praxeograms).. In any case: . wishing to use a foreign credit card. We have not thought it necessary. eating out. choices of route. pros and cons to be discussed. in which case no oral interaction need .or indeed can . In routine cases many may be passed over in silence and the exchange limited to a few words on either side. before the decisions can be made on which the next stage depends. Making travel arrangements.though it is only in exceptional circumstances that we need to follow the full process through in detail by means of language. there may be choices to be exercised. As we have shown. etc.when all one wishes to do oneself is to buy a single ticket to the next station. ‘All we can be said to understand about such talk’ Peck observes. and others where goods and services are required. or a brief unrelated interactional exchange to establish human contact. We all know what it is like to queue behind someone who wishes to travel to a remote place involving different means of transport. garages. comparison of prices using different combinations of various categories of tickets.The example could be paralleled in the settings of shopping. A complex transaction may have to pass through numerous stages of negotiation each involving lengthy verbal exchanges. made available and paid for.These act as signposts along a road we are travelling. Many conditions may have to be fulfilled before a transaction can be successfullycompleted.take place.As social beings we have the larger schemata in our social competence. say.’He adds: ‘We can teach pupils to recognise these elements of discourse and to use them themselves. conflicts of interest to be resolved. At any time. and the train is due to leave in five minutes. coordination of timetable. ‘is that certain elements occur frequently. communication difficulties may arise. may take either form. On the other hand.84 8 V E R B A L E X C H A N G E P A T T E R N S description of the kind we try to provide in this document. What is to be done at each stage may be selfevident.

whether steps are made explicit or passed over in silence depends on the situation and on cultural conventions. whether tipping is expected for small services. apart from non-specificopening and closing exchanges. 1. To attempt to do so would be at once too restrictive and over elaborate.1 Exchanging greetings with the shopkeeper/assistant/waiter/ receptionist. effective communication and co-operation depend.1 assistant greets 2.8 V E R B A L E X C H A N G E P A T T E R N S 85 . In others (e. For these reasons.1. etc.A general schema. preferences expressed. we do not specifyhere in an exhaustive way the patterns ofverbal interaction which a learner should be able to carry through in the situations envisaged. reception. General schema for purchase of goods or services 1 Moving to place of transaction 1.2 customer greets . restaurant.2 Finding the way to the counter.1 Finding the way to the shop. having a discussion)the possibilities of combining speech acts are virtually unlimited.g. In some cases (e. the ways in which objects are identified. station. dissatisfaction or agreement shown and so on are not specific to particular situations (beyondthe topicspecific words and expressions required). 2 Establishing contact 2. may however be set up to cover.Where transactions and interactions are governed by different rules. supermarket. of course.g. table. etc. asking and telling the time)a twoterm exchange normally suffices.whether and how bargaining is conducted over prices. department. the various transactions involving the purchase of goods and services. the order in which the steps occur is not fmed. It is this principle which underlies the notional/functional approach as distinct from some other situational approaches. . the schemata are largely shared by European societies. hotel. such as that presented below. etc. ticket office.g.1. store. etc. on mutual understanding between participants from different backgrounds (e. 2.They are generalisable as resources which can be called on according to need in a wide range of situations.). with certain adaptations.

weather. price.1 agreeing prices of items 4.4 receiving/handing over goods (and receipt) 4.2 identifying options 3. local gossip) 5.3.1. 3.5 asking for preference 3.3. quality.86 8 V E R B A L E X C H A N G E P A T T E R N S 3 Selecting gooddservices 3.3 receiving/handing over payment 4.g.3.2 exchanging interpersonal comment (e.1.1 expressing (mutual) satisfaction 5.3 discussing pros and cons of options (e.6 expressing preference etc.3.1 . size of goods) 3.6 agreeing t o purchase 4 Exchanging goods for payment 4.2 giving information 3.5 examining goods 3.1 identifying category of gooddservices required 3.1.3.2 agreeing addition of total 4.2 customer thanks 5 Leave taking 5.5.4 giving advice 3.2 giving information 3.1 seeking information 3.1 assistant greets 5.3 exchanging parting greetings 5.3.2 customer greets . colour.g.5 exchanging thanks 4.3 seeking advice 3.1 assistant expresses satisfaction 5.2 customer expresses satisfaction 5.4 identifying particular goods required 3.5.3.3.1 assistant thanks 4.1 seeking information 3.

buying an expensive dress in a prestigious store)would call on more of the resources implied.g. In the case of supermarkets and especially mechanised vending machines 2 and 5 do not apply.2may be interspersed with any of the other stages.4) Pecks examples are brief and businesslike. A minimal interaction consists of 4.3)-4.payment being made normally at the end of the meal or period of residence.3)-(4.5 may come between 3.5-4.1.1.5.4-4. Other situations (e. in a situation where choice is extremely restricted and prices are fmed.2-3.1-(4. 3.2-3. In hotels and restaurants 4. a celebratory meal in an expensive restaurant. as might the selection of hotel accommodation or the kind of complex travel arrangements outlined earlier.1-3.5.4 and 3.1.6 and 4.1-3.4-3. performed by actions without words. It will also be seen that (4) is central.1-(4. In a village shop elements of 5.8 V E R B A L E X C H A N G E P A T T E R N S 07 It will be seen that the sequence is not strictly linear.6 are carried out in silence by the customer in ‘dialogue’with written descriptions and instructions .1-3. .4-3.1 Peck 2:3. Peck 1: 3.4-4.2-3.a process often preferred by foreign visitors and even native speakers as avoidance strategies against expected difficulties of interpersonal communication.5.4and 4.

provided that particularly the second criterion above is satisfied.paragraphing. It is assumed that with these . if the learners have access to a dictionary and know how to use it. tone of voice. bolding. No limitation is put on the kind of information to be understood from a text as defined above. moods and wishes. and. This means that the understanding is not confined to factual information but may equally concern the expression of opinions. No indications are given as to the range and nature of the lexical content of texts to be understood. The nature of the texts to be understood is further defined by the following criteria: they have a clear structure. This is all the more valid for reading.1-4 in the chapter on ‘compensationstrategies’ (Chapter 12).and confined .In item 3 of the extended characterisation the ability to deal with written and spoken texts that is expected of learners at Threshold Level is related . other than ‘generalEuropean culture’ they are produced in an easily accessible form. .the ‘tasks’ they can perform . What the learners can do with regard to these texts .1-5 and 11. When a learner can use the strategies listed as 1. typography (e. capitals). etc. structurally relevant pauses. italics. both conceptually and formally the information contained in them is exclusively or mainly offered explicitly their understanding presupposes little or no familiarity with specific features of a foreign culture. the placing of emphasis. illustrations.to texts relevant to certain specified situations and to certain specified topics.g.is described in the same item as ‘understandingthe gist and/or relevant details’.there is no point in trying to specifythe limits of the vocabulary content that the learners may be supposed to be able to deal with. attitudes. discourse markers such as phrasing.In carrying out these tasks the learners may have to use certain interpretation strategies as listed under item 5 of the extended characterisation: distinguishing main points and secondary points distinguishing fact from comment identifylng relevant information making use of clues such as titles. in oral texts.

and that is that the learners cannot be expected to be able to understand items whose meaning.telephone directories.informative articles.g. the following: personal correspondence (letters. Only one further. for instance.g. reservation has to be made with regard to vocabulary. forms (e. and the implication of ‘at this level’ is that we exclude those text types which would be likely to make a much greater demand on the learners’ familiarity with the foreign language than may be expected at Threshold Level. bills. instructions on automatic vending machines.landing forms. postcards.those text types that at this level would seem to be particularly relevant in connection with the situations and the topics mentioned in items 1 and 2 of the extended characterisation.directions (e.frorn newspapers and magazines. advertisements. city guides). timetables. product packaging (e. conceptually. and obvious. hotel registration forms). tickets. telegrams). legends (of maps).g.g. weather forecasts. however. . This would apply to items whose meaning would be. notices. would be obscure to them even if the text had been produced in their native language.g. the text type ‘rules and regulations’.street signs). as far as vocabulary is concerned. beyond the learners’ mental reach. features. Text types related to the topics of the extended characterisation: In addition to several text types listed under ‘situations’above. Although an exhaustive enumeration of text types that the learner at Threshold Level will be able to deal with is not possible. leaflets.hotel guides.shop signs. in supermarkets). radio/IV/theatre programmes. brochures. The latter restriction leads to the exclusion of. in texts referred to in this specification. By ‘relevant’we mean ‘relevantto the learners’ needs and interests’. guides (e. Reading Text types related to the situations of the extended characterisation: Signs (e.how to make a phone call). by way of guidance and exemplification.9 R E A D I N G A N D L I S T E N I N G 89 devices and the command of a core vocabulary such as the one recommended in this volume the learners’ range of action particularly as readers .which often requires familiarity with a highly formal register. sufficient for the kinds of texts that fall within the terms of our definition.posters.g.warnings). instructions (e. in the available context.is. They would be unlikely to occur.price lists. we shall list.

airports.90 9 R E A D I N G A N D L I S T E N I N G Listening The range of text types proposed for listening is considerablynarrower than that for reading. although it is likely that a learner who has at his disposal the linguistic content of Threshold Level would be able to understand much reading material of this kind.supermarket. grammar and pronunciation.TV. in flight.traffic information (radio).). in discos. flowcharts. 2 It is in accordance with the nature of the present specification as a general objective that we refrain from including such items as reviews from newspapers and magazines.Such texts as news programmes on radio and especially on television with its stronger visual support may be partly understood by learners at Threshold Level but because of their low degree of predictability we would situate a general ability to understand their gist and/or relevant details at a somewhat higher level. In order to meet the needs and interests of particular subgroups of the target population such items may.). comic strips. learners at Threshold Level should be capable of understanding the gist and many relevant details of programmes (e. etc. etc.tourist information (e. Notes 1 All texts should satisfy the final criterion of item 3 of the extended characterisation (see Chapter 3). poems. railway stations. the understanding of orally produced texts is subject to time constraints: they are produced only once and in a linear form which does not allow the listener to go back to earlier parts or to reflect on the text as a whole as easily as may be done with written texts. timetables. stadiums.g. Text types for listening: Announcements/information through public address systems at bus stations. of course.g.. medical services.through portable museum guides):publicity texts (radio. airline personnel. etc. therefore.automatic answering devices:weather. short stories. etc. at pop concerts. . etc. However. traffic conditions.routine commands (instructions/ directions by police. Generally. be included in specific learning programmes as well as in adaptations of the objective for individual subgroups.BBC World Service broadcasts)specifically directed to non-native audiences with correspondingly appropriate vocabulary. telephone information (e. be unrealistic to expect a listening ability fully corresponding to what was included under ‘reading’..g. It would.). customs officials. weather forecasts (radio and TV).

which include segmentation. an awareness of such techniques and strategies. This is why. the establishment of links between segments. no mention is made in this chapter of further techniques that may be usefully employed towards achieving understanding of a text. cognate words in the learner’s mother tongue or in other languages he or she may have learnt. not of the content of a learning programme. are all too variable to be specified in a general performance objective. form an important aspect of learning to learn (cf. etc. underlining. In the same way.and experience in their use. notetaking and note-making.Chapter 13). international words. may be profitably practised in a learning programme designed to enable learners to do what is specified in our objective. such strategies as inferencing. These techniques. . However. hypothesising from proper names.9 R E A D I N G A N D L I S T E N I N G 91 3 The present specification is the specification of an objective.. apart from those listed in the first paragraph of this chapter.but they are not presented as components of the objective itself because the extent to which each individual learner makes use of them in satisfylng the requirements of the objective is subject to personal variation.

by telephone). It may be specified as follows: The learners will be able to complete forms: hotel registration forms forms required when entering or leaving a foreign country The learners will be able to write standard letters: enquiring about price and conditions of accommodation stating wishes as to size of rooms. to write a few types of standard letter. and to write simple personal letters on subjects of common interest to themselves and friends or acquaintances. As parents. etc. view enquiring about tourist attractions. arrangement (fullboard. They may send written invitations and write brief letters of thanks for hospitality received. All this falls strictly within items 1 and 2 of the extended characterisation. as set out in the extended characterisation. The writing requirements of temporary residents.27-28) . and if need be. amenities. These learners will almost certainly be called upon to complete a wider range of official forms. sights. It is assumed that for this skill the actual needs of the majority of the members of the target group who are expected to be temporaryvisitors do not go beyond the ability to fill in certain forms. they may need to write notes to school explaining a child’s absence. representation of dates (SeeGeneral Notions 3.92 10 Writing The objective for writing at Threshold Level is very limited. letters of complaint to landlords. They may need to write letters enquiring about accommodation to rent.). booking accommodation The learners will be able to conduct personal correspondence: simple messages such as greetings and congratulations simple private letters concerning matters of common interest to themselves and friends or acquaintances.g. etc.They may have to write letters of application for jobs.3) .They may have to note down and relay messages (e. are of a somewhat different character. to report briefly on accidents and complete insurance claims. the learner should be able to observe conventions regarding: basic letter layout * opening and closing formulae (SeeLanguage Functions 5. In carrying out the above tasks.

! ?) These tasks can be accomplishedwithin the limits of the resources required for the tasks specified at Threshold Level. : . useofcapitalsandpunctuation(. . using the techniques set out in Chapters 12 and 13.10 W R I T I N G 93 . .

This will be the same in the present specification so that it may suit the needs and interests of our highly heterogeneous target population. taking into account the overall height of the Threshold Level. degree of ‘social rituals’ (4b)and ‘universal experiences’ ( 6 ) The familiarity with them which is required for successful communication depends on the circumstances in which the communication takes place. the aspect of communicative ability which involves those specific features of a society and its culture which are manifest in the communicative behaviour of the members of this society. The formulations chosen there are deliberately openended and exemplificatory. The Threshold Level is designed to suit all these types of contacts. however. . They will need to be alert to signs of cultural differences. on the one hand. It will probably be higher in contacts with native speakers of the foreign language (especiallywhen the learner is a temporary resident rather than a visitor) than when the foreign language is used as lingua franca. Learners cannot take it for granted that their interlocutor will share either their own values. An attempt to formulate these parts as well in terms of the learners’ behaviour . A first approach to a specification of sociocultural competence for Threshold Level is to be found in items 4 and 6 of the extended characterisation. The selection we present below has been made with the utmost economy. This means. that in attempting to indicate what may be expected of a learner at this level we have to focus on the more predictable type of contact. will be formulated in terms of the learners’ ‘awareness of or ‘familiarity with’ certain aspects of the foreign culture. attitudes. Parts of the specification of sociocultural competence will correspond to most other components of the Threshold Level in that they will describe what the learners can do in the foreign language. to be tolerant of such differences and be prepared to operate whatever strategies may be needed to establish a proper basis for communication by raising cultural differences into consciousness. On the other hand it means that an alertness has to be stimulated in the learners to unexpected sociocultural differences between their communication partners and themselves. These features may be classified as ‘socialconventions’ (4a). beliefs and social conventions or those of AngleSaxon peoples. further concretisations to be undertaken for each sub-group individually.94 1 1 Sociocultural competence Items 4 and 6 of the extended characterisation are concerned with ‘sociocultural competence’. Other parts. This applies particularly when English is in use as a medium of international communication between non-native speakers from different cultures. that with native speakers of the foreign language and particularly with such native speakers in their own country.

for different types of learners. In other words. major national holidays. working hours: preferred leisure activities (tothe extent that generalisation is possible). typically differs from that in their own country. What the specifications in terms of awareness and familiarity are meant to ensure is that at Threshold Level the learners will have had certain experiences. What the learners do with these experiences and how they affect their own attitudes and behaviour is deliberately left open. including beverages. This is done to provide the fullest possible scope for the accommodation of the large variety of emphases that will be required for different courses.that they have been confronted with certain features of the foreign culture and that they have been led to pay attention to them and to try and relate them to their own previous experiences.11 S O C I O C U L T U R A L C O M P E T E N C E 95 potential would involve choices of such an arbitrary nature that their validity would be unacceptably low. including significant differences between major parts of a country: ethnic composition of the population. . these elements of the Threshold Level objective are concerned with learning experiences that the learner is supposed to have had. Sociocultural competence for English at Threshold Level I 1 Universal experiences everydaylife The learners have some familiarity with: at what times people have their regular meals and in what ways the composition of meals. 2 living conditions The learners have some familiarity with: living standards. and even for individual learners.